International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The notion of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is introduced in the simple case of a perfect gas of bosons. We show the existence of a singularity that was discovered by Einstein and that appears when the density in the phase space is above a critical value. A few years after the discovery of BEC in several gases, it is interesting to look back at some properties of superfluid helium, the author comments shortly on boiling and evaporation, then on the role of rotons and vortices in the existence of a critical velocity in superfluid helium. The author discusses also the existence of a condensate in a liquid with strong interactions and the pressure variation of its superfluid transition temperature. The discovery of BEC in dilute gases of Rb, Na and Li in magnetic traps has stimulated an enormous revival of the interest in macroscopic quantum behavior of dilute gas at low temperature. Experiments with trapped Bose condensed gases have revealed profound condensed matter behavior of these extremely dilute systems. The author describes the key features of this behavior and discusses theoretical approaches that are being used in the field of quantum gases. Methods of production and of detection of a BEC in gaseous phases are presented, the issue of the cooling of fermion gases and of Boson-fermions mixing is discussed. (A.C.)
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation
Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.
2010-01-01
Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically...
Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation
Mullin, William J
2010-01-01
Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We analyze examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap,...
Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature
Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.
2004-09-01
We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation
Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.
2012-02-01
Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap, which Van Druten and Ketterle first showed had a two-step condensation: a GBEC into a band of states at a temperature T c and another "one-dimensional" transition at a lower temperature T 1 into the ground state. In a thermodynamic limit in which the ratio of the dimensions of the anisotropic harmonic trap is kept fixed, T 1 merges with the upper transition, which then becomes a normal BEC. However, in the thermodynamic limit of Beau and Zagrebnov, in which the ratio of the boundary lengths increases exponentially, T 1 becomes fixed at the temperature of a true Type I phase transition. The effects of interactions on GBEC are discussed and we show that there is evidence that Type III condensation may have been observed in the cigar trap.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Satisfiability Problems
Angione, Claudio; Occhipinti, Annalisa; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Nicosia, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with the complex behavior arising in satisfiability problems. We present a new statistical physics-based characterization of the satisfiability problem. Specifically, we design an algorithm that is able to produce graphs starting from a k-SAT instance, in order to analyze them and show whether a Bose-Einstein condensation occurs. We observe that, analogously to complex networks, the networks of k-SAT instances follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein conden...
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Gigantic excitation of Bose-Einstein condensate
Karkuszewski, Z P; Zakrzewski, J; Karkuszewski, Zbyszek P.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2001-01-01
It is shown that by a modification of the trapping potential one may excite Bose-Einstein condensate to a state in which atomic external degrees of freedom are predominantly in the {\\it excited} trap state. Such an excited condensate can be prepared experimentally --- it requires only a proper change in time of the potential in atomic traps, as realized in laboratories already.
Bose-Einstein Condensate and Gravitational Shielding
De Aquino, Fran
2014-01-01
In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.
Chaos in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhi-Xia; Ni Zheng-Guo; Cong Fu-Zhong; Liu Xue-Shen; Chen Lei
2010-01-01
It is demonstrated that Smale-horseshoe chaos exists in the time evolution of the one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate driven by time-periodic harmonic or inverted-harmonic potential.A formally exact solution of the timedependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation is constructed,which describes the matter shock waves with chaotic or periodic amplitudes and phases.
Initial stages of Bose-Einstein condensation
Stoof, H.T.C.
1997-01-01
We present the quantum theory for the nucleation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic Bose gas. This quantum theory has the important advantage that both the kinetic and coherent stages of the nucleation process can be described in a unified way by a single Fokker-Planck equation.
Initial stages of Bose-Einstein condensation
Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We present the quantum theory for the nucleation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic Bose gas. This quantum theory confirms the results of the semiclassical treatment, but has the important advantage that both the kinetic and coherent stages of the nucleation process can now be describe
Stirring a Bose-Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Damski, Bogdan [Instytut Fizyki Imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub [Instytut Fizyki Imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)
2002-10-14
By shining a tightly focused laser light on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and moving the centre of the beam along a spiral path one may stir the BEC and create vortices. It is shown that one can induce rotation of the BEC in the direction opposite to the direction of stirring. (author)
Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates
Ng, H. T.; Bose, S.
2008-01-01
We propose a method to generate entangled light with a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a cavity, a system realized in recent experiments. The atoms of the condensate are trapped in a periodic potential generated by a cavity mode. The condensate is continuously pumped by a laser and spontaneously emits a pair of photons of different frequencies in two distinct cavity modes. In this way, the condensate mediates entanglement between two cavity modes, which leak out and can be separated and e...
Bose-Einstein condensation of 84Sr.
Martinez de Escobar, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Yan, M; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Killian, T C
2009-11-13
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of (84)Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N(0) approximately 3 x 10(5)) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images. PMID:20365965
Bose-Einstein Condensation of 84-Sr
de Escobar, Y. N. Martinez; Mickelson, P. G.; Yan, M; DeSalvo, B. J.; Nagel, S. B.; Killian, T. C.
2009-01-01
We report Bose-Einstein condensation of 84-Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow creation of large condensates (N0 ~ 3x10^5) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images.
Bose-Einstein condensates in optical gratings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Different experiments of atomic physics and quantum optics performed with a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms are presented. Condensate are dense atomic samples described by a single wave function for the external and internal degrees of freedom. They allow to investigate with high resolution the atomic interaction with electromagnetic fields in different configurations. We have investigated the motion of a condensate within an inhomogeneous magnetic field. If the magnetic field varies slowly enough in space, the effective Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of the slow external variables contains an induced gauge potential, the so-called geometric potential, and in the classical limit geometric forces acting on a neutral particle with a magnetic moment. Our measurements on the motion of a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in a time dependent magnetic trap have provided direct evidence for these geometric forces. The properties of Bose-Einstein condensates in lower dimensional trapping potentials have recently attracted increasing interest. 2D condensates can be created in an array of pancake-shaped traps provided by the periodic potential of a 1 D optical lattice. We have investigated Bose-Einstein condensate in an accelerated optical lattice and associated phenomena such as Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunnelling. Furthermore we have investigated the dynamics and phase evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates in 1 D optical lattices. Photoionization of a cold atomic sample offers intriguing possibilities to observe collective effects at extremely low temperatures. Close enough to threshold even the quantum statistics of the products, which are Fermions produced out of quantum degenerate Bosons, may influence the ionization rate itself. Irradiation of a rubidium condensate and of cold rubidium atoms within a magneto-optical trap with laser pulses ionizing through 1-photon and 2-photon absorptions processes has been performed. Losses and the
Astrophysical Bose-Einstein Condensates and Superradiance
Kuhnel, Florian
2014-01-01
We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of a "Eulerian metric", where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation
Davis, M J
2001-01-01
approaches are in excellent agreement in their range of validity. We are therefore able to assign a temperature to the numerical simulations. However, the presently available equilibrium theories fail near the critical region, whereas the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation remains valid throughout the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition as long as the relevant modes remain highly occupied. This suggests that the equation will be useful in studying the role of vortices in the critical region, and the shift of the transition temperature with the atomic interaction strength. This thesis is concerned with the dynamics of thermal Bose-Einstein condensates with two main areas of emphasis. We summarise the development of the quantum kinetic theory of C. W. Gardiner, P. Zoller, and co-workers, and in particular its application to the problem of condensate growth. We extend an earlier model of the growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate to include the full dynamical effects of the thermal cloud by numerically so...
Hysteresis effects in Bose-Einstein condensates
Sacchetti, Andrea
2010-01-01
Here, we consider damped two-components Bose-Einstein condensates with many-body interactions. We show that, when the external trapping potential has a double-well shape and when the nonlinear coupling factors are modulated in time, hysteresis effects may appear under some circumstances. Such hysteresis phenomena are a result of the joint contribution between the appearance of saddle node bifurcations and damping effect.
Cosmic Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation
Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre
2015-01-01
QCD axions are a well-motivated candidate for cold dark matter. Cold axions are produced in the early universe by vacuum realignment, axion string decay and axion domain wall decay. We show that cold axions thermalize via their gravitational self-interactions, and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. As a result, axion dark matter behaves differently from the other proposed forms of dark matter. The differences are observable.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen
Fried, Dale G.
1999-01-01
This thesis describes the observation and study of Bose-Einstein condensation of a trapped, dilute gas of atomic hydrogen. The condensate and normal gas are studied by two-photon spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition. We condense over 10^9 atoms per second for several seconds, and the peak condensate density is around 5x10^15 cm^-3. Topics covered in the thesis include a theoretical analysis of Bose-condensed hydrogen, a description of the cryogenic trapping cell and the evaporative cooling te...
Phenomenological theory of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Gu, Qiang
2002-01-01
A phenomenological model is proposed to describe the behavior of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. In the absence of hyperfine spin-spin interactions, Bose-Einstein condensation leads to a spontaneous magnetization at the same transition temperature. This is the so-called Bose-Einstein ferromagnetism. Including the hyperfine spin interactions, the phase diagram of the spinor condensate in an optical trap is studied and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is extended. The possibility of checking for...
Analog gravity from Bose-Einstein condensates
Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt
2000-01-01
We analyze prospects for the use of Bose-Einstein condensates as condensed-matter systems suitable for generating a generic ``effective metric'', and for mimicking kinematic aspects of general relativity. We extend the analysis due to Garay et al, [gr-qc/0002015, gr-qc/0005131]. Taking a long term view, we ask what the ultimate limits of such a system might be. To this end, we consider a very general version of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (with a 3-tensor position-dependent mass and ar...
Quantum field theory and Bose Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation in cosmological and laboratory situations. To do this we examine the extreme temperature limits of a self-interacting O(2)-invariant scalar field theory with a non-zero charge density. The transition point has been well known for a long time in the case of an interactionless theory. However, due to a combination of technical problems imposed by having interactions and finite density, the transition in the interacting theory is not well understood. Here, in order to probe the Bose-Einstein condensation transition we perform a dimensional reduction of the 4D O(2)-invariant theory to give an effective theory in 3D. After dimensional reduction we use the 3D effective theory to calculate the two-loop effective potential which is used to examine the phase structure. This is a perturbative calculation and is still inappropriate for looking at the critical temperature. To find the critical temperature we use the non-perturbative linear delta expansion on the effective 3D theory. Tins is done in both the high temperature limit appropriate to cosmological applications and the low temperature limit appropriate to laboratory experiments with atomic gases. We study the Bose-Einstein condensation transition out of equilibrium. After a sudden quench which sends the system into the critical region, we look at how the condensate originates and grows. We study the equations of motion obtained from the one-loop effective action. It is found that the magnitude of the field expectation value grows at a slower rate at higher charge densities but that charge flows into the ground state at a faster rate at higher charge densities. In order to perform most of the analytic calculations, we show how dimensional regularization and Mellin summation can be elegantly combined to give an economical method for calculating high temperature Feynman diagrams. (author)
Bose-Einstein condensation in layered systems
Haerdig, A
1993-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas of bosons moving freely within layered planes and having a finite amplitude for jumping between neighbouring planes, are derived. As long as this coupling is non-zero, the system becomes effectively two-dimensional at sufficiently high temperatures. At a correspondingly low temperature it undergoes a Bose-Einstein transition into a condensed phase as in three dimensions. Below the critical temperature the specific heat is a universal function of only one dimensionless system variable. The phase transition becomes weaker as the coupling between the planes decreases and eventually disappears when the planes decouple. (author)
Analog gravity from Bose-Einstein condensates
Barcelo, C; Visser, M; Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt
2001-01-01
We analyze prospects for the use of Bose-Einstein condensates as condensed-matter systems suitable for generating a generic ``effective metric'', and for mimicking kinematic aspects of general relativity. We extend the analysis due to Garay et al, [gr-qc/0002015, gr-qc/0005131]. Taking a long term view, we ask what the ultimate limits of such a system might be. To this end, we consider a very general version of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (with a 3-tensor position-dependent mass and arbitrary nonlinearity). Such equations can be used for example in discussing Bose-Einstein condensates in heterogeneous and highly nonlinear systems. We demonstrate that at low momenta linearized excitations of the phase of the condensate wavefunction obey a (3+1)-dimensional d'Alembertian equation coupling to a (3+1)-dimensional Lorentzian-signature ``effective metric'' that is generic, and depends algebraically on the background field. Thus at low momenta this system serves as an analog for the curved spacetime of genera...
Quantum field theory and Bose Einstein condensation
Bedingham, D J
2001-01-01
We study the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation in cosmological and laboratory situations. To do this we examine the extreme temperature limits of a self-interacting O(2)-invariant scalar field theory with a non-zero charge density. The transition point has been well known for a long time in the case of an interactionless theory. However, due to a combination of technical problems imposed by having interactions and finite density, the transition in the interacting theory is not well understood. Here, in order to probe the Bose-Einstein condensation transition we perform a dimensional reduction of the 4D O(2)-invariant theory to give an effective theory in 3D. After dimensional reduction we use the 3D effective theory to calculate the two-loop effective potential which is used to examine the phase structure. This is a perturbative calculation and is still inappropriate for looking at the critical temperature. To find the critical temperature we use the non-perturbative linear delta expansion on the effec...
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium
Dos Santos, F. Pereira; Léonard, J.; Wang, Junmin; Barrelet, C. J.; Perales, F.; Rasel, E.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Leduc, M.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.
2001-04-01
We have observed a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas of 4He in the 32S1 metastable state. We find a critical temperature of \\(4.7+/-0.5\\) μK and a typical number of atoms at the threshold of 8×106. The maximum number of atoms in our condensate is about 5×105. An approximate value for the scattering length a = \\(16+/-8\\) nm is measured. The mean elastic collision rate at threshold is then estimated to be about 2×104 s-1, indicating that we are deeply in the hydrodynamic regime. The typical decay time of the condensate is 2 s, which places an upper bound on the rate constants for two-body and three-body inelastic collisions.
Stability of the Bose-Einstein condensate under polynomial perturbations
Gielerak, R.; Damek, J.
2002-01-01
The problem of the Bose-Einstein condensate preservation under thermofield and standard gauge-invariant perturbations is discussed. A new result on stability of the condensate under thermofield perturbations of a polynomial type is presented.
Quantum Evaporation of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2002-01-01
We show that a Bose-Einstein condensate emits atoms, if either the condensate wave function, or the scattering length of the atoms depends strongly on time. Moreover, the emission process is coherent and atoms can oscillate back and forth between the condensate and the excited states. Inspired by recent experimental results, we present results of simulations of the response of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a very rapid change in the scattering length. The possibility of molecule formation is ...
Topological Objects in Two-component Bose-Einstein Condensates
Cho, Y. M.; Khim, Hyojoong; Zhang, Pengming
2005-01-01
We study the topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We compare two competing theories of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, the popular Gross-Pitaevskii theory and the recently proposed gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate which has an induced vorticity interaction. We show that two theories produce very similar topological objects, in spite of the obvious differences in dynamics. Furthermore we show that the gauge theory of two-component Bose-E...
Optimized production of large Bose Einstein Condensates
Comparat, D; Fioretti, A; Pillet, P; Stern, G; Tolra, B L
2006-01-01
We suggest different simple schemes to efficiently load and evaporate a ''dimple'' crossed dipolar trap. The collisional processes between atoms which are trapped in a reservoir load in a non adiabatic way the dimple. The reservoir trap can be provided either by a dark SPOT Magneto Optical Trap, the (aberrated) laser beam itself or by a quadrupolar or quadratic magnetic trap. Optimal parameters for the dimple are derived from thermodynamical equations and from loading time, including possible inelastic and Majorana losses. We suggest to load at relatively high temperature a tight optical trap. Simple evaporative cooling equations, taking into account gravity, the possible occurrence of hydrodynamical regime, Feshbach resonance processes and three body recombination events are given. To have an efficient evaporation the elastic collisional rate (in s$^{-1}$) is found to be on the order of the trapping frequency and lower than one hundred times the temperature in micro-Kelvin. Bose Einstein condensates with mor...
Exactly solvable models for multiatomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, G, E-mail: gfilho@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: gfilho@cbpf.br [Instituto de Fisica da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2011-08-26
I introduce two families of exactly solvable models for multiatomic hetero-nuclear and homo-nuclear molecular Bose-Einstein condensates through the algebraic Bethe ansatz method. The conserved quantities of the respective models are also shown. (paper)
Inelastic chaotic scattering on a Bose-Einstein condensate
Hunn, Stefan; Hiller, Moritz; Buchleitner, Andreas; Cohen, Doron; Kottos, Tsampikos
2010-01-01
We devise a microscopic scattering approach to probe the excitation spectrum of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that the experimentally accessible scattering cross section exhibits universal Ericson fluctuations, with characteristic properties rooted in the underlying classical field equations.
Knots in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kawaguchi, Yuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ueda, Masahito
2008-01-01
We show that knots of spin textures can be created in the polar phase of a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, and discuss experimental schemes for their generation and probe, together with their lifetime.
Phase coherence length of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Gerbier, F.; Richard, S.; Thywissen, J. H.; Hugbart, M.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.
2002-01-01
We report on the measurement of the momentum distribution of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. A broadening of the distribution with increasing temperature is observed, which is clear evidence for phase fluctuations in the sample.
Production of a chromium Bose-Einstein condensate
Griesmaier, Axel; Stuhler, Jürgen; Pfau, Tilman
2005-01-01
The recent achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of chromium atoms [1] has opened longed-for experimental access to a degenerate quantum gas with long-range and anisotropic interaction. Due to the large magnetic moment of chromium atoms of 6 {$\\mu$}B, in contrast to other Bose- Einstein condensates (BECs), magnetic dipole-dipole interaction plays an important role in a chromium BEC. Many new physical properties of degenerate gases arising from these magnetic forces have been predicted in ...
Bose-Einstein condensates in atomic gases: simple theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author presents the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensation along with a discussion of experimental tests. The author deals successively with the following topics: - the ideal Bose gas in a trap (first in a harmonic trap and then in a more general trap), - a model for the atomic interaction, - interacting Bose gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation, - properties of the condensate wavefunction, - the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, - Bogoliubov approach and thermodynamical stability, - phase coherence properties at the Bose-Einstein condensate, and - symmetry-breaking description of condensates. (A.C.)
Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate
Poulsen, Uffe V.; Molmer, Klaus
2002-01-01
We study the scattering properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate held in a finite depth well when the incoming particles are identical to the ones in the condensate. We calculate phase shifts and corresponding transmission and reflection coefficients, and we show that the transmission times can be negative, i.e., the atomic wavepacket seemingly leaves the condensate before it arrives.
Interference of an array of independent Bose-Einstein condensates
Hadzibabic, Z; Bretin, V; Stock, S; Battelier, Baptiste; Bretin, Vincent; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Proxy, Jean Dalibard; Stock, Sabine; ccsd-00001592, ccsd
2004-01-01
We have observed high-contrast matter wave interference between 30 Bose-Einstein condensates with uncorrelated phases. Interference patterns were observed after independent condensates were released from a one-dimensional optical lattice and allowed to expand and overlap. This initially surprising phenomenon is explained with a simple theoretical model which generalizes the analysis of the interference of two independent condensates.
Elastic scattering of a Bose-Einstein condensate at a potential landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the elastic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates at shallow periodic and disorder potentials. We show that the collective scattering of the macroscopic quantum object couples to internal degrees of freedom of the Bose-Einstein condensate such that the Bose-Einstein condensate gets depleted. As a precursor for the excitation of the Bose-Einstein condensate we observe wave chaos within a mean-field theory
Elastic scattering of a Bose-Einstein condensate at a potential landscape
Brezinova, Iva; Lode, Axel U. J.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Alon, Ofir E.; Collins, Lee A.; Schneider, Barry I.; Burgdörfer, Joachim
2013-01-01
We investigate the elastic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates at shallow periodic and disorder potentials. We show that the collective scattering of the macroscopic quantum object couples to internal degrees of freedom of the Bose-Einstein condensate such that the Bose-Einstein condensate gets depleted. As a precursor for the excitation of the Bose-Einstein condensate we observe wave chaos within a mean-field theory.
Tunneling Dynamics Between Atomic and Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong
2004-01-01
Tunneling dynamics of multi-atomic molecules between atomic and multi-atomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with Feshbach resonance is investigated.It is indicated that the tunneling in the two Bose-Einstein condensates depends on not only the inter-atomic-molecular nonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates,but also the tunneling coupling between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate.It is discovered that besides oscillating tunneling current between the atomic condensate and the multi-atomic molecular condensate,the nonlinear multi-atomic molecular tunneling dynamics sustains a self-locked population imbalance:a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect.The influence of de-coherence caused by non-condensate atoms on the tunneling dynamics is studied.It is shown that de-coherence suppresses the multi-atomic molecular tunneling.Moreover,the conception of the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate,which is different from the conventional single-atomic Bose-Einstein condensate,is specially emphasized in this paper.
Spinor condensates and light scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These notes discuss-two aspects of the physics of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates: optical properties and spinor condensates. The first topic includes light scattering experiments which probe the excitations of a condensate in both the free-particle and phonon regime. At higher light intensity, a new form of superradiance and phase-coherent matter wave amplification were observed. We also discuss properties of spinor condensates and describe studies of ground-state spin domain structures and dynamical studies which revealed metastable excited states and quantum tunneling. (authors)
Scattering Length Instability in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We predict a new kind of instability in a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of dipolar particles. Namely, a comparatively weak dipole moment can produce a large, negative two-body scattering length that can collapse the Bose-Einstein condensate. To verify this effect, we validate mean-field solutions to this problem using exact, diffusion Monte Carlo methods. We show that the diffusion Monte Carlo energies are reproduced accurately within a mean-field framework if the variation of the s-wave scattering length with the dipole strength is accounted for properly
Impurities in Bose-Einstein Condensates: From Polaron to Soliton.
Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn
2015-09-25
We propose that impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is coupled to a transversely laser-pumped multimode cavity form an experimentally accessible and analytically tractable model system for the study of impurities solvated in correlated liquids and the breakdown of linear-response theory [corrected]. As the strength of the coupling constant between the impurity and the Bose-Einstein condensate is increased, which is possible through Feshbach resonance methods, the impurity passes from a large to a small polaron state, and then to an impurity-soliton state. This last transition marks the breakdown of linear-response theory. PMID:26451565
Coherently Scattering Atoms from an Excited Bose-Einstein Condensate
Bijlsma, M.J.; Stoof, H.T.C.
1999-01-01
We consider scattering atoms from a fully Bose-Einstein condensed gas. If we take these atoms to be identical to those in the Bose-Einstein condensate, this scattering process is to a large extent analogous to Andreev reflection from the interface between a superconducting and a normal metal. We determine the scattering wave function in both the absence and the presence of a vortex. Our results show a qualitative difference between these two cases that can be understood as due to an Aharonov-...
Dark Lump Excitations in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄国翔; 朱善华
2002-01-01
Key Laboratory for Optical and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062We investigate the dynamics of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in a Bose-Einstein condensate with diskshaped traps. For the case ofrepulsive atom-atom interactions, a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with positive dispersion is derived using the method of multiple scales. The results show that it is possible to excite dark lump-like two-dimensional nonlinear excitations in the Bose-Einstein condensate.
Dynamical Properties of a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kling, Sebastian; Pelster, Axel
2007-01-01
Within a variational approach to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation we investigate dynamical properties of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate which is confined in an anharmonic trap. In particular, we calculate the eigenfrequencies of low-energy excitations out of the equilibrium state and the aspect ratio of the condensate widths during the free expansion.
Method for monopole creation in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Chang, D. E.
2002-01-01
We present a method for creating a monopole in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. The required phase engineering of the multicomponent condensate is achieved using light shifts, which depend on both the magnetic substate m_F and polarization of the incident laser beam.
Spontaneous emission of polaritons from a Bose-Einstein condensate
Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Zhang, Weiping
1999-01-01
We study the spontaneous emission of a partially excited Bose-Einstein condensate composed of two-level atoms. The formation of polaritons induced by the ground-state part of the condensate leads to an avoided crossing in the photon spectrum. This avoided crossing acts similarly to a photonic band gap and modifies the spontaneous emission rate.
How Does a Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Collapse?
Bohn, J. L.; Wilson, R. M.; Ronen, S.
2008-01-01
We emphasize that the macroscopic collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a pancake-shaped trap occurs through local density fluctuations, rather than through a global collapse to the trap center. This hypothesis is supported by a recent experiment in a chromium condensate.
Explosion of a collapsing Bose-Einstein condensate
Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
We show that elastic collisions between atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of this explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on magnetically trapped Rubidium-85. We also determine the energy and angular distribution of the ejected atoms during the collapse.
Bright soliton trains of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Hulet, R. G.; Strecker, K.E.; Patridge, G.B.
2002-01-01
We variationally determine the dynamics of bright soliton trains composed of harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interatomic interactions. In particular, we obtain the interaction potential between two solitons. We also discuss the formation of soliton trains due to the quantum mechanical phase fluctuations of a one-dimensional condensate.
Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms
K.B. Davis; M.O. Mewes; M.R. Andrews; N.J. van Druten; D.S. Durfee; D.M. Kurn; W. Ketterle
1995-01-01
We have observed Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms. The atoms were trapped in a novel trap that employed both magnetic and optical forces. Evaporative cooling increased the phase-space density by 6 orders of magnitude within seven seconds. Condensates contained up to 5 x 105 atoms at densit
Production of a Bose Einstein condensate of metastable helium atoms
Santos, F. Pereira Dos; Léonard, J.; Wang, Junmin; Barrelet, C. J.; Perales, F.; Rasel, E.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Leduc, M.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.
2003-04-01
We recently observed a Bose-Einstein condensate in a dilute gas of 4He in the 23S1 metastable state. In this article, we describe the successive experimental steps which led to the Bose-Einstein transition at 4.7 μK: loading of a large number of atoms in a MOT, efficient transfer into a magnetic Ioffé-Pritchard trap, and optimization of the evaporative cooling ramp. Quantitative measurements are also given for the rates of elastic and inelastic collisions, both above and below the transition.
Optimized production of a cesium Bose-Einstein condensate
Kraemer, Tobias; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Naegerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf
2004-01-01
We report on the optimized production of a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms using an optical trapping approach. Based on an improved trap loading and evaporation scheme we obtain more than $10^5$ atoms in the condensed phase. To test the tunability of the interaction in the condensate we study the expansion of the condensate as a function of scattering length. We further excite strong oscillations of the trapped condensate by rapidly varying the interaction strength.
Bose-Einstein condensates: BECs from the fridge
Friedrich, Bretislav
2009-10-01
Large ensembles of atoms can be buffer-gas loaded into a magnetic trap and further evaporatively cooled all the way down to quantum degeneracy. The approach has now been shown to provide an alternative - and potentially general - route to Bose-Einstein condensation.
Investigating tunable KRb gases and Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils Byg
2015-01-01
We present the production of dual-species Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K and 87Rb with tunable interactions. A dark spontaneous force optical trap was used for 87Rb to reduce the losses in 39K originating from light-assisted collisions in the magneto optical trapping phase. Using sympathetic...
Excitation Spectrum of Three Dressed Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
OU-YANG Zhong-Wen; KUANG Le-Man
2000-01-01
We study quantum dynamics of three dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in a high-Q cavity. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum of this system is found numerically. The stability of the quasiparticle excitation is analyzed. It is shown that there exist instabilities in the excitation spectrum.
Magnon Bose-Einstein condensation at inhomogeneous conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Spin Supercurrent and Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons, similar to an atomic BEC, was discovered in superfluid 3He-B, which is characterized by absolute purity. Later this phenomena were observed in a few magnetically ordered materials with different types of impurities. In this article we will review the properties of magnon BEC in a presence of impurities and defects
Symmetry-assisted vorticity control in Bose-Einstein condensates
Pérez-García, Víctor M.; García-March, Miguel A.; Ferrando, Albert
2006-01-01
Using group-theoretical methods and numerical simulations we show how to act on the topological charge of individual vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates by using control potentials with appropriate discrete symmetries. As examples of our methodology we study charge inversion and vortex erasing by acting on a set of control laser gaussian beams generating optical dipole traps.
Squeezing and temperature measurement in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Rogel-Salazar, J.; Choi, S.; New, G. H. C.; Burnett, K.
2003-01-01
In this paper we discuss the presence of temperature-dependent squeezing in the collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates, based on a recent theory of quasiparticle damping. A new scheme to measure temperature below the critical temperature is also considered.
A single electron in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balewski, Jonathan Benedikt
2014-02-20
This thesis deals with the production and study of Rydberg atoms in ultracold quantum gases. Especially a single electron in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be realized. This new idea, its experimental realization and theoretical description, as well as the development of application probabilities in a manifold of fields form the main topic of this thesis.
Entanglement Properties in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate
Jiang, Di-You
2016-05-01
We investigate entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement of in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of the nonlinear interatomic interaction, interspecies interaction. Entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement have the similar properties. More entanglement can be generated by adjusting the nonlinear interatomic interaction and control the time interval of the entanglement by adjusting interspecies interaction.
39K Bose-Einstein condensate with tunable interactions.
Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; D'Errico, C; Catani, Jacopo; Modugno, Michele; Simoni, Andrea; Inguscio, M.; Inguscio, Massimo
2007-01-01
We produce a Bose-Einstein condensate of 39K atoms. Condensation of this species with a naturally small and negative scattering length is achieved by a combination of sympathetic cooling with 87Rb and direct evaporation, exploiting the magnetic tuning of both inter- and intraspecies interactions at Feshbach resonances. We explore the tunability of the self-interactions by studying the expansion and the stability of the condensate. We find that a 39K condensate is interesting for future experi...
Phase diffusion in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light
de Leeuw, A.W.; van der Wurff, E. C. I.; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2014-01-01
We study phase diffusion in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light in a dye-filled optical microcavity, i.e., the spreading of the probability distribution for the condensate phase. To observe this phenomenon, we propose an interference experiment between the condensed photons and an external laser. We determine the average interference patterns, considering quantum and thermal fluctuations as well as dissipative effects due to the dye. Moreover, we show that a representative outcome of individu...
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Exotic Trapping Potentials
Salasnich, Luca
2001-01-01
We discuss thermal and dynamical properties of Bose condensates confined by an external potential. First we analyze the Bose-Einstein transition temperature for an ideal Bose gas in a generic power-law potential and d-dimensional space. Then we investigate the effect of the shape of the trapping potential on the properties of a weakly-interacting Bose condensate. We show that using exotic trapping potentials the condensate can exhibit interesting coherent quantum phenomena, like superfluidity...
Momentum state engineering and control in Bose-Einstein condensates
Potting, S.; M. Cramer; Meystre, P.
2001-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically the use of genetic learning algorithms to coherently control the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider specifically the situation of a condensate in an optical lattice formed by two counterpropagating laser beams. The frequency detuning between the lasers acts as a control parameter that can be used to precisely manipulate the condensate even in the presence of a significant mean-field energy. We illustrate this procedure in the coherent acceleration...
