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Sample records for bos taurus indicus

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  3. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  4. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  5. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  6. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  7. Genetic parameters for growth traits of a Brazilian Bos taurus x Bos indicus beef composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, G B; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Bueno, R S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G

    2007-12-11

    The genetic analysis of composite data is very complicated, mainly because it is necessary to adjust data to the effects of heterosis and breed complementarity, and because there is usually considerable confounding of these data with several other effects, such as contemporary group effects, breed composition of the animal and maternal breed composition, among others. Data on birth weight (n = 151,083), weaning weight adjusted to 205 days (n = 137,257), yearling weight adjusted to 390 days (n = 61,410), weight gain from weaning to yearling (n = 56,653), and scrotum circumference (n = 23,323) and muscle score (n = 54,770), both adjusted to 390 days, from Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite beef calves born from 1994 to 2003 were analyzed to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters of growth traits. The animals belonged to the Montana Tropical program. Estimation was made by three models that approach adjustment to heterozygosis in order to suggest the best model. The RM model included contemporary groups, class of age of dam, outcrossing percentages for direct and maternal effects, and direct and maternal additive genetic breed effects as covariates; the R model was the same as RM, but without additive maternal breed effects, and H was the same as RM, but not considering any additive breed effect. Both R2 values and consistency of genetic parameters indicate that the more complex model (RM), which considers maternal and individual additive genetic breed effect, produces the best estimates when compared to other models. The R model seems to overestimate (co)variance components. The magnitudes of direct and maternal heritability estimates, obtained in this study, would permit genetic improvement for weight and growth traits, as much by selection of direct genetic effects for weight and growth as for the improvement of maternal performance, but in different lineages. Therefore, the correlations between these effects were unfavorable.

  8. Introgresión genética de bos indicus (bovidae) en bovinos criollos colombianos de origen bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ ISAZA, CARLOS ARTURO; JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO, LIGIA MERCEDES; BUENO ANGULO, MARTA LUCÍA

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes ...

  9. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

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    Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05. Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05. Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle

  10. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

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    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  11. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  12. Dinâmica folicular e taxa de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus tratadas com o protocolo "Ovsynch" para inovulação em tempo fixo

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    Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo em novilhas Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus receptoras de embrião. No Experimento 1, a dinâmica folicular foi acompanhada durante o protocolo "Ovsynch" (G1; n=35 e após a aplicação de PGF2alfa (G2; n=34. No Experimento 2, os mesmos tratamentos foram realizados a campo em 168 (G1 e 177 (G2 novilhas. No D6, colheu-se sangue para dosagem de P4 e se realizaram exames ultra-sonográficos. No D7, realizou-se a inovulação. No Experimento 1, 45,7% dos animais ovularam após o 1º GnRH (P;0,05. Ao final, a taxa de prenhez no Gl foi de 35,7% e no G2 de 25,4% (P<0,05. Foram detectadas em estro 53,7% das novilhas do G2 e 33,3% do Gl (P<0,05. Os corpos lúteos com maior área determinaram maiores concentrações de P4 e taxa de concepção (P<0,05. A sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo aumentou as taxas de ovulação, de aproveitamento e de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião.

  13. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  14. Effect of protein supplementation on reproductive and productive performance in Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

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    Maquivar, Martin G; Galina, Carlos S; Galindo, Jaime R; Estrada, Sandra; Molina, Rafael; Mendoza, German David

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of protein supplementation on the productive and reproductive performance of heifers, 45 Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers, 673 +/- 146 days of age and weighing about 340 kg, were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 23) continued without supplementation, but the supplemented group (SG; n = 22) received concentrate at a rate of 1% BW kg per day. Animals were adapted to the concentrate over a 15-day period and then supplemented for 30 days, after which estrus was synchronized using a progesterone implant. Back fat thickness (BFT) was assessed by ultrasound. The SG had better average daily weight gain than the nonsupplemented group (0.63 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13 kg/day, P 0.70 cm) showed a better ovulation percentage than those with low BFT (heifers with high BFT tended to be better than heifers with low BFT in this same group (67% vs. 30%, respectively, P < 0.10). It is concluded that protein supplementation improved reproductive performance and that ultrasonography to measure BFT may be used to estimate reproductive performance.

  15. Comparação entre a população folicular ovariana antral e pré-antral de fêmeas Bos indicus e ½ Bos indicus X Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Schmidt Siloto

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a população folicular ovariana antral e pré-antral de vacas Nelore (indicus) e ½ NeloreXAngus (indicus-taurus). Fêmeas indicus (n=20) e indicus-taurus (n=20) foram submetidas à aspiração folicular em dia aleatório do ciclo estral (D0), a fim de promover a ablação de todos os folículos ≥3mm e o início de uma nova onda de crescimento folicular. Em seguida foram submetidas à avaliações ultrassonográficas por cinco dias (D4, D19, D34, D49 e D64) para c...

  16. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  17. EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACION DE DOS TIPOS DE ACIDOS GRASOS SOBRE EL REINICIO DE LA ACTIVIDAD OVARICA Y METABOLITOS DE LIPIDOS EN VACAS F1 (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) DURANTE EL POSPARTO TEMPRANO

    OpenAIRE

    HUANTE CATALÁN, ROBERTO

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación, bajo una serie de tres experimentos, en los cuales se determinó el cambio de peso vivo (PV) y ganancia de peso en becerros, el reinicio de actividad ovárica (RAO), y la concentración sérica de colesterol (COL) y lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL), en vacas F1 suplementadas con dos tipos de ácidos grasos durante el posparto temprano. Se emplearon veinte vacas Bos taurus x Bos indicus, de 400-450 kg y condición corporal de 2 – 2.5 puntos. Los animales...

  18. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  19. Avaliação das concentrações plasmáticas de cortisol e progesterona em vacas nelore (Bos taurus indicus) submetidas a manejo diário ou manejo semanal

    OpenAIRE

    Maziero, Rosiára Rosária Dias [UNESP; Martin, Ian [UNESP; Mattos, Maria Clara Costa; Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the plasma concentration of progesterone and cortisol in cows submitted to daily or weekly handling. For this experiment, seven primiparous or multiparous Nelore cows (Bos taurus indicus) were monitored for 21 days (experiment 1) and 9 weeks (experiment 2) through rectal palpation and ultrasonographic examination of the female reproductive tract, as well as jugular venipuncture. Plasma concentration of progesterone and cortisol (ng/mL) was determined by radioimmunoassay f...

  20. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Chase A; Downey-Slinker, Erika D; Ridpath, Julia F; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Sawyer, Jason E; Herring, Andy D

    2017-12-12

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers ( n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05), and interacted with day ( p gain (ADG) and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104%) and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI ( p < 0.001), and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG ( p = 0.03) and total feed intake ( p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  1. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

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    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  2. COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO Y PRODUCTIVO DE VACAS Bos indicus, Bos taurus Y SUS CRUCES EN UN SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN VACA:CRÍA EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

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    Gilberto Timoteo Mejía Bautista

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el comportamiento reproductivo y productivo de vacas Bos indicus, Bos taurus y sus cruces en un sistema vaca:cría en Yucatán, México. Se utilizó la información de 310 vacas Brahman (Br, 191 Nelore (Ne, 140 Cebú Comercial (CC, 49 Suizo Pardo (SP y 69 cruzadas con SP (Cz que parieron durante un periodo de 20 años. Los indicadores estudiados fueron edad al primer parto (EPP, intervalo entre partos (IEP, peso al destete a 205 días (PDA205 y peso al destete por día de interparto (PDA/IEP. Se utilizaron modelos fijos para determinar los efectos de año de nacimiento (AN o parto (AP, época de nacimiento (EN o parto (EP, número de parto (NP, sexo de la cría (SX y grupo racial de la vaca (GRV sobre los indicadores y modelos mixtos para la repetibilidad calculada mediante los componentes de varianza entre y dentro de vaca. Las medias generales y desviaciones estándar para EPP, IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP fueron, 1091.7±137.9 días, 432.9±96.9 días, 164.3±25.5 kg y 401±159 g, respectivamente. El AN y EN afectaron la EPP; el AP, EP y NP afectaron al IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP (P

  3. Indicadores de estresse térmico e utilização da somatotropina bovina (bST em vacas leiteiras mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus no semi-árido do Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Neto Joaquim Batista de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi avaliar a resposta ao bST de vacas mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus criadas no semi-árido do Ceará. Quinze vacas (segunda e terceira parições; 42 a 155 dias pós-parto receberam cinco aplicações de bST a intervalos de 14 dias e outras 15 foram utilizadas como controle. A dieta dos animais consistiu de capim-elefante e concentrado. Durante a primeira aplicação de bST, a produção de leite dos animais tratados (12,6 kg/dia não diferiu dos animais controle (11,3 Kg/dia mas, na segunda e terceira aplicações, a diferença entre os grupos foi significativa (2,0 e 2,2 kg. Na quarta aplicação de bST, houve aumento na diferença entre os grupos (3,0 kg e, na quinta aplicação, esta diferença foi de 3,4 kg (14,0 kg versus 10,6 kg/dia. A interação tratamento com bST e estágio de lactação não foi significativa. As temperaturas do leite e retal foram maiores (0,6 e 0,1°C, respectivamente nos animais tratados com bST que nos animais controles, mas estas diferenças não foram significativas. Para o grupo de 30 animais, houve correlações entre produção e temperatura do leite (r = 0, 38 a 0,69. Com base no cálculo do índice de temperatura e umidade, os animais estiveram submetidos a estresse térmico ameno (manhã ou moderado (à tarde. Portanto, animais mestiços criados no semi-árido do Nordeste aumentaram a produção de leite devido ao bST, sem, no entanto, apresentar indicativos de estresse térmico severo.

  4. Obtenção de oócitos e produção in vitro de embriões em doadoras lactantes da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Marcos Brandão Dias [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Raças zebuínas (Bos taurus indicus) e seus cruzamentos têm papel fundamental na pecuária brasileira, e a raça Gir, em especial, acrescenta rusticidade e produtividade nas suas descendentes leiteiras. A produção in vitro de embriões bovinos é uma biotécnica de alto valor econômico, que, aliada à utilização de sêmen sexado para cromossoma X, possibilita a multiplicação com fêmeas de valor genético superior. Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a produção in vitro (PIV) d...

  5. Efeitos da injeção de cloreto de cálcio pós-morte e tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Carla de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da injeção pós-morte de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e o tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso. Foram usados 64 machos inteiros (16 Caracu, 16 Guzerá, 16 Nelore Controle e 16 Nelore Seleção. Vinte quatro horas após o abate, foi retirada uma amostra do músculo Longissiumus dorsi (contra-filé entre a 6ª e 9ª vértebras lombares e dividida em nove subamostras. Em cada grupo de três subamostras escolhidas ao acaso, foi injetada, na quantia correspondente a 10% do seu peso, uma das seguintes soluções: a água (controle, b 200 mM de CaCl2 e c 300 mM de CaCl2. Cada subamostra foi, então, embalada a vácuo, congelada (- 2ºC e maturada por 1,7 ou 14 dias até a realização de testes de força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (evaporação, gotejamento e perdas totais. Foi usado delineamento experimental completamente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas, em que a parcela correspondia à raça e a sub-parcela, à combinação entre três níveis de CaCl2 e três tempos de maturação. A raça influenciou a força de cisalhamento, mas não influiu nas perdas por cozimento A maturação por um período de sete dias reduziu os valores de força de cisalhamento e as perdas por evaporação, gotejamento e totais. Maiores concentrações de CaCl2 resultaram em menor força de cisalhamento e maiores perdas por evaporação, embora não tenham influenciado as perdas por gotejamento e totais. A concentração de 200 mM CaCl2 apresentou a melhor redução para a força de cisalhamento. A injeção pós-morte de uma solução de CaCl2 aumentou o processo de amaciamento, sem influir nas perdas por cozimento.ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postmortem calcium chloride (CaCl2 injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus

  6. Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism associated with weight estimated breeding values in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus

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    Fernando Henrique Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.

  7. Testicular compensation in Nguni (Bos indicus, Sanga) bulls with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular compensation in Nguni. (Bos indicus, Sanga) bulls with unilateral gonadal hypoplasia and aplasia. G.W. Kay* and E.H.H. Meyer. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The testosterone response to ...

  8. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10...

  9. Ovariectomy effect in heifers Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus on the weight gains /Efeito da ovariectomia em novilhas Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus sobre os ganhos de peso

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    Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the weight gain in cross breed heifers Nelore X Angus, spayed and nonspayed, kept on pasture and confinement. The animals were allotted in two groups as follows: group 1 consisted of 30 nonspayed heifers with 18 months old. Group 2 was composed of 30 spayed heifers with 18 months old. The animals were allotted in pasture of Brachiaria decumbens and weighted at 39and 75 days. Significant difference was observed between the average daily gain of the two groups – G1 and G2 (75th day, respectively (0.51 kg and 0.65 kg; PEsse estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso em novilhas mestiças Nelore x Angus, castradas e não castradas, mantidas em pastagem e confinamento. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos assim constituídos: grupo 1 formado por 30 novilhas não castradas com 18 meses de idade. Grupo 2 composto por 30 novilhas castradas com 18 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e pesados aos 39 e 75 dias. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (75ºdia, respectivamente (0,51 kg e 0,65 kg; P < 0,01. No dia seguinte (76ºdia, todos os animais foram transferidos e mantidos por 144 dias no confinamento. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (144ºdia, respectivamente (0,73 kg e 0,58 kg; P < 0,01. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que novilhas castradas apresentaram um maior ganho diário em pastagem.

  10. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk ( Capra hircus ) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ease to locally produce kid rennet contrary to that of calve has led us to compare the proteolytic and clotting activities of these two rennets depending on their action on goat (Capra hircus) milk and cow (Bos taurus) milk. The proteolysis was measured by determining the increase of non-protein nitrogen according to the ...