Interference of Bose-Einstein Condensates on an Atom Chip
Shin, Y.; Sanner, C.; Jo, G. -B.; Pasquini, T. A.; Saba, M.; Ketterle, W.; Pritchard, D. E.; Vengalattore, M.; Prentiss, M.
2005-01-01
We have used a microfabricated atom chip to split a single Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms into two spatially separated condensates. Dynamical splitting was achieved by deforming the trap along the tightly confining direction into a purely magnetic double-well potential. We observed the matter wave interference pattern formed upon releasing the condensates from the microtraps. The intrinsic features of the quartic potential at the merge point, such as zero trap frequency and extremel...
Casimir force on an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, Shyamal; Majumder, Dwipesh; Saha, Kush [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharjee, J K [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chakravarty, Nabajit, E-mail: tpsb2@iacs.res.i [Positional Astronomy Centre, Block AQ, Plot 8, Sector 5, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700091 (India)
2010-04-28
We have presented an analytic theory for the Casimir force on a Bose-Einstein condensate which is confined between two parallel plates. We have considered Dirichlet boundary conditions for the condensate wavefunction as well as for the phonon field. We have shown that the condensate wavefunction (which obeys the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is responsible for the mean field part of the Casimir force, which usually dominates over the quantum (fluctuations) part of the Casimir force.
Casimir force on interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Biswas, Shyamal; Bhattacharjee, J K; Majumder, Dwipesh; Saha, Kush; Chakravarty, Nabajit
2009-01-01
We have presented an analytic theory for the Casimir force on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which is confined between two parallel plates. We have considered Dirichlet boundary conditions for the condensate wave function as well as for the phonon field. We have shown that, the condensate wave function (which obeys the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is responsible for the mean field part of Casimir force, which usually dominates over the quantum (fluctuations) part of the Casimir force.
Excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures
Rusch, M
2000-01-01
in their frequency spectra. Where possible we derive energy shifts and lifetimes of excitations. For one particular mode, the breathing mode, the effects of the discreteness of the system are sufficiently pronounced that the simple picture of an energy shift and width fails. Experiments in spherical traps have recently become feasible and should be able to test our detailed quantitative predictions. Recent experimental observations of collective excitations of Bose condensed atomic vapours have stimulated interest in the microscopic description of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an external potential. We present a finite temperature field theory for collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and use a finite-temperature linear response formalism, which goes beyond the simple mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect of the non-condensed thermal atoms we include using perturbation theory in a quasiparticle basis. This presents a simple scheme ...
Dark soliton creation in Bose-Einstein condensates
Carr, L. D.; Brand, J.; Burger, S.; Sanpera, A.
2000-01-01
It is demonstrated that stable, standing dark solitons can be created in current dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate experiments by the proper combination of phase and density engineering. Other combinations result in a widely controllable range of grey solitons. The phonon contribution is small and is calculated precisely. The ensuing dynamics should be observable in situ, i.e. without ballistic expansion of the condensate.
Vortex Nucleation in a Stirred Bose-Einstein Condensate
Raman, C.; Abo-Shaeer, J. R.; Vogels, J. M.; Xu, K.; Ketterle, W.
2001-01-01
We studied the nucleation of vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate stirred by a laser beam. We observed the vortex cores using time-of-flight absorption imaging. By varying the size of the stirrer, we observed either discrete resonances or a broad response as a function of the frequency of the stirrer's motion. Stirring beams small compared to the condensate size generated vortices below the critical rotation frequency for the nucleation of surface modes, suggesting a local mechanism of gene...
Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.
2007-01-01
Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the e...
Photon-photon gates in Bose-Einstein condensates
Rispe, Arnaud; He, Bing; Simon, Christoph
2010-01-01
It has recently been shown that light can be stored in Bose-Einstein condensates for over a second. Here we propose a method for realizing a controlled phase gate between two stored photons. The photons are both stored in the ground state of the effective trapping potential inside the condensate. The collision-induced interaction is enhanced by adiabatically increasing the trapping frequency and by using a Feshbach resonance. A controlled phase shift of $\\pi$ can be achieved in one second.
Vacuum quark condensate, chiral Lagrangian, and Bose-Einstein statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a series of articles it was recently claimed that the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) condensates are not the properties of the vacuum but of the hadrons and are confined inside them. We point out that this claim is incompatible with the chiral Lagrangian and Bose-Einstein statistics of the Goldstone bosons (pions) in chiral limit and conclude that the quark condensate must be the property of the QCD vacuum.
Quantum Spin Nematic States in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Zhou, Fei
2001-01-01
We review some recent results on discrete symmetries and topological order in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of $^{23}Na$. For spin one bosons with two-body scatterings dominated by a total spin equal to two channel, the BECs are in quantum spin nematic states at a low density limit. We study spin correlations in condensates at different limits and analyze hidde$ symmetries using a non-perturbative approach developed recently. We further more investigate the influence of hidden $Z_2$...
Rate limit for photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Javanainen, Juha; Mackie, Matt
2001-01-01
We simulate numerically the photodissociation of molecules into noncondensate atom pairs that accompanies photoassociation of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate into a molecular condensate. Such rogue photodissociation sets a limit on the achievable rate of photoassociation. Given the atom density \\rho and mass m, the limit is approximately 6\\hbar\\rho^{2/3}/m. At low temperatures this is a more stringent restriction than the unitary limit of scattering theory.
Exact Hydrodynamics of a Trapped Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate
Eberlein, C.C.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Giovanazzi, S.
2004-01-01
We present exact results in the Thomas-Fermi regime for the statics and dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate that has dipole-dipole interactions in addition to the usual s-wave contact interactions. Remarkably, despite the nonlocal and anisotropic nature of the dipolar interactions, the density profile in a general time-dependent harmonic trap is an inverted parabola. The evolution of the condensate radii is governed by local, ordinary differential equations, and as an ...
Anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates and completely integrable dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Gaussian ansatz for the wave function of two-dimensional harmonically trapped anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates is shown to lead, via a variational procedure, to a coupled system of two second-order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. This dynamical system is shown to be in the general class of Ermakov systems. Complete integrability of the resulting Ermakov system is proven. Using the exact solution, collapse of the condensate is analyzed in detail. Time dependence of the trapping potential is allowed
Bose-Einstein condensation for general dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose-Einstein condensation in an ideal (i.e. interactionless) boson gas can be studied analytically, at university-level statistical and solid state physics, in any positive dimensionality (d>0) for identical bosons with any positive-exponent (s>0) energy-momentum (i.e. dispersion) relation. Explicit formulae with arbitrary d/s are discussed for: the critical temperature (non-zero only if d/s>1); the condensate fraction; the internal energy; and the constant-volume specific heat (found to possess a jump discontinuity only if d/s>2). Classical results are recovered at sufficiently high temperatures. Applications to 'ordinary' Bose-Einstein condensation, as well as to photons, phonons, ferro- and antiferromagnetic magnons, and (very specially) to Cooper pairs in superconductivity, are mentioned. (author)
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole
All optical cooling of $^{39}$K to Bose Einstein condensation
Salomon, Guillaume; Lepoutre, Steven; Aspect, Alain; Bourdel, Thomas
2014-01-01
We report the all-optical production of Bose Einstein condensates (BEC) of $^{39}$K atoms. We directly load $3 \\times 10^{7}$ atoms in a large volume optical dipole trap from gray molasses on the D1 transition. We then apply a small magnetic quadrupole field to polarize the sample before transferring the atoms in a tightly confining optical trap. Evaporative cooling is finally performed close to a Feshbach resonance to enhance the scattering length. Our setup allows to cross the BEC threshold with $3 \\times 10^5$ atoms every 7s. As an illustration of the interest of the tunability of the interactions we study the expansion of Bose-Einstein condensates in the 1D to 3D crossover.
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia [Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP regional headquarters in Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico), Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Carretera Zapata Km. 4, Real del Bosque (Terán), 29040, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Macías, Alfredo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez, Darío, E-mail: ecastellanos@mctp.mx, E-mail: cescamilla@mctp.mx, E-mail: amac@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
2014-11-01
We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
Müntinga, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-01-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Due to their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this paper we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far-field of a double-slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms and photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose-Einstein condensation has now been observed in diverse physical systems, starting from liquid Helium, excitons, to alkali atoms at nanokelvin temperature. The trapped cold atoms have provided an ideal venue for exploring fascinating ideas, ranging from Kosterlitz- Thouless (KT) phase transition, metal-insulator quantum phase transition to the realization of Abelian and non- Abelian gauge fields and solitonic excitations, in a controlled environment. Here, after a brief introduction to condensation phenomena in free space and trap, we explicate the working of the magneto optical trap, the work horse of the cold-atom laboratories. Subsequently, we illustrate the properties of experimentally realized dark, bright and grey solitons in the cigar shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Focusing on a pan-cake type BEC in two dimensions, the basic aspects of the unique vortex excitations on a plane is elaborated, from which the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition follows, when the bound vortex-anti-vortex pairs unbind at TKT. We then describe the recent realization of Bose-Einstein condensation of the ubiquitous photons at room temperature. (author)
Photoassociation of sodium in a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We form ultracold Na2 molecules by single-photon photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, measuring the photoassociation rate, linewidth, and light shift of the J=1 , v=135 vibrational level of the A1Σ+u molecular state. The photoassociation rate constant increases linearly with intensity, even where it is predicted that many-body effects might limit the rate. Our observations are in good agreement with a two-body theory having no free parameters
Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons in spin pumping systems
NAKATA, KOUKI; Korai, Yusuke
2013-01-01
We clarify the condition for the occurrence of magnon Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in spin pumping systems without using external pumping magnetic fields. The Goldstone model is generalized and the stability of the vacuum is closely investigated. By applying the generalized Goldstone model to spin pumping systems, the condition for the experimental realization of the stable magnon BEC in spin pumping systems is theoretically proposed.
Relaxation rates and collision integrals for Bose-Einstein condensates
Gust, Erich D.; Reichl, L. E.
2012-01-01
Near equilibrium, the rate of relaxation to equilibrium and the transport properties of excitations (bogolons) in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are determined by three collision integrals, $\\mathcal{G}^{12}$, $\\mathcal{G}^{22}$, and $\\mathcal{G}^{31}$. All three collision integrals conserve momentum and energy during bogolon collisions, but only $ \\mathcal{G}^{22}$ conserves bogolon number. Previous works have considered the contribution of only two collision integrals, $ \\mathcal{G...
Spin turbulence in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Tsubota, Makoto; Fujimoto, Kazuya
2013-01-01
We summarize the recent theoretical and numerical works on spin turbulence (ST) in spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. When the system is excited from the ground state, it goes through hy- drodynamic instability to ST in which the spin density vector has various disordered direction. The properties of ST depend on whether the spin-dependent interaction is ferromagnetic or antiferro- magnetic. ST has some characteristics different from other kinds of turbulence in quantum fluids. Firstly,...
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an optical microcavity
Klaers, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2010-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state accumulation of particles with integer spin (bosons) at low temperature and high density, has been observed in several physical systems, including cold atomic gases and solid state physics quasiparticles. However, the most omnipresent Bose gas, blackbody radiation (radiation in thermal equilibrium with the cavity walls) does not show this phase transition, because the chemical potential of photons vanishes and, when the temperature is r...
Tunable Bistability in Hybrid Bose-Einstein Condensate Optomechanics
Kashif Ammar Yasir; Wu-Ming Liu
2015-01-01
Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror ...
A Bose-Einstein condensate in a microtrap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe an experiment to create a sizable 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a simple magnetic microtrap, created by a current through a Z-shaped wire and a homogeneous bias field. The BEC is created close to a reflecting surface. It is an ideal coherent source for experiments with cold atoms close to surfaces, be it small-volume microtraps or directly studying the interactions between cold atoms and a warm surface
Qubit Residence Time Measurements with a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Sokolovski, Dmitri
2009-01-01
We show that an electrostatic qubit located near a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a symmetric double-well potential can be used to measure the duration the qubit has spent in one of its quantum states. The stronq, medium and weak measurement regimes are analysed and a new type of Zeno effect is discussed. The analogy between the residence and the traversal (tunnelling) times is highlighted.
Modulated amplitude waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze spatiotemporal structures in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the dynamics of quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with mean-field interactions. A coherent structure ansatz yields a parametrically forced nonlinear oscillator, to which we apply Lindstedt's method and multiple-scale perturbation theory to determine the dependence of the intensity of periodic orbits ('modulated amplitude waves') on their wave number. We explore BEC band structure in detail using Hamiltonian perturbation theory and supporting numerical simulations
Geometrical pumping with a Bose-Einstein condensate
Lu, Hsin-I; Schemmer, Max; Aycock, Lauren M.; Genkina, Dina; Sugawa, Seiji; Spielman, Ian B.
2015-01-01
We realized a quantum geometric "charge" pump for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the lowest Bloch band of a novel bipartite magnetic lattice. Topological charge pumps in filled bands yield quantized pumping set by the global -- topological -- properties of the bands. In contrast, our geometric charge pump for a BEC occupying just a single crystal momentum state exhibits non-quantized charge pumping set by local -- geometrical -- properties of the band structure. Like topological charge p...
Spin-Mixing Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates.
Gabbrielli, Marco; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto
2015-10-16
Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to particle losses and finite detection efficiency are also considered. PMID:26550872
Inhibition of Coherence in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the dependence of the collapse and revival of many-atom coherence of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate on the trap potential, dimensionality of the gas, and atom number fluctuations. We show that in a class of experimentally relevant systems the collapse time vanishes in the limit of a large number of atoms, implying that the trapped Bose gas cannot sustain a well-defined quantum phase. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Simple method for collective excitation of Bose-Einstein condensate
Damski, B; Sacha, K; Zakrzewski, J; Damski, Bogdan; Karkuszewski, Zbyszek P.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2002-01-01
An appropriate, time-dependent modification of the trapping potential may be sufficient to create effectively collective excitations in a cold atom Bose-Einstein condensate. The proposed method is complementary to earlier suggestions and should allow creating both dark solitons and vortices. It seems to be quite feasible experimentally --- it requires only a proper change in time of the potential in atomic traps, as realized in laboratories already.
Generation and interaction of solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
Burger, S.; Carr, L. D.; Ohberg, P.; Sengstock, K.; Sanpera, A.
2002-01-01
Generation, interaction and detection of dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates is considered. In particular, we focus on the dynamics resulting from phase imprinting and density engineering. The generation of soliton pairs as well as their interaction is also considered. Finally, motivated by the recent experimental results of Cornish et al. (Phys. Rev Lett. 85, 1795, 2000), we analyze the stability of dark solitons under changes of the scattering length and thereby demonstrate a new way...
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions
Sikivie, P.; Yang, Q.
2009-01-01
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microw...
Probing a Bose-Einstein Condensate with an Atom Laser
Döring, D.; Robins, N. P.; Figl, C.; Close, J. D.
2008-01-01
A pulsed atom laser derived from a Bose-Einstein condensate is used to probe a second target condensate. The target condensate scatters the incident atom laser pulse. From the spatial distribution of scattered atoms, one can infer important properties of the target condensate and its interaction with the probe pulse. As an example, we measure the s-wave scattering length that, in low energy collisions, describes the interaction between the |F=1,m_F=-1> and |F=2,m_F=0> hyperfine ground states ...
Stability of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Jian-Shu; Liao Xiang-Ping
2011-01-01
Using the direct perturbation technique, this paper obtains a general perturbed solution of the Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential. We also gave out two necessary and sufficient conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution. Theoretical analytical results and the corresponding numerical results show that the perturbed solution of the Bose-Einstein condensate system is unbounded in general and indicate that the Bose-Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-unstable. However, when the conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution are satisfied, then the Bose-Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-stable.
Vortices in Attractive Bose-Einstein Condensates in Two Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The form and stability of quantum vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive atomic interactions is elucidated. They appear as ring bright solitons, and are a generalization of the Townes soliton to nonzero winding number m. An infinite sequence of radially excited stationary states appear for each value of m, which are characterized by concentric matter-wave rings separated by nodes, in contrast to repulsive condensates, where no such set of states exists. It is shown that robustly stable as well as unstable regimes may be achieved in confined geometries, thereby suggesting that vortices and their radial excited states can be observed in experiments on attractive condensates in two dimensions
Distillation of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate located in a time-dependent double-well trapping potential. In particular we investigate the way the system discovers existence of a ground state created in the new deeper well. It was shown that the transfer of the system into the minimum of the potential is triggered by the appearance of the condensate in the new well. Only then the thermal cloud follows the condensed part. During the transfer the eigenvectors of the single-particle density matrix have components localized simultaneously in both wells, which indicates a partial coherence between the two parts of the system.
Behaviour of Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates Under Shrinking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAI Hui; ZHOU Qi
2005-01-01
@@ When the repulsive interaction strength between atoms decreases, the size of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate will consequently shrink. We find that the rotational frequency will increase during the shrinking of condensate,which is a quantum mechanical analogy to ballet dancing. Compared to a non-rotating condensate, the size of a rotating BEC will eventually be satiated at a finite value when the interaction strength is gradually reduced.We also calculate the vortex dynamics induced by the atomic current, and discuss the difference of vortex dynamics in this case and that observed in a recent experiment carried out by the JILA group [Phys. Rev. Lett.90 (2003) 170405].
Characterisation of the dynamical quantum state of a zero temperature Bose-Einstein condensate
Rogel-Salazar, J.; Choi, S.; New, G. H. C.; Burnett, K.
2003-01-01
We describe the quantum state of a Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature. By evaluating the Q-function we show that the ground state of Bose-Einstein condensate under the Hartree approximation is squeezed. We find that multimode Schroedinger cat states are generated as the condensate evolves in a ballistic expansion.
Collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate with dipole-dipole interactions
Lushnikov, Pavel M.
2002-01-01
A dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate of a gas of bosonic particles with long-range dipole-dipole interactions in a harmonic trap is studied. Sufficient analytical criteria are found both for catastrophic collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate and for long-time condensate existence. Analytical criteria are compared with variational analysis.
Vortices and ring solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The form and stability properties of axisymmetric and spherically symmetric stationary states in two and three dimensions, respectively, are elucidated for Bose-Einstein condensates. These states include the ground state, central vortices, and radial excitations of both. The latter are called ring solitons in two dimensions and spherical shells in three. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is taken as the fundamental model; both extended and harmonically trapped condensates are considered. It is found that the instability times of ring solitons can be long compared to experimental time scales, making them effectively stable over the lifetime of an experiment
Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Engels, Peter; Atherton, Collin; Hoefer, Mark
2007-06-01
Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Photons and Photon Pairs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张建军; 袁建辉; 张俊佩; 成泽
2012-01-01
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons and photon pairs in a two-dimension optical microcavity. We find that in the paraxial approximation, the mixed gas of photons and photon pairs is formally equivalent to a two dimension system of massive bosons with non-vanishing chemical potential, which implies the existence of two possible condensate phase. We also discuss the quantum phase transition of the system and obtain the critical point analytically. Moreover, we find that the quantum phase transition of the system can be interpreted as second harmonic generation.
Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline earth atoms: $^{40}${Ca}
Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe
2009-01-01
We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of $^{40}$Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground state s-wave scattering length of $^{40}$Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about $2 \\cdot 10^4$ atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less ...
High visibility gravimetry with a Bose-Einstein condensate
Debs, J E; Barter, T H; Döring, D; Dennis, G R; McDonald, G; Robins, N P; Close, J D
2010-01-01
We present results from an atomic gravimeter using a Bose-Einstein condensate with fringe visibility up to 85%. A direct comparison with a thermal state displays a significant increase in visibility for a condensed source. We do not observe any detrimental effects of atom-atom interactions, provided the cloud is allowed to reach the ballistic free-expansion regime. By increasing the space-time area enclosed by our interferometer using large-momentum-transfer beamsplitters, we achieve a precision of 17 ppm in a measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity.
Bose-Einstein condensation of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells
Kavoulakis, G. M.
2002-01-01
We study the ground-state properties of a quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate of indirect excitons, which are confined in an anisotropic harmonic potential. Incorporating the interactions, we calculate the order parameter variationally. The difficulties in the detection of a Bose-Einstein condensate are also discussed, along with possible ways which would overcome them.
Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells
Yi, Xiao-jie
2016-05-01
We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.
A general approach to the Bose-einstein condensation of neutral atoms with repellent interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach to the Bose-Einstein condensation of neutral atoms with repellent interaction is presented. Especially in the case of free atoms (V = 0) with repellent interaction, an exact solution for the atom's wave function can be derived, and therefore the calculation of atom's Bose-Einstein condensation is completed
Quantum Mass Acquisition in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2014-12-01
Quantum mass acquisition, in which a massless (quasi)particle becomes massive due to quantum corrections, is predicted to occur in several subfields of physics. However, its experimental observation remains elusive since the emergent energy gap is too small. We show that a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is an excellent candidate for the observation of such a peculiar phenomenon as the energy gap turns out to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than the zero-point energy. This extraordinarily large energy gap is a consequence of the dynamical instability. The propagation velocity of the resultant massive excitation mode is found to be decreased by the quantum corrections as opposed to phonons.
Atomic Tunnelling Dynamics of Two Squeezed Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jin-Hui; KUANG Le-Man
2003-01-01
In this paper, tunnelling dynamics of squeezed Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) in the presence of the nonlinear self-interaction of each species, the interspecies nonlinear interaction, and the Josephson-like tunnelling interaction is investigated by using the second quantization approach. The influence of BEC squeezing on macroscopic quantum self-trapping (MQST) and quantum coherent atomic tunnelling is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the MQST and coherent atomic tunnelling between two squeezed BEC's can be manipulated through changing squeezing amplitude and squeezing phase of BEC squeezed states.
Pumping of twin-trap Bose-Einstein condensates
Steel, M. J.; Walls, D. F.
1997-01-01
We consider extensions of the twin-trap Bose-Einstein condensate system of Javaneinen and Yoo [Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 161--164 (1996)] to include pumping and output couplers. Such a system permits a continual outflow of two beams of atoms with a relative phase coherence maintained by the detection process. We study this system for two forms of thermal pumping, both with and without the influence of inter-atomic collisions. We also examine the effects of pumping on the phenomenon of collapses a...
Observation of Weak Collapse in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Eigen, Christoph; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Smith, Robert P
2016-01-01
We study the collapse of an attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate prepared in the uniform potential an optical-box trap. We characterise the critical point for collapse and the collapse dynamics, observing universal behaviour in agreement with theoretical expectations. Most importantly, we observe a clear experimental signature of the counterintuitive weak collapse, namely that making the system more unstable can result in a smaller particle loss. We experimentally determine the scaling laws that govern the weak-collapse atom loss, providing a benchmark for the general theories of nonlinear wave phenomena.
Bose-Einstein condensation in antiferromagnets at low temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) was predicted by Einstein in 1925 and this effect is characterized by the formation of a collective quantum state, when macroscopic number of particles is governed by a single wave function. The BEC of magnons was discovered experimentally in superfluid phase of 3He. In the present work we report our progress on the BEC of magnons investigations in solid antiferromagnets at low temperatures by magnetic resonance methods. The duration of the FID signal in two samples of easy-plane antiferromagnets CsMnF3 has been studied. Obtained data confirm the formation of magnon BEC in antiferromagnet CsMnF3
Cooling of a Bose-Einstein Condensate by Spin Distillation.
Naylor, B; Maréchal, E; Huckans, J; Gorceix, O; Pedri, P; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2015-12-11
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new cooling mechanism leading to purification of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our scheme starts with a BEC polarized in the lowest energy spin state. Spin excited states are thermally populated by lowering the single particle energy gap set by the magnetic field. Then, these spin-excited thermal components are filtered out, which leads to an increase of the BEC fraction. We experimentally demonstrate such cooling for a spin 3 ^{52}Cr dipolar BEC. Our scheme should be applicable to Na or Rb, with the perspective to reach temperatures below 1 nK. PMID:26705630
Observation of solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Donadello, Simone; Serafini, Simone; Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Dalfovo, Franco; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele
2014-08-01
We observe solitonic vortices in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after free expansion. Clear signatures of the nature of such defects are the twisted planar density depletion around the vortex line, observed in absorption images, and the double dislocation in the interference pattern obtained through homodyne techniques. Both methods allow us to determine the sign of the quantized circulation. Experimental observations agree with numerical simulations. These solitonic vortices are the decay product of phase defects of the BEC order parameter spontaneously created after a rapid quench across the BEC transition in a cigar-shaped harmonic trap and are shown to have a very long lifetime. PMID:25148333
A Raman waveplate for spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.
Schultz, Justin T; Hansen, Azure; Bigelow, Nicholas P
2014-07-15
We demonstrate a waveplate for a pseudo-spin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using a two-photon Raman interaction. The angle of the waveplate is set by the relative phase of the optical fields, and the retardance is controlled by the pulse area. The waveplate allows us to image maps of the Stokes parameters of a BEC and thereby measure its relative ground-state phase. We demonstrate the waveplate by measuring the Stokes parameters of a coreless vortex. PMID:25121704
Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate
Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.
2016-05-01
We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.
Symmetry classification of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawaguchi, Yuki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2011-11-15
We propose a method for systematically finding ground states of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates by utilizing the symmetry properties of the system. By this method, we can find not only an inert state, whose symmetry is maximal in the manifold under consideration, but also a noninert state, which has lower symmetry and depends on the parameters in the Hamiltonian. We establish the symmetry-classification method for the spin-1, 2, and 3 cases at zero magnetic field, and find an additional phase in the last case. The properties of the vortices in the spin-3 system are also discussed.
Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description
Soliton Solutions in Three-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiao-Fei; XIE Chong-Wei; WANG Shi-En
2007-01-01
We obtain soliton and plane wave solutions for the coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations, which describe the dynamics of the three-component Bose-Einstein condensates by using the Hirota method. Meanwhile we find that the system which has attractive atomic interaction will only possess a shape changing (inelastic) collision property due to intensity redistribution in the absence of the spin-exchange interaction. As a discussed example, we investigate the one-soliton, two-soliton solutions and collisional effects between bright two-soliotn solution, which lead to the intensity redistribution.
Motion of objects through dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses the motion of objects through quantum fluids described by the Gross Pitaevskii (GP) equation. The object moves without dissipation at velocities below a threshold which corresponds to the critical velocity for vortex nucleation. Above the critical velocity, vortex shedding is the dominant mechanism of energy transfer between the object and the fluid. We compare the predictions of the GP model with experiments on an oscillating laser beam in an alkali vapour Bose Einstein condensate and ions in superfluid helium-4. (orig.)
Propagation of Sound in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, M.R.; Kurn, D.M.; Miesner, H.; Durfee, D.S.; Townsend, C.G.; Inouye, S.; Ketterle, W. [Department of Physics and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
1997-07-01
Sound propagation has been studied in a magnetically trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. Localized excitations were induced by suddenly modifying the trapping potential using the optical dipole force of a focused laser beam. The resulting propagation of sound was observed using a novel technique, rapid sequencing of nondestructive phase-contrast images. The speed of sound was determined as a function of density and found to be consistent with Bogoliubov theory. This method may generally be used to observe high-lying modes and perhaps second sound. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Geometrical Pumping with a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Lu, H.-I.; Schemmer, M.; Aycock, L. M.; Genkina, D.; Sugawa, S.; Spielman, I. B.
2016-05-01
We realized a quantum geometric "charge" pump for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the lowest Bloch band of a novel bipartite magnetic lattice. Topological charge pumps in filled bands yield quantized pumping set by the global—topological—properties of the bands. In contrast, our geometric charge pump for a BEC occupying just a single crystal momentum state exhibits nonquantized charge pumping set by local—geometrical—properties of the band structure. Like topological charge pumps, for each pump cycle we observed an overall displacement (here, not quantized) and a temporal modulation of the atomic wave packet's position in each unit cell, i.e., the polarization.
Stability of self-gravitating Bose-Einstein-Condensates
Schroven, Kris; Lämmerzahl, Claus
2015-01-01
We study the ground state and the first three radially excited states of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein- Condensate with respect to the influence of two external parameters, the total mass and the strength of interactions between particles. For this we use the so-called Gross-Pitaevskii-Newton system. In this context we especially determine the case of very high total masses where the ground state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii- Newton system can be approximated with the Thomas-Fermi limit. Furthermore, stability properties of the computed radially excited states are examined by applying arguments of the catastrophe theory.
Solitons, Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The analytic form of a wave propagating with a constant velocity and a permanent profile is inferred for a weakly interacting Bose gas, using an exact (rather than asymptotic) solution of the field equation of the self-consistent Hartree model. The significance of this approach is indicated, especially when realistic interatomic potentials are used. In addition, the general relation between solitons and Bose-Einstein condensation is underlined by invoking the profound insight recently acquired in studies of the quantum liquids involved in the living state. It is concluded that solitons may occur in He II, and may play a significant role in the phenomena of superfluidity. (author)
High temperature Bose-Einstein condensation
Begun, Viktor V
2016-01-01
The indications of a possible pion condensation at the LHC are summarized. The condensation is predicted by the non-equilibrium hadronization model for 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The model solves the proton/pion puzzle and reproduces the low $p_T$ enhancement of the pion spectra, as well as the spectra of protons and antiprotons, charged kaons, $K^0_S$, $K^*(892)^0$ and $\\phi(1020)$. The obtained parameters allow to estimate the amount of pion condensate on the level of 5\\% from the total number of pions at the LHC. The condensate is located at $p_T<250$ MeV.
Bose-Einstein graviton condensate in a Schwarzschild black hole
Alfaro, Jorge; Gabbanelli, Luciano
2016-01-01
We analyze in detail a previous proposal by Dvali and G\\'omez that black holes could be treated as consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons. In order to do so we extend the Einstein-Hilbert action with a chemical potential-like term, thus placing ourselves in a grand-canonical ensemble. The form and characteristics of this chemical potential-like piece are discussed in some detail. After this, we proceed to expand the ensuing equations of motion up to second order around the classical Schwarzschild metric so that some non-linear terms in the metric fluctuation are kept. We argue that the resulting equations could be interpreted as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by the black hole gravitational field. Next we search for solutions and, modulo some very plausible assumptions, we find out that the condensate vanishes outside the horizon but is non-zero in its interior. Based on hints from a numerical integration of the equations we formulate an ans...
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals in the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations
Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
Finazzi, Stefano
2012-08-01
Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which are general relativistic spacetimes allowing faster-than-light travel, are unstable. Finally, the cosmological constant issue is investigated from an analogue gravity perspective and relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates are proposed as new analogue systems with novel interesting properties.
Avalanches in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Schuster, J; A. Marte; Amtage, S; Sang, B.; Rempe, G.; Beijerinck, HCW Herman
2001-01-01
Collisional avalanches are identified to be responsible for an 8-fold increase of the initial loss rate of a large 87-Rb condensate. We show that the collisional opacity of an ultra-cold gas exhibits a critical value. When exceeded, losses due to inelastic collisions are substantially enhanced. Under these circumstances, reaching the hydrodynamic regime in conventional BEC experiments is highly questionable.
Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity
Pitaevskii, Lev
2016-01-01
This volume introduces the basic concepts of Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity. It makes special reference to the physics of ultracold atomic gases; an area in which enormous experimental and theoretical progress has been achieved in the last twenty years. Various theoretical approaches to describing the physics of interacting bosons and of interacting Fermi gases, giving rise to bosonic pairs and hence to condensation, are discussed in detail, both in uniform and harmonically trapped configurations. Special focus is given to the comparison between theory and experiment, concerning various equilibrium, dynamic, thermodynamic, and superfluid properties of these novel systems. The volume also includes discussions of ultracold gases in dimensions, quantum mixtures, and long-range dipolar interactions.
Bose-Einstein condensation as an alternative to inflation
Das, Saurya
2015-01-01
It was recently shown that gravitons with a very small mass should have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the very early Universe, whose density and quantum potential can account for the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe respectively. Here we show that the condensation can also naturally explain the observed large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. Furthermore gravitons continue to fall into their ground state within the condensate at every epoch, accounting for the observed flatness of space at cosmological distances scales. Finally, we argue that the density perturbations due to quantum fluctuations within the condensate give rise to a scale invariant spectrum. This therefore provides a viable alternative to inflation, which is not associated with the well-known problems associated with the latter.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar excitons in quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, V B; Gorbunov, A V, E-mail: timofeev@issp.ac.r [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)
2009-02-01
The experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dipolar (spatially-indirect) excitons in the lateral traps in GaAs/AlGaAs Schottky-diode heterostructures with double and single quantum wells are presented. The condensed part of dipolar excitons under detection in the far zone is placed in k-space in the range which is almost two orders of magnitude less than thermal exciton wave vector. BEC occurs spontaneously in a reservoir of thermalized excitons. Luminescence images of Bose-condensate of dipolar excitons exhibit along perimeter of circular trap axially symmetrical spatial structures of equidistant bright spots which strongly depend on excitation power and temperature. By means of two-beam interference experiments with the use of cw and pulsed photoexcitation it was found that the state of dipolar exciton Bose-condensate is spatially coherent and the whole patterned luminescence configuration in real space is described by a common wave function.
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in confined Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres, P.J. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kevrekidis, P.G., E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Carretero-Gonzalez, R. [Nonlinear Dynamical System Group, Computational Science Research Center, and Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hall, D.S. [Department of Physics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002-5000 (United States)
2011-08-01
We present a systematic theoretical analysis of the motion of a pair of straight counter-rotating vortex lines within a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. We introduce the dynamical equations of motion, identify the associated conserved quantities, and illustrate the integrability of the ensuing dynamics. The system possesses a stationary equilibrium as a special case in a class of exact solutions that consist of rotating guiding-center equilibria about which the vortex lines execute periodic motion; thus, the generic two-vortex motion can be classified as quasi-periodic. We conclude with an analysis of the linear and nonlinear stability of these stationary and rotating equilibria. -- Highlights: → A model describing the motion of a vortex dipole in a quasi two-dimensional trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is considered. → The model is integrable and the generic motion of the dipole is quasi-periodic. → Stationary and periodic (guiding-center) equilibria are identified. → Both equilibria are found to be dynamically stable.
Resistive flow in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate.
Jendrzejewski, F; Eckel, S; Murray, N; Lanier, C; Edwards, M; Lobb, C J; Campbell, G K
2014-07-25
We report the direct observation of resistive flow through a weak link in a weakly interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Two weak links separate our ring-shaped superfluid atomtronic circuit into two distinct regions, a source and a drain. Motion of these weak links allows for creation of controlled flow between the source and the drain. At a critical value of the weak link velocity, we observe a transition from superfluid flow to superfluid plus resistive flow. Working in the hydrodynamic limit, we observe a conductivity that is 4 orders of magnitude larger than previously reported conductivities for a Bose-Einstein condensate with a tunnel junction. Good agreement with zero-temperature Gross-Pitaevskii simulations and a phenomenological model based on phase slips indicate that the creation of excitations plays an important role in the resulting conductivity. Our measurements of resistive flow elucidate the microscopic origin of the dissipation and pave the way for more complex atomtronic devices. PMID:25105631
Accelerated optimization problem search using Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate a computational device that harnesses the effects of Bose-Einstein condensation to accelerate the speed of finding the solution of optimization problems. Many computationally difficult problems, including NP-complete problems, can be formulated as a ground state search problem. In a Bose-Einstein condensate, below the critical temperature, bosonic particles have a natural tendency to accumulate in the ground state. Furthermore, the speed of attaining this configuration is enhanced as a result of final state stimulation. We propose a physical device that incorporates these basic properties of bosons into the optimization problem, such that an optimized solution is found by a simple cooling of the physical temperature of the device. Using a semiclassical model to calculate the equilibration time for reaching the ground state, we found that this can be sped up by a factor of N, where N is the boson number per site. This allows for the annealing times for reaching a particular error to be systematically decreased by increasing the boson number per site. (paper)
Kinetic approach to a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate
Meistrenko, Alex; Zhou, Kai; Greiner, Carsten
2015-01-01
We apply a Boltzmann approach to the kinetic regime of a relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate of scalar bosons by decomposing the one-particle distribution function in a condensate part and a non-zero momentum part of excited modes, leading to a coupled set of evolution equations which are then solved efficiently with an adaptive higher order Runge-Kutta scheme. We compare our results to the partonic cascade Monte-Carlo simulation BAMPS for an underpopulated but far from equilibrium case of massless bosons. Motivated by the color glass condensate initial conditions in QCD with a strongly overpopulated initial glasma state, we also discuss the time evolution starting from an overpopulated initial distribution function of massive scalar bosons.
85Rb tunable-interaction Bose-Einstein condensate machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe our experimental setup for creating stable Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of 85Rb with tunable interparticle interactions. We use sympathetic cooling with 87Rb in two stages, initially in a tight Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume, crossed optical dipole trap, using the 155 G Feshbach resonance to manipulate the elastic and inelastic scattering properties of the 85Rb atoms. Typical 85Rb condensates contain 4x104 atoms with a scattering length of a=+200a0. Many aspects of the design presented here could be adapted to other dual-species BEC machines, including those involving degenerate Fermi-Bose mixtures. Our minimalist apparatus is well suited to experiments on dual-species and spinor Rb condensates, and has several simplifications over the 85Rb BEC machine at JILA, which we discuss at the end of this article.
Power spectrum for the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter
Velten, Hermano
2011-01-01
We assume that dark matter is composed of scalar particles that form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at some point during the cosmic evolution. Afterwards, cold dark matter is in the form of a condensate and behaves slightly different from the standard dark matter component. We study the large scale perturbative dynamics of the BEC dark matter in a model where this component coexists with baryonic matter and cosmological constant. The perturbative dynamics is studied using neo- Newtonian cosmology (where the pressure is dynamically relevant for the homogeneous and isotropic background) which is assumed to be correct for small values of the sound speed. We show that BEC dark matter effects can be seen in the matter power spectrum if the mass of the condensate particle lies in the range 15meV < m < 700meV leading to a small, but perceptible, excess of power at large scales.
Power spectrum for the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velten, Hermano, E-mail: velten@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Departamento de Fisica, UFES, Vitoria, 29075-910 Espirito Santo (Brazil); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Wamba, Etienne [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)
2012-03-13
We assume that dark matter is composed of scalar particles that form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at some point during the cosmic evolution. Afterwards, cold dark matter is in the form of a condensate and behaves slightly different from the standard dark matter component. We study the large scale perturbative dynamics of the BEC dark matter in a model where this component coexists with baryonic matter and cosmological constant. The perturbative dynamics is studied using neo-Newtonian cosmology (where the pressure is dynamically relevant for the homogeneous and isotropic background) which is assumed to be correct for small values of the sound speed. We show that BEC dark matter effects can be seen in the matter power spectrum if the mass of the condensate particle lies in the range 15 MeV
Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan; Lev, Benjamin
2016-05-01
Microscopy techniques co-opted from nonlinear optics and high energy physics have complemented solid-state probes in elucidating exotic order manifest in condensed matter systems. We present a novel scanning magnetometer which adds the techniques of ultracold atomic physics to the condensed matter toolbox. Our device, the Scanning Quantum CRyogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) uses a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate of 87 Rb to image magnetic and electric fields near surfaces between room and cryogenic temperatures, and allows for rapid sample changes while retaining UHV compatibility for atomic experiments. We present our characterization of the spatial resolution and magnetic field sensitivity of the device, and discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique. In particular, we will discuss our plans for performing local transport measurements in technologically relevant materials such as Fe-based superconductors and topological insulators.
Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline earth atoms: ;{40}Ca.
Kraft, Sebastian; Vogt, Felix; Appel, Oliver; Riehle, Fritz; Sterr, Uwe
2009-09-25
We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of ;{40}Ca, the first for an alkaline earth element. The influence of elastic and inelastic collisions associated with the large ground-state s-wave scattering length of ;{40}Ca was measured. From these findings, an optimized loading and cooling scheme was developed that allowed us to condense about 2 x 10;{4} atoms after laser cooling in a two-stage magneto-optical trap and subsequent forced evaporation in a crossed dipole trap within less than 3 s. The condensation of an alkaline earth element opens novel opportunities for precision measurements on the narrow intercombination lines as well as investigations of molecular states at the ;{1}S-;{3}P asymptotes. PMID:19905493
Effect of interaction strength on gap solitons of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Ru-Shu; Yang Jiang-He
2008-01-01
We have developed a systematic analytical approach to the study on the dynamic properties of the linear and the nonlinear excitations for quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in optical lattices. A novel linear dispersion relation and an algebraic soliton solution of the condensate are derived analytically under consideration of Bose-Einstein condensate with a periodic potential. By analysing the soliton solution, we find that the interatomic interaction strength has an important effect on soliton dynamic properties of Bose-Einstein condensate.
Interaction of a Bose-Einstein Condensate and a Superconductor via Eddy Currents
Sapina, Igor; Dahm, Thomas
2013-01-01
We study center-of-mass oscillations of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in the vicinity of a superconducting surface. We show that the magnetic field of the magnetic dipoles induces eddy currents in the superconductor, which act back on the Bose-Einstein condensate. This leads to a shift of its oscillation frequency and to an anharmonic coupling of the Bose-Einstein condensate with the superconductor. The anharmonicity creates a coupling to one of the collective modes of the condensate tha...
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Overpopulated Glasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François [Institut de Physique Théorique (URA 2306 du CNRS), CEA/DSM/Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and CEEM, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McLerran, Larry [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Venugopalan, Raju [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2013-05-02
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the far-from-equilibrium gluonic matter (“Glasma”) is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an emergent property of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop a kinetic approach for describing its evolution toward thermalization as well as the onset of condensation.
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Overpopulated Glasma
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Liao, Jinfeng; McLerran, Larry; Venugopalan, Raju
2012-01-01
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the far-from-equilibrium gluonic matter ("Glasma") is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an {\\em emergent property} of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop a kinetic approach for describing its evolution toward thermalization, and based on that we find approximate scaling solutions as well as numerically study the onset of condensation.
Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
Finazzi, Stefano
2012-01-01
Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...
Probing superfluidity of Bose-Einstein condensates via laser stirring
Singh, Vijay Pal; Weimer, Wolf; Morgener, Kai; Siegl, Jonas; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Moritz, Henning; Mathey, Ludwig
2016-02-01
We investigate the superfluid behavior of a Bose-Einstein condensate of 6Li molecules. In the experiment by Weimer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.095301] a condensate is stirred by a weak, red-detuned laser beam along a circular path around the trap center. The rate of induced heating increases steeply above a velocity vc, which we define as the critical velocity. Below this velocity, the moving beam creates almost no heating. In this paper, we demonstrate a quantitative understanding of the critical velocity. Using both numerical and analytical methods, we identify the nonzero temperature, the circular motion of the stirrer, and the density profile of the cloud as key factors influencing the magnitude of vc. A direct comparison to the experimental data shows excellent agreement.
Black Hole Horizons and Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Frank
2016-01-01
Consider a particle sitting at a fixed position outside of a stable black hole. If the system is heated up, the black hole horizon grows and there should exist a critical temperature above which the particle enters the black hole interior. We solve a simple model describing exactly this situation: a large N matrix quantum mechanics modeling a fixed D-particle in a black hole background. We show that indeed a striking phenomenon occurs: above some critical temperature, there is a non-perturbative Bose-Einstein condensation of massless strings. The transition, even though precisely defined by the presence of the condensate, cannot be sharply detected by measurements made in a finite amount of time. The order parameter is fundamentally non-local in time and corresponds to infinite-time correlations.
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein Condensation in Overpopulated Glasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report recent progress on understanding the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma during the early stage in a heavy ion collision. The initially high overpopulation in the far-from-equilibrium gluonic matter (“Glasma”) is shown to play a crucial role. The strongly interacting nature (and thus fast evolution) naturally arises as an emergent property of this pre-equilibrium matter where the intrinsic coupling is weak but the highly occupied gluon states coherently amplify the scattering. A possible transient Bose-Einstein Condensate is argued to form dynamically on a rather general ground. We develop a kinetic approach for describing its evolution toward thermalization as well as the onset of condensation
Nonlinear waves in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Congy, T.; Kamchatnov, A. M.; Pavloff, N.
2016-04-01
We consider a quasi-one-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a coherent coupling between its components, such as realized in spin-orbit coupled condensates. We study how nonlinearity modifies the dynamics of the elementary excitations. The spectrum has two branches, which are affected in different ways. The upper branch experiences a modulational instability, which is stabilized by a long-wave-short-wave resonance with the lower branch. The lower branch is stable. In the limit of weak nonlinearity and small dispersion it is described by a Korteweg-de Vries equation or by the Gardner equation, depending on the value of the parameters of the system.
Transition of a mesoscopic bosonic gas into a Bose-Einstein condensate
Schelle, Alexej
2011-01-01
The condensate number distribution during the transition of a dilute, weakly interacting gas of N=200 bosonic atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled within number conserving master equation theory of Bose-Einstein condensation. Initial strong quantum fluctuations occuring during the exponential cycle of condensate growth reduce in a subsequent saturation stage, before the Bose gas finally relaxes towards the Gibbs-Boltzmann equilibrium.
Composite structure of vortices in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Ivashin Anatoly P.; Poluektov Yuri M.
2015-01-01
In contrast to one-component Bose-Einstein condensate case, the vortices in two-component condensate can have various complicated structures. The vortices in a space-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied in this paper. It is shown that the vortex structure is described by three dimensionless parameters. This is totally different from the usual one-component condensate case,where an isolated vortex is described by a parameterless dimensionless equation....
Production and measurement of Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atomic gas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The research platform for Bose-Einstein condensate in 87 Rb atomic gas,which is composed of a double MOT configuration and a QUIC trap,was reported.The properties of the condensate were measured both in time-of-flight and in tight confinement by the absorption imaging method.The measurements agreed with the criterions of Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition.About 2×10 5 atoms were pure condensed.
Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a 'cigar-shaped' Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a 'blip' in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.
Bose-Einstein Condensate In Nuclei Theory And Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work the possibility of the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in light and intermediate nuclei was considered. As was Shown, different types of theory give different conditions for the phase transition to the BEC state. The most important question from this point of view is value of nuclear density for this transition. According to the accurate quantum-mechanical calculations this value should be much smaller than it is for the nucleus in the normal state [1]. From the other hand, some kinds of the models give the opposite results for this [2]. There are the theories which consider the properties of alpha-cluster wave function [3] and more sophisticated mechanisms of the BEC formation. In this work the comparison between these theories, including the present approach, and experimental data was discussed as well as a systematic of the experimental results which we can explain from the BEC point of view.
Dynamical tunneling with Bose-Einstein condensates on atom chips
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: A generic feature of conservative classical dynamical systems with two or more degrees of freedom is that their trajectories form complicated phase space structures where chaos and regular motion are closely intertwined Among these structures are islands of regular motion that a classical system can not escape from but between which a quantum particle may tunnel. Dynamical tunneling of ultra cold atoms in standing wave has previously been observed but deep inside the quantum dynamical regime. Here we investigate the prospects for improved experiments with Bose Einstein condensates on atom chips that are closer to the classical regime In particular we concentrate on the effect of classical chaos on the tunnelling an issue of some controversy in the literature. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics
Q-balls in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Enqvist, K
2003-01-01
Relativistic scalar field theories with a conserved global charge Q often possess (meta)stable spherically symmetric soliton solutions, called Q-balls. We elaborate on the perfect formal analogy which exists between Q-balls, and spherically symmetric solitons in certain non-relativistic atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, for which the dominant interatomic interaction can be tuned attractive. The stability of such atomic Q-balls depends on higher-order interatomic interactions, which can render the Q-balls absolutely stable for large Q. In a harmonic trap, present in existing experiments, the Q-ball solution is modified in an essential way. If the trap is significantly prolongated in one direction, however, then genuine solitons do appear, and some of the Q-ball properties studied in a relativistic cosmological context, such as their formation and collisions, can also be addressed experimentally.
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation and Bose-Einstein condensates
Rogel-Salazar, J.
2013-03-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) is discussed at the level of an advanced course on statistical physics. In the standard literature the GPE is usually obtained in the framework of the second quantization formalism, which in many cases goes beyond the material covered in many advanced undergraduate courses. In this paper, we motivate the derivation of the GPE in relationship to concepts from statistical physics, highlighting a number of applications from the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate to the excitations of the gas cloud. This paper may be helpful for encouraging the discussion of modern developments in a statistical mechanics course, and can also be of use in other contexts such as mathematical physics and modelling. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for general physicists.
Planck, Photon Statistics, and Bose-Einstein Condensation
Greenberger, Daniel M; Scully, Marlan O; Svidzinsky, Anatoly A; Zubairy, M Suhail
2007-01-01
The interplay between optical and statistical physics is a rich and exciting field of study. Black body radiation was the first application of photon statistics, although it was initially treated as a problem of the cavity oscillators in equilibrium with the photon field. However Planck surprisingly resisted the idea that anything physical would be quantized for a long time after he had solved the problem. We trace this development. Then, after the invention of the laser itself, it proved difficult to develop a theory of laser action that could account for photon statistics, i.e. fluctuations near threshold. This was accomplished in 1965. After Bose-Einstein condensation was successfully achieved, the same problem arose in this case. The fluctuation problem had not been treated adequately even for the ideal Bose gas. However this problem has now been solved using the same techniques as in the theory of laser action.
Tunable Bistability in Hybrid Bose-Einstein Condensate Optomechanics
Yasir, Kashif Ammar
2015-01-01
Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror and is driven by a single mode optical field. The numerical results provide evidence for controlled optical bistability in optomechanics using transverse optical field which directly interacts with atoms causing the coupling of transverse field with momentum side modes, exited by intra-cavity field. This technique of transverse field coupling is also used to control bistable dynamics of both moving-end mirror and BEC. The report provides an understanding of temporal dynamics of moving-end mirror and BEC with respect to tr...
Dynamics of Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We numerically simulate the dynamics of a spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. We find that the initial phase plays an important role in the spin component oscillations. The spin mixing processes can fully cancel out due to quantum interference when taking some initial special phase. In all the spin mixing processes, the total spin is conversed.When the initial population is mainly occupied by a component with the maximal or minimal magnetic quantum number,the oscillations of spin components cannot happen due to the total spin conversation. The presence of quadratic Zeeman energy terms suppresses some spin mixing processes so that the oscillations of spin components are suppressed in some initial spin configuration. However, the linear Zecman energy terms have no effects on the spin mixing processes.
Stabilization of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Earlier work has shown that ring dark solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates are generically unstable. In this work, we propose a way of stabilizing the ring dark soliton via a radial Gaussian external potential. We investigate the existence and stability of the ring dark soliton upon variations of the chemical potential and also of the strength of the radial potential. Numerical results show that the ring dark soliton can be stabilized in a suitable interval of external potential strengths and chemical potentials. Furthermore, we also explore different proposed particle pictures considering the ring as a moving particle and find, where appropriate, results in very good qualitative and also reasonable quantitative agreement with the numerical findings
Spin turbulence in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We summarize the recent theoretical and numerical works on spin turbulence (ST) in spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. When the system is excited from the ground state, it goes through hydrodynamic instability to ST in which the spin density vector has various disordered direction. The properties of ST depend on whether the spin-dependent interaction is ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. ST has some characteristics different from other kinds of turbulence in quantum fluids. Firstly, the spectrum of the spin-dependent interaction energy exhibits the characteristic power law different from the usual Kolmogorov -5/3 law. Secondly, ST can show the spin-glass-like behavior; the spin density vectors are spatially random but temporally frozen.
Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weakly interacting, dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) have proved to be an attractive context for the study of nonlinear dynamics and quantum effects at the macroscopic scale. Recently, weakly interacting, dilute atomic BECs have been used to investigate quantum turbulence both experimentally and theoretically, stimulated largely by the high degree of control which is available within these quantum gases. In this article we motivate the use of weakly interacting, dilute atomic BECs for the study of turbulence, discuss the characteristic regimes of turbulence which are accessible, and briefly review some selected investigations of quantum turbulence and recent results. We focus on three stages of turbulence – the generation of turbulence, its steady state and its decay – and highlight some fundamental questions regarding our understanding in each of these regimes
Transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through two dimensional cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent experimental advances in manipulating ultra-cold atoms make it feasible to study coherent transport of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) through various mesoscopic structures. In this work the quasi-stationary propagation of BEC matter waves through two dimensional cavities is investigated using numerical simulations within the mean-field approach of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The focus is on the interplay between interference effects and the interaction term in the non-linear wave equation. One sees that the transport properties show a complicated behaviour with multi-stability, hysteresis and dynamical instabilities for non-vanishing interaction. Furthermore, the prominent weak localization effect, which is a robust interference effect emerging after taking a configuration average, is reduced and partially inverted for non-vanishing interaction.
Vortons in two component Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ever since Witten's paper on superconducting cosmic strings, there has been an interest in strings with a non-trivial core structure. In particular, it is believed that such strings can form loops, known as vortons, which are stabilized against shrinking by current and charge trapped on the string world-sheet. In this paper, we show that analogous non-trivial vortices and stable vortex loops exist in non-relativistic two-component atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In contrast with well-studied superfluid 4He, where similar vortex rings can be stable due to Magnus force only if they move, the vortex rings in two-component BECs can be stable even if they are at rest. We speculate that such vortons may have been already observed in the laboratory. Thus, it may be possible to test predictions regarding vortons in cosmology and astrophysics by doing controlled experiments in two-component BECs. (author)
Quantum mass acquisition in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2014-12-01
Quantum mass acquisition, in which a massless (quasi)particle becomes massive due to quantum corrections, is predicted to occur in several subfields of physics. However, its experimental observation remains elusive since the emergent energy gap is too small. We show that a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate is an excellent candidate for the observation of such a peculiar phenomenon as the energy gap turns out to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than the zero-point energy. This extraordinarily large energy gap is a consequence of the dynamical instability. The propagation velocity of the resultant massive excitation mode is found to be decreased by the quantum corrections as opposed to phonons. PMID:25526104
Spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Fei, E-mail: wiself@gmail.com [Hunan First Normal University, Department of Education Science (China); Zhang, Dongxia; Rong, Shiguang; Xu, Ying [Hunan University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics (China)
2013-11-15
The spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical lattice is studied. A spatially dependent current with an explicit analytic expression is found in the case with a spatially dependent BEC phase. The oscillating amplitude of the current can be adjusted by a Feshbach resonance, and the intensity of the current depends heavily on the initial and boundary conditions. Increasing the oscillating amplitude of the current can force the system to pass from a single-periodic spatial structure into a very complex state. But in the case with a constant phase, the spatially dependent current disappears and the Melnikov chaotic criterion is obtained via a perturbative analysis in the presence of a weak optical lattice potential. Numerical simulations show that a strong optical lattice potential can lead BEC atoms to a state with a chaotic spatial distribution via a quasiperiodic route.
Bell correlations in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmied, Roman; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Scarani, Valerio; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-04-22
Characterizing many-body systems through the quantum correlations between their constituent particles is a major goal of quantum physics. Although entanglement is routinely observed in many systems, we report here the detection of stronger correlations--Bell correlations--between the spins of about 480 atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive a Bell correlation witness from a many-particle Bell inequality involving only one- and two-body correlation functions. Our measurement on a spin-squeezed state exceeds the threshold for Bell correlations by 3.8 standard deviations. Our work shows that the strongest possible nonclassical correlations are experimentally accessible in many-body systems and that they can be revealed by collective measurements. PMID:27102479
Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R
2015-06-19
We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them. PMID:26196974
Ex Vacuo Atom Chip Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)
Squires, Matthew B; Kasch, Brian; Stickney, James A; Erickson, Christopher J; Crow, Jonathan A R; Carlson, Evan J; Burke, John H
2016-01-01
Ex vacuo atom chips, used in conjunction with a custom thin walled vacuum chamber, have enabled the rapid replacement of atom chips for magnetically trapped cold atom experiments. Atoms were trapped in $>2$ kHz magnetic traps created using high power atom chips. The thin walled vacuum chamber allowed the atoms to be trapped $\\lesssim1$ mm from the atom chip conductors which were located outside of the vacuum system. Placing the atom chip outside of the vacuum simplified the electrical connections and improved thermal management. Using a multi-lead Z-wire chip design, a Bose-Einstein condensate was produced with an external atom chip. Vacuum and optical conditions were maintained while replacing the Z-wire chip with a newly designed cross-wire chip. The atom chips were exchanged and an initial magnetic trap was achieved in less than three hours.
Gravity, Bose-Einstein Condensates and Gross-Pitaevskii Equation
Gupta, Patrick Das
2015-01-01
We explore the effect of mutual gravitational interaction between ultra-cold gas atoms on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). Small amplitude oscillation of BEC is studied by applying variational technique to reduce the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with gravity included, to the equation of motion of a particle moving in a potential. According to our analysis, if the s-wave scattering length can be tuned to zero using Feshbach resonance for future BEC with occupation numbers as high as $\\approx 10^{20}$, there exists a critical ground state occupation number above which the BEC is unstable, provided that its constituents interact with a $1/r^3 $ gravity at short scales.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Knot Solitons in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
Hall, David; Ray, Michael; Tiurev, Konstantin; Ruokokoski, Emmi; Gheorghe, Andrei Horia; Möttönen, Mikko
2016-05-01
Knots are familiar entities that appear at a captivating nexus of art, technology, mathematics and science. Following a lengthy period of theoretical investigation and development, they have recently attracted great experimental interest in classical contexts ranging from knotted DNA and nanostructures to vortex knots in fluids. We demonstrate here the controlled creation and detection of knot solitons in the quantum-mechanical order parameter of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Images of the superfluid reveal the circular shape of the soliton core and its associated linked rings. Our observations of the knot soliton establish an experimental foundation for future studies of their stability, dynamics and applications within quantum systems. Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1205822.
Matter-wave recombiners for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Berrada, T.; van Frank, S.; Bücker, R.; Schumm, T.; Schaff, J.-F.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Julía-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.
2016-06-01
Interferometry with trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) requires the development of techniques to recombine the two paths of the interferometer and map the accumulated phase difference to a measurable atom number difference. We have implemented and compared two recombining procedures in a double-well-based BEC interferometer. The first procedure utilizes the bosonic Josephson effect and controlled tunneling of atoms through the potential barrier, similar to laser light in an optical fiber coupler. The second one relies on the interference of the reflected and transmitted parts of the BEC wave function when impinging on the potential barrier, analogous to light impinging on a half-silvered mirror. Both schemes were implemented successfully, yielding an interferometric contrast of ˜20 % and 42% respectively. Building efficient matter-wave recombiners represents an important step towards the coherent manipulation of external quantum superposition states of BECs.
Vortex dynamics in coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Calderaro, Luca; Massignan, Pietro; Wittek, Peter
2016-01-01
In classical hydrodynamics with uniform density, vortices move with the local fluid velocity. This description is rewritten in terms of forces arising from the interaction with other vortices. Two such positive straight vortices experience a repulsive interaction and precess in a positive (anticlockwise) sense around their common centroid. A similar picture applies to vortices in a two-component two-dimensional uniform Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coherently coupled through rf Rabi fields. Unlike the classical case, however, the rf Rabi coupling induces an attractive interaction and two such vortices with positive signs now rotate in the negative (clockwise) sense. Pairs of counter-rotating vortices are instead found to translate with uniform velocity perpendicular to the line joining their cores. This picture is extended to a single vortex in a two-component trapped BEC. Although two uniform vortex-free components experience familiar Rabi oscillations of particle-number difference, such behavior is absent ...
Critical rotation of an anharmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ma Juan; Li Zhi; Xue Ju-Kui
2009-01-01
We consider rotational motion of an interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with both two- and threebody interactions in a quadratic-plus-quartic and harmonic-plus-Gaussian trap. By using the variational method, the influence of the three-body interaction and the anharmonicity of the trap on the lowest energy surface mode excitation and the spontaneous shape deformation (responsible for the vortex formation) in a rotating BEC is discussed in detail. It is found that the repulsive three-body interaction helps the formation of the vortex and reduces the lowest energy surface mode frequency and the critical rotational frequency of the system. Moreover, the critical rotational frequency for the vortex formation in the harmonic-plus-Gaussian potential is lower than that in the quadratic-plus-quartic potential.
Unconventional Bose-Einstein Condensations from Spin-Orbit Coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xiang-Fa; WU Cong-Jun; Ian Mondragon-Shem
2011-01-01
According to the "no-node" theorem, the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) are positive-definite, thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken. We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm. We focus on a subtle case ofisotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction. In the limit of the weak confining potential, the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fock level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring. Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the "order-from-disorder" mechanism. In a strong harmonic confining trap, the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture. In both cases, time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. These phenomena can be realized in both cold atom systems with artificial spin-orbit couplings generated from atom-laser interactions and exciton condensates in semi-conductor systems.%@@ According to the"no-node"theorem,the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations(BEC)are positive-definite,thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken.We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm.We focus on a subtle case of isotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction.In the limit of the weak confining potential,the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fork level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring.Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the"order-from-disorder"mechanism.In a strong harmonic confining trap,the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture.In both cases,time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken
Generation of linear waves in the flow of Bose-Einstein condensate past an obstacle
Gladush, Yu. G.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2007-01-01
The theory of linear wave structures generated in Bose-Einstein condensate flow past an obstacle is developed. The shape of wave crests and dependence of amplitude on coordinates far enough from the obstacle are calculated. The results are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations obtained earlier. The theory gives a qualitative description of experiments with Bose-Einstein condensate flow past an obstacle after condensate's release from a trap.
Two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate of a finite number of particles
Idziaszek, Z.; Rzazewski, K.