  12. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  13. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

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    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  14. Nutritive value and meat quality of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat

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    Andrzej Łozicki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the nutritive value and meat quality aspects of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat. The bulls and zubrons were fattened to 600–650 kg of body weight using the same feeding regimen. The European bison meat was from selective shooting of males. The meat was analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid composition, meat quality characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS value. Compared to beef, zubron and European bison meat had a lower content of crude fat, crude ash and a higher moisture content. The meat of the zubrons and European bison showed a lower content of saturated fatty acids and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to beef. The shear force of meat was highest for European bison meat and lowest for beef. Higher a* and b* colour parameters were established in European bison and zubron meat. The highest TBARS value was found in beef.

  15. Effect of ruminally protected Methionine on the productive and reproductive performance of grazing Bos indicus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Maquivar, M; Galina, C S; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A; Estrada, S; Villareal, M; Molina, R

    2008-12-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of methionine supplementation prior to a breeding program, thirty one heifers (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) were used averaging 386 +/- 29 days of age and a mean body weight of 402.6 +/- 28 kg. Fifteen of the animals received a supplement (SG) during 45 days with molasses-urea mixture (2 kg molasses + 407 g urea/head/day), plus 10 g of ruminally protected methionine. The other sixteen heifers did not receive supplement (CG). Fecal and pastures samples were collected to assess dry herbage intake and digestibility. Serial ultrasound measurements from the ovary were performed in both groups to evaluate follicular dynamics. The heifers were categorized according to their follicular size and presence of a CL. Forage intake and dry matter digestibility were reduced (P heifers, however, total intake, final weight, daily gain and dorsal back fat were not affected. After the supplementation period, the percentage of females in the categories or = 9 mm, the percentage of animals was 60% in SG and 18.8% in CG (P < 0.05). The percentage of ovulation for the SG and CG was 86.7% and 62.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). The combination of supplementation with methionine-urea and molasses at the end of the dry season and the anticipated onset of the rainy season favored the establishment of ovarian activity and follicular dynamics.

  16. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  17. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie

    2016-01-01

    MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African...

  18. Objective measures for the assessment of post-operative pain in bos indicus bull calves following castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musk, Gabrielle C.; Jacobsen, Stine; Hyndman, Timothy H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration...... in the concentrations of SAA, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen in all of the groups from day 0 to 3. Iron concentrations were not different at the time points it was measured. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of meloxicam. The other objective...

  19. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

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    Cristina Ballarin

    Full Text Available The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ, and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  20. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  1. A cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic study of the insular cortex of the bull, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Domenico; Paparcone, Rosa; Genovese, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Insula is characterised by considerable morphologic variability, however, it shows a cytoarchitectonic homogeneity within the species so far studied. Three cytoarchitectonic areas are generally recognisable in the Insula: an "agranular", a "dysgranular" and a "granular" area. The numerous functions attributed to the Insula (visceral sensory, visceral motor, somatosensorial, supplementary motor area, area speech and/or language related, etc.) have recently attracted renewed interest. Considering the involvement of the Insula in the control of gastroenteric motility and the structural and functional complexity of this region in ruminants, it seemed interesting to analyse the cyto- and myelo-architectonic arrangement of the Insula of the bull, Bos taurus. Unlike that of the other species described, all the insular Neocortex of the bull, is of the "agranular" type. The latter includes at least four variants that differ according to the organisation of the cortical layer pattern. Considering the available evidence in laboratory animals and primates of a role played by the agranular insular cortex in gastroenteric motility control, the trademark presence of a very much extended insular agranular cortex in the Insula of the bull may be related to the necessity of motor activity control of a gastroenteric complex that is extensively more developed than in the monogastric species.

  2. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (panalysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  3. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes: SNPs distribution analysis in Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Sharma, Anurodh; Kataria, R S; Verma, N K; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Bhatia, Avnish Kumar; Sodhi, Monika; Behl, Rahul; Joshi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region. Seventeen of the SNPs were in the coding regions and the one at position 9589(A > G) in exon3 resulted in an amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine. These SNPs led to generation of 27 TLR4 gene haplotypes. All the Sahiwal animals studied presently showed the occurrence of the genotype CC at gene position 9662, which codes for the amino acid threonine at position 674 of the TLR4 protein, and which had been reported to be associated with lower somatic cell score and, therefore, a lower susceptibility to mastitis, in Taurus cattle. This nucleotide configuration of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed could possibly indicate toward a lower susceptibility to mastitis in the Sahiwal animals. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (CCL2) gene encoding for small inducible cytokine A2 that belongs to the CC chemokine family was also sequence characterized in these Sahiwal animals. The CCL2 gene was observed to have 12 polymorphic sites in 3.3 kb region of which one SNP at position 2500 (A > G) in exon 3 resulted in amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine at position 46 of the mature CCL2 peptide. Seventeen haplotypes of the CCL2 gene were predicted corresponding to 12 genotypes detected.

  5. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

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    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  7. PÉRDIDA DE PESO EN BOVINOS Bos indicus Y Bos taurus DURANTE EL PROCESO DE SUBASTA

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    Pablo Rodr\\u00EDguez-Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la pérdida de peso de bovinos en subasta. Se evaluó además el porcentaje de merma correspondiente al peso del animal según su sexo, el patrón racial, la categoría comercial, el peso vivo de entrada a las instalaciones de la subasta y el tiempo de espera de cada animal desde el ingreso hasta el momento de su remate. Se analizaron un total de 629 animales en la subasta Asociación Cámara de Ganaderos Unidos del Sur, ubicada en Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica, entre agosto y noviembre del 2011. El sexo del animal y el patrón racial no tuvieron efecto significativo sobre los kilogramos de peso perdidos. Mientras que, según la categoría comercial, el periodo de espera y el peso de ingreso (p<0,05, se pueden perder entre 4,31 y 9,91; entre 6,16 y 7,31; y entre 3,52 y 9,54 kilos por animal, respectivamente. Para el porcentaje de merma, las variables patrón racial, categoría comercial y el periodo de espera presentaron efectos significativos, no así el sexo y el peso de ingreso. El porcentaje de merma fluctuó entre 1,57 a 2,54%.

  8. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  9. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede

    2013-01-01

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting mastitis incidence and mastitis-related traits such as somatic cell score exist in dairy cows. Previously, QTL haplotypes associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli mastitis in Nordic Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows were identified on Bos taurus...... the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences...

  10. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

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    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  11. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds.

  12. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  13. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

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    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  14. Objective Measures for the Assessment of Post-Operative Pain in Bos indicus Bull Calves Following Castration

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    Gabrielle C Musk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6; castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12; castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12; and, castration alone (C, n = 12. Bodyweight was measured regularly and pedometers provided data on activity and rest from day −7 (7 days prior to surgery to 13. Blood was collected for the measurement of serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and iron on days 0, 3 and 6. Bodyweight and pedometry data were analysed with a mixed effect model. The blood results were analysed with repeated measure one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. There was no treatment effect on bodyweight or activity. The duration of rest was greatest in the CM group and lowest in the C group. There was a significant increase in the concentrations of SAA, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen in all of the groups from day 0 to 3. Iron concentrations were not different at the time points it was measured. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of meloxicam. The other objective assessments measured in this study were not able to consistently differentiate between treatment groups.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  16. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals treated with vitamin D3 Características qualitativas do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus tratados com vitaminaD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Carla de Moura Silveira Pedreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Among several techniques to improve beef tenderness, vitamin D3, important for calcium mobilization, has recently been developed as an alternative. It acts on the intracellular calcium-dependent proteases (mu- and m-calpain. Ten days prior to slaughter, 36 Nelore steers were fed 0, 3, 6 and 9 million IU of supplemental vitamin D3 (D3 per animal per day (an-1 d-1. Animals were slaughtered and tenderness (shear force, cooking losses (1, 8 and 15 days of aging, sensory evaluation, and minerals in blood plasma and muscle (Longissimus dorsi were measured. There were no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments for blood plasma and muscle mineral concentration, evaporation losses, and sensory juiciness. For drip and total loss, the smallest losses were for the 6 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment. The control treatment resulted in lowest shear force and aging also tended to lower resistance to shearing. The 3 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment had a positive effect on tenderness, flavor and overall palatability. High levels of supplemental D3 did not improve the quality characteristicsof Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals.Muitas técnicas são empregadas para melhorar a maciez da carne de bovinos. A mais recente usa a vitamina D3, que tem importância na mobilização do cálcio e na ativação das proteases cálcio-dependentes (mi- e m-calpaína. Neste estudo, 36 machos castrados (Nelore foram suplementados por via oral com quatro níveis de vitamina D3 (0, 3, 6 e 9 milhões de UI de vitamina D3 animal-1 dia-1 durante os 10 dias que antecederam o abate. Após o abate foram medidos a força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (aos dias 1, 8 e 15 de maturação, pH, concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo Longissimus dorsi, além de análise sensorial de amostras. Não houve (P > 0.05 efeito da dose de vitamina D3 na concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo, nas perdas por evaporação, e na sucul

  18. Effects of calcium salts of soybean oil on factors that influence pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Depner, C M; Lytle, K A; Jump, D B; Bohnert, D W; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fatty acid (FA) concentrations in plasma and reproductive tissues as well as hormones and expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) beginning after timed AI. Ninety nonlactating multiparous Nelore (Bos indicus) cows were timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment and divided into 18 groups of 5 cows/group. Groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of a protein-mineral mix plus 100 g of ground corn per cow daily in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 9) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; n = 9). All groups were maintained in a single Brachiaria brizanta pasture (24 ha) with ad libitum access to forage and water. However, groups were segregated daily and offered treatments individually at the working facility during the experimental period (d 0 to 18). Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and estimate corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 18 of the experiment. On d 19, 36 cows (18 cows/treatment; 2 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm(3) in volume on d 7 and 18 were slaughtered for collection of conceptus, uterine luminal flushing, and tissue samples from the CL and endometrium. Cows receiving CSSO had greater concentrations of linoleic and other ω-6 FA in plasma (P establishment in endometrial, CL, and conceptus samples (P ≥ 0.12). In summary, supplementing beef cows with 100 g of CSSO beginning after AI favored incorporation of ω-6 FA into their circulation, reproductive tissues, and conceptus, without impacting expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment on d 19 of gestation.

  19. Molecular and endocrine factors involved in future dominant follicle dynamics during the induction of luteolysis in Bos indicus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I Y H; Santos, A P C; Bottino, M P; Orlandi, R E; Santos, G; Simões, L M S; Souza, J C; Díaza, A M G; Binelli, M; Sales, J N S

    2018-04-15

    The growth profiles of the future dominant follicle (DF) and subordinate follicle (SF) and the gene expression of the granulosa cells during luteolysis induction in Bos indicus cows were evaluated. Forty cows were synchronized with a progesterone and estradiol based protocol. After synchronization, cows with a corpus luteum (CL) were evaluated by ultrasonography every 12 h, beginning at eight days post ovulation. Cows identified with a follicle of at least 6.0 mm in diameter in the second wave were split into two groups (BD-before follicular deviation and AD-after follicular deviation. In the BD group cows received 500 μg of cloprostenol (a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2α) when the DF reached a mean diameter of 7.0 mm (6.5-7.5 mm). In the AD group, cows received 500 μg of cloprostenol when the DF reached a mean diameter of 8.0 mm (7.5-8.5 mm). Cows in both groups were submitted to aspiration of the DF at 96 and 72 h after prostaglandin was given. Follicular aspirations were performed to quantify IGF1R, LHR and PAPPA transcripts in the granulosa cells. The diameter of the DF at the moment of prostaglandin administration (P = 0.001) and the growth rate of the SF (P = 0.05) were greater in the AD group. There was greater abundance of LHR transcripts in BD cows (P = 0.04). The remaining variables tested were similar between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the induction of luteolysis before follicular deviation does not interfere with dominant follicle dynamics. However, it causes granulosa cell LHR down regulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  2. Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yisehak, K.; Becker, A.; Rothman, J.M.; Dierenfeld, E.S.; Marescau, B.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the southern hemisphere, foraging areas of cattle are affected by overgrazing and soil erosion resulting in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT). This study aimed to identify biomarkers in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus)

  3. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  4. Effect of Vitamin E and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cryopreserved Sperm Quality in Bos taurus Bulls Under Testicular Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Rocha, Carolina C; Brito, Maíra M; Perez, Eduardo G A; Tsunoda, Roberta H; Góes, Paola A A; Mendes, Camilla M; Assumpção, Mayra E O A; Barnabe, Valquiria H; Nichi, Marcilio

    2018-04-03

    Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of interaction between PUFAs and vitamin E on sperm quality in Bos taurus bulls under testicular heat stress. Sixteen taurine bulls under testicular heat stress were randomly assigned in four groups: Control, Vitamin E, PUFA, and PUFA + Vitamin E. All groups lasted for 60 days. Samples were cryopreserved/thawed and analyzed for motility variables (CASA), membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and sperm-binding capacity. Results showed that vitamin E had a beneficial effect on some sperm characteristics, whereas PUFA supplementation had an adverse effect when the two treatments were evaluated separately. Finally, the association between PUFAs and vitamin E did not improve sperm quality.

  5. RENDIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL DE CUYES (CAVIA PORCELLUS) SUPLEMENTADOS CON TRES NIVELES DE HARINA DE SANGRE BOVINO (BOS TAURUS) PROCESADA ARTESANALMENTE

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMORA HUAMÁN, SEGUNDO JOSÉ

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the performance and body composition of Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) supplemented with three levels of bovine blood meal (Bos taurus) processed by hand in Small Animals Module of Chachapoyas Experimental Station of the Toribio Rodríguez of Mendoza of Amazonas National University. Food rations were evaluated in an iso energy and iso protein levels with 4%, 8% and 12% of blood meal, using 36 Guinea Pigs weaned males of 21 days of age, divided into groups of ...

  6. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Villa-Duque; Claudia Marcela Amaya-Torres; Darwin García-Rojas; Natalia Nieto-Omeara; Natalia Terán-Acuña

    2016-01-01

    En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander). El estudio consis...