2003-01-01
We consider two characteristic temperatures for a Bose-Einstein condensate, that are related to certain properties of the condensate statistics. We calculate them for an ideal gas confined in power-law traps and show that they approach the critical temperature in the limit of large number of particles. The considered characteristic temperatures can be useful in the studies of Bose-Einstein condensates of a finite number of atoms, indicating the point of a phase transition.
Vortex Stability Near the Surface of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Khawaja, U. Al
2003-01-01
We investigate energetic stability of vortices near the surface of a Bose-Einstein condensate. From an energy functional of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate, written in terms of variables local to the surface, and a suitable trial wavefunction we calculate the energy of a moving vortex. The energetic stability of the vortex is investigated in terms of the rotation frequency of the confining potential. The critical frequency at which the vortices enter the condensate is calculated and compa...
Quantized vortices in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Tsubota, Makoto; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Michikazu
2010-01-01
This article reviews recent developments in the physics of quantized vortices in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. Quantized vortices appear in low-temperature quantum condensed systems as the direct product of Bose-Einstein condensation. Quantized vortices were first discovered in superfluid 4He in the 1950s, and have since been studied with a primary focus on the quantum hydrodynamics of this system. Since the discovery of superfluid 3He in 1972, quantized vortices cha...
Vortices and Angular Momentum in Bose-Einstein-Condensed Cold Dark Matter Halos
Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Paul R. Shapiro
2009-01-01
If cold dark matter elementary particles form a Bose-Einstein condensate, their superfluidity may distinguish them from other forms of cold dark matter, including creation of quantum vortices. We demonstrate here that such vortices are favoured in strongly-coupled condensates, while this is not the case for axions, which are generally presumed to form a Bose-Einstein condensate but are effectively non-interacting.
Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Dipole Potentials
Nes, Johanna
2008-01-01
In 1925, Einstein predicted the condensation of bosons into the ground state of the system for low (but finite) temperatures. Several phenomena, including superfluidity and superconductivity have been associated with Bose-Einstein condensation, but these systems interact strongly with their environment and pure Bose-Einstein condensation could not be established. It took 70 years, in which time the laser was discovered, and laser cooling techniques to manipulate atoms in a dilute atomic gas, ...
Laser controlling chaotic region of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Boli Xia; Wenhua Hai
2005-01-01
@@ For a weakly and periodically driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) the Melnikov chaotic solution and boundedness conditions are derived from a direct perturbation theory that leads to the chaotic regions in the parameter space.
Dynamics of a quantum phase transition in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate
Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2007-01-01
We discuss dynamics of a slow quantum phase transition in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate. We determine analytically the scaling properties of the system magnetization and verify them with numerical simulations in a one dimensional model.
Nonexponential motional damping of impurity atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates
Mazets, I. E.; Kurizki, G.
2004-01-01
We demonstrate that the damping of the motion of an impurity atom injected at a supercritical velocity into a Bose-Einstein condensate can exhibit appreciable deviation from the exponential law on time scales of $10^{-5}$ s.
A Variational Sum-Rule Approach to Collective Excitations of a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kimura, Takashi; Saito, Hiroki; Ueda, Masahito
1998-01-01
It is found that combining an excitation-energy sum rule with Fetter's trial wave function gives almost exact low-lying collective-mode frequencies of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature.
Currents algebra for an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate model
Filho, Gilberto N. Santos
2016-01-01
I present an interconversion currents algebra for an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate model and use it to get the quantum dynamics of the currents. For different choices of the Hamiltonian parameters I get different currents dynamics.
Vortex Rings and Mutual Drag in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
Jackson, B.; McCann, J F; Adams, C. S.
1999-01-01
We study the drag on an object moving through a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, and show that finite compressibility leads to a mutual drag, which is subsequently suppressed by the formation of a vortex ring.
Internal Vortex Structure of a Trapped Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate
Yip, S. -K.
1999-01-01
The internal vortex structure of a trapped spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. It is shown that it has a variety of configurations depending on, in particular, the ratio of the relevant scattering lengths and the total magnetization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Shi-Kuo; GAO Bin; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da
2009-01-01
In this paper, applying the dependent and independent variables transformations as well as the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method, the envelope periodic solutions to one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates are obtained.
Dark matter as the Bose-Einstein condensation in loop quantum cosmology
Atazadeh, K.; Darabi, F.; M. Mousavi
2016-01-01
We consider the FLRW universe in a loop quantum cosmological model filled with the radiation, baryonic matter (with negligible pressure), dark energy and dark matter. The dark matter sector is supposed to be of Bose-Einstein condensate type. The Bose-Einstein condensation process in a cosmological context by supposing it as an approximate first order phase transition, has been already studied in the literature. Here, we study the evolution of the physical quantities related to the early unive...
Phase structure of Bose - Einstein condensate in ultra-cold Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bose-Einstein condensation of ultra-cold Bose gases in studied by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective potential approach in the improved double - bubble approximation which preserves the Goldstone theorem. The phase structure of Bose-Einstein condensate associating with two different types of phase transition is systematically investigated. Its main feature is that the symmetry which was broken at zero temperature gets restored at higher temperature. (author)
Macroscopic Entanglement of a Bose Einstein Condensate on a Superconducting Atom Chip
Singh, Mandip
2007-01-01
We propose and analyse a practically implementable scheme to generate macroscopic entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a micro-magnetic trap magnetically coupled to a superconducting loop. We treat the superconducting loop in a quantum superposition of two different flux states coupled with the magnetic trap to generate macroscopic entanglement. Our scheme also provides a platform to realise interferometry of entangled atoms through the Bose-Einstein condensate and to explore physics...
Laser-induced Rotation of a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate
Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Zhang, Weiping
1997-01-01
In this letter, atom optic techniques are proposed to control the excitation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an atomic trap. We show that by employing the dipole potential induced by four highly detuned travelling-wave laser beams with appropriate phases and frequencies, one can coherently excite a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate composed of ultracold alkali atoms into a state rotating around the trap center. The connection to vortex states is discussed.
Ground state properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an anharmonic external potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Deng-Long; Yan Xiao-Hong; Tang Yi
2004-01-01
In light of the interference experiment of Bose-Einstein condensates, we present an anharmonic external potential model to study ground state properties of Bose-Einstein condensates. The ground state energy and the chemical potential have been analytically obtained, which are lower than those in harmonic trap. Additionally, it is found that the anharmonic strength of the external potential has an important effect on density and velocity distributions of the ground state for the Thomas-Fermi model.
Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator
Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606
2011-01-01
We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.
Coupling a single electron to a Bose-Einstein condensate
Balewski, Jonathan B; Gaj, Anita; Peter, David; Büchler, Hans Peter; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman
2013-01-01
The coupling of electrons to matter is at the heart of our understanding of material properties such as electrical conductivity. One of the most intriguing effects is that electron-phonon coupling can lead to the formation of a Cooper pair out of two repelling electrons, the basis for BCS superconductivity. Here we study the interaction of a single localized electron with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and show that it can excite phonons and eventually set the whole condensate into a collective oscillation. We find that the coupling is surprisingly strong as compared to ionic impurities due to the more favorable mass ratio. The electron is held in place by a single charged ionic core forming a Rydberg bound state. This Rydberg electron is described by a wavefunction extending to a size comparable to the dimensions of the BEC, namely up to 8 micrometers. In such a state, corresponding to a principal quantum number of n=202, the Rydberg electron is interacting with several tens of thousands of condensed atoms...
The Quest For Bose-Einstein Condensation in Solid Helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ever since the seminal torsional oscillator (TO) measurements of Kim and Chan which suggested the existence of a phase transition in solid 4He, from normal to a supersolid state below a critical temperature Tc = 200 mK, there has been an unprecedented amount of excitement and research activity aimed at better understanding this phase. Despite much work, this remarkable phase has yet to be independently confirmed by conventional scattering techniques, such neutron scattering. We have carried out a series of neutron scattering measurements, which we here review, aimed at observing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in solid 4He at temperatures below Tc. In bulk liquid 4He, the appearance of BEC below Tl signals the onset of superfluidity. The observation of a condensate fraction in the solid would provide an unambiguous confirmation for supersolidity . Although, our measurements have not yet revealed a non-zero condensate fraction or algebraic off diagonal long-range order n0 in solid 4He down to 65 mK, i.e. n0 = (0 0.3)%, our search for BEC and its corollaries continues with improved instrumentation.
Environment-induced dynamics in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
Schelle, Alexej
2009-01-01
We directly model the quantum many particle dynamics during the transition of a gas of N indistinguishable bosons into a Bose-Einstein condensate. To this end, we develop a quantitative quantum master equation theory, which takes into account two body interaction processes, and in particular describes the particle number fluctuations characteristic for the Bose-Einstein phase transition. Within the Markovian dynamics assumption, we analytically prove and numerically verify the Boltzmann ergod...
Interferometry with independently prepared Bose-Einstein condensates
Wasak, T.; Szańkowski, P.; Chwedeńczuk, J.
2015-04-01
Whenever the value of an unknown parameter θ is extracted from a series of experiments, the result is inevitably burdened by the uncertainty Δ θ . If the system that is the subject of measurement consists of unentangled particles, this uncertainty is bounded by the shot-noise limit. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to use a properly entangled state, which is usually prepared in a dedicated procedure. We show that quantum correlations arising from the indistinguishability of bosons are a sufficient resource for the sub-shot-noise interferometry. To this end, we consider an interferometer, which operates on two independently prepared Bose-Einstein condensates with fluctuating numbers of particles. We calculate the sensitivity obtained from the measurement of the number of atoms and compare it with the ultimate achievable bound. Our main conclusion is that even in the presence of major atom number fluctuations, an interferometer operating on two independently prepared condensates can give very high precision. These observations indicate a new possibility for an interferometer operating below the shot-noise limit.
The cosmological constant: a lesson from Bose-Einstein condensates
Finazzi, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2011-01-01
The cosmological constant is one of the most pressing problems in modern physics. In this Letter, we address the issue of its nature and computation using an analogue gravity standpoint as a toy model for an emergent gravity scenario. Even if it is well known that phonons in some condense matter systems propagate like a quantum field on a curved spacetime, only recently it has been shown that the dynamics of the analogue metric in a Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a Poisson-like equation with a vacuum source term reminiscent of a cosmological constant. Here we directly compute this term and confront it with the other energy scales of the system. On the gravity side of the analogy, this model suggests that in emergent gravity scenarios it is natural for the cosmological constant to be much smaller than its naif value computed as the zero-point energy of the emergent effective field theory. The striking outcome of our investigation is that the value of this constant cannot be easily predicted by ju...
Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)
Emergent gravitational dynamics in relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate
Belenchia, Alessio; Mohd, Arif
2014-01-01
Analogue models of gravity have played a pivotal role in the past years by providing a test bench for many open issues in quantum field theory in curved spacetime such as the robustness of Hawking radiation and cosmological particle production. More recently, the same models have offered a valuable framework within which current ideas about the emergence of spacetime and its dynamics could be discussed via convenient toy models. In this context, we study here an analogue gravity system based on a relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate. We show that in a suitable limit this system provides not only an example of an emergent spacetime (with a massive and a massless relativistic fields propagating on it) but also that such spacetime is governed by an equation with geometric meaning that takes the familiar form of Nordstr{\\"o}m theory of gravitation. In this equation the gravitational field is sourced by the expectation value of the trace of the effective stress energy tensor of the quasiparticles while the Newto...
Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danila, Bogdan [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Kovacs, Zoltan
2015-05-15
Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)
Subsonic and Supersonic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate
Zak, Michail
2003-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical investigation of subsonic and supersonic effects in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The BEC is represented by a time-dependent, nonlinear Schroedinger equation that includes terms for an external confining potential term and a weak interatomic repulsive potential proportional to the number density of atoms. From this model are derived Madelung equations, which relate the quantum phase with the number density, and which are used to represent excitations propagating through the BEC. These equations are shown to be analogous to the classical equations of flow of an inviscid, compressible fluid characterized by a speed of sound (g/Po)1/2, where g is the coefficient of the repulsive potential and Po is the unperturbed mass density of the BEC. The equations are used to study the effects of a region of perturbation moving through the BEC. The excitations created by a perturbation moving at subsonic speed are found to be described by a Laplace equation and to propagate at infinite speed. For a supersonically moving perturbation, the excitations are found to be described by a wave equation and to propagate at finite speed inside a Mach cone.
Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.
Tunable bistability in hybrid Bose-Einstein condensate optomechanics.
Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-01-01
Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror and is driven by a single mode optical field. The numerical results provide evidence for controlled optical bistability in optomechanics using transverse optical field which directly interacts with atoms causing the coupling of transverse field with momentum side modes, exited by intra-cavity field. This technique of transverse field coupling is also used to control bistable dynamics of both moving-end mirror and BEC. The report provides an understanding of temporal dynamics of moving-end mirror and BEC with respect to transverse field. Moreover, dependence of effective potential of the system on transverse field has also been discussed. To observe this phenomena in laboratory, we have suggested a certain set of experimental parameters. These findings provide a platform to investigate the tunable behavior of novel phenomenon like electromagnetically induced transparency and entanglement in hybrid systems. PMID:26035206
Large atom number Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium
van der Stam, K M R; Meppelink, R; Vogels, J M; Van der Straten, P
2006-01-01
We describe the setup to create a large Bose-Einstein condensate containing more than 120x10^6 atoms. In the experiment a thermal beam is slowed by a Zeeman slower and captured in a dark-spot magneto-optical trap (MOT). A typical dark-spot MOT in our experiments contains 2.0x10^10 atoms with a temperature of 320 microK and a density of about 1.0x10^11 atoms/cm^3. The sample is spin polarized in a high magnetic field, before the atoms are loaded in the magnetic trap. Spin polarizing in a high magnetic field results in an increase in the transfer efficiency by a factor of 2 compared to experiments without spin polarizing. In the magnetic trap the cloud is cooled to degeneracy in 50 s by evaporative cooling. To suppress the 3-body losses at the end of the evaporation the magnetic trap is decompressed in the axial direction.
Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer for Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum mechanical particle-wave duality enables the construction of interferometers for matter waves, which may complement lasers in precision measurement devices such as gravimeters or gyroscopes. This requires the development of atom-optics analogs to beam splitters, phase shifters, and recombiners. Implementing and integrating these elements into a single device has been a long-standing goal. Here we demonstrate a full Mach-Zehnder sequence with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) confined on an atom chip (Berrada et al., arXiv:1303.1030). Particle interactions in our BEC matter waves lead to a non-linearity, absent in photon optics. We exploit this interaction to generate a non-classical state with reduced number fluctuations inside the interferometer. Making use of spatially separated wave packets, a controlled phase shift is applied and read out by a nonadiabatic matter-wave recombiner. We demonstrate coherence times a factor of three beyond what is expected for coherent states, highlighting the potential of entanglement as a resource for metrology. Our results pave the way towards integrated quantum-enhanced matter-wave sensors. (author)
Countersuperflow in Binary Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rabi Coupling
Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Usui, Ayaka
2014-05-01
Countersuperflow instability, dynamic instability of counterflow of miscible superfluids, was observed recently for the first time by Hamner et al.. In the experiment, a countersuperflow of miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) was realized in a quasi-one-dimensional trap by applying a magnetic gradient, which leads to a force in opposite directions for each component. A countersuperflow becomes dynamically unstable if the relative velocity between two superfluids exceeds a critical value and the instability causes characteristic density patterns forming solitons in quasi-one-dimensional systems. Very recently, Hamner et al. performed the experiment in a similar situation where a two-component BEC is subject to inhomogeneous Rabi oscillations between two pseudospin components under a magnetic gradient. Motivated by the experiment, we investigated stability of countersuperflow with internal Josephson coupling, namely, Rabi coupling. We reveal the stability phase diagram of countersuperflow with Rabi coupling. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25887042, 26870500 and the MEXT KAKENHI (No. 22103003).
Recent experiments with ring Bose-Einstein condensates
Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Anderson, N. W.; Campbell, G. K.
2016-05-01
Here, we present three recent results of our experiments with ring-shaped 23 Na Bose-Einstein condensates. First, we present results of the effect of temperature on the decay of persistent currents in the presence of a local, stationary perturbation, or weak link. When the weak link rotates, it can drive transitions between quantized persistent current states in the ring, that form hysteresis loops whose size depends strongly on temperature. We find that our data does not fit with a simple model of thermal activation. Second, we present a new method to measure the quantized persistent current state of the ring in a minimally-destructive way. This technique uses phonons as probes of the background flow through the Doppler effect. Finally, we present a set of experiments designed to reproduce the horizon problem in the early universe. Supersonic expansion of the ring creates causally-disconnected regions of BEC whose phase evolves at different rates. When the expansion stops and these regions are allowed to recombine, they form topological excitations. These excitations can be predicted using a simple theory that shows excellent agreement with the data.
Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates
Manikandan, K.; Muruganandam, P.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.
Gravitational, lensing, and stability properties of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos
Harko, Tiberiu
2015-01-01
The possibility that dark matter, whose existence is inferred from the study of the galactic rotation curves and from the mass deficit in galaxy clusters, can be in a form of a Bose-Einstein condensate has recently been extensively investigated. In the present work, we consider a detailed analysis of the astrophysical properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos that could provide clear observational signatures and help discriminate between different dark matter models. In the Bose-Einstein condensation model dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, gravitationally confined Newtonian gas, whose density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state with index $n=1$. The mass and the gravitational properties of the condensate halos are obtained in a systematic form, including the mean logarithmic slopes of the density and of the tangential velocity. Furthermore, the lensing properties of the condensate dark matter are also investigated in detail. In particular, a general ...
Critical temperature and condensed fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation in optical lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
Critical temperature and condensate fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation in the optical lattice are studied. The results show that the critical temperature in optical lattices can be characterized with an equivalent critical temperature in a single lattice, which provide a fast evaluation of critical temperature and condensate fraction of Bose-Einstein condensation confined with pure optical trap. Critical temperature can be estimated with an equivalent critical temperature. It is predicted that critical temperature is proportional to q in q number lattices for superfluid state and should be equal to that in a single lattic for Mott insulate state. Required potential depth or Rabi frequency and maximum atom number in the lattices both for superfluid state and Mott state are presented based on views of thermal mechanical statistics.
Properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Zhang, Yongping; Mossman, Maren Elizabeth; Busch, Thomas; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
The experimental and theoretical research of spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic gases has advanced and expanded rapidly in recent years. Here, we review some of the progress that either was pioneered by our own work, has helped to lay the foundation, or has developed new and relevant techniques. After examining the experimental accessibility of all relevant spin-orbit coupling parameters, we discuss the fundamental properties and general applications of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) over a wide range of physical situations. For the harmonically trapped case, we show that the ground state phase transition is a Dicke-type process and that spin-orbit-coupled BECs provide a unique platform to simulate and study the Dicke model and Dicke phase transitions. For a homogeneous BEC, we discuss the collective excitations, which have been observed experimentally using Bragg spectroscopy. They feature a roton-like minimum, the softening of which provides a potential mechanism to understand the ground state phase transition. On the other hand, if the collective dynamics are excited by a sudden quenching of the spin-orbit coupling parameters, we show that the resulting collective dynamics can be related to the famous Zitterbewegung in the relativistic realm. Finally, we discuss the case of a BEC loaded into a periodic optical potential. Here, the spin-orbit coupling generates isolated flat bands within the lowest Bloch bands whereas the nonlinearity of the system leads to dynamical instabilities of these Bloch waves. The experimental verification of this instability illustrates the lack of Galilean invariance in the system.
Hidden vorticity in binary Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a binary Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) described by a system of two-dimensional (2D) Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the harmonic-oscillator trapping potential. The intraspecies interactions are attractive, while the interaction between the species may have either sign. The same model applies to the copropagation of bimodal beams in photonic-crystal fibers. We consider a family of trapped hidden-vorticity (HV) modes in the form of bound states of two components with opposite vorticities S1,2=±1, the total angular momentum being zero. A challenging problem is the stability of the HV modes. By means of a linear-stability analysis and direct simulations, stability domains are identified in a relevant parameter plane. In direct simulations, stable HV modes feature robustness against large perturbations, while unstable ones split into fragments whose number is identical to the azimuthal index of the fastest growing perturbation eigenmode. Conditions allowing for the creation of the HV modes in the experiment are discussed too. For comparison, a similar but simpler problem is studied in an analytical form, viz., the modulational instability of an HV state in a one-dimensional (1D) system with periodic boundary conditions (this system models a counterflow in a binary BEC mixture loaded into a toroidal trap or a bimodal optical beam coupled into a cylindrical shell). We demonstrate that the stabilization of the 1D HV modes is impossible, which stresses the significance of the stabilization of the HV modes in the 2D setting.
Bogoliubov theory of the Hawking effect in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artificial black holes may demonstrate some of the elusive quantum properties of the event horizon, in particular Hawking radiation. One promising candidate is a sonic hole in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We clarify why Hawking radiation emerges from the condensate and how this condensed-matter analogue reflects some of the intriguing aspects of quantum black holes
The effect of atomic transfer on the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a model describing the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate, which assumes the system to remain in thermal equilibrium during the decay. We show that under this assumption transfer of atoms occurs from the condensate to the thermal cloud enhancing the condensate decay rate. (letter to the editor)
Effect of atomic transfer on the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Zin, Pawel; Dragan, Andrzej; Charzynski, Szymon; Herschbach, Norbert; Tol, Paul; Hogervorst, Wim; Vassen, Wim
2003-01-01
We present a model describing the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate, which assumes the system to remain in thermal equilibrium during the decay. We show that under this assumption transfer of atoms occurs from the condensate to the thermal cloud enhancing the condensate decay rate.
Incoherent scattering of light by a Bose--Einstein condensate of interacting atoms
Mazets, I. E.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that incoherent photon scattering by a Bose-Einstein condensate of non-ideal atomic gas is enhanced due to bosonic stimulation of spontaneous emission, similarly to coherent scattering in forward direction. Necessary initial population of non-condensate states is provided by quantum depletion of a condensate caused by interatomic repulsion.
A Model for Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Ke-Zhu; TAN Wei-Han
2000-01-01
Based on the numerical wave function solutions of neutral atoms with attractive interaction in a harmonic trap, we propose an exactly solvable model for macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose condensate with attractive interaction. We calculate the rate of macroscopic quantum tunneling from a metastable condensate state to the collapse state and analyze the stability of the attractive Bose-Einstein condensation.
Ground State and Single Vortex for Bose-Einstein Condensates in Anisotropic Traps
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Zhi-Jun; CAI Ping-Gen
2007-01-01
For Bose-Einstein condensation of neutral atoms in anisotropic traps at zero temperature, we present simple analytical methods for computing the properties of ground state and single vortex of Bose-Einstein condensates,and compare those results to extensive numerical simulations. The critical angular velocity for production of vortices is calculated for both positive and negative scattering lengths a, and find an analytical expression for the large-N limit of the vortex critical angular velocity for a ＞ 0, and the critical number for condensate population approaches the point of collapse for a ＜ 0, by using approximate variational method.
A permanent magnetic film atom chip for Bose-Einstein condensation
Hall, B. V.; Whitlock, S.; Scharnberg, F.; Hannaford, P; Sidorov, A.
2005-01-01
We present a hybrid atom chip which combines a permanent magnetic film with a micromachined current-carrying structure used to realize a Bose-Einstein condensate. A novel TbGdFeCo material with large perpendicular magnetization has been tailored to allow small scale, stable magnetic potentials for ultracold atoms. We are able to produce 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates in a magnetic trap based on either the permanent magnetic film or the current-carrying structure. Using the condensate as a mag...
Modulational instability of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study modulational instability of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice, which is modeled as a coupled discrete nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The excitation spectrum and the modulational instability condition of the total system are presented analytically. In the long-wavelength limit, our results agree with the homogeneous two-component Bose-Einstein condensates case. The discreteness effects result in the appearance of the modulational instability for the condensates in miscible region. The numerical calculations confirm our analytical results and show that the interspecies coupling can transfer the instability from one component to another
Magnetic Surface Microtraps for Two-Species Bose-Einstein Condensations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡建军; 印建平
2002-01-01
We propose a novel magnetic surface microtrap (i.e. a double Z-wire trap) for the study of two-species Bose Einstein condensations. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from the double Z-wire configurations and their gradients and curvatures are calculated and analysed. The result shows that the proposed surface trap has double magnetic wells and can be continuously changed into a single-well trap by reducing the current in a straight wire, and the maximum field gradient greater than 5 × 104 G/cm and the maximum field curvature (at each trap centre) greater than 2.5 × 107 G/cm2 can be generated in our double-well traps, which can be used to realize two-species Bose-Einstein condensations and to study the properties of double-well Bose-Einstein condensations and so on.
Magnon Bose-Einstein condensation and spin superfluidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is a quantum phenomenon of formation of a collective quantum state in which a macroscopic number of particles occupy the lowest energy state and thus is governed by a single wavefunction. Here we highlight the BEC in a magnetic subsystem-the BEC of magnons, elementary magnetic excitations. The magnon BEC is manifested as the spontaneously emerging state of the precessing spins, in which all spins precess with the same frequency and phase even in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The coherent spin precession was observed first in superfluid 3He-B and this domain was called the homogeneously precessing domain (HPD). The main feature of the HPD is the induction decay signal, which ranges over many orders of magnitude longer than is prescribed by the inhomogeneity of magnetic field. This means that spins precess not with a local Larmor frequency, but coherently with a common frequency and phase. This BEC can also be created and stabilized by continuous NMR pumping. In this case the NMR frequency plays the role of a magnon chemical potential, which determines the density of the magnon condensate. The interference between two condensates has also been demonstrated. It was shown that HPD exhibits all the properties of spin superfluidity. The main property is the existence of a spin supercurrent. This spin supercurrent flows separately from the mass current. Transfer of magnetization by the spin supercurrent by a distance of more than 1 cm has been observed. Also related phenomena have been observed: the spin current Josephson effect; the phase-slip processes at the critical current; and the spin current vortex-a topological defect which is the analog of a quantized vortex in superfluids and of an Abrikosov vortex in superconductors; and so on. It is important to mention that the spin supercurrent is a magnetic phenomenon, which is not directly related to the mass superfluidity of 3He: it is the consequence of a specific antiferromagnetic
Clark, Kevin B
2010-03-01
Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate
Nonlinear Wave in a Disc-Shaped Bose-Einstein Condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Wen-Shan; CHEN Jian-Hong; YANG Hong-Juan; SHI Yu-Ren; WANG Hong-Yan
2006-01-01
@@ We discuss the possible nonlinear wavesof atomic matter wave in a Bose-Einstein condensate. One and two of two-dimensional (2D) dark solitons in the Bose-Einstein condensed system are investigated. A rich dynamics is studied for the interactions between two solitons. The interaction profiles of two solitons are greatly different if the angle between them are different. If the angle is small enough, the maximum amplitude during the interaction between two solitons is even less than that of a single soliton. However, if the angle is large enough, the maximum amplitude of two solitons can gradually attend to the sum of two soliton amplitudes.
Nonlinear transport of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double barrier potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Jian-Shu
2008-01-01
The stable nonlinear transport of the Bose-Einstein condensates through a double barrier potential in a waveguide is studied.By using the direct perturbation method we have obtained a perturbed solution of Gross-Pitaevskii equation.Theoretical analysis reveals that this perturbed solution is a stable periodic solution,which shows that the transport of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms in this system is a stable nonlinear transport.The corresponding numerical results are in good agreement with the theoretical analytical results.
Quantum noise of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity, correlations and entanglement
Szirmai G.; Nagy D.; Domokos P.
2010-01-01
A Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms inside the field of a laser-driven optical cavity exhibits dispersive optical bistability. We describe this system by using mean-field approximation and by analyzing the correlation functions of the linearized quantum fluctuations around the mean-field solution. The entanglement and the statistics of the atom-field quadratures are given in the stationary state. It is shown that the mean-field solution, i.e. the Bose-Einstein condensate is robust a...
Effect of Dimple Potential on Ultraslow Light in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Tarhan, Devrim; Uncu, Haydar
2012-01-01
We investigate the propagation of ultraslow optical pulse in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap decorated with a dimple potential. The role of dimple potential on the group velocity and time delay is studied. Since we consider the interatomic scattering interactions nonlinear Schrodinger equation or Gross-Pitaevskii equation is used in order to get the density profile of the atomic system. We find large group delays of order 1 msec in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a ha...
D-brane solitons and boojums in field theory and Bose-Einstein condensates
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Nitta, Muneto
2013-01-01
In certain field theoretical models, composite solitons consisting of a domain wall and vortex lines attached to the wall have been referred to as D-brane solitons. We show that similar composite solitons can be realized in phase-separated two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss the similarities and differences between topological solitons in the Abelian-Higgs model and those in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Based on the formulation of gauge theory, we introduce the "bo...
Frequency depending permittivity of the Coulomb system with Bose-Einstein condensate
Bobrov, V B
2015-01-01
The second-order singularity is found in the low-frequency region of the permittivity of a homogeneous and isotropic system of charged particles consisting of electrons and boson nuclei. This singularity is caused by the existence of a Bose-Einstein condensate for nuclei. The result obtained leads to the existence of the "nuclei superconductivity", which can be experimentally verified in superfluid He II. The results of the proposed an experiment can be considered as a direct proof of the existence of a Bose-Einstein condensate in superfluid He II.
An example of quantum control via Feshbach resonance in Bose-Einstein condensates
Choi, S.; Bigelow, N. P.
2003-01-01
We present a simple example of quantum control in Bose-Einstein condensates via Feshbach resonance. By tuning an initially positive scattering length to zero, it is possible to generate oscillatory motion of the condensate that results from quantum interference. The density oscillation is accompanied by a periodic enhancement of the quantum mechanical squeezing of the amplitude quadrature.
Vortex Nucleation and Array Formation in a Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensate
Tsubota, Makoto; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ueda, Masahito
2001-01-01
We study the dynamics of vortex lattice formation of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate by numerically solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and find that the condensate undergoes elliptic deformation, followed by unstable surface-mode excitations before forming a quantized vortex lattice. The dependence of the number of vortices on the rotation frequency is obtained.
Einstein--de Haas Effect in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
Kawaguchi, Yuki; Saito, Hiroki; Ueda, Masahito
2005-01-01
The general properties of the order parameter for a dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensate are discussed based on symmetries of interactions. An initially spin-polarized dipolar condensate is shown to dynamically generate a non-singular vortex via spin-orbit interactions -- a phenomenon reminiscent of the Einstein--de Haas effect in ferromagnets.
Many-body dynamics of a Bose--Einstein condensate collapsing by quantum tunneling
Saito, Hiroki
2013-01-01
The dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms having attractive interactions is studied using quantum many-body simulations. The collapse of the condensate by quantum tunneling is numerically demonstrated and the tunneling rate is calculated. The correlation properties of the quantum many-body state are investigated.
Interferometric detection of a single vortex in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
Chevy, F; Madison, K. W.; Bretin, V.; Dalibard, J.
2001-01-01
Using two radio frequency pulses separated in time we perform an amplitude division interference experiment on a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate. The presence of a quantized vortex, which is nucleated by stirring the condensate with a laser beam, is revealed by a dislocation in the fringe pattern.
How to create Alice string (half-quantum vortex) in a vector Bose-Einstein condensate
Leonhardt, U.; Volovik, G. E.
2000-01-01
We suggest a procedure how to prepare the vortex with N=1/2 winding number -- the counterpart of the Alice string -- in a Bose--Einstein condensate with hyperfine spin F=1. Other possible vortices in Bose-condensates are also discussed.
Maximal length of trapped one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates
Fischer, Uwe R.
2004-01-01
I discuss a Bogoliubov inequality for obtaining a rigorous bound on the maximal axial extension of inhomogeneous one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. An explicit upper limit for the aspect ratio of a strongly elongated, harmonically trapped Thomas-Fermi condensate is derived.
Bose-Einstein condensation in a tightly confining dc magnetic trap
M.O. Mewes; M.R. Andrews; N.J. van Druten; D.M. Kurn; D.S. Durfee; W. Ketterle
1996-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms has been observed in a novel "cloverleaf" trap. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access, using only dc electromagnets. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced condensates of 5 x 10/6 atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous re
THE GROWTH RATE AND STATISTICAL FLUCTUATION OF BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE FORMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan Ke-zhu; Tan Wei-han
2000-01-01
Using the generating function method to solve the master equation ofBose-Einstein condensate and to evaluate the growth rate, statisticalfluctuation of condensate atoms, we find out that there is a plateau inthe growth rate curve and a super-Poisson distribution observed.
Number-conserving master equation theory for a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate
Schelle, Alexej; Wellens, Thomas; Delande, Dominique; Buchleitner, Andreas
2010-01-01
We describe the transition of $N$ weakly interacting atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate within a number-conserving quantum master equation theory. Based on the separation of time scales for condensate formation and non-condensate thermalization, we derive a master equation for the condensate subsystem in the presence of the non-condensate environment under the inclusion of all two body interaction processes. We numerically monitor the condensate particle number distribution during condensa...
On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ≈ 0.50Msun) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/Lsun) < −4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior
Cosmological perturbations during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter
Freitas, R C
2012-01-01
In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the scalar and tensorial perturbations and the quantities relevant for the physical description of the Universe, as the density contrast of the scalar perturbations and the gravitational waves energy density during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. The behavior of these parameters during the Bose-Einstein phase transition of dark matter is analyzed in details. To study the cosmological dynamics and evolution of scalar and tensorial perturbations in a Universe with and without cosmological constant we use both analytical and numerical methods. The Bose-Einstein phase transition modifies the evolution of gravitational waves of cosmological origin, as well as the process of large-scale structure formation.
Cosmological perturbations during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the scalar and tensorial perturbations and the quantities relevant for the physical description of the Universe, as the density contrast of the scalar perturbations and the gravitational waves energy density during the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. The behavior of these parameters during the Bose-Einstein phase transition of dark matter is analyzed in details. To study the cosmological dynamics and evolution of scalar and tensorial perturbations in a Universe with and without cosmological constant we use both analytical and numerical methods. The Bose-Einstein phase transition modifies the evolution of gravitational waves of cosmological origin, as well as the process of large-scale structure formation
Coherent dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in high-finesse optical cavities
Horak, Peter; Barnett, Stephen M.; Ritsch, Helmut
1999-01-01
We study the mutual interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas with a single mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. We show how the cavity transmission reflects condensate properties and calculate the self-consistent intra-cavity light field and condensate evolution. Solving the coupled condensate-cavity equations we find that while falling through the cavity, the condensate is adiabatically transfered into the ground state of the periodic optical potential. This allows time dependent non-d...
Collision induced splitting of bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yue-Yue; Zhang Jie-Fang
2009-01-01
This paper studies the collision dynamics of bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensate with trapezoid potential. It is found that besides the total reflection and total transmission, one bright soliton can be divided into two bright solitons with different amplitudes in a controllable manner.
Wetting phase transition of two segregated Bose-Einstein condensates restricted by a hard wall
Thu, Nguyen Van; Phat, Tran Huu; Song, Pham The
2016-04-01
The wetting phase transition in the system of two segregated Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) restricted by a hard wall is studied by means of the double-parabola approximation (DPA) applied to the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) theory. We found the interfacial tension and the wetting phase diagram which depend weakly on the spatial restriction.
Observation of attractive and repulsive polarons in a Bose-Einstein condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils B.; Wacker, Lars; Skalmstang, Kristoffer T.;
2016-01-01
for an impurity interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We measure the energy of the impurity both for attractive and repulsive interactions with the BEC, and find excellent agreement with theories that incorporate three-body correlations, both in the weak-coupling limits and across...
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2013-01-01
We derive solitary-wave solutions within the mean-field approximation in quasi-one-dimensional binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates under periodic boundary conditions, for the case of an effective repulsive interatomic interaction. The particular gray-bright solutions that give the global energy minima are determined. Their characteristics and the associated dispersion relation are derived.
't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate
Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.
2001-01-01
We show that an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can for instance be created with 23-Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular line-like vortex excitations, but also allows for singular point-like topological excitations, i.e., 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles. We discuss the static and dynamic properties of these monopoles.
Acceleration of quasi-particle modes in Bose-Einstein condensates
Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Zhang, Weiping
1998-01-01
We analytically examine the dynamics of quasi-particle modes occuring in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is subject to a weak acceleration. It is shown that the momentum of a quasi-particle mode is squeezed rather than accelerated.
Dicke superradiance, Bose-Einstein condensation of photons and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Vyas, Vivek M; Srinivasan, V
2016-01-01
It is shown that the phenomenon of Dicke superradiance essentially occurs due to spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two generalised versions of the Dicke model are studied, and compared with a model that describes photonic Bose-Einstein condensate, which was experimentally realised. In all the models, it is seen that, the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is responsible for coherent radiation emission.
Ramsey fringes in a Bose-Einstein condensate between atoms and molecules
Kokkelmans, SJJMF Servaas; Holland, MJ
2002-01-01
In a recent experiment, a Feshbach scattering resonance was exploited to observe Ramsey fringes in a $^{85}$Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. The oscillation frequency corresponded to the binding energy of the molecular state. We show that the observations are remarkably consistent with predictions of a resonance field theory in which the fringes arise from oscillations between atoms and molecules.
Amplification of trap centres position difference in mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show by analytic calculation and numerical simulation that the effect of trap displacements are amplified in mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates, consistent with experimental observations. We also investigate the relative stability of inner and outer vortex states as the minima of the trapping potentials are displaced along the axis of rotation. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils Byg; Liu, I-Kang;
2016-01-01
The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition ...
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations from colliding Bose-Einstein condensates
Kofler, Johannes; Singh, Mandip; Ebner, Maximilian; Keller, Michael; Kotyrba, Mateusz; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-01-01
We propose an experiment which can demonstrate quantum correlations in a physical scenario as discussed in the seminal work of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. Momentum-entangled massive particles are produced via the four-wave mixing process of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. The particles' quantum correlations can be shown in a double double-slit experiment or via ghost interference.
Superfluidity of Bose-Einstein condensates in toroidal traps with nonlinear lattices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yulin, A.V.; Bludov, Yu.V.; Konotop, V.V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Salerno, M.
2011-01-01
Roč. 84, č. 6 (2011), 0636381-0636389. ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : superfluidity * Bose-Einstein condensates * Josephson effect Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2011
Testing quantum superpositions of the gravitational field with Bose-Einstein condensates
Lindner, Netanel H.; Peres, Asher
2004-01-01
We consider the gravity field of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a quantum superposition. The gravity field then is also in a quantum superposition which is in principle observable. Hence we have ``quantum gravity'' far away from the so-called Planck scale.
Inhomogeneities and instabilities of Bose-Einstein condensates in rough potential landscapes
Shearring, Joe
2013-01-01
In this work we investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in inhomogeneous potential landscapes. As this research field continues to develop, more attention will focus on non-equilibrium systems, on potential applications that use condensates, and on the integration of cold atoms with other physical systems. This thesis covers all of these areas. We begin by recapping the historical background of condensate physics, with a definition of the condensed phase and discussion...
Slow light and the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Ohberg, P.
2002-01-01
We investigate the propagation of light with ultra low group velocity in a Bose-Einstein condensate where the phase is not uniform. The light is shown to couple strongly to the phase gradient of the condensate. The interaction between the light and the condensate enables us to perform a phase imprinting where the phase of the condensate is imprinted on the light. We illustrate the effect by showing how one can measure the fluctuating phase in an elongated quasicondensate.
Teleportation of a Bose-Einstein condensate state by controlled elastic collisions
Oliveira, M. C.
2002-01-01
A protocol for teleportation of the state of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a three-well potential is developed. The protocol uses hard-sphere cross-collision between the condensate modes as a means of generating entanglement. As Bell state measurement, it is proposed that a homodyne detection of the condensate quadrature is performed through Josephson coupling of the condensate mode to another mode in a neighbouring well.
Interaction Effects on Number Fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein Condensate of Light
van der Wurff, E. C. I.; de Leeuw, A. -W.; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of interactions on condensate-number fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates. For a contact interaction we variationally obtain the equilibrium probability distribution for the number of particles in the condensate. To facilitate comparison with experiment, we also calculate the zero-time delay autocorrelation function $g^{(2)}(0)$ for different strengths of the interaction. Finally, we focus on the case of a condensate of photons and discuss possible mechanisms fo...
Interaction effects on number fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate of light.
van der Wurff, E C I; de Leeuw, A-W; Duine, R A; Stoof, H T C
2014-09-26
We investigate the effect of interactions on condensate-number fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates. For a contact interaction we variationally obtain the equilibrium probability distribution for the number of particles in the condensate. To facilitate comparison with experiment, we also calculate the zero-time delay autocorrelation function g((2))(0) for different strengths of the interaction. Finally, we focus on the case of a condensate of photons and find good agreement with recent experiments. PMID:25302898
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the derivation of the dilute Bose-Einstein condensate density and its phase, we have developed the perturbative approach for the solution of the stationary state couple Gross-Pitaevskii hydrodynamic equations. The external disorder potential is considered as small parameter in this approach. We have derived expressions for the total density, condensate density, condensate density depletion and superfluid velocity of the one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate for the disorder potential, which has a general form. (authors)
Abdullaev, D. B.; Abdullaev, B.; Musakhanov, M. M.
2015-01-01
For the derivation of the dilute Bose-Einstein condensate density and its phase, we have developed the perturbative approach for the solution of the stationary state couple Gross-Pitaevskii hydrodynamic equations. The external disorder potential is considered as a small parameter in this approach. We have derived expressions for the total density, condensate density, condensate density depletion and superfluid velocity of the Bose-Einstein condensate in an infinite length ring with disorder p...
On theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of particles with arbitrary integer spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bogoliubov theory of weakly interacting Bose gas is generalized to Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of particles with arbitrary integer spin in a magnetic field. On the basis of the Bogoliubov method of quasiaverages, an equation for the condensate wave function is obtained. The ground state properties, thermodynamic stability, and excitation spectra of such BEC are studied. The obtained results are compared to spin-1 Bose condensate. (author)
1D model for the dynamics and expansion of elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
Massignan, Pietro; Modugno, Michele
2002-01-01
We present a 1D effective model for the evolution of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in time dependent potentials whose radial component is harmonic. We apply this model to investigate the dynamics and expansion of condensates in 1D optical lattices, by comparing our predictions with recent experimental data and theoretical results. We also discuss negative-mass effects which could be probed during the expansion of a condensate moving in an optical lattice.
Single-atom aided probe of the decoherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Ng, H. T.; Bose, S.
2008-01-01
We study a two-level atom coupled to a Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that the rules governing the decoherence of mesoscopic superpositions involving different classical-like states of the condensate can be probed using this system. This scheme is applicable irrespective of whether the condensate is initially in a coherent, thermal or more generally in any mixture of coherent states. The effects of atom loss and finite temperature to the decoherence can therefore be studied. We also discus...
Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein Condensed dark matter halos
Harko, TC; Madarassy, EJM
2011-01-01
Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter tem...
Oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates with vortex lattices. II. Finite temperatures
Sedrakian, Armen; Wasserman, Ira
2003-01-01
We derive the finite temperature oscillation modes of a harmonically confined Bose-Einstein condensed gas undergoing rigid body rotation supported by a vortex lattice in the condensate. The hydrodynamic modes separate into two classes corresponding to in-phase (center-of-mass) and counter-phase (relative) oscillations of the thermal cloud and the condensate. The in- and counter-phase oscillations are independent of each other in the case where the thermal cloud is inviscid for all modes studi...
Storing flux qubits in the quantum RAM of binary Bose-Einstein condensates
Patton, Kelly R
2012-01-01
We consider the hybrid quantum system of an rf-SQUID interacting via its magnetic field with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that the effective coupling between the quantized SQUID flux and the atomic hyperfine states scales with the total number of particles in the condensate. We demonstrate that this renders the two-component condensate a practically realizable and rapidly accessible storage and retrieval unit for the quantum information encoded in the flux qubits.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Tightly Confining dc Magnetic Trap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mewes, M.; Andrews, M.R.; van Druten, N.J.; Kurn, D.M.; Durfee, D.S.; Ketterle, W. [Department of Physics and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
1996-07-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms has been observed in a novel {open_quote}{open_quote}cloverleaf{close_quote}{close_quote} trap. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access, using only dc electromagnets. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced condensates of 5{times}10{sup 6} atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous results. We measured the condensate fraction and the repulsive mean-field energy, finding agreement with theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates with long-range interaction
Marquardt, Kai; Wieland, Pascal; Häfner, Rolf; Cartarius, Holger; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter
2012-01-01
The ground state of Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive particle interaction is metastable. One of the decay mechanisms of the condensate is a collapse by macroscopic quantum tunneling, which can be described by the bounce trajectory as solution of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. For condensates with an electromagnetically induced gravity-like interaction the bounce trajectory is computed with an extended variational approach using coupled Gaussian functi...
Tunneling Dynamics Between Any Two Multi-atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong; GAO Ke-Lin
2005-01-01
Tunneling dynamics of multi-atomic molecules between any two multi-atomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with Feshbach resonance is investigated. It is indicated that the tunneling in the two Bose-Einstein condensates depends not only on the inter-molecular nonlinear interactions and the initial number of molecule in these condensates, but also on the tunneling coupling between them. It is discovered that besides oscillating tunneling current between the multi-atomic molecular condensates, the nonlinear multi-atomic molecular tunneling dynamics sustains a self-locked population imbalance: a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect. The influence of de-coherence caused by non-condensate molecule on the tunneling dynamics is studied. It is shown that de-coherence suppresses the multi-atomic molecular tunneling.
Coexistence of photonic and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in ideal atomic gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Boichenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We have studied conditions of photon Bose-Einstein condensate formation that is in thermodynamic equilibrium with ideal gas of two-level Bose atoms below the degeneracy temperature. Equations describing thermodynamic equilibrium in the system were formulated; critical temperatures and densities of photonic and atomic gas subsystems were obtained analytically. Coexistence conditions of these photonic and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates were found. There was predicted the possibility of an abrupt type of photon condensation in the presence of Bose condensate of ground-state atoms: it was shown that the slightest decrease of the temperature could cause a significant gathering of photons in the condensate. This case could be treated as a simple model of the situation known as "stopped light" in cold atomic gas. We also showed how population inversion of atomic levels can be created by lowering the temperature. The latter situation looks promising for light accumulation in atomic vapor at very low temperatures.
Mean-field description of collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform numerical simulations based on the time-dependent mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation to understand some aspects of a recent experiment by Donley et al. [Nature (London) 412, 295 (2001)] on the dynamics of collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates of 85Rb atoms. These authors manipulated the atomic interaction by an external magnetic field via a Feshbach resonance, thus changing the repulsive condensate into an attractive one, and vice versa. In the actual experiment they suddenly changed the scattering length of atomic interaction from a positive to a large negative value on a preformed condensate in an axially symmetric trap. Consequently, the condensate collapsed and ejected atoms via explosion. We find that the present mean-field analysis can explain some aspects of the dynamics of the collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates
Measurement of phase fluctuations of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice
Bing WANG; Zhu, Qiang; Zhou, Hailong; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiong, Hongwei; Lu, Baolong
2012-01-01
Even at zero temperature, there exist phase fluctuations associated with an array of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We demonstrate a method to measure the phase fluctuations based on the Fourier spectrum of the atomic density for a condensate released from the optical lattice. The phase variance is extracted from the relative intensities of different peaks in the Fourier spectrum. This method works even for high lattice strength where interference pea...
Pattern Forming Dynamical Instabilities of Bose-Einstein Condensates: A Short Review
Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2004-01-01
In this short topical review, we revisit a number of works on the pattern-forming dynamical instabilities of Bose-Einstein condensates in one- and two-dimensional settings. In particular, we illustrate the trapping conditions that allow the reduction of the three-dimensional, mean field description of the condensates (through the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) to such lower dimensional settings, as well as to lattice settings. We then go on to study the modulational instability in one dimension a...
Landau damping of transverse quadrupole oscillations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate
Guilleumas, Montserrat; Pitaevskii, L. P.
2003-01-01
We study the interaction between low-lying transverse collective oscillations and thermal excitations of an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate by means of perturbation theory. We consider a cylindrically trapped condensate and calculate the transverse elementary excitations at zero temperature by solving the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equations in two dimensions. We use them to calculate the matrix elements between thermal excited states coupled with the quasi-2D collective modes. The Landau...
Quadrupole collective modes in trapped finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates
Jackson, B.; Zaremba, E.
2002-01-01
Finite temperature simulations are used to study quadrupole excitations of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. We focus specifically on the m=0 mode, where a long-standing theoretical problem has been to account for an anomalous variation of the mode frequency with temperature. We explain this behavior in terms of the excitation of two separate modes, corresponding to coupled motion of the condensate and thermal cloud. The relative amplitudes of the modes depends sensitively on the temperatur...
Dynamics of bright matter-wave solitons in inhomogeneous cigar-type Bose-Einstein condensate
Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Tomio, L.
2002-01-01
We discuss the possible observation of a new type of standing nonlinear atomic matter wave in the condensate: the nonlinear impurity mode. It is investigated dynamical effects of a bright soliton in Bose-Einstein-condensed (BEC) systems with local space variations of the two-body atomic scattering length. A rich dynamics is observed in the interaction between the soliton and an inhomogeneity. Processes as trapping, reflection and transmission of the bright matter soliton due to the impurity a...
Kelvin-Tkachenko waves of few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have calculated the low-lying elementary excitations of three-dimensional few-vortex arrays in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. The number of different Kelvin-Tkachenko vortex wave branches found matches the number of vortices in the condensate. The lowest odd-parity modes exhibit superfluid gyroscopic vortex motion. Experimentally, these modes could be excited and observed individually or in connection with the formation and decay of quantum turbulence.
Vardi, A.; Moore, M. G.
2002-01-01
We study spontaneous directionality in the bosonic amplification of atom pairs emitted from an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), an effect analogous to `superradiant' emission of atom-photon pairs. Using a simplified model, we make analytic predictions regarding directional effects for both atom-atom and atom-photon emission. These are confirmed by numerical mean-field simulations, demonstrating the the feasibility of nearly perfect directional emission along the condensate axis. The ...
Superfluid properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice confined in a cavity
Bhattacherjee, A. B.
2007-01-01
We study the effect of a one dimensional optical lattice in a cavity field with quantum properties on the superfluid dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate(BEC). In the cavity the influence of atomic backaction and the external driving pump become important and strongly modify the optical potential. Due to the strong coupling between the condensate wavefunction and the cavity modes, the cavity light field develops a band structure. This study reveals that the pump and the cavity emerges as a ...
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice.
Hamner, C; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M A; Davis, Matthew J; Engels, P
2015-02-20
We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system. PMID:25763940
Field effects on the vortex states in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Xu, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yong-Kai; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie
2016-06-01
Multi-quantum vortices can be created in the ground state of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit couplings. We investigate the effects of external fields, either a longitudinal field or a transverse field, on the vortex states. We reveal that both fields can effectively reduce the number of vortices. In the latter case we further find that the condensate density packets are pushed away in the horizontal direction and the vortices finally disappear to form a plane wave phase.
Squeezing and Entanglement of Density Oscillations in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wade, Andrew C J; Sherson, Jacob F; Mølmer, Klaus
2015-08-01
The dispersive interaction of atoms and a far-detuned light field allows nondestructive imaging of the density oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates. Starting from a ground state condensate, we investigate how the measurement backaction leads to squeezing and entanglement of the quantized density oscillations. We show that properly timed, stroboscopic imaging and feedback can be used to selectively address specific eigenmodes and avoid excitation of nontargeted modes of the system. PMID:26296103
Inducing Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate Using Holographically Produced Light Beams
Brachmann, Johannes; Bakr, Waseem; Gillen, Jonathon; Peng, Amy; Greiner, Markus
2011-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate a technique that can create out-of-equilibrium vortex configurations with almost arbitrary charge and geometry in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We coherently transfer orbital angular momentum from a holographically generated light beam to a Rubidium 87 condensate using a two-photon stimulated Raman process. Using matter wave interferometry, we verify the phase pattern imprinted onto the atomic wave function for a single vortex and a vortex-antivortex pair. In additi...
Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter solves the core/cusp problem
Harko, T.
2011-01-01
We analyze the observed properties of dwarf galaxies, which are dark matter dominated astrophysical objects, by assuming that dark matter is in the form of a strongly-coupled, dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. The basic astrophysical properties of the condensate (density profile, rotational velocity, and mass profile, respectively), are derived from a variational principle. To test the validity of the model we compare first the tangential velocity equation of the model with a sample of eight r...
Torus quantum vortex knots in the Gross-Pitaevskii model for Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the static and dynamic properties of quantum knots in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In particular, we consider the Gross-Pitaevskii model and revise a technique to construct ab initio the condensate wave-function of a generic torus knot. After analysing its excitation energy, we study its dynamics, relating the topological parameter to its translational velocity and characteristic size. We also investigate the breaking mechanisms of non shapepreserving torus knots, confirming an evidence of universal decaying behaviour previously observed
Tunneling Dynamics of Two-Species Molecular Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong; GAO Ke-Lin
2004-01-01
We study tunneling dynamics of atomic group in two-species molecular Bose-Einstein condensates. It is shown that the tunneling of the atom group depends on not only the tunneling coupling constant between the atomic pair molecular condensate and the three-atomic group molecular condensate, but also the inter-molecular nonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates. It is discovered that besides oscillating tunneling current between the atomic pair molecular condensate and the three-atomic group molecular condensate, the nonlinear atomic group tunneling dynamics sustains a self-maintained population imbalance: a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect.
Semi-classical Dynamics of Superradiant Rayleigh Scattering in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Müller, J H; Targat, R le; Arlt, J J; Polzik, E S; Hilliard, A J
2016-01-01
Due to its coherence properties and high optical depth, a Bose-Einstein condensate provides an ideal setting to investigate collective atom-light interactions. Superradiant light scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate is a fascinating example of such an interaction. It is an analogous process to Dicke superradiance, in which an electronically inverted sample decays collectively, leading to the emission of one or more light pulses in a well-defined direction. Through time-resolved measurements of the superradiant light pulses emitted by an end-pumped BEC, we study the close connection of superradiant light scattering with Dicke superradiance. A 1D model of the system yields good agreement with the experimental data and shows that the dynamics results from the structures that build up in the light and matter-wave fields along the BEC. This paves the way for exploiting the atom-photon correlations generated by the superradiance.
Dynamics of dark-bright solitons in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Middelkamp, S. [Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chang, J.J.; Hamner, C. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Carretero-Gonzalez, R. [Nonlinear Physics Group, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Informatica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Kevrekidis, P.G., E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Achilleos, V.; Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Engels, P. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)
2011-01-17
We explore the stability and dynamics of dark-bright (DB) solitons in two-component elongated Bose-Einstein condensates by developing effective one-dimensional vector equations and solving the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equations. A strong dependence of the oscillation frequency and of the stability of the DB soliton on the atom number of its components is found; importantly, the wave may become dynamically unstable even in the 1D regime. As the atom number in the dark-soliton-supporting component is further increased, spontaneous symmetry breaking leads to oscillatory dynamics in the transverse degrees of freedom. Moreover, the interactions of two DB solitons are investigated with an emphasis on the importance of their relative phases. Experimental results showcasing multiple DB soliton oscillations and a DB-DB collision in a Bose-Einstein condensate consisting of two hyperfine states of {sup 87}Rb confined in an elongated optical dipole trap are presented.
Lorentz-invariance violating effects in the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal bosonic gas
Casana, Rodolfo
2011-01-01
We have studied the effects of Lorentz-invariance violation in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of an ideal bosonic gas, assessing both the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Our model describes a massive complex scalar field coupled to a CPT-even and Lorentz-violating background. First, by starting from the nonrelativistic limit of our model and by using experimental data, we give upper limits for some parameters of our model. But, the existence of the nonrelativistic BEC, in a Lorentz-invariance violating (LIV) framework, imposes strong restrictions on some LIV parameters. It is shown that only the critical temperature gains LIV contributions. In the sequel, we analyze the ultrarelativistic Bose-Einstein condensation, constructing a well-defined partition function for the relativistic bosonic ideal gas, from which severe constraints on certain LIV parameters are imposed. The analysis of the ultrarelativistic BEC has shown that the critical temperature and the critical chemical potential are s...
Bose-Einstein condensation of the classical axion field in cosmology?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axion is a motivated cold dark matter candidate, which it would be interesting to distinguish from weakly interacting massive particles. Sikivie has suggested that axions could behave differently during non-linear galaxy evolution, if they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, and argues that ''gravitational thermalisation'' drives them to a Bose-Einstein condensate during the radiation dominated era. Using classical equations of motion during linear structure formation, we explore whether the gravitational interactions of axions can generate enough entropy. At linear order in GN, we interpret that the principle activities of gravity are to expand the Universe and grow density fluctuations. To quantify the rate of entropy creation we use the anisotropic stress to estimate a short dissipation scale for axions which does not confirm previous estimates of their gravitational thermalisation rate
Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model
Bose-Einstein condensation of the classical axion field in cosmology?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidson, Sacha; Elmer, Martin, E-mail: s.davidson@ipnl.in2p3.fr, E-mail: m.elmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue E. Fermi, Villeurbanne cedex, 69622 (France)
2013-12-01
The axion is a motivated cold dark matter candidate, which it would be interesting to distinguish from weakly interacting massive particles. Sikivie has suggested that axions could behave differently during non-linear galaxy evolution, if they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, and argues that ''gravitational thermalisation'' drives them to a Bose-Einstein condensate during the radiation dominated era. Using classical equations of motion during linear structure formation, we explore whether the gravitational interactions of axions can generate enough entropy. At linear order in G{sub N}, we interpret that the principle activities of gravity are to expand the Universe and grow density fluctuations. To quantify the rate of entropy creation we use the anisotropic stress to estimate a short dissipation scale for axions which does not confirm previous estimates of their gravitational thermalisation rate.
Spin-momentum coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with lattice band pseudospins.
Khamehchi, M A; Qu, Chunlei; Mossman, M E; Zhang, Chuanwei; Engels, P
2016-01-01
The quantum emulation of spin-momentum coupling, a crucial ingredient for the emergence of topological phases, is currently drawing considerable interest. In previous quantum gas experiments, typically two atomic hyperfine states were chosen as pseudospins. Here, we report the observation of a spin-momentum coupling achieved by loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into periodically driven optical lattices. The s and p bands of a static lattice, which act as pseudospins, are coupled through an additional moving lattice that induces a momentum-dependent coupling between the two pseudospins, resulting in s-p hybrid Floquet-Bloch bands. We investigate the band structures by measuring the quasimomentum of the Bose-Einstein condensate for different velocities and strengths of the moving lattice, and compare our measurements to theoretical predictions. The realization of spin-momentum coupling with lattice bands as pseudospins paves the way for engineering novel quantum matter using hybrid orbital bands. PMID:26924575
Atomic Tunneling Effect in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAOZhi-Yong; YUZhao-Xian; YANGXin-Jian
2004-01-01
In this paper, we have studied the atomic population difference and the atomic tunneling current of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive. It is found that when the two-component Bose Einstein condensates are initially in the coherent states, the atomic population difference may exhibit the step structure, in which the numbers of the step increase with the decrease of the Rabi frequency and with the increment of the initial phase difference. The atomic population difference may exhibit collapses, and revivals, in which their periods are affected dramatically by the Rabi frequency and the initial phase difference. The atomic tunneling current may exhibit damping oscillation behaviors, and exist the step structure for the time range of 10-10 ～ 10-9 second.
Atomic Tunneling Effect in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Zhi-Yong; YU Zhao-Xian; YANG Xin-Jian
2004-01-01
In this paper, we have studied the atomic population difference and the atomic tunneling current of twocomponent Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive. It is found that when the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates are initially in the coherent states, the atomic population difference may exhibit the step structure, in which the numbers of the step increase with the decrease of the Rabi frequency and with the increment of the initial phase difference. The atomic population difference may exhibit collapses, and revivals, in which their periods are affected dramatically by the Rabi frequency and the initial phase difference. The atomic tunneling current may exhibit damping oscillation behaviors, and exist the step structure for the time range of 10-10 ～ 10-9 second.
Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Putz, Mihai V., E-mail: mvputz@cbg.uvt.ro [Laboratory of Physical and Computational Chemistry, Chemistry Department, West University of Timisoara, Str. Pestalozzi No. 16, 300115 Timisoara, Romania and Theoretical Physics Institute, Free University Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2015-01-22
Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model.
Study of Bose-Einstein condensation in a harmonic oscillator potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose-Einstein condensation is an accumulation of population in the ground state of a system of bosons as the temperature of the system is reduced below a critical temperature. This condensation is entirely a consequence of the quantum statistics of the Bose-Einstein distribution. We consider this statistics for our calculation. The ground state occupation numbers of a fixed number of bosons in an isotropic threedimensional harmonic oscillator potential above and below the critical temperature are found numerically by a method that was done previously [1]. This potential more closely approximates the conditions of the experiments performed to date on alkali atoms. Energy, heat capacity and chemical potential are found numerically. Finally all the results are compared with analytical calculations
Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap
Kumar, Sunil; Verma, Gunjan; Vishwakarma, Chetan; Noaman, Md; Rapol, Umakant
2014-01-01
We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.
Droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interaction
Xi, Kui-Tian; Saito, Hiroki
2016-01-01
Motivated by the recent experiment [H. Kadau et al., arXiv:1508.05007], we study roton instability and droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 164Dy atoms with strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. We numerically solve the cubic-quintic Gross-Pitaevskii equation with dipole-dipole interaction, and show that the three-body interaction plays a significant role in the formation of droplet patterns. We numerically demonstrate the formation of droplet patterns and crystalline structures, decay of droplets, and hysteresis behavior, which are in good agreement with the experiment. Our numerical simulations provide the first prediction on the values of the three-body interaction in a 164Dy Bose-Einstein condensate. We also predict that the droplets remain stable during the time-of-flight expansion. From our results, further experiments investigating the three-body interaction in dipolar quantum gases are required.
Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT3-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition
Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza [Theoretical Physics Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.
Three-dimensional solitons in coupled atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Vaughan, T. G.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.; Drummond, P. D.
2004-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) matter-wave solitons and their stability properties in coupled atomic and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The soliton solutions to the mean-field equations are obtained in an approximate analytical form by means of a variational approach. We investigate soliton stability within the parameter space described by the atom-molecule conversion coupling, atom-atom s-wave scattering, and the bare formation energy of the molecular...
Sonic analog of gravitational black holes in Bose-Einstein condensates
Garay, Luis Javier; Anglin, J. R.; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.
2000-01-01
It is shown that, in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit a behavior resembling that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states, as in the well-known suggested mechanism for black-hole evaporation. We propose a scheme to generate a stable sonic black hole in a ring trap.
Sonic analog of gravitational black holes in bose-einstein condensates
Garay; Anglin; Cirac; Zoller
2000-11-27
It is shown that, in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit a behavior resembling that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states, as in the well-known suggested mechanism for black-hole evaporation. We propose a scheme to generate a stable sonic black hole in a ring trap. PMID:11082617
Vortex nucleation in Bose-Einstein condensates in time-dependent traps
Lundh, Emil; Martikainen, J. -P.; Suominen, Kalle-Antti
2002-01-01
Vortex nucleation in a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a stirring potential is studied numerically using the zero-temperature, two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is found that this theory is able to describe the creation of vortices, but not the crystallization of a vortex lattice. In the case of a rotating, slightly anisotropic harmonic potential, the numerical results reproduce experimental findings, thereby showing that finite temperatures are not necessary for vortex excita...
Bose-Einstein Condensate of Trimers Dressed by Atom-Dimer Cooper Pairs
Mackie, M; Dannenberg, O; Mackie, Matt; Piilo, Jyrki; Dannenberg, Olavi
2004-01-01
We theoretically examine the neutral atom-molecule analogue of the anomalous quantum correlations between degenerate electrons, i.e., Cooper pairs, that are responsible for superconductivity. Based on rogue dissociation of triatomic molecules (trimers) into opposite-momentum pairs of atoms and diatomic molecules (dimers) via a photoassociation or Feshbach resonance, we find a superfluid transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate of trimers dressed by atom-dimer Cooper pairs, at a critical temperature in reach of present ultracold technology.
Chaotic behavior of three interacting vortices in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate
Kyriakopoulos, Nikos; Koukouloyannis, Vassilis; Skokos, Charalampos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis
2013-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental works, we investigate a system of vortex dynamics in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), consisting of three vortices, two of which have the same charge. These vortices are modeled as a system of point particles which possesses a Hamiltonian structure. This tripole system constitutes a prototypical model of vortices in BECs exhibiting chaos. By using the angular momentum integral of motion we reduce the study of the system to the investigation of a two d...
Nonlinear resonant tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in tilted optical lattices
Rapedius, Kevin; Elsen, Christoffer; Witthaut, Dirk; Wimberger, Sandro; Korsch, Hans Jürgen
2010-01-01
We study the tunnelling decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate from tilted optical lattices within the mean-field approximation. We introduce a method to calculate ground and excited resonance eigenstates of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, based on a grid relaxation procedure with complex absorbing potentials. This algorithm works efficiently in a wide range of parameters where established methods fail. It allows us to study the effects of the nonlinearity in detail in the regime of resonant tunn...
Adiabatic transport of Bose-Einstein condensate in double-well trap
Nesterenko, V. O.; A.N. Novikov; Cherny, A. Yu.; Cruz, F. F. de Souza; Suraud, E.
2009-01-01
A complete irreversible adiabatic transport of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well trap is investigated within the mean field approximation. The transfer is driven by time-dependent (Gaussian) coupling between the wells and their relative detuning. The protocol successfully works in a wide range of both repulsive and attractive BEC interaction. The nonlinear effects caused by the interaction can be turned from detrimental into favorable for the transport. The results are compared ...
Thermal fluctuations of vortex clusters in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate
Pogosov, W.V.; Machida, K.
2006-01-01
We study the thermal fluctuations of vortex positions in small vortex clusters in a harmonically trapped rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that the order-disorder transition of two-shells clusters occurs via the decoupling of shells with respect to each other. The corresponding "melting" temperature depends stronly on the commensurability between numbers of vortices in shells. We show that "melting" can be achieved at experimentally attainable parameters and very low temperatures...
Interface dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate driven by an external force
Kobyakov, Dmitry; Bychkov, Vitaly; Lundh, Emil; Bezett, Alice; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Marklund, Mattias
2011-01-01
The dynamics of an interface in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate driven by a spatially uniform time-dependent force is studied. Starting from the Gross-Pitaevskii Lagrangian, the dispersion relation for linear waves and instabilities at the interface is derived by means of a variational approach. A number of diverse dynamical effects for different types of the driving force is demonstrated, which includes the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for a constant force, the Richtmyer-Meshkov inst...
Boundary Effects on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra-Static Space-Times
Akant, L; Gul, Y; Turgut, O T
2015-01-01
The boundary effects on the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas on an ultra-static space-time are studied by a Mellin-Barnes type asymptotic analysis of the harmonic sum representing the depletion coefficient. Small $\\beta m$ regime, which is the relevant regime for the relativistic gas, is studied through the heat kernel expansion for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The analysis is made for both charged bosons and neutral bosons.
Boundary Effects on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra-Static Space-Times
Akant, L.; Ertugrul, E.; Gul, Y.; Turgut, O. T.
2014-01-01
The boundary effects on the Bose-Einstein condensation of a Bose gas with a nonvanishing chemical potential on an ultra-static space-time are studied. High temperature regime, which is the relevant regime for the relativistic gas, is studied through the heat kernel expansion for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The high temperature expansion in the presence of a chemical potential is generated via the Mellin transform methods as applied to the harmonic sums representing the fre...
Bose-Einstein Condensation on a Manifold with Nonnegative Ricci Curvature
Akant, Levent; Ertugrul, Emine; Tapramaz, Ferzan; Turgut, O. Teoman
2013-01-01
The Bose-Einstein condensation for an ideal Bose gas and for a dilute weakly interacting Bose gas in a manifold with nonnegative Ricci curvature is investigated using the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates of the Laplace operator. The main focus is on the nonrelativistic gas. However, special relativistic ideal gas is also discussed. The thermodynamic limit of the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates is taken and the results are used to derive bounds for the depletion coefficient. In the ca...
Application of the Feshbach-resonance management to a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate
Filatrella, G.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.
2009-04-01
We study suppression of the collapse and stabilization of matter-wave solitons by means of time-periodic modulation of the effective nonlinearity, using the nonpolynomial Schrödinger equation for Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a tight cigar-shaped potential. By means of systematic simulations, a stability region is identified in the plane of the modulation amplitude and frequency. In the low-frequency regime, solitons feature chaotic evolution, although they remain robust objects.
Stability of excited states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap
Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Alfimov, Georgy L.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Pérez-García, Víctor M.
2008-07-01
We analyze the stability of nonground nonlinear states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the mean-field limit in effectively one-dimensional (“cigar-shape”) traps for various types of confining potentials. We find that nonlinear states become, in general, more stable when switching from a harmonic potential to an anharmonic one. We discuss the relation between this fact and the specifics of the harmonic potential which has an equidistant spectrum.
Static properties of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite space
Thu, Nguyen Van
2016-08-01
Using double-parabola approximation (DPA) applied to Gross-Pitaevskii theory, the interfacial tension of Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures in semi-infinite system is obtained and shows that it is not vanishing at demix state K = 1, its value exactly coincides to wall tension of second component. A new kind of wetting phase transition (Antonov transition) is also considered within DPA and phase transition is first-order. Antonov line is thoroughly proved, too.
Density engineering of an oscillating soliton/vortex ring in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Shomroni, Itay; Lahoud, Elias; Levy, Shahar; Steinhauer, Jeff
2008-01-01
When two Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) collide with high collisional energy, the celebrated matter wave interference pattern results. For lower collisional energies the repulsive interaction energy becomes significant, and the interference pattern evolves into an array of grey solitons. The lowest collisional energy, producing a single pair of solitons, has not been probed. We use density engineering on the healing length scale to produce such a pair of solitons. These solitons then evolv...
Landau damping and the echo effect in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate
Kuklov, A. B.
1998-01-01
Low energy collective mode of a confined Bose-Einstein condensate should demonstrate the echo effect in the regime of Landau damping. This echo is a signature of reversible nature of Landau damping. General expression for the echo profile is derived in the limit of small amplitudes of the external pulses. Several universal features of the echo are found. The existence of echo in other cases of reversible damping -- Fano effect and Caldeira-Leggett model -- is emphasized. It is suggested to te...
Mechanism of stimulated Hawking radiation in a laboratory Bose-Einstein condensate
Wang, Yi-Hsieh; Jacobson, Ted; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W.
2016-01-01
We model a sonic black hole analog in a quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate, using a Gross-Pitaevskii equation matching the configuration of a recent experiment by Steinhauer. The model agrees well with the experimental observations, with no adjustable parameters, demonstrating their hydrodynamic nature. With enhanced but experimentally feasible parameters we establish by spectral analysis that a growing bow wave is generated at the inner (white hole) horizon, stimulating the emiss...
Analysis and calibration of absorptive images of Bose-Einstein condensate at nonzero temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the method allowing quantitative interpretation of absorptive images of mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensate and thermal atoms which reduces possible systematic errors associated with evaluation of the contribution of each fraction and eliminates arbitrariness of most of the previous approaches. By using known temperature dependence of the BEC fraction, the analysis allows precise calibration of the fitting results. The developed method is verified in two different measurements and compares well with theoretical calculations and with measurements performed by another group.
Dark soliton of a growing Bose-einstein condensate in an external trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamics of dark soliton in a growing Bose-Einstein condensate with an external magnetic trap are investigated by the variational approach based on the renormalized integrals of motion. The stationary states as physical solutions to the describing equation are obtained, and the evolution of the dark soliton is numerically simulated. The numerical results confirm the theoretical analysis and show that the dynamics depend strictly on the initial condition, the gain coefficient and the external potential. (authors)
Ultracold Bose Gases in 1D Disorder: From Lifshits Glass to Bose-Einstein Condensate
Lugan, Pierre; Clément, David; Bouyer, Philippe; Aspect, Alain; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent
2007-01-01
We study an ultracold Bose gas in the presence of 1D disorder for repulsive inter-atomic interactions varying from zero to the Thomas-Fermi regime. We show that for weak interactions the Bose gas populates a finite number of localized single-particle Lifshits states, while for strong interactions a delocalized disordered Bose-Einstein condensate is formed. We discuss the schematic quantum-state diagram and derive the equations of state for various regimes.
Magnetic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Bezett, Alice; Bychkov, Vitaly; Lundh, Emil; Kobyakov, Dmitry; Marklund, Mattias
2010-01-01
The magnetically induced Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. We construct and study analytical models describing the development of the instability at both the linear and nonlinear stages. The models indicate new features of the instability: the influence of quantum capillary waves and the separation of droplets, which are qualitatively different from the classical case. We perform numerical simulations of the instability in a trapped Bos...
Spectrum and thermal fluctuations of a microcavity polariton Bose-Einstein condensate
Sarchi, D.; Savona, V.
2007-01-01
The Hartree-Fock-Popov theory of interacting Bose particles is developed, for modeling exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. A self-consistent treatment of the linear exciton-photon coupling and of the exciton non-linearity provides a thermal equilibrium description of the collective excitation spectrum, of the polariton energy shifts and of the phase diagram. Quantitative predictions support recent experimental findings.
On a theory of light scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate
Ezhova, Victoria; Kupriyanov, Dmitriy
2016-01-01
We consider a quantum theory of elastic light scattering from macroscopic atomic sample existing in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) phase. Following to the second quantized formalism we introduce a set of coupled and closed diagram equations for the polariton propagator contributing to the $T$ -matrix and scattering amplitude. Our approach allows to follow important density correction to the quasi-energy structure caused by static interaction and radiation losses associated with incoherent scattering in the case of near resonance excitation.
Analogies between dark solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dark solitons have been observed in optical systems (optical fibres, dielectric guides and bulk media), and, more recently, in harmonically confined atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. This paper presents an overview of some of the common features and analogies experienced by these two intrinsically nonlinear systems, with emphasis on the stability of dark solitons in such systems and their decay via emission of radiation. The closely related issue of vortex dynamics in such systems is also briefly discussed
A molecular Bose-Einstein condensate emerges from a Fermi sea
Greiner, Markus; Regal, Cindy A.; Jin, Deborah S.
2003-01-01
The realization of fermionic superfluidity in a dilute gas of atoms, analogous to superconductivity in metals, is a long-standing goal of ultracold gas research. Beyond being a new example of this fascinating quantum phenomenon, fermionic superfluidity in an atomic gas holds the promise of adjustable interactions and the ability to tune continuously from BCS-type superfluidity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). This crossover between BCS superfluidity of correlated atom pairs in momentum sp...
Quantum dynamical theory for squeezing the output of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Jing, H; Ge Mo Lin; Jing, Hui; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ge, Mo-Lin
2000-01-01
A linear quantum dynamical theory for squeezing the output of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is presented with the Bogoliubov approximation. We observe that the non-classical properties, such as sub-Poisson distribution and quadrature squeezing effect, mutually oscillate between the quantum states of the applied optical field and the resulting atom laser beam with time. In particular, it is shown that an initially squeezed optical field will lead to squeezing in the outcoupled atomic beam at later times.
Vortex-Nucleating Zeeman Resonance in Axisymmetric Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By use of the Larmor equivalence between uniform rotation and a magnetic field, we consider in the strong-interaction Thomas-Fermi regime the single centered vortex as the first Zeeman-like excited state of the axisymmetric rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. This yields a resonant-drive nucleation mechanism whose threshold is in quite good agreement with ENS, MIT, and JILA experimental results
Nontopological vortex in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a systematic study on a class of stable vortex solutions in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. They are nontopological in nature and possess continuous angular momenta. When coupled to external fields, nontopological vortices exhibit 'spin' dynamical behavior and develop a Berry's phase under the adiabatic change of external fields which can be directly measured. We explain a method to create them experimentally by using phase imprinting
OCTBEC - A Matlab toolbox for optimal quantum control of Bose-Einstein condensates
Hohenester, Ulrich
2013-01-01
OCTBEC is a Matlab toolbox designed for optimal quantum control, within the framework of optimal control theory (OCT), of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The systems we have in mind are ultracold atoms in confined geometries, where the dynamics takes place in one or two spatial dimensions, and the confinement potential can be controlled by some external parameters. Typical experimental realizations are atom chips, where the currents running through the wires produce magnetic fields that allo...
A Hybrid Lagrangian Variation Method for Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices
Edwards, Mark; DeBeer, Lisa M.; Demenikov, Mads; Galbreath, Jacob; Mahaney, T. Joseph; Nelsen, Bryan; Clark, Charles W.
2005-01-01
Solving the Gross--Pitaevskii (GP) equation describing a Bose--Einstein condensate (BEC) immersed in an optical lattice potential can be a numerically demanding task. We present a variational technique for providing fast, accurate solutions of the GP equation for systems where the external potential exhibits rapid varation along one spatial direction. Examples of such systems include a BEC subjected to a one--dimensional optical lattice or a Bragg pulse. This variational method is a hybrid fo...
Effect of an Impurity on Grey Soliton Dynamics in Cigar-Shaped Bose-Einstein Condensate
Das, Priyam; Gangopadhyay, Sumona; Prasanta K. Panigrahi
2010-01-01
In a cigar shaped Bose-Einstein condensate, explicit solutions of the coupled mean-field equations, describing defect-grey soliton dynamics are obtained, demonstrating the coexistence of grey soliton and a localized defect. Unlike the case of dark soliton, where the defect trapping center has vanishing superfluid density, the moving grey soliton necessarily possesses a finite superfluid component at the defect location. The wave vector of the impurity is controlled by the velocity of the grey...
Magnetic Soliton and Soliton Collisions of Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates in an Optical Lattice
Li, Z. D.; He, P. B.; Li, L.; Liang, J. Q.; Liu, W. M.
2005-01-01
We study the magnetic soliton dynamics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice which results in an effective Hamiltonian of anisotropic pseudospin chain. A modified Landau-Lifshitz equation is derived and exact magnetic soliton solutions are obtained analytically. Our results show that the time-oscillation of the soliton size can be controlled in practical experiment by adjusting of the light-induced dipole-dipole interaction. Moreover, the elastic collision of two solitons ...
Parametric Driving of Dark Solitons in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates
Proukakis, N. P.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.; Adams, C. S.
2004-01-01
A dark soliton oscillating in an elongated harmonically-confined atomic Bose-Einstein condensate continuously exchanges energy with the sound field. Periodic optical `paddles' are employed to controllably enhance the sound density and transfer energy to the soliton, analogous to parametric driving. In the absence of damping, the amplitude of the soliton oscillations can be dramatically reduced, whereas with damping, a driven soliton equilibrates as a stable dark soliton with lower energy, the...
Bloch Oscillations of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Huai-Qiang; WANG Zhi-Cheng; JIN Kang; TAN Lei
2006-01-01
@@ We study the Bloch oscillations of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in spin-dependent optical lattices. The influence of the intercomponent atom interaction on the system is discussed in detail Accelerated breakdown of the Bloch oscillations and revival phenomena are found respectively for the repulsive and attractive case. For both the cases, the system will finally be set in a quantum self-trapping state due to dynamical instability.
Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.;
2010-01-01
Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process......-field gradients, hence, must be carefully controlled in future experiments, in order to observe clearly the effects of the dipolar interactions in the amplification dynamics....
Sweeping a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate across a Feshbach resonance
Haque, M.; Stoof, H. T. C.
2007-01-01
We consider the dissociation of a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate during a magnetic-field sweep through a Feshbach resonance that starts on the molecular side of the resonance and ends on the atomic side. In particular, we determine the energy distribution of the atoms produced after the sweep. We find that the shape of the energy distribution strongly depends on the rate of the magnetic-field sweep, in a manner that is in good agreement with recent experiments.
Cusp catastrophe of symmetry breaking in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bifurcation analysis is applied to the spontaneous spatial symmetry breaking occurring in the ground state of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. The cusp catastrophe describing the supercritical pitchfork bifurcation associated with the symmetry breaking is derived via the identification of the local curvature of the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional. The bifurcation diagram and universal scaling laws for the eigenvalue and energy are obtained from the catastrophe function
A novel route to Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms
Halder, Purbasha; Yang, Chih-Yun; Hemmerich, Andreas
2012-01-01
We present a novel route to Bose-Einstein condensation devised for two-electron atoms, which do not admit practicable cooling techniques based upon narrow intercombination lines. A dipole trap for $^{40}$Ca atoms in the singlet ground state is loaded from a moderately cold source of metastable triplet atoms via spatially and energetically selective optical pumping permitting four orders of magnitude increase of the phase space density. Further cooling to quantum degeneracy is achieved by forc...
Acoustic superradiance from an optical-superradiance-induced vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür; Ghazanfari, Nader
2014-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 043619 (2014) Acoustic superradiance from an optical-superradiance-induced vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate Nader Ghazanfari* Department of Physics, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Bomonti 34380, Istanbul, Turkey O¨ zgu¨r Esat Mu¨stecaplıog˘lu Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, 34450 Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey (Received 13 January 2014; revised manuscript received 10 March 2014; published 24 April 2014) We consider the scattering of an a...
Purity oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates with balanced gain and loss
Dast, Dennis; Haag, Daniel; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter
2016-03-01
In this work we present a generic feature of PT -symmetric Bose-Einstein condensates by studying the many-particle description of a two-mode condensate with balanced gain and loss. This is achieved using a master equation in Lindblad form whose mean-field limit is a PT -symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that the purity of the condensate periodically drops to small values but then is nearly completely restored. This has a direct impact on the average contrast in interference experiments which cannot be covered by the mean-field approximation, in which a completely pure condensate is assumed.
Noisy dynamics of a vortex in a partially Bose-Einstein condensed gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the dynamics of a straight vortex line in a partially Bose-Einstein condensed atomic gas. Using a variational approach to the stochastic field equation that describes the dynamics of the condensate at nonzero temperature, we derive the stochastic equations of motion for the position of the vortex core. Using these results, we calculate the time it takes the vortex to spiral out of the condensate. Due to the fact that we include thermal fluctuations in our description, this lifetime of the vortex is finite even if its initial position is in the center of the condensate
Berman, Oleg L; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya; Kolmakov, German V; Pomirchi, Leonid M
2015-06-01
The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons. PMID:26172766
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolmakov, German V.; Pomirchi, Leonid M.
2015-06-01
The Bose-stimulated self-organization of a quasi-two-dimensional nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate in an in-plane potential is proposed. We obtained the solution of the nonlinear, driven-dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external asymmetric parabolic potential within the method of the spectral expansion. We found that, in sharp contrast to previous observations, the condensate can spontaneously acquire a solitonlike shape for spatially homogeneous pumping. This condensate soliton performs oscillatory motion in a parabolic trap and, also, can spontaneously rotate. Stability of the condensate soliton in the spatially asymmetric trap is analyzed. In addition to the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms, our findings can be applied to the condensates of quantum well excitons and cavity polaritons in semiconductor heterostructure, and to the condensates of photons.
Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with dipole-dependent scattering length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate of polar molecules in a harmonic trap, where the effective dipole may be tuned by an external field. We demonstrate that taking into account the dependence of the scattering length on the dipole moment is essential to reproducing the correct energies and for predicting the stability of the condensate. We do this by comparing Gross-Pitaevskii calculations with diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. We find very good agreement between the results obtained by these two approaches once the dipole dependence of the scattering length is taken into account. We also examine the behavior of the condensate in nonisotropic traps
Emergent nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates. Theory and experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kevrekidis, Panayotis G. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States); Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J. [Athens Univ. (Greece); Carretero-Gonzalez, Ricardo (eds.) [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)
2008-07-01
This book, written by experts in the fields of atomic physics and nonlinear science, consists of reviews of the current state of the art at the interface of these fields, as is exemplified by the modern theme of Bose-Einstein condensates. Topics covered include bright, dark, gap and multidimensional solitons; vortices; vortex lattices; optical lattices; multicomponent condensates; manipulation of condensates; mathematical methods/rigorous results; and aspects beyond the mean field approach. A distinguishing feature of the contents is the detailed incorporation of both the experimental and theoretical viewpoints through subsections of the relevant chapters. (orig.)
Dissipative Dynamics of a Corotating Vortex Pair in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Kwon, Woo Jin; Moon, Geol; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Minseok; Lee, Moosong; Han, Jeong Ho; Shin, Yong-Il
2015-05-01
We report on the long-time evolution of a corotating vortex pair in a highly oblate Bose-Einstein Condensate at finite temperature. We generate a doubly charged vortex in a condensate by a phase imprinting method using a magnetic quadrupole field and measure the temporal evolution of the inter-vortex distance between corotating vortices. We find that the vortex separation monotonically increases over the hold time and its increasing rate is almost linearly proportional to the temperature of the system. We discuss the thermal damping on the vortex motion in a condensate.
A phenomenological model of the growth of two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a phenomenological mean-field model to describe the growth of immiscible two-species atomic Bose-Einstein condensates towards some equilibrium. Our model is based on the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the addition of dissipative terms to account for growth. While our model may be applied generally, we take a recent Rb-Cs experiment [McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A 84 011603(R) (2011)] as a case study. As the condensates grow, they can pass through ranging transient density structures which can be distinct from the equilibrium states, although such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times.
Removal of excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates by space- and time-modulated potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose that periodically in space- and time-modulated potentials (dynamic lattices) can efficiently remove the excited (the high-energy and large momentum) components of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and, consequently, can result in efficient cleaning of the BECs. We prove the idea by numerically solving the mean-field models (the Schroedinger equation for noninteracting condensates and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for interacting condensates of repulsive atoms), and we evaluate parameters and conditions for the efficient removal of excitations.
Quantum threshold for optomechanical self-structuring in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Robb, G R M; Tesio, E; Oppo, G-L; Firth, W J; Ackemann, T; Bonifacio, R
2015-05-01
Theoretical analysis of the optomechanics of degenerate bosonic atoms with a single feedback mirror shows that self-structuring occurs only above an input threshold that is quantum mechanical in origin. This threshold also implies a lower limit to the size (period) of patterns that can be produced in a condensate for a given pump intensity. These thresholds are interpreted as due to the quantum rigidity of Bose-Einstein condensates, which has no classical counterpart. Above the threshold, the condensate self-organizes into an ordered supersolid state with a spatial period self-selected by optical diffraction. PMID:25978236
Rabi Oscillations in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates with a Coupling Drive
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Wei-Dong; FAN Wen-Bing; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; WANG Yi-Qiu; LIANG Jiu-Qing
2002-01-01
The Rabi oscillations in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with a coupling drive are studiedby means of a pair of bosonic operators. The coupling drive and initial phase difference will affect the amplitudeand the period of the Rabi oscillations. The Rabi oscillations will vanish in the evolution of the condensate densityfor some special initial phase differences (ψ = 0 or π). Our theory provides not only an analytical framework forquantitative predictions for two-component condensates, but also gives an intuitive understanding of some mysteriousfeatures observed in experiments and numerical. simulations.
Anisotropic collisions of dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the universal regime
Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Tang, Yijun; Lev, Benjamin L
2016-01-01
We report the measurement of collisions between two Bose-Einstein condensates with strong dipolar interactions. The collision velocity is significantly larger than the internal velocity distribution widths of the individual condensates, and thus, with the condensates being sufficiently dilute, a halo corresponding to the two-body differential scattering cross section is observed. The results demonstrate a novel regime of quantum scattering, relevant to dipolar interactions, in which a large number of angular momentum states become coupled during the collision. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to provide a detailed comparison between theoretical two-body cross sections and the experimental observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have used three-body recombination rates as a sensitive probe of the statistical correlations between atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and in ultracold noncondensed dilute atomic gases. We infer that density fluctuations are suppressed in the BEC samples. We measured the three-body recombination rate constants for condensates and cold noncondensates from number loss in the F=1,mf=-1 hyperfine state of 87Rb . The ratio of these is 7.4(2.6) which agrees with the theoretical factor of 3 exclamation point and demonstrates that condensate atoms are less bunched than noncondensate atoms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Spin-singlet Bose-Einstein condensation of two-electron atoms.
Takasu, Yosuke; Maki, Kenichi; Komori, Kaduki; Takano, Tetsushi; Honda, Kazuhito; Kumakura, Mitsutaka; Yabuzaki, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2003-07-25
We report the observation of a Bose-Einstein condensation of ytterbium atoms by evaporative cooling in a novel crossed optical trap. Unlike the previously observed condensates, a ytterbium condensate is a two-electron system in a singlet state and has distinct features such as the extremely narrow intercombination transitions which are ideal for future optical frequency standard and the insensitivity to external magnetic field which is important for precision coherent atom optics, and the existence of the novel metastable triplet states generated by optical excitation from the singlet state. PMID:12906649
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate
Carlos Sabín; Angela White; Lucia Hackermuller; Ivette Fuentes
2014-01-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and ...
Dark soliton in one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate under a periodic perturbation of trap
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Chao-Fei; Hu Ke; Hu Tao; Tang Yi
2011-01-01
The perturbation of a confining trap leads to the collective oscillation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, thereby the propagation of a dark soliton in the condensate is affected. In this study, periodic perturbation is employed to match the soliton oscillation. We find that the soliton dynamics depends sensitively on the coupling between the moving direction of the trap and that of the soliton. The soliton energy/depth evolves periodically, and a relevant shift in the soliton trajectory occurs as compared with the unperturbed case. Overall, the soliton oscillation frequency changes little even if the perturbation amplitude and frequency vary.
Phonon-polaritons in Bose-Einstein condensates induced by Casimir-Polder interaction with graphene
Terças, H; Ribeiro, S.; Mendonça, J. T.
2014-01-01
We consider the mechanical coupling between a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with a graphene sheet via the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field which are at the origin of the so-called Casimir-Polder potential. By deriving a self-consistent set of equations governing the dynamics of the condensate and the flexural (out-of-plane) modes of the graphene, we can show the formation of a new type of purely acoustic quasi-particle excitation, a phonon-polariton resulting from t...
Vortex Dynamics Near the Surface of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Khawaja, U. Al
2004-01-01
The center-of-mass dynamics of a vortex in the surface region of a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated both analytically using a variational calculation and numerically by solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find, in agreement with previous works, that away from the Thomas-Fermi surface, the vortex moves parallel to the surface of the condensate with a constant velocity. We obtain an expression for this velocity in terms of the distance of the vortex core from the Th...
Topological stirring of two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We stir vortices into a trapped quasi two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by moving three laser stirrers. We apply stirring protocols introduced by Boyland et al. (2000), that efficiently build in topological chaos in classical fluids and are classified as Pseudo-Anosov stirring protocols. These are compared to their inefficient mixing counterparts, finite-order stirring protocols. We investigate if inefficient stirring protocols result in a more clustered distribution of vortices. The efficiency with which vortices are 'mixed' or distributed in a condensate is important for investigating dynamics of continuously forced quantum turbulence and the existence of the inverse cascade in turbulent two-dimensional superfluids
Pu, Zhengguo; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Su; Wang, Dajun; Zhang, Wenxian
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate four types of dynamical instability, in particular the periodic and oscillatory type IO, in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonzero magnetic field, by employing the coupled-mode theory and numerical method. This is in sharp contrast to the dynamical stability of the same system in zero field. Remarkably, a pattern transition from a periodic dynamical instability IO to a uniform one IIIO occurs at a critical magnetic field. All four types of dynamical instability and the pattern transition are ready to be detected in 23Na condensates within the availability of the current experimental techniques.
Quasi-polaritons in Bose-Einstein condensates induced by Casimir-Polder interaction with graphene.
Terças, H; Ribeiro, S; Mendonça, J T
2015-06-01
We consider the mechanical coupling between a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate and a graphene sheet via the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field which are at the origin of the so-called Casimir-Polder potential. By deriving a self-consistent set of equations governing the dynamics of the condensate and the flexural (out-of-plane) modes of the graphene, we can show the formation of a new type of purely acoustic quasi-particle excitation, a quasi-polariton resulting from the coherent superposition of quanta of flexural and Bogoliubov modes. PMID:25966318
Instability and control of a periodically driven Bose-Einstein condensate
Creffield, Charles E.