  7. Quantitative trait loci mapping of calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 in the German Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B; Baes, C; Mayer, M; Reinsch, N; Seidenspinner, T; Thaller, G; Kühn, Ch

    2010-03-01

    Linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18) in the German Holstein population. Six paternal half-sib families consisting of a total of 1,054 animals were genotyped on 28 genetic markers in the telomeric region on BTA18 spanning approximately 30 Mb. Calving traits, body type traits, and udder type traits were investigated. Using univariately estimated breeding values, maternal and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth were analyzed separately for first- and further-parity calvings. The QTL initially identified by separate linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses could be confirmed by a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis for udder composite index, udder depth, fore udder attachment, front teat placement, body depth, rump angle, and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth. Concurrence of QTL peaks and a similar shape of restricted log-likelihood ratio profiles were observed between udder type traits and for body depth and calving traits, respectively. Association analyses were performed for markers flanking the most likely QTL positions by applying a mixed model including a fixed allele effect of the maternally inherited allele and a random polygenic effect. Results indicated that microsatellite marker DIK4234 (located at 53.3 Mb) is associated with maternal effects on stillbirth, direct effects on calving ease, and body depth. A comparison of effects for maternally inherited DIK4234 alleles indicated a favorable, positive correlation of maternal and direct effects on calving. Additionally, the association of maternally inherited DIK4234 marker alleles with body depth implied that conformation traits might provide the functional background of the QTL for calving traits. For udder type traits, the strong coincidence of QTL peaks and the position of the QTL in a

  8. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  9. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Han Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12, or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12. All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay. The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  10. TERMOGRAFIA DIGITAL POR INFRAVERMELHO DO ESCROTO E QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN EM TOUROS NELORE (BOS TAURUS INDICUS

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    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to study the relationship between scrotal temperature on semen quality by use of infrared thermography in Nelore bulls bred extensively. There were scrotal thermography and semen collection. Climatic data were collected by means of globe thermometer. The thermograms of the scrotum were obtained by digital infrared thermography. We carried out ejaculates through electroejaculation for analysis of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. For the data, we used analysis of variance and subsequently applied the Tukey test at 5%. (p <0.05 between animals for sperm vigor, sperm motility between animals and between crops, sperm concentration, total sperm and total viable sperm between groups, between harvests for the scrotum temperatures and climate data. It was concluded that the surface temperatures of the scrotum and climatic factors influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a complementary test in the evaluation of reproductive bulls.

  11. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

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    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  12. Comet assay to determine genetic damage by the use of ivermectin in zebu cows (Bos taurus indicus

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    Donicer Montes-Vergara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the work was evaluate the damage genetic caused by the use of ivermectin (IVM in cows zebu to concentrations of 1% and 3.15% through the test comet. Material and methods. 15 cows, were taken with age between 3 and 4 years old, average weight of 350 kg, body condition between 3 and 3.5. Three experimental groups with five animals per group, which were exposed to the concentration of IVM to 1% to 3.15% more group control (without application of IVM were used. Animal blood sample was performed by venipuncture jugular or medial flow with vacutainer® needle, extracting 8 ml of blood. The blood samples it was collected at 9, 18 and 27 days post-treatment. Results. The display of the comets is made by using fluorescence microscope, the cells were evaluated by means of visual log and the Comet image software. Evidenced the presence of nuclei with DNA migration in all analyzed plates. The values of classification of comets indicate cells with high levels of damage (grade 3: cells with high damage. The rate of DNA damage of the treatment to 1% to 3.15% was significant, to relate to the control group. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the likely genotoxic potential of the use of IVM in cattle.

  13. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites

  14. Effects of eCG are more pronounced in primiparous than multiparous Bos indicus cows submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Bottino, M P; Silva, L A C L; Girotto, R W; Massoneto, J P M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2016-12-01

    The effects of eCG on follicular growth, ovulation, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in multiparous and primiparous Bos indicus beef cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) were evaluated in three experiments. In experiments 1 (follicular responses; n = 64), 2 (follicular growth and ovulation rate; n = 662), and 3 (P/AI; n = 2092), cows submitted to TAI were assigned to receive one of two treatments on Day 8 of the synchronization protocol: control (no additional treatment) or eCG (300-IU of eCG intramuscularly). In experiment 1, largest follicle (LF) diameter on Day 8 (P = 0.56) and the interval from progesterone (P4)-device removal to ovulation (P = 0.79) did not differ between treatments. However, the maximum diameter of the LF (P = 0.05) and ovulation rate (P = 0.03) were greater in cows that received eCG. In experiment 2, the diameter of the LF on Day 10, follicular growth, and ovulation rate were greater in eCG-treated cows (P < 0.01). However, CL diameter was similar between treatments (P = 0.11). In experiment 3, there was a treatment-by-parity interaction (P = 0.003) on P/AI, such that treatment with eCG was more effective in primiparous cows. In conclusion, eCG treatment resulted in increased final follicular growth, ovulation rate, and fertility in B indicus cows submitted to TAI protocols, especially in primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

  16. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  17. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Fagundes, Gisele Maria; Dos Anjos Bomjardim, Henrique; Dos Santos Belo Reis, Alessandra; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii among 500 cattle (Bos indicus) and 500 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) technique. Blood samples from were collected from water buffalo and cattle in 10 municipalities in the northern region of Brazil. The frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Neospora caninum in Pará state, Brazil, was 55% and 44%, respectively, and the frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii was 52% and 39%, respectively. Seropositivity for both N. caninum and T. gondii was detected in 10.6% of the cattle samples and 14.8% of the buffalo samples. The frequency of cattle positive for N. caninum and T. gondii was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of buffalo in two and three provinces, respectively. Buffaloes had a lower seroprevalence for N. caninum or T. gondii in all of the provinces studied. These results suggest that both species, when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii infection, have a high serological prevalence. Cattle showed a higher probability of being seropositive when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii. Our study, which included an extensive number of blood samples, provides important epidemiological information pertinent to buffalo production in tropical countries that can be used as a basis for disease-management practices in Latin America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Random regression models using Legendre polynomials or linear splines for test-day milk yield of dairy Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-01-01

    Studies investigating the use of random regression models for genetic evaluation of milk production in Zebu cattle are scarce. In this study, 59,744 test-day milk yield records from 7,810 first lactations of purebred dairy Gyr (Bos indicus) and crossbred (dairy Gyr × Holstein) cows were used to compare random regression models in which additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using orthogonal Legendre polynomials or linear spline functions. Residual variances were modeled considering 1, 5, or 10 classes of days in milk. Five classes fitted the changes in residual variances over the lactation adequately and were used for model comparison. The model that fitted linear spline functions with 6 knots provided the lowest sum of residual variances across lactation. On the other hand, according to the deviance information criterion (DIC) and bayesian information criterion (BIC), a model using third-order and fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, provided the best fit. However, the high rank correlation (0.998) between this model and that applying third-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, indicates that, in practice, the same bulls would be selected by both models. The last model, which is less parameterized, is a parsimonious option for fitting dairy Gyr breed test-day milk yield records. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

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    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  20. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey-Slinker, E D; Ridpath, J F; Sawyer, J E; Skow, L C; Herring, A D

    2016-09-30

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs. The goal of this study was to determine if levels of serum neutralizing antibody titers were predictive of levels of vaccine protection in a commercial setting. During this four-year study, Angus-Nellore steers housed in a production feedlot setting were assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine treatments: killed vaccine (kV), modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, or no vaccine (control), and were challenged with a noncytopathic 1b field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Rectal temperature and levels of circulating lymphocytes and platelets were monitored following challenge. While no animals were diagnosed as clinically ill with respiratory disease, indicators of disease (pyrexia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia) were observed. The MLV treatment elicited higher antibody titers to the vaccination than the kV, and calves in the MLV treatment had higher mean titers at challenge. The year that elicited the highest antibody response to the vaccination and the year with the lowest frequency of phenotypic responses to the challenge were not concurrent. The MLV treatment had the highest proportion, 34.68%, of animals that were protected against the challenge regardless of the pre-challenge antibody titer and had the fewest number of lymphopenia cases in response to the challenge. Both vaccine treatments mitigated thrombocytopenia when compared to the control treatment, and the MLV treatment reduced lymphopenia; however, these symptoms were not completely eliminated in vaccinated animals. Pyrexia was present in 40.11% of the animals, but no difference in the frequency of cases between treatments was observed. Pre-challenge vaccination response was not indicative of the level of protection nor was anamnestic antibody response correlated with health status. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

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    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  2. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Malayan gaur with other species of the genus Bos based on cytochrome b gene DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Zakaria, S S; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Zainal, Z Z; Shukor, M N; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-03-22

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) is one of the three subspecies of gaurs that can be found in Malaysia. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies with other species of the genus Bos (B. javanicus, B. indicus, B. taurus, and B. grunniens). The sequence of a key gene, cytochrome b, was compared among 20 Bos species and the bongo antelope, used as an outgroup. Phylogenetic reconstruction was employed using neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in PAUP and Bayesian inference in MrBayes 3.1. All tree topologies indicated that the Malayan gaur is in its own monophyletic clade, distinct from other species of the genus Bos. We also found significant branching differences in the tree topologies between wild and domestic cattle.

  4. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  5. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

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    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  8. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

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    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  9. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

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    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  10. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

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    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  11. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

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    Norberto Villa-Duque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander. El estudio consistió en someter pajillas comerciales de 0.5 ml de toros Holstein y Pardo Suizo a la técnica convencional y a tres modificaciones de esta (injurias mediante un diseño randomizado. Ninguna de las fincas evaluadas aplicó correctamente la práctica de la inseminación artificial; errores notorios fueron: exceso de tiempo durante la extracción de la pajilla, descongelación en la región axilar y no combinación correcta entre tiempo y temperatura. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencia significativa (P<0.05 por efecto de la raza para la integridad y resistencia de las membranas espermáticas, para la integridad de las membranas por efecto de los tratamientos cuando la pajilla se descongelo a temperatura corporal en la región axilar y para la integridad de la membrana acrosomal cuando la extracción de la pajilla se realizó en forma incorrecta. El semen de la raza Holstein evidencia una ligera tendencia a ser más resistente que el de la raza Pardo Suizo.

  13. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

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    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East.Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17 and Domiaty (N = 14, from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed.Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s; (ii haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  14. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus, INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893 DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

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    Maria Aparecida Schenki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Babesia bigemina, parasitemia, bioquímica sérica.

  15. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

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    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  16. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

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    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  17. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

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    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  18. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus gestantes e não gestantes

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    L.R. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o trimestre gestacional: primeiro - gestação de até 90 dias; segundo - de 91 a 180 dias; e terceiro - de 181 a 270 dias. Os corpos lúteos, processados para inclusão em paraplast, foram avaliados em microscópio de luz. Na proporção volumétrica do corpo lúteo, os constituintes avaliados foram citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas, tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos, células endoteliais e pericitos e vasos sanguíneos. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma de células lúteas reduziu de 46,1±2,8% para 37,9±3,5% e a de núcleo de células lúteas reduziu de 9,2±1,0% para 6,2±1,0%, do primeiro para o segundo trimestre. A proporção de tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos aumentou de 20,9±5,4%, no primeiro trimestre, para 34,0±4,2%, no segundo trimestre. Grânulos citoplasmáticos foram evidenciados pelas técnicas histoquímicas xylidine ponceau e azul de bromofenol, que indicam sua provável composição proteica. A quantidade de células maiores com grânulos aumentou significativamente de 2,3±1,9%, no primeiro trimestre, para 25,5±20,3%, no segundo. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas diminuiu ao longo da gestação, e a de tecido conjuntivo aumentou. A quantidade de células lúteas maiores contendo grânulos também aumentou ao longo da gestação.

  19. Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Hélder Silva e; Lijeron, Luciana Alves; Costa, Rafaela Nelson da

    2010-01-01

    A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica...

  20. Influência da raça do touro (Bos indicus x Bos taurus na tolerância ao estresse térmico calórico de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Nabhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Para melhor compreender as diferenças entre zebuínos e taurinos em relação à resistência ao ETC, objetivou-se verificar se a resistência ao ETC é resultado da contribuição genética do oócito, do espermatozoide ou de ambos. Oócitos de vacas das raças Nelore e mestiças com fenótipo predominante da raça Holandesa preto e branco (mHPB foram coletados, maturados e fertilizados com espermatozoide de touros das raças Nelore (N, Angus (An, Brahman (Bra e Gir (Gir. Noventa e seis horas pós-inseminação (hpi, embriões > 16 células foram separados ao acaso em dois grupos: controle e ETC. Embriões do grupo controle foram cultivados a 39 ºC continuamente e do grupo ETC expostos a 41 ºC por 12 horas, retornando a seguir para 39 ºC. Não foi observado efeito do ETC nas raças estudadas, sem redução nas taxas de blastocisto e blastocisto eclodido. As taxas de clivagem e mórula dos embriões mHPB x Gir foram inferiores (p < 0,05 às das demais raças. As raças mHPB x N apresentaram taxas de blastocisto superiores as raças mHPB x An e mHPB x Gir (p < 0,05. Concluiu-se que a contribuição genética do oócito é mais importante do que a do espermatozoide, uma vez que a raça do touro não influenciou a resistência embrionária ao ETC.

  1. [Argyrophilic structures of the larval forms of 2 strains of Paramphistomum microbothrium: 1 a parasite of Isidora guernei and Ovis aries, the other a parasite of Isidora truncata and Bos taurus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaw, O T; Samnaliev, P; Pino, L A; Bayssade-Dufour, C; Albaret, J L; Vassiliades, G

    1983-01-01

    The life cycle of a Paramphistome from North Senegal is completed starting from cercariae shed by naturally infected Isidora guernei: a sheep and then uninfected Isidora guernei were successively infected experimentally. Adults obtained were identifiable as P. phillerouxi or as P. microbothrium. Species determination cannot be made on the basis of argentophilic structures in the miracidium. Morphology of sporocysts and rediae differs from that observed in P. phillerouxi but is undistinguishable from that described in P. microbothrium. Cercarial chaetotaxy differs from that of P. phillerouxi. Mollusc host: Isidora guernei belongs to the same genus as Isidora truncata and I. alluaudi, reported hosts to P. microbothrium. Therefore the material is provisionally identified as P. microbothrium. To confirm this, a strain of P. microbothrium from naturally infected Bos taurus in Egypt was studied. Miracidia were used to experimentally infect Isidora truncata; cercariae obtained were identical to those previously described for this species from I. truncata and I. alluaudi. Cercarial chaetotaxy was not significantly different from that of material from North Senegal. They represent therefore two strains of Paramphistomum microbothrium.