2009-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate held in an optical lattice under the influence of a strong periodic driving potential. Studying the mean-field version of the Bose-Hubbard model reveals that the condensate becomes highly unstable when the effective intersite tunneling becomes negative. We further show how controlling the sign of the tunneling can be used as a powerful tool to manage the dispersion of an atomic wavepacket, and thus to create a pulsed atomic soliton laser.
Sound propagation in a Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures
Meppelink, R.; Koller, S. B.; Van Der Straten, P.
2009-01-01
We study the propagation of a density wave in a magnetically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate at finite temperatures. The thermal cloud is in the hydrodynamic regime and the system is therefore described by the two-fluid model. A phase-contrast imaging technique is used to image the cloud of atoms and allows us to observe small density excitations. The propagation of the density wave in the condensate is used to determine the speed of sound as a function of the temperature. We find the speed ...
A theory of finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensates in neutron stars
Gruber, Christine
2014-01-01
We investigate the possible occurrence of a Bose-Einstein condensed phase of matter within neutron stars due to the formation of Cooper pairs among the superfluid neutrons. To this end we study the condensation of bosonic particles under the influence of both a short-range contact and a long-range gravitational interaction in the framework of a Hartree-Fock theory. We consider a finite-temperature scenario, generalizing existing approaches, and derive macroscopic and astrophysically relevant quantities like a mass limit for neutron stars.
Synthetic magnetohydrodynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates and routes to vortex nucleation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engineering of synthetic magnetic flux in Bose-Einstein condensates [Lin et al., Nature (London) 462, 628 (2009)] has prospects for attaining the high vortex densities necessary to emulate the fractional quantum Hall effect. We analytically establish the hydrodynamical behavior of a condensate in a uniform synthetic magnetic field, including its density and velocity profile. Importantly, we find that the onset of vortex nucleation observed experimentally corresponds to a dynamical instability in the hydrodynamical solutions and reveal other routes to instability and anticipated vortex nucleation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a family of soliton solutions of the quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent scattering length, by developing multiple-scale method combined with truncated Painleve expansion. Then, by numerical calculating the solutions, it is shown that there exhibit two types of dark solitons-black soliton (the zero minimum amplitude at its center) and gray soliton (the minimum density does not drop to zero) in a repulsive condensate. Furthermore, we propose experimental protocols to realize the exchange between black and gray solitons by varying the scattering length via the Feshbach resonance in currently experimental conditions
Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Bose-Einstein Condensation in Harmonic Traps
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Guang-Xi; YE Ji-Ping; DAI Xian-Xi; DAI Ji-Xin; William E. Evenson
2003-01-01
A simple and direct approach to handle summation is presented. With this approach, we analytically investigate Bose-Einstein condensation of ideal Bose gas trapped in an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. We get the accurate expression of Tc which is very close to (0.43% larger than) the experimental data. We find the curve of internal energy of the system vs. temperature has a turning point which marks the beginning of a condensation. We also find that there exists specific heat jump at the transition temperature, no matter whether the system is macroscopic or finite. This phenomenon could be a manifestation of a phase transition in finite systems.
Hardman, Kyle S; McDonald, Gordon D; Manju, Perumbil; Wigley, Paul B; Sooriyabadara, Mahasen A; Kuhn, Carlos C N; Debs, John E; Close, John D; Robins, Nicholas P
2016-01-01
A Bose-Einstein condensate is used as an atomic source for a high precision sensor. A $5\\times 10^6$ atom F=1 spinor condensate of $^{87}$Rb is released into free fall for up to $750$ms and probed with a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer based on Bragg transitions. The Bragg interferometer simultaneously addresses the three magnetic states, $\\left| m_f=1,0,-1 \\right\\rangle$, facilitating a simultaneous measurement of the acceleration due to gravity with an asymptotic precision of $2.1\\times 10^{-9}$$\\Delta$g/g and the magnetic field gradient to a precision $8$pT/m.
Topology, hidden spectra and Bose-Einstein condensation on low-dimensional complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topological inhomogeneity gives rise to spectral anomalies that can induce Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in low-dimensional systems. These anomalies consist in energy regions composed of an infinite number of states with vanishing weight in the thermodynamic limit (hidden states). Here we present a rigorous result giving the most general conditions for BEC on complex networks. We prove that the presence of hidden states in the lowest region of the spectrum is the necessary and sufficient condition for condensation in low dimension (spectral dimension d-tilde≤2), while it is shown that BEC always occurs for d-tilde>2. (author)
Periodic quantum tunnelling and parametric resonance with cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the tunnelling properties of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate by using an effective 1D nonpolynomial nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NPSE). First we investigate a mechanism to generate periodic pulses of coherent matter by means of a Bose condensate confined in a potential well with an oscillating height of the energy barrier. We show that it is possible to control the periodic emission of matter waves and the tunnelling fraction of the Bose condensate. We find that the number of emitted particles strongly increases if the period of oscillation of the height of the energy barrier is in parametric resonance with the period of oscillation of the centre of mass of the condensate inside the potential well. Then we use NPSE to analyse the periodic tunnelling of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential which has an oscillating energy barrier. We show that the dynamics of the Bose condensate critically depends on the frequency of the oscillating energy barrier. The macroscopic quantum self-trapping (MQST) of the condensate can be suppressed under the condition of parametric resonance between the frequency of the energy barrier and the frequency of oscillation through the barrier of the very small fraction of particles which remain untrapped during MQST. (author)
Bose-Einstein condensate in non-homogeneous gravitational field
Kulikov, Igor
2002-01-01
Ground state properties of trapped Bose condensate with repulsive interaction in non-homogeneous gravitational field are studied. Spatial structure of Bose condensate and its momentum distributions in 3-D anisotropic trap are considered by the solution of the modified non-linear Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with the corresponding properties of condensate in a harmonic trap without gravitational field.
Quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under synthetic spin-orbit coupling
Deng, Tian-Shu; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-05-01
We study the quench dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate under a Raman-assisted synthetic spin-orbit coupling. To model the dynamical process, we adopt a self-consistent Bogoliubov approach, which is equivalent to applying the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. We investigate the dynamics of the condensate fraction as well as the momentum distribution of the Bose gas following a sudden change of system parameters. Typically, the system evolves into a steady state in the long-time limit, which features an oscillating momentum distribution and a stationary condensate fraction. We investigate how different quench parameters such as the inter- and intraspecies interactions and the spin-orbit-coupling parameters affect the condensate fraction in the steady state. Furthermore, we find that the time average of the oscillatory momentum distribution in the long-time limit can be described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with two branches of momentum-dependent Gibbs temperatures. Our study is relevant to the experimental investigation of dynamical processes in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Tunneling Dynamics of Two-Species Bose-Einstein Condensates with Feshbach Resonances
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENChanu-Yonu
2003-01-01
We investigate tunneling dynamics of atomic group consisting of three atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates with Feshbach resonance. It is shown that the tunneling of the atom group depends not only on the inter-atomic nonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates, but also on the tunneling coupling between the atomic condensate and the three-atomic molecular condensate. It is found that besides oscillating tunneling current between the atomic condensate and the molecular condensate, the nonlinear atomic group tunneling dynamics sustains a self-maintained population imbalance: a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect. The influence of de-coherence caused by non-condensate atoms on the tunneling dynamics is studied. It is indicated that de-coherence suppresses the atomic group tunneling.
I.I. Rabi Prize Lecture: Bose-Einstein condensates - matter with laser-like properties
Ketterle, Wolfgang
1997-04-01
Several studies of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas of sodium atoms have been performed. Bose-condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a tightly-confining magnetic "cloverleaf" trap and observed either by absorption imaging or non-destructive phase contrast imaging. We have observed the formation of a Bose condensate and low-lying collective excitations. An rf output coupler allowed the controlled extraction of multiple pulses of atoms from a trapped Bose condensate. Two condensates were produced by evaporative cooling in a double-well potential. When the condensates were released and overlapped, high contrast interference was observed proving the coherence of the condensates. The controlled extraction of coherent atoms is a rudimentary realization of an atom laser.
Collapsing dynamics of attractive Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
2002-01-01
The self-similar collapse of 3D and quasi-2D atom condensates with negative scattering length is examined. 3D condensates are shown to blow up following the scenario of weak collapse, for which 3-body recombination weakly dissipates the atoms. In contrast, 2D condensates undergo a strong collapse......, that absorbs a significant amount of particles. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Bose Einstein Condensation as Dark Energy and Dark Matter
Nishiyama, Masako; Morita, Masa-aki; Morikawa, Masahiro
2004-01-01
We study a cosmological model in which the boson dark matter gradually condensates into dark energy. Negative pressure associated with the condensate yields the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the rapid collapse of the smallest scale fluctuations into many black holes, which become the seeds of the first galaxies. The cycle of gradual sedimentation and rapid collapse of condensate repeats many times and self-regularizes the ratio of dark energy and dark matter to be order one.
Wave packet dynamics with Bose-Einstein condensates
Dum, R; Suominen, K A; Brewczyk, M; Kus, M; Rzcazewski, K; Lewenstein, M
1998-01-01
We study wave packet dynamics of a Bose condensate in a periodically shaken trap. Dichotomy, that is, dynamic splitting of the condensate, and dynamic stabilization are analyzed in analogy with similar phenomena in the domain of atoms in strong laser fields.
Gluon Transport Equation with Effective Mass and Dynamical Onset of Bose-Einstein Condensation
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Liao, Jinfeng
2015-01-01
We study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose-Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. The presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Dissipative dynamics of dark solitons in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Zheng-Hua; Yan Jia-Ren; Liu Ling-Hong
2006-01-01
The dissipative dynamic stability is investigated of dark solitons in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates that can be described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation including an additional term. Based on the direct perturbation theory for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, the dependence of the soliton velocity on time is explicitly given, and the shape of dark solitons remaining unchanged under the dissipative condition is confirmed theoretically for the first time. It is found that the dynamically stable dark solitons turn out to be thermodynamically unstable.
Effect of a localized impurity on soliton dynamics in the Bose-Einstein condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Ru-Shu; Yao Chun-Mei; Wu Zong-Fu
2011-01-01
By using a multiple-scale method, we analytically study the effect of a localized impurity on the soliton dynamics in the Bose-Einstein condensates. It is shown that a dark soliton can be transmitted through a repulsive (or attractive) impurity, while at the position of the localized impurity the soliton can be quasitrapped by the impurity. Additionally, we find that the strength of the localized impurity has an important effect on the dark soliton dynamics. With increasing strength of the localized impurity, the amplitude of the dark soliton becomes bigger, while its width is narrower, and the soliton propagates slower.
Damping of quasiparticles in a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity
Konya, G.; Szirmai, G.; Domokos, P.
2014-01-01
We present a general theory for calculating the damping rate of elementary density wave excitations in a Bose-Einstein condensate strongly coupled to a single radiation field mode of an optical cavity. Thereby we give a detailed derivation of the huge resonant enhancement in the Beliaev damping of a density wave mode, predicted recently by K\\'onya et al., Phys.~Rev.~A 89, 051601(R) (2014). The given density-wave mode constitutes the polariton-like soft mode of the self-organization phase tran...
Guiding-center dynamics of vortex dipoles in Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Middelkamp, S.; Schmelcher, P. [Zentrum fuer Optische Quantentechnologien, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, DE-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Torres, P. J. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, ES-18071 Granada (Spain); Kevrekidis, P. G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-4515 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece); Carretero-Gonzalez, R. [Nonlinear Dynamical System Group, Computational Science Research Center and Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182-7720 (United States); Freilich, D. V.; Hall, D. S. [Department of Physics, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002-5000 (United States)
2011-07-15
A quantized vortex dipole is the simplest vortex molecule, comprising two countercirculating vortex lines in a superfluid. Although vortex dipoles are endemic in two-dimensional superfluids, the precise details of their dynamics have remained largely unexplored. We present here several striking observations of vortex dipoles in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, and develop a vortex-particle model that generates vortex line trajectories that are in good agreement with the experimental data. Interestingly, these diverse trajectories exhibit essentially identical quasiperiodic behavior, in which the vortex lines undergo stable epicyclic orbits.
Collapse of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive self-interaction
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2016-01-01
We study the collapse of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive self-interaction. Equilibrium states in which the gravitational attraction and the attraction due to the self-interaction are counterbalanced by the quantum pressure exist only below a maximum mass $M_{\\rm max}=1.012\\hbar/\\sqrt{Gm|a_s|}$ where $a_sM_{\\rm max}$ the system is expected to collapse and form a black hole. We study the collapse dynamics by making a Gaussian ansatz for the wave function. We find tha...
Quantum Zeno suppression of three-body losses in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the possibility of suppressing three-body losses in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via the quantum Zeno effect, which means the delay of quantum evolution by frequent measurements. It turns out that this requires very fast measurements with the rate being determined by the spatial structure of the three-body form factor, i.e., the point interaction approximation δ3(r-r') is not adequate. Since the molecular binding energy Eb provides a natural limit for the measurement rate, this suppression mechanism can only work if the form factor possesses certain special properties.
Bose-Einstein condensation of spin-1 field in an Einstein universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of massive spin-1 particles in an Einstein universe. The system is considered under relativistic conditions taking into consideration the possibility of particle-antiparticle pair production. An exact expression for the charge density is obtained, then certain approximations are employed in order to obtain the solutions in closed form. A discussion of the approximations employed in this and other work is given. The effects of finite-size and spin-curvature coupling are emphasized. (author)
Bose-Einstein Condensation on a Manifold with Nonnegative Ricci Curvature
Akant, Levent; Tapramaz, Ferzan; Turgut, O Teoman
2013-01-01
The Bose-Einstein condensation for an ideal Bose gas and for a dilute weakly interacting Bose gas in a manifold with nonnegative Ricci curvature is investigated using the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates of the Laplace operator. The main focus is on the nonrelativistic gas. However, special relativistic ideal gas is also discussed. The thermodynamic limit of the heat kernel and eigenvalue estimates is taken and the results are used to derive bounds for the depletion coefficient. In the case of a weakly interacting gas Bogoliubov approximation is employed. The ground state is analyzed using heat kernel methods. The justification of the c-number substitution on a manifold is given.
Multiple atomic dark solitons in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates
Theocharis, G.; Weller, A.; Ronzheimer, J. P.; Gross, C.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2009-01-01
We consider the stability and dynamics of multiple dark solitons in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Our study is motivated by the fact that multiple matter-wave dark solitons may naturally form in such settings as per our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 130401 (2008)]. First, we study the dark soliton interactions and show that the dynamics of well-separated solitons (i.e., ones that undergo a collision with relatively low velocities) can be analyzed by means of particle-lik...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡正峰; 杜春光; 李师群
2003-01-01
We investigate the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEG) states which are trapped in different potential wells or two ground states of BEG in the same trap. We consider that lasers are nearly resonant with the atomic transitions. The difference of population transfer processes between BEG atoms and usual atoms is that the atomic interaction of the BEG atoms can cause some nonadiabatic effects, which may degrade the process. But with suitable detunings of laser pulses, the effects can be remedied to some extent according to different atomic interactions.
Analog quantum simulation of gravitational waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how to vary the physical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in order to mimic an effective gravitational-wave spacetime. In particular, we focus in the simulation of the recently discovered creation of particles by a real spacetime distortion in box-type traps. We show that, by modulating the speed of sound in the BEC, the phonons experience the effects of a simulated spacetime ripple with experimentally amenable parameters. These results will inform the experimental programme of gravitational wave astronomy with cold atoms. (orig.)
Core sizes and dynamical instabilities of giant vortices in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by a recent demonstration of cyclic addition of quantized vorticity into a Bose-Einstein condensate, the vortex pump, we study dynamical instabilities and core sizes of giant vortices. The core size is found to increase roughly as a square-root function of the quantum number of the vortex, whereas the strength of the dynamical instability either saturates to a fairly low value or increases extremely slowly for large quantum numbers. Our studies suggest that giant vortices of very high angular momenta may be achieved by gradually increasing the operation frequency of the vortex pump.
Quantum Correlation of Many Atoms in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this letter, we have studied sub-Poissonian distributions and quantum correlation of atoms in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. It is found that there exists the sub-Poissonian distributions for spin-1 and spin-(-1) components, respectively. There may exist the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. For the same atomic numbers, the regions that include violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality will shift rightwards with the increment of the Rabi frequency, whereas for the same Rabi frequency, the regions will shift leftwards with the increment of the atomic numbers.
Numerical studies on vortices in rotating dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the formation and dynamics of vortices in quasi two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We solve the time dependent two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation by using a combined split-step Crank-Nicolson (SSCN) and Fast Fourier-Transform (FFT) based numerical scheme and investigate the vortex dynamics in dipolar BECs trapped with harmonic and optical lattice potentials. The consequence of dipole-dipole interaction on vortex nucleation and number of vortices has been analysed. We observe that the breaking of symmetry due to anisotropic dipolar interaction enormously increase the speed of creation of vortices.
Attraction-induced dynamical stability of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonlinear lattice
Dasgupta, Raka; Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; Watanabe, Gentaro
2016-06-01
We study multiple-period Bloch states of a Bose-Einstein condensate with spatially periodic interatomic interaction. Solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the continuum model, and also using a simplified discrete version of it, we investigate the energy-band structures and the corresponding stability properties. We observe an "attraction-induced dynamical stability" mechanism caused by the localization of the density distribution in the attractive domains of the system and the isolation of these higher-density regions. This makes the superfluid stable near the zone boundary and also enhances the stability of higher-periodic states if the nonlinear interaction strength is sufficiently high.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2016-01-01
We develop a hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein equations. These equations combine quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, and general relativity. We consider the case of an arbitrary curved spacetime, the case of weak gravitational fields in a static or expanding background, and the nonrelativistic (Newtonian) limit. The Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein equations govern the evolution of a complex scalar field, possibly describing self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, coupled to an electromagnetic field. They may find applications in the context of dark matter, boson stars, and neutron stars with a superfluid core.
Decoherence in a quantum harmonic oscillator monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate
Brouard, S; Sokolovski, D
2010-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a quantum oscillator, whose evolution is monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a symmetric double well potential. It is demonstrated that the oscillator may experience various degrees of decoherence depending on the variable being measured and the state in which the BEC is prepared. These range from a `coherent' regime in which only the variances of the oscillator position and momentum are affected by measurement, to a slow (power law) or rapid (Gaussian) decoherence of the mean values themselves.
Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the shift in the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for a dilute Bose-Fermi mixture confined by a harmonic potential, to lowest order in both the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi coupling constants. The relative importance of the effect on the critical temperature of the boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions is investigated as a function of the parameters of the mixture. The possible relevance of the shift of the transition temperature in current experiments on trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures is discussed. (letter to the editor)
Analog quantum simulation of gravitational waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravo, Tupac; Sabin, Carlos; Fuentes, Ivette [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-01-04
We show how to vary the physical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in order to mimic an effective gravitational-wave spacetime. In particular, we focus in the simulation of the recently discovered creation of particles by a real spacetime distortion in box-type traps. We show that, by modulating the speed of sound in the BEC, the phonons experience the effects of a simulated spacetime ripple with experimentally amenable parameters. These results will inform the experimental programme of gravitational wave astronomy with cold atoms. (orig.)
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations from colliding Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We propose an experiment which can demonstrate quantum correlations in a physical scenario as discussed in the seminal work of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Momentum-entangled massive particles are produced via the four-wave mixing process of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. Central to establishing the correlations is the coherence length of the colliding BECs and we define the necessary conditions to observe quantum correlations. The particles’ quantum correlations can then be shown in a double–double-slit experiment or via ghost interference, which can be realized on a metastable Helium platform that has recently been developed in our group. (author)
A Time-Splitting and Sine Spectral Method for Dynamics of Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si-Qi Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC described by two coupled a three-dimension Gross-Pitaevskii (GP equations is considered, where one equation has dipole-dipole interaction while the other one has only the usual s-wave contact interaction, in a cigar trap. The time-splitting and sine spectral method in space is proposed to discretize the time-dependent equations for computing the dynamics of dipolar BEC. The singularity in the dipole-dipole interaction brings significant difficulties both in mathematical analysis and in numerical simulations. Numerical results are given to show the efficiency of this method.
Synchronization and Stabilization of Chaotic Dynamics in a Quasi-1D Bose-Einstein Condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. A. Idowu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear control is proposed for the exponential stabilization and synchronization of chaotic behaviour in a model of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC. The active control technique is designed based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria. The control design approach in both cases guarantees the stability of the controlled states. Whereas the synchronization of two identical BEC in their chaotic states can be realized using the scheme; a suitable controller is also capable of driving the otherwise chaotic oscillation to a stable state which could be expected in practice. The effectiveness of this technique is theoretically and numerically demonstrated.
Gluon transport equation with effective mass and dynamical onset of Bose-Einstein condensation
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng
2016-05-01
We study the transport equation describing a dense system of gluons, in the small scattering angle approximation, taking into account medium-generated effective masses of the gluons. We focus on the case of overpopulated systems that are driven to Bose-Einstein condensation on their way to thermalization. The presence of a mass modifies the dispersion relation of the gluon, as compared to the massless case, but it is shown that this does not change qualitatively the scaling behavior in the vicinity of the onset.
Mechanism of stimulated Hawking radiation in a laboratory Bose-Einstein condensate
Wang, Yi-Hsieh; Edwards, Mark; Clark, Charles W
2016-01-01
We model a sonic black hole analog in a quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate, using a Gross-Pitaevskii equation matching the configuration of a recent experiment by Steinhauer. The model agrees well with the experimental observations, with no adjustable parameters, demonstrating their hydrodynamic nature. With enhanced but experimentally feasible parameters we establish by spectral analysis that a growing bow wave is generated at the inner (white hole) horizon, stimulating the emission of Hawking radiation. The black hole laser effect plays no role.
Rydberg dressing of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate
Płodzień, Marcin; van Druten, N J; Kokkelmans, Servaas
2016-01-01
We study the influence of Rydberg dressed interactions in a one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We show that 1D is advantageous over 3D for observing BEC Rydberg dressing. The effects of dressing are studied by investigating collective BEC dynamics after a rapid switch-off of the Rydberg dressing interaction. The results can be interpreted as an effective modification of the $s$-wave scattering length. We include this modification in an analytical model for the 1D BEC, and compare it to numerical calculations of Rydberg dressing under realistic experimental conditions.
Variational dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate wavepacket trapped in an optical lattice. In the tight-binding limit, the system maps onto a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Using a collective coordinate approximation, we investigate different dynamical regimes: diffusive (in which the boson wavepacket spreads out), self-trapped (with a self-induced pinning), breathing (where the centre of mass of the wavepacket moves with an oscillating width), and solitonic (in which the wavepacket shape is exactly preserved during the dynamics). (author)
Quantum Correlation of Many Atoms in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this letter, we have studied sub-Poissonian distributions and quantum correlation of atoms in spinor Bose Einstein condensates. It is found that there exists the sub-Poissonian distributions for spin-1 and spin-(-1) components,respectively. There may exist the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. For the same atomic numbers, the regions that include violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality will shift rightwards with the increment of the Rabi frequency,whereas for the same Rabi frequency, the regions will shift leftwards with the increment of the atomic numbers.
Observation of Spontaneous Coherence in Bose-Einstein Condensate of Magnons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The room-temperature dynamics of a magnon gas driven by short microwave pumping pulses is studied. An overpopulation of the lowest energy level of the system following the pumping is observed. Using the sensitivity of the Brillouin light scattering technique to the coherence degree of the scattering magnons we demonstrate the spontaneous emergence of coherence of the magnons at the lowest level, if their density exceeds a critical value. This finding is clear proof of the quantum nature of the observed phenomenon and direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons at room temperature
Creation and optical detection of spin cat states in Bose-Einstein condensates
Lau, Hon Wai; Wang, Tian; Simon, Christoph
2014-01-01
We propose a method to create "spin cat states", i.e. macroscopic superpositions of coherent spin states, in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates using the Kerr nonlinearity due to atomic collisions. Based on a detailed study of atom loss, we conclude that cat sizes of hundreds of atoms should be realistic. The existence of the spin cat states can be demonstrated by optical readout. Our analysis also includes the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, atom number fluctuations and limited readout efficiency.
Multistability and Critical Fluctuation in a Split Bose-Einstein Condensate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ying; SUN Chang-Pu
2002-01-01
By using a two-mode description, we show that there exist the multistability, phase transition and associatedcritical fluctuations in the macroscopic tunnelling process between the halves of a double-well trap containing a Bose-Einstein condensate. The phase transition that two of the triple stable states and an unstable state merge into one stablestate or a reverse process takes place whenever the ratio of the mean field energy per particle to the tunnelling energygoes across a critical value of order one. The critical fluctuation phenomenon corresponds to squeezed states for thephase difference between the two wells accompanying with large fluctuations of atom numbers.
Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albus, A P [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Giorgini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Viverit, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-38050 Povo (Italy)
2002-12-14
We calculate the shift in the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for a dilute Bose-Fermi mixture confined by a harmonic potential, to lowest order in both the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi coupling constants. The relative importance of the effect on the critical temperature of the boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions is investigated as a function of the parameters of the mixture. The possible relevance of the shift of the transition temperature in current experiments on trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures is discussed. (letter to the editor)
Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures
Albus, Alexander P.; Giorgini, Stefano; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Viverit, Luciano
2002-01-01
We calculate the shift in the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for a dilute Bose-Fermi mixture confined by a harmonic potential to lowest order in both the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi coupling constants. The relative importance of the effect on the critical temperature of the boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions is investigated as a function of the parameters of the mixture. The possible relevance of the shift of the transition temperature in current experiments on trappe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the ground states of rotating atomic Bose-Einstein condensates with dipolar interactions. We present the results of numerical studies on a periodic geometry which show vortex lattice ground states of various symmetries: triangular and square vortex lattices, ''stripe crystal,'' and ''bubble crystal.'' We present the phase diagram (for systems with a large number of vortices) as a function of the ratio of dipolar to contact interactions and of the chemical potential. We discuss the experimental requirements for observing transitions between vortex lattice ground states via dipolar interactions. We finally investigate the stability of mean-field supersolid phases of a quasi-two-dimensional nonrotating Bose gas with dipolar interactions
Spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well
Citro, Roberta; Naddeo, Adele
2014-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a spin-orbit (SO) coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential inspired by the experimental protocol recently developed by NIST group. We focus on the regime where the number of atoms is very large and perform a two-mode approximation. An analytical solution of the two-site Bose-Hubbard-like Hamiltonian is found for several limiting cases, which range from a strong Raman coupling to a strong Josephson coupling, ending with the complete mod...
Observation of Attractive and Repulsive Polarons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils B.; Wacker, Lars; Skalmstang, Kristoffer T.;
2016-01-01
The behavior of a mobile impurity particle interacting with a quantum-mechanical medium is of fundamental importance in physics. Due to the great flexibility of atomic gases, our understanding of the impurity problem has improved dramatically since it was realized experimentally in a particularly...... for an impurity interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We measure the energy of the impurity both for attractive and repulsive interactions with the BEC, and find excellent agreement with theories that incorporate three-body correlations, both in the weak-coupling limits and across unitarity. Our...
Observation of attractive and repulsive polarons in a Bose-Einstein condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils Byg
2016-01-01
The problem of an impurity particle moving through a bosonic medium plays a fundamental role in physics, ranging from organic electronics to the Standard Model. However, despite intense theoretical investigation, the canonical scenario of a mobile impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate...... (BEC) has not yet been realized. Here, we use radio frequency spectroscopy of ultracold bosonic 39K atoms to experimentally demonstrate the existence of a well-defined quasiparticle state of an impurity interacting with a BEC. We measure the energy of the impurity both for attractive and repulsive...
On mathematical models for Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices (expanded version)
Aftalion, Amandine; 10.1142/S0129055X0900361X
2009-01-01
Our aim is to analyze the various energy functionals appearing in the physics literature and describing the behavior of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice. We want to justify the use of some reduced models. For that purpose, we will use the semi-classical analysis developed for linear problems related to the Schr\\"odinger operator with periodic potential or multiple wells potentials. We justify, in some asymptotic regimes, the reduction to low dimensional problems and analyze the reduced problems.
Quantum Kibble-Zurek Mechanism in a Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Anquez, M; Robbins, B A; Bharath, H M; Boguslawski, M; Hoang, T M; Chapman, M S
2016-04-15
The dynamics of a quantum phase transition are explored using slow quenches from the polar to the broken-axisymmetry phases in a small spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate. Measurements of the evolution of the spin populations reveal a power-law scaling of the temporal onset of excitations versus quench speed as predicted from quantum extensions of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The satisfactory agreement of the measured scaling exponent with the analytical theory and numerical simulations provides experimental confirmation of the quantum Kibble-Zurek model. PMID:27127974
Xiao-Dong Bai; Mei Zhang; Jun Xiong; Guo-Jian Yang; Fu-Guo Deng
2015-01-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixtur...
Full-time dynamics of modulational instability in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the full-time dynamics of modulational instability in F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates for the case of the integrable three-component model associated with the matrix nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We obtain an exact homoclinic solution of this model by employing the dressing method which we generalize to the case of the higher-rank projectors. This homoclinic solution describes the development of modulational instability beyond the linear regime, and we show that the modulational instability demonstrates the reversal property when the growth of the modulated amplitude is changed by its exponential decay
Dark-dark solitons and modulational instability in miscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoefer, M. A. [North Carolina State University, Department of Mathematics, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Chang, J. J.; Hamner, C.; Engels, P. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)
2011-10-15
We investigate the dynamics of two miscible superfluids experiencing fast counterflow in a narrow channel. The superfluids are formed by two distinguishable components of a trapped dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The onset of counterflow-induced modulational instability throughout the cloud is observed and shown to lead to the proliferation of dark-dark vector solitons. These solitons do not exist in single-component systems, exhibit intriguing beating dynamics, and can experience a transverse instability leading to vortex line structures. Experimental results and multidimensional numerical simulations are presented.
Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-10-01
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters
Mean-field model of interaction between bright vortex solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the explicit numerical solution of the axially symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation we study the dynamics of interaction among vortex solitons in a rotating matter-wave bright soliton train in a radially trapped and axially free Bose-Einstein condensate to understand certain features of the experiment by Strecker et al (2002 Nature 417 150). In a soliton train, solitons of opposite phase (phase δ = π) repel and stay apart without changing shape; solitons with π = 0 attract, interact and coalesce, but eventually come out; solitons with a general δ usually repel but interact inelastically by exchanging matter. We study this and suggest future experiments with vortex solitons
Four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensate systems with multiple spin states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a Bose-Einstein condensate system having multiple spin wave packets that are initially overlapping in physical space, but have nonvanishing relative momentum that causes them to recede from one another. Three receding condensate atom wave packets can result in production of a fourth wave packet by the process of FWM due to atom-atom interactions. We consider cases where the four final wave packets are composed of one, two, three, and four different internal spin components. FWM with one or two-spin state wave packets is much stronger than three- or four-spin state FWM, wherein two of the coherent moving Bose-Einstein condensate wave packets form a spin-polarization grating that rotates the spin projection of the third wave into that of the fourth diffracted wave (as opposed to the one- or two-spin state case where a regular density grating is responsible for the diffraction). Calculations of FWM for 87Rb and 23Na condensate systems are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the enhancement of spin coherence with periodic, concatenated, or Uhrig dynamical decoupling N-pulse sequences in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, where the intrinsic dynamical instability in such a ferromagnetically interacting condensate causes spin decoherence and eventually leads to a multiple spatial-domain structure or a spin texture. Our results show that all three sequences successfully enhance the spin coherence by pushing the wave vector of the most unstable mode in the condensate to a larger value. Among the three sequences with the same number of pulses, the concatenated one shows the best performance in preserving the spin coherence. More interestingly, we find that all three sequences exactly follow the same enhancement law, k-T1/2=c, with k- the wave vector of the most unstable mode, T the sequence period, and c a sequence-dependent constant. Such a law between k- and T is also derived analytically for an attractive scalar Bose-Einstein condensate subjected to a periodic dynamical decoupling sequence.
Tunneling Dynamics of Two-Species Bose-Einstein Condensates with Feshbach Resonances
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Chang-Yong
2003-01-01
We investigate tunneling dynamics of atomic group consisting of three atoms in Bose-Einstein condensateswith Feshbach resonance. It is shown that the tunneling of the atom group depends not only on the inter-atomicnonlinear interactions and the initial number of atoms in these condensates, but also on the tunneling coupling betweenthe atomic condensate and the three-atomic molecular condensate. It is found that besides oscillating tunneling currentbetween the atomic condensate and the molecular condensate, the nonlinear atomic group tunneling dynamics sustains aself-maintained population imbalance: a macroscopic quantum self-trapping effect. The influence of de-coherence causedby non-condensate atoms on the tunneling dynamics is studied. It is indicated that de-coherence suppresses the atomicgroup tunneling.
Dynamics of Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Random Potential.
Mardonov, Sh; Modugno, M; Sherman, E Ya
2015-10-30
Disorder plays a crucial role in spin dynamics in solids and condensed matter systems. We demonstrate that for a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a random potential two mechanisms of spin evolution that can be characterized as "precessional" and "anomalous" are at work simultaneously. The precessional mechanism, typical for solids, is due to the condensate displacement. The unconventional anomalous mechanism is due to the spin-dependent velocity producing the distribution of the condensate spin polarization. The condensate expansion is accompanied by a random displacement and fragmentation, where it becomes sparse, as clearly revealed in the spin dynamics. Thus, different stages of the evolution can be characterized by looking at the condensate spin. PMID:26565441
Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Tarasov, S. V.
2016-01-01
The analytical theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas in mesoscopic systems has been briefly reviewed in application to traps with arbitrary shapes and dimension. This theory describes the phases of the classical gas and the formed Bose-Einstein condensate, as well as the entire vicinity of the phase transition point. The statistics and thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation have been studied in detail, including their self-similar structure in the critical region, transition to the thermodynamic limit, effect of boundary conditions on the properties of a system, and nonequivalence of the description of Bose-Einstein condensation in different statistical ensembles. The complete classification of universality classes of Bose-Einstein condensation has been given.
Vortex excitation in a stirred toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
Yakimenko, A. I.; Isaieva, K. O.; Vilchinskii, S. I.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.
2014-01-01
Motivated by the recent experiment [Wright et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 063633 (2013)], we investigate formation of vortices in an annular BEC stirred by a narrow blue-detuned optical beam. In the framework of a two-dimensional mean field model, we study the dissipative dynamics of the condensate with parameters matched to the experimental conditions. Vortex-antivortex pairs appear near the center of the stirrer in the bulk of the condensate for slow motion of the stirring beam. When the barrier ...
Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mewes, M.; Andrews, M.; Kurn, D.; Durfee, D.; Townsend, C.; Ketterle, W. [Department of Physics and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
1997-01-01
We have demonstrated an output coupler for Bose condensed atoms in a magnetic trap. Short pulses of rf radiation were used to create Bose condensates in a superposition of trapped and untrapped hyperfine states. The fraction of out-coupled atoms was adjusted between 0% and 100% by varying the amplitude of the rf radiation. This configuration produces output pulses of coherent atoms and can be regarded as a pulsed {open_quotes}atom laser.{close_quotes} {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Photoionization of ultracold and Bose-Einstein-condensed Rb atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Photoionization of a cold atomic sample offers intriguing possibilities for observing collective effects at extremely low temperatures. Irradiation of a rubidium condensate and of cold rubidium atoms within a magneto-optical trap (MOT) with laser pulses ionizing through one-photon and two-photon absorption processes was performed. Losses and modifications in the density profile of the remaining trapped cold cloud or the remaining condensate sample were examined as functions of the ionizing laser parameters. Ionization cross sections were measured for atoms in a MOT, while in magnetic traps losses larger than those expected for ionization process were measured
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps
Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Telmini, M.; Pruvost, L.; Charron, E.
2010-08-01
We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order ℓ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a “finger” or of a “hockey puck” in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order l allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a 'finger' or of a 'hockey puck' in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Quantum Superposition States of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Cirac, J. I.; Lewenstein, M.; Moelmer, K.; Zoller, P.
1997-01-01
We propose a scheme to create a macroscopic ``Sch\\"odinger cat'' state formed by two interacting Bose condensates. In analogy with quantum optics, where the control and engineering of quantum states can be maintained to a large extend, we consider the present scheme to be an example of quantum atom optics at work.
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies and Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter
Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Profumo, Stefano
2014-01-01
We constrain the parameters of a self-interacting massive dark matter scalar particle in a condensate using the kinematics of the eight brightest dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way. For the case of an attractive self-interaction the condensate develops a mass density profile with a characteristic scale radius that is closely related to the fundamental parameters of the theory. We find that the velocity dispersion of dwarf spheroidal galaxies suggests a scale radius of the order of 1 kpc, in tension with previous results found using the rotational curve of low-surface-brightness and dwarf galaxies. We discuss the implications of our findings for the particle dark matter model and argue that a single classical coherent state cannot play, in general, a relevant role for the description of dark matter in galaxies.
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-04-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level.
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas.
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-01-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978
Bose Einstein condensation of gases in a harmonic potential trap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Zomorrodian
2005-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most interesting properties of boson gases is that under special conditions, there is a possibility of a phase transition, in a critical temperature below which all bosons condensate into the ground state. This phenomenon is called Bose – Einstein Condensation (BEC. In this paper, we investigate BEC in a harmonic oscillator trap. We conclude that, in contrast to a free boson gas, there is no critical temperature for phase transition in a harmonic oscillator trap. However , by numerical and analytical calculation, it is possible to obtain a temperature at which the heat capacity is maximum. We call this the critical temperature . Possible explanation for all these features will be explained in this paper.
Small Amplitude Solitons in Bose Einstein Condensates with External Perturbation
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Deng-Long
2008-01-01
By developing a small amplitude soliton approximation method, we study analytically weak nonlinear excitations in cigar-shaped condensates with repulsive interatomic interaction under consideration of external perturbation potential. It is shown that matter wave solitons may exist and travel over a long distance without attenuation and change in shape by properly adjusting the strength of interatomic interaction to compensate for the effect of external perturbation potential.
Thermalization of gluons with Bose-Einstein condensation
Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Kai; Zhuang, Pengfei; Greiner, Carsten
2014-01-01
We study the thermalization of gluons far from thermal equilibrium in relativistic kinetic theory. The initial distribution of gluons is assumed to resemble that in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Only elastic scatterings in static, nonexpanding gluonic matter are considered. At first we show that the occurrence of condensation in the limit of vanishing particle mass requires a general constraint for the scattering matrix element. Then the thermalization of gluons w...
Dark Matter Halos as Bose-Einstein Condensates
Mielke, E W; Schunck, F E; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Fuchs, Burkhard; Schunck, Franz E.
2006-01-01
Galactic dark matter is modelled by a scalar field in order to effectively modify Kepler's law without changing standard Newtonian gravity. In particular, a solvable toy model with a self-interaction U(Phi) borrowed from non-topological solitons produces already qualitatively correct rotation curves and scaling relations. Although relativistic effects in the halo are very small, we indicate corrections arising from the general relativistic formulation. Thereby, we can also probe the weak gravitational lensing of our soliton type halo. For cold scalar fields, it corresponds to a gravitationally confined Boson-Einstein condensate, but of galactic dimensions.
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate
Sabín, Carlos; White, Angela; Hackermuller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-09-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system.
Production of rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole trap
Zhang, Dong-Fang; Kong, Ling-Ran; Li, Kai; Jiang, Kai-Jun
2016-01-01
We have experimentally produced rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole (OPQ) trap. A far blue-detuned focused laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm is plugged in the center of the magnetic quadrupole trap to increase the number of trapped atoms and suppress the heating. A radio frequency (RF) evaporative cooling in the magneto-optical hybrid trap is applied to decrease the atom temperature into degeneracy. The atom number of the condensate is $1.2(0.4)\\times10^5$ and the temperature is below 100 nK. We have also studied characteristic behaviors of the condensate, such as phase space density (PSD), condensate fraction and anisotropic expansion.
Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities.
Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian
2015-07-24
We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal. PMID:26252669
Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Sabín, Carlos; White, Angela; Hackermuller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system. PMID:25241663
Fano resonances control and slow light with Bose-Einstein Condensate in a cavity setup
Akram, M Javed; Khan, M Miskeen; Saif, Farhan
2015-01-01
We theoretically investigate the probe field transmission in an optomechanical cavity setup with Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), where the standing wave that forms in the cavity results in an one-dimensional optical lattice potential. We report that in the presence of atom-atom interactions, the coupling of the cavity field with condensate (Bogoliubov mode), the cavity field fluctuations and the condensate fluctuations leads to the emergence of the tunable Fano resonances in the probe absorption spectrum. Within the experimental reach, based on analytical and numerical simulations, we find that the optomechanical system with BEC provides great flexibility to tune the Fano resonances, as the width of the resonance is controllable by the coupling field and additionally, with the atom-atom interaction. Moreover, Fano resonances are analyzed for the fluctuations of the cavity field and the fluctuations of the condensate with finite atomic two-body interaction, which shows an excellent compatibility with the origi...
Vortex structures of rotating spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the quasi-two-dimensional two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling in a rotating trap. The rotation angular velocity couples to the mechanical angular momentum, which contains a noncanonical part arising from SO coupling. The effects of an external Zeeman term favoring spin polarization along the radial direction is also considered, which has the same form as the noncanonical part of the mechanical angular momentum. The rotating condensate exhibits a variety of rich structures by varying the strengths of the trapping potential and interaction. With a strong trapping potential, the condensate exhibits a half-quantum vortex-lattice configuration. Such a configuration is driven to the normal one by introducing the external radial Zeeman field. In the case of a weak trap potential, the condensate exhibits a multidomain pattern of plane-wave states under the external radial Zeeman field.
Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons pumped by the bulk spin Seebeck effect
Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Flebus, Benedetta
2016-03-01
We propose inducing Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons in a magnetic insulator by a heat flow oriented toward its boundary. At a critical heat flux, the oversaturated thermal gas of magnons accumulated at the boundary precipitates the condensate, which then grows gradually as the thermal bias is dialed up further. The thermal magnons thus pumped by the magnonic bulk (spin) Seebeck effect must generally overcome both the local Gilbert damping associated with the coherent magnetic dynamics as well as the radiative spin-wave losses toward the magnetic bulk, in order to achieve the threshold of condensation. We quantitatively estimate the requisite bias in the case of the ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet, discuss different physical regimes of condensation, and contrast it with the competing (so-called Doppler-shift) bulk instability.
Probing a scattering resonance in Rydberg molecules with a Bose-Einstein condensate
Schlagmüller, Michael; Nguyen, Huan; Lochead, Graham; Engel, Felix; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2015-01-01
We present spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom excited within a Bose-Einstein condensate. We not only observe the density shift as discovered by Amaldi and Segre in 1934, but a line shape which changes with the principal quantum number n. The line broadening depends precisely on the interaction potential energy curves of the Rydberg electron with the neutral atom perturbers. In particular, we show the relevance of the triplet p-wave shape resonance in the Rydberg electron-Rb(5S) scattering, which significantly modifies the interaction potential. With a peak density of 5.5x10^14 cm^-3, and therefore an inter-particle spacing of 1300 a0 within a Bose-Einstein condensate, the potential energy curves can be probed at these Rydberg ion - neutral atom separations. We present a simple microscopic model for the spectroscopic line shape by treating the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit as zero-velocity, uncorrelated, point-like particles, with binding energies associated with their ion-neutral separation, and ...
Spin and field squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Huang, Yixiao; Hu, Zheng-Da
2015-01-01
Recently, strong spin-orbit coupling with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strength has been realized in neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via a pair of Raman lasers. In this report, we investigate spin and field squeezing of the ground state in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. By mapping the spin-orbit coupled BEC to the well-known quantum Dicke model, the Dicke type quantum phase transition is presented with the order parameters quantified by the spin polarization and occupation number of harmonic trap mode. This Dicke type quantum phase transition may be captured by the spin and field squeezing arising from the spin-orbit coupling. We further consider the effect of a finite detuning on the ground state and show the spin polarization and the quasi-momentum exhibit a step jump at zero detuning. Meanwhile, we also find that the presence of the detuning enhances the occupation number of harmonic trap mode, while it suppresses the spin and the field squeezing. PMID:25620051
High-performance experimental apparatus for large atom number 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe our high-performance experimental apparatus for producing large atom number 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates by using a double magneto-optical trap (MOT) system that consists of a two-dimensional MOT (2D MOT) and a three-dimensional MOT (3D MOT). As an atomic beam source for loading the 3D MOT, we use a unique 2D MOT system with two-color pushing beams, which increase the loading rate and the total number of atoms in the 3D MOT, compared to a pure 2D MOT by a factor of 20. After MOT compression and polarization gradient cooling, atoms are optically pumped into a magnetically trappable hyperfine state F = -1> to be loaded into a quadrupole-Ioffe-configuration (QUIC) trap. We enhance this optical pumping process by up to 300% by using two laser beams. After rf evaporative cooling, a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with more than 2 x 107 atoms is achieved.
Posso Trujillo, Katerine; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gaaloul, Naceur; Quantus Team
Preparation of Bose Einstein condensates in realistc trapping potentials for precision atom interferometry Theoretical studies of the ground state and the dynamical properties of Bose Einstein condensates (BECs) are typically realized by considering the ensemble as being initiaally trapped by a harmonic potential. Dramatic discrepancies were found by comparing numerical results of the long-time expansion of BECs after being released from the harmonic trap, and measurements of the free evolution and delta-kick cooling (DKC) of a 87Rb BEC on large timescales of up to 2 s in micro-gravity (micro-g) environment such as those performed in the QUANTUS project from our group. The modification in the dynamics of a 87Rb BEC with the application of DKC by using experimentally implemented trapping geometries and the effect of gravity have been studied. Three different configurations have been considered: atom chip-based potential, dipole trap and the time-averaged orbiting potential. Such discrepancies may be crucial in high precision atom interferometry experiments in micro-g and zero-g platforms in which the implementation of DKC is mandatory to achieve the long-expansion times required
Black hole lasers in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider elongated condensates that cross twice the speed of sound. In the absence of periodic boundary conditions, the phonon spectrum possesses a discrete and finite set of complex frequency modes that induce a laser effect. This effect constitutes a dynamical instability and is due to the fact that the supersonic region acts as a resonant cavity. We numerically compute the complex frequencies and density-density correlation function. We obtain patterns with very specific signatures. In terms of the gravitational analogy, the flows we consider correspond to a pair of black hole and white hole horizons, and the laser effect can be conceived as self-amplified Hawking radiation. This is verified by comparing the outgoing flux at early time with the standard black hole radiation.
Black hole lasers in Bose-Einstein condensates
Finazzi, S.; Parentani, R.
2010-09-01
We consider elongated condensates that cross twice the speed of sound. In the absence of periodic boundary conditions, the phonon spectrum possesses a discrete and finite set of complex frequency modes that induce a laser effect. This effect constitutes a dynamical instability and is due to the fact that the supersonic region acts as a resonant cavity. We numerically compute the complex frequencies and density-density correlation function. We obtain patterns with very specific signatures. In terms of the gravitational analogy, the flows we consider correspond to a pair of black hole and white hole horizons, and the laser effect can be conceived as self-amplified Hawking radiation. This is verified by comparing the outgoing flux at early time with the standard black hole radiation.
Bose-Einstein condensation of trapped atoms with dipole interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The path-integral Monte Carlo method is used to simulate dilute trapped Bose gases and to investigate the equilibrium properties at finite temperatures. The quantum particles have a long-range dipole-dipole interaction and a short-range s-wave interaction. Using an anisotropic pseudopotential for the long-range dipolar interaction and a hard-sphere potential for the short-range s-wave interaction, we calculate the energetics and structural properties as a function of temperature and the number of particles. Also, in order to determine the effects of dipole-dipole forces and the influence of the trapping field on the dipolar condensate, we use two cylindrically symmetric harmonic confinements (a cigar-shaped trap and a disk-shaped trap). We find that the net effect of dipole-dipole interactions is governed by the trapping geometry. For a cigar-shaped trap, the net contribution of dipolar interactions is attractive and the shrinking of the density profiles is observed. For a disk-shaped trap, the net effect of long-range dipolar forces is repulsive and the density profiles expand
Resonant Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates
Sols, Fernando; Zapata, Ivar; Albert, Mathias; Parentani, Renaud
2012-02-01
We study double-barrier interfaces separating regions of asymptotically subsonic and supersonic flow of Bose-condensed atoms [1]. These setups contain at least one black hole sonic horizon from which the analogue of Hawking radiation should be generated and emitted against the flow in the subsonic region. Multiple coherent scattering by the double-barrier structure strongly modulates the transmission probability of phonons, rendering it very sensitive to their frequency. As a result, resonant tunneling occurs with high probability within a few narrow frequency intervals. This gives rise to highly non-thermal spectra with sharp peaks. We find that these peaks are mostly associated with decaying resonances and only occasionally with dynamical instabilities. Even at achievable non-zero temperatures, the radiation peaks can be dominated by spontaneous emission, i.e. enhanced zero-point fluctuations, and not, as is often the case in analogue models, by stimulated emission.[4pt] [1] I. Zapata, M. Albert, R. Parentani, F. Sols, New J. Phys. 13, 063048 (2011).
The scissors mode and superfluidity of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with the fundamental relation between Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity. In particular an extensive study of the scissors mode of excitation in a Bose-Einstein condensed gas of 87Rb atoms is presented. The complex apparatus constructed for the condensate production and the pathway that leads to the quantum degeneracy through laser cooling, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling of the atomic sample are described. Temperatures as low as 300 nK are achieved. At these temperatures about 2x104 atoms condense in the ground state of the magnetic trap, realizing the phenomenon predicted by A. Einstein in 1925. The scissors mode is excited in our experiment by a sudden rotation of the trap through a small angle. Its observation shows that a condensate is irrotational and as such a superfluid. Above the transition temperature the scissors oscillation occurs at two frequencies. The high-lying frequency corresponds to an irrotational velocity flow that is the classical counterpart of the superfluid oscillation. The low-lying one is instead related to rotational flow. Its absence and the occurrence of the single frequency oscillation for the condensate are the key features that indicate superfluidity. A systematic experimental study of the temperature dependent damping and frequency shifts of the mode is presented and compared with available theoretical predictions, finding a good agreement. This enabled the investigation of the relative motion of the superfluid through the normal fluid. The frequency shift of the mode as a function of temperature is consistent with a quenching of the moment of inertia as the temperature is reduced because of superfluidity. The fundamental relation between the scissors mode and the moment of inertia is also pointed out for partially condensed clouds in the context of linear response theory. In a semiclassical approximation the moment of inertia is directly derived from our scissors mode data. (author)
Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür Esat; Tarhan, D.
2013-01-01
Laser pulse amplification and dispersion compensation in effectively extended optical cavity containing Bose-Einstein condensates D Tarhan1, A Sennaroglu2, ¨O E M¨ustecaplıo˘glu2 1Harran University, Department of Physics, 63300, S¸anlıurfa, Turkey 2Ko¸c University, Department of Physics, 34450, Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey E-mail: Abstract. We review and critically evaluate our proposal of a pulse amplification scheme based on two Bose-Einstein cond...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henderson, K; Ryu, C; MacCormick, C; Boshier, M G [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: boshier@lanl.gov
2009-04-15
There is a pressing need for robust and straightforward methods to create potentials for trapping Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) that are simultaneously dynamic, fully arbitrary and sufficiently stable to not heat the ultracold gas. We show here how to accomplish these goals, using a rapidly moving laser beam that 'paints' a time-averaged optical dipole potential in which we create BECs in a variety of geometries, including toroids, ring lattices and square lattices. Matter wave interference patterns confirm that the trapped gas is a condensate. As a simple illustration of dynamics, we show that the technique can transform a toroidal condensate into a ring lattice and back into a toroid. The technique is general and should work with any sufficiently polarizable low-energy particles.
Spin-orbit angular momentum coupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate
Chen, Li; Pu, Han; Zhang, Yunbo
2016-01-01
We propose a simple model with spin and orbit angular momentum coupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, where three internal atomic states are Raman coupled by a pair of copropagating Laguerre-Gaussian beams. The resulting Raman transition imposes a transfer of orbital angular momentum between photons and the condensate in a spin-dependent way. Focusing on a regime where the single-particle ground state is nearly threefold degenerate, we show that the weak interatomic interaction in the condensate produces a rich phase diagram, and that a many-body Rabi oscillation between two quantum phases can be induced by a sudden quench of the quadratic Zeeman shift. We carried out our calculations using both a variational method and a full numerical method, and found excellent agreement.
Half-Quantum Vortices in an Antiferromagnetic Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Seo, Sang Won; Kang, Seji; Kwon, Woo Jin; Shin, Yong-il
2015-07-01
We report on the observation of half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in the easy-plane polar phase of an antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Using in situ magnetization-sensitive imaging, we observe that pairs of HQVs with opposite core magnetization are generated when singly charged quantum vortices are injected into the condensate. The dynamics of HQV pair formation is characterized by measuring the temporal evolutions of the pair separation distance and the core magnetization, which reveals the short-range nature of the repulsive interactions between the HQVs. We find that spin fluctuations arising from thermal population of transverse magnon excitations do not significantly affect the HQV pair formation dynamics. Our results demonstrate the instability of a singly charged vortex in the antiferromagnetic spinor condensate. PMID:26182102
Dynamics and Interaction of Vortex Lines in an Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Serafini, S; Barbiero, M; Debortoli, M; Donadello, S; Larcher, F; Dalfovo, F; Lamporesi, G; Ferrari, G
2015-10-23
We study the real-time dynamics of vortices in a large elongated Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of sodium atoms using a stroboscopic technique. Vortices are produced via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a quench across the BEC transition and they slowly precess keeping their orientation perpendicular to the long axis of the trap as expected for solitonic vortices in a highly anisotropic condensate. Good agreement with theoretical predictions is found for the precession period as a function of the orbit amplitude and the number of condensed atoms. In configurations with two or more vortices, we see signatures of vortex-vortex interaction in the shape and visibility of the orbits. In addition, when more than two vortices are present, their decay is faster than the thermal decay observed for one or two vortices. The possible role of vortex reconnection processes is discussed. PMID:26551093
Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano, E-mail: bettoni@sissa.it, E-mail: mattia.colombo@studenti.unitn.it, E-mail: liberati@sissa.it [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2014-02-01
Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales.
Collisional Dynamics of Half-Quantum Vortices in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate
Seo, Sang Won; Kwon, Woo Jin; Kang, Seji; Shin, Y.
2016-05-01
We present an experimental study on the interaction and dynamics of half-quantum vortices (HQVs) in an antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. By exploiting the orbit motion of a vortex dipole in a trapped condensate, we perform a collision experiment of two HQV pairs, and observe that the scattering motions of the HQVs is consistent with the short-range vortex interaction that arises from nonsingular magnetized vortex cores. We also investigate the relaxation dynamics of turbulent condensates containing many HQVs, and demonstrate that spin wave excitations are generated by the collisional motions of the HQVs. The short-range vortex interaction and the HQV-magnon coupling represent two characteristics of the HQV dynamics in the spinor superfluid.
Formation of soliton trains in Bose-Einstein condensates by temporal Talbot effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the formation of matter-wave soliton trains in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a box-like potential. We find that the generation of 'real' solitons understood as multipeak structures undergoing elastic collisions is possible if the condensate is released from the box into the harmonic trap only within well-defined time intervals. When the box-like potential is switched off outside the existing time windows, the number of peaks in a train changes resembling missing solitons observed in recent experiment (Strecker et al 2002 Nature 417 150). Our findings indicate that a new way of generating soliton trains in condensates through the temporal, matter-wave Talbot effect is possible. (letter to the editor)
Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales
Analysis of a Bose-Einstein condensate double-well atom interferometer.
Faust, Douglas K; Reinhardt, William P
2010-12-10
Motivated by an open theoretical question in Bose-Einstein condensate atom interferometry, we introduce a novel computational method to describe the condensate order parameter in the presence of a central barrier. We are able to follow the full dynamics of the system during the raising of a barrier, from a single macroscopically occupied ground state to a state where imaging shows a split density and, finally, to the observation of a phase-controlled interference pattern. We are able to discriminate between a mean-field and a two-mode state via the Penrose-Onsager criterion. By simulating the first such experiment, where in spite of the observed splitting of the condensate density there is never more than a single macroscopically occupied state, we provide a definitive interpretation of these systems as a novel many-body form of Young's double-slit experiment. PMID:21231513
Analysis of a Bose-Einstein Condensate Double-Well Atom Interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by an open theoretical question in Bose-Einstein condensate atom interferometry, we introduce a novel computational method to describe the condensate order parameter in the presence of a central barrier. We are able to follow the full dynamics of the system during the raising of a barrier, from a single macroscopically occupied ground state to a state where imaging shows a split density and, finally, to the observation of a phase-controlled interference pattern. We are able to discriminate between a mean-field and a two-mode state via the Penrose-Onsager criterion. By simulating the first such experiment, where in spite of the observed splitting of the condensate density there is never more than a single macroscopically occupied state, we provide a definitive interpretation of these systems as a novel many-body form of Young's double-slit experiment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tuszynski, J. A.; Middleton, J.; Portet, S.;
2003-01-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii regime of a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using a fully non-linear approach. The confining potential first adopted is that of a linear ramp. An infinite class of new analytical solutions of this linear ramp potential approximation to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper an influence of electron-phonon interaction screening on the critical temperature of high-temperature cuprate superconductors is studied within the framework of extended Holstein model and on the basis of Bose-Einstein condensation of ideal gas of bipolarons. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The hydrodynamics of quantized vortices and solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential are studied by numerically solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The oscillating potential keeps nucleating vortex dipoles, whose impulses alternately change their direction synchronously with the oscillation of the potential. This leads to synergy dynamics of vortices and solitons in quantum fluids.
de Valcarcel, German J.
2002-01-01
The parametrically driven, damped Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models Bose-Einstein condensates in which the interatomic s-wave scattering length is modulated in time, is shown to support spatially modulated states in the form of rolls. A Landau equation with broken phase symmetry is derived, which governs the dynamics of the roll amplitude.
Stability and d -wave collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Although the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation is a purely statistical effect that also appears in an ideal gas, the physics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of dilute gases is considerably enriched by the presence of interactions among the atoms. In usual experiments with BECs, the only relevant interaction is the isotropic and short-range contact interaction, which is described by a single parameter, the scattering length a. In contrast, the dipole-dipole interaction between particles possessing an electric or magnetic dipole moment is of long range character and anisotropic, which gives rise to new phenomena. Most prominently, the stability of a dipolar BEC depends not only on the value of the scattering length a, but also strongly on the geometry of the external trapping potential. Here, we report on the experimental investigation of the stability of a dipolar BEC of 52Cr as a function of the scattering length and the trap aspect ratio. We find good agreement with a universal stability threshold arising from a simple theoretical model. Using a pancake-shaped trap with the dipoles oriented along the short axis of the trap, we are able to tune the scattering length to zero, stabilizing a purely dipolar quantum gas. We also experimentally investigate the collapse dynamics of a dipolar condensate of 52Cr atoms when the s-wave scattering length characterizing the contact interaction is reduced below a critical value. A complex dynamics, involving an anisotropic, d-wave symmetric explosion of the condensate, is observed on time scales significantly shorter than the trap period. At the same time, the condensate atom number decreases abruptly during the collapse. We compare our experimental results with numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation, including the contact and dipolar interactions as well as three-body losses. The simulations indicate that the collapse is accompanied by the formation of two vortex rings
Ionizing collisions: a new diagnostic for Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At this writing, metastable helium (23S1) is the only example of Bose-Einstein condensation of an atom in an excited electronic state. The corresponding internal energy permits efficient and fast electronic detection of the atoms using a micro-channel plate detector (MCP). Moreover, this energy is responsible for ionizing collisions inside the magnetically trapped cloud (Penning ionization). These ions are also easily detected by the MCP. This thesis begins by describing the characteristics of the MCP detector. Next, the experimental procedure to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation is presented. These preliminaries are followed by a description of the experiments performed in order to determine the origin of the ions produced and by a presentation of some of the new experimental possibilities provided by the ion signal. For clouds with a low enough density, ions are mainly produced by collisions with the residual gas, and the signal is proportional to the number of trapped atoms. For clouds with a sufficiently high density, for example close to the condensation threshold, ions are mainly produced by 2- and 3-body collisions. In this case, the ion signal is also related to the density of the cloud. Depending on the density, the signal gives a real-time and 'non-destructive' measurement of these different characteristics. In particular, we have shown it is a valuable indicator of the onset of condensation, because it signals the sudden increase of density which then occurs. By studying the ion rate versus the density and the number of atoms for pure condensates and for thermal clouds at critical temperature, we have measured the collision rate constants for these ionizing processes. Our results are in agreement with theoretical predictions. (author)
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
Marini, P; Boisjoli, M; Verde, G; Chbihi, A; Ademard, G; Auger, L; Bhattacharya, C; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Frankland, J; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Kundu, S; La Commara, M; Lombardo, I; Lopez, O; Mukherjee, G; Napolitani, P; Parlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Wigg, P C; Bonasera, A
2015-01-01
We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed us to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and mean volumes per particle "as seen by" bosons and fermions separately are correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The obtained results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed (bosons/fermions) systems, where bosons experience a smaller volume as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall similar phenomena observed in the study of boson condensates in atomic traps.