  2. (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... usage bias and gene length in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Mol. Evol. 55:52-64. Mota AF, Martinez ML, Coutinho LL (2004). Genotyping BoLA-DRB3 alleles in Brazilian Dairy Gir cattle (Bos indicus) by temperature- gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and direct sequencing. Eur. J. Immunogen. 31:31-35.

  3. PREWEANING GROWTH OF BRTTISH. BOS INDICUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lrrr-rcd r dam typc, stre-brecd x ycar. srrt'-breed x scir$on and darrr-typc \\ year S4intlicant regrcsslon on day ol'birth within thc carlving scason. rndicatcd that brrth rna\\\\. avorage darly garn and adjustcd 210 day nla{\\ lncreased as thc calvmg season progressed. Meaningful relationships between preweaning growth and.

  4. relationship of thyroid and adrenal function to growth rate in bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ductivity of Bas taurus breeds is higher than that of. Bas indicus breeds. However, feed intake and growth rate of Bas taurus breeds decreases rapidly as temperature in- creases (Fuller, 1969). Differences in heat tolerance and thermal stability between breeds have been attributed to differences in anatomy, in metabolic ...

  5. Bos frontalis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMEEULLAH MEMON

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... study, we have investigated the structural and functional characteristics and possible duplication of the MHC-DQA genes in gayal ... Keywords. major histocompatibility complex; gayal; DQA1 gene; DQA2 gene; immunity; polymorphisms; Bos frontalis. Introduction. The potential of an organism for ...

  6. Efeito do flunixin meglumine, da somatotropina recombinante bovina e/ou da gonadotrofina coriônica humana na redução da mortalidade embrionária em vacas nelore (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Rita Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Estratégias farmacológicas são empregadas para reduzir a mortalidade embrionária em fêmeas bovinas. Objetivou se comparar o efeito do Flunixin Meglumine (FM), Somatotropina Recombinante Bovina (bST) e/ou Gonadotrofina Coriônica Humana (hCG) na redução da mortalidade embrionária em vacas Nelore no período compreendido entre o 15º e 19º dias da gestação, baseando se na taxa de concepção aos 40 dias de gestação. A hipótese é que vacas tratadas com FM, bST e/ou hCG, apresentam menor mortalidade e...

  7. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Hélder Silva e Luna; Luciana Alves Lijeron; Rafaela Nelson da Costa

    2010-01-01

    A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica...

  8. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  9. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  10. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a byproduct of the dairy industry.

  11. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the ethnoveterinary uses of cow by-products from Nigeria and South Africa. Methods: A field survey was conducted from January to September, 2015 by conducting interviews with 110 respondents who provided information in respect of the use of cow urine, bile and dung in their folk medicine in ...

  12. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wounds, skin diseases, agriculture, bio- pesticides, pest repellents and possibly alternate energy source and ... age range of 45-82 years old. The selection was purely based on their recognition as knowledgeable .... The wound healing of cow urine was reported in Wister albino rats and the outcome of the treatment ...

  13. Genome-wide identification of breed-informative single-nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avhashoni AA. Zwane

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Sanga cattle, which belong to the subspecies Bos taurus africanus. Sanga cattle breeds originated from eastern and northern Africa, the home of Sanga and Zenga cattle. Sanga are possibly crossbreds between the indigenous humpless cattle (Bos taurus) and Zebu (Bos indicus), whereas Zenga are ...

  14. Genetic diversity in selected stud and commercial herds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2014-08-29

    Aug 29, 2014 ... The Afrikaner cattle breed (Bos taurus africanus) is an indigenous South African breed of the “Sanga” type. Sanga cattle are generally found in Southern Africa and are a mixture of the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds (Payne & Wilson, 1999). Sanga cattle therefore contain genetic material that has been.

  15. Growth and efficiency of young Brahman, Bonsmara and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frisch & Vercoe (1977) found that Brahman-cross steers had a lower voluntary food intake per kilogram live mass, as well as a lower fasting metabolism per kilogram live mass, com- pare:d to Bos taurus steers. Furthermore, Bos indicus breeds show a better growth rate on roughage than Bos taurus breeds. (Fri:>eh, 1976).

  16. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  17. Evaluation of Response to Super-Ovulation, Estrous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bos taurus indicus) com inseminac¸a˜o artificial em tempo fixo. Acta Sci Vet;31; 244–245. Baruselli P S, MF. de Sa´ Filho, CM Martins, L F Nasser, MFG NogueiraCM Barros and GA Bo. 2006. Superovulation and embryo transfer in Bos indicus ...

  18. crossbreeding wit}i africander dam as basis . 3. post-weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n stelsel van rntensiewe vetmesting, het laasgenoemde drie 8os taurus vaarras nageslaggroepe opvallend beter presteer as eersgenoemde twee Bos indicus vaarras nageslaggroepe. Onder ekstensiewe veldtoestande het alle krusgeteelde groepe egter die Afrikanerkontroles geklop. Die nageslag van beide Bos indicus ...

  19. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Luna,Hélder Silva e; Lijeron,Luciana Alves; Costa,Rafaela Nelson da

    2010-01-01

    A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica...

  20. Juridica; Bos, bouw en gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Bouwen in het bos van de ecologische hoofdstructuur. Geen probleem als niemand bezwaar maakt.... Uiteindelijk is de gemeente vergunningverlener aan zichzelf, is wetgever in eigen zaak en maakt voor zichzelf een lucratief bestemmingsplan. Aldus de analyse van wetskenner Fred Kistenkas

  1. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  2. Eficiência da produção de embriões in vitro através de aspiração folicular transvaginal em bovinos das raças Girolando, Brangus e Nelore

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Zanin

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Reprodução Animal da Empresa Agropecuária Laffranchi Com. Ind. LTDA, localizada no município de Tamarana - Paraná. O experimento se refere aos resultados obtidos na produção in vitro de embriões através da aspiração folicular transvaginal em bovinos das raças Nelore (não CEIP, Bos indicus, n = 34), Nelore (CEIP, Bos indicus, n = 22). Brangus (5/8 Bos taurus x 3/8 Bos indicus, n = 64) e Girolando (5/8 Bos taurus x 3/8 Bos indicus, n = 52) t...

  3. Morphological Dimorphism In The Y Chromosome Of 'pe-duro' Cattle In The Brazilian State Of Piauf

    OpenAIRE

    Britto C.M.C.; Mello M.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    'Pe-duro' (hard foot) is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus) origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 'pe-duro' bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Embrapa) herd in the Brazilian State of Piauf. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus) in a cattle that has been consider...

  4. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle.

  5. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle. PMID:23078429

  6. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eurytrema cladorchis parasitizing cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Hayashi, Kei; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    There is always controversy regarding identification of different species in the genus Eurytrema. Identification has been based mainly on morphology, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among the scientists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify Eurytrema flukes both by morphology and molecular properties on the basis of 18-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene as well as internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to clarify their phylogenetic status. Among six different agroecological areas of Bangladesh, 22 Eurytrema flukes were recovered from the bile ducts of 22 cattle in Bandarban, a hill district. The flukes were identified as Eurytrema cladorchis through morphometric and morphological studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by neighbor-joining phylogram inferred from both 18S rRNA (1784 bp) gene and ITS2 (229 bp) sequences. A monophyletic clade was constructed by the E. cladorchis from Bangladesh; however, the clade was distinct from those formed by Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. This study first described the existence of E. cladorchis from Bangladesh and may provide useful information for both morphological and molecular properties that may further help to clarify phylogenetic relationships within the genus Eurytrema and also for other digeneans.

  8. Pharmacodynamics of piroxicam from novel solid lipid microparticles formulated with homolipids from Bos indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Petra O; Attama, Anthony A; Kenechukwu, Franklin C; Ibezim, Emmanuel C; Adikwu, Michael U

    2013-12-01

    The dissolution of piroxicam is a limiting step in its bioavailability on account of its hydrophobicity. The objective of this research was to formulate novel solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on homolipids (admixtures of tallow fat (TF) and Softisan(®) 142 (SFT) templated with Phospholipon(®) 90G (P90G), a heterolipid for the delivery of piroxicam. Lipid matrices consisting of TF and SFT in ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were templated with the heterolipid, P90G and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SLMs produced by hot homogenization technique using the matrices were characterized in terms of thermal properties, particle size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, stability studies and in vitro diffusion studies. In vivo pharmacodynamic study was performed using egg albumin- induced pedal edema in rats. The results showed that addition of Softisan(®) 142 improved the drug holding capacity of the micellar solution of 2:1 mixture of TF and SFT. The in vitro diffusion of piroxicam from this SLM showed maximum release of 87.53 % and followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetic mechanism. At dose equivalence of 10 mg, piroxicamloaded SLMs showed superior in vivo anti-inflammatory properties at 3 h than Feldene(®) and the pure drug sample. This study has shown that surface-modified SLMs could confer favourable properties with respect to drug release and antiinflammatory activity on SLMs for the delivery of piroxicam, thus encouraging further development of the formulations.

  9. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  10. Effect of high energy intake on carcass composition and hypothalamic gene expression in Bos indicus heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Diniz-Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high or low energy intake on carcass composition and expression of hypothalamic genes related to the onset of puberty. Twenty-four prepubertal Nellore heifers, 18-20- months-old, with 275.3±18.0 kg body weight (BW, and 4.9±0.2 (1-9 scale body condition score (BCS were randomly assigned to two treatments: high-energy diet (HE and low-energy diet (LE. Heifers were housed in two collective pens and fed diets formulated to promote average daily gain of 0.4 (LE or 1.2 kg (HE BW/day. Eight heifers from each treatment were slaughtered after the first corpus luteum detection - considered as age of puberty. The 9-10-11th rib section was taken and prepared for carcass composition analyses. Samples from hypothalamus were collected, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C. Specific primers for targets (NPY, NPY1R, NPY4R, SOCS3, OXT, ARRB1, and IGFPB2 and control (RPL19 and RN18S1 genes were designed for real-time PCR and then the relative quantification of target gene expression was performed. High-energy diets increased body condition score, cold carcass weight, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area and decreased age at slaughter. High-energy diets decreased the expression of NPY1R and ARRB1 at 4.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the hastening of puberty with high energy intake is related with greater body fatness and lesser hypothalamic expression of NPY1 receptor and of β-arrestin1, suggesting a less sensitive hypothalamus to the negative effects of NPY signaling.

  11. Ovarian follicular population during estrous cycle in Gir breed (Bos indicus) cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ademir de Moraes; Viana, João Henrique Moreira; Camargo, Luiz Sérgio de Almeida; Sá, Wanderlei Ferreira de; Pereira, Pedro Augusto Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    A população folicular ovariana de 14 vacas da raça Gir foi monitorada diariamente, por ultra-sonografia, ao longo de um ciclo estral completo. Em cada avaliação, os folículos ovarianos foram identificados, mensurados e classificados por tamanho, em três categorias: de 3 a 5 mm (folículos pequenos), de 6 a 8 mm (folículos médios) e iguais ou superiores a 9 mm (folículos grandes). Foram observados ciclos com três (69,23%) e quatro (30,77%) ondas de crescimento folicular. O número médio de folíc...

  12. Serological patterns of brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever in Bos indicus cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G; Fèvre, Eric M; Morgan, Kenton L; Tanya, Vincent N; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2010-01-21

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region.

  13. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF AN ARROW HIT DOMESTIC BULL (BOS INDICUS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A free range bull was hit by an arrow. It was brought to the Veterinary Centre of Buxa Tiger Reserve Forest, Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Immediate surgical intervention was started and the arrow was operated out. The animal was cured uneventfully.

  14. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  15. stress and adaptation in beef heifers: 1. effect of pen conditions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonsmaraverse veroorsaak nie. Daarenteen het ingekraalde Korthoringverse veral gedurende die laaste 2 weke, hoer waardes as verse op die veld getoon. SUMMARY.. L:ighteen beef heifers, representing the Bos taurus (Shorthorn), Bos indicus (Afrikaner) and intermediate (Bonsmara) types, were con- t'ined to a pen with ...

  16. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Zebu animals (Bos indicus) are known to take longer to reach puberty compared with taurine animals (Bos taurus), limiting the supply of animals for harvest or breeding and impacting profitability. Genomic information can be a helpful tool to better understand complex traits and improve genetic...

  17. Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Rungwe district in Tanzania, to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation on reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle. Cattle used were crossbreds, mainly between Friesian (Bos taurus) and indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (Bos indicus). All animals were managed under ...

  18. The effect of dietary rations on the gut morphology of Zebu Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in the Bos taurus cattle have shown the gut morphology to be affected by diet, but there is a paucity of such information in the Bos indicus cattle. A study was conducted to evaluate the morphology of digestive tract of the Tanzanian Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle under different dietary treatments. A total of 54 TSHZ ...

  19. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle. (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in. Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different.

  20. Association analysis of CAPN1 gene variants with carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... the cattle industry. Key words: Bovine, CAPN1 gene, Carcass and meat quality traits, SNPs. INTRODUCTION. Carcass and meat quality traits, which are influenced by multiple ... value assessment of beef cattle industry. Selection of ..... tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus,.

  1. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  2. Assessment of genetic variation among four populations of Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... 4 College of Animal Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage & Herbivore, Chongqing. Engineering Research Centre for Herbivores ...... evolution, domestication and phylogeography of taurine and zebu cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Genetics. 146, 1071-1086. Maletsanake, D.

  3. Gene study within the 5' flanking regions of growth hormone gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... replacements and one addition, for GH 2.3 allele, as compared to Bos taurus Genome (Btau_4.0 ) and two earlier ... Key words: Bos indicus, growth hormone gene, silent mutation, growth hormone (GH) gene, allele. INTRODUCTION ..... Sami AJ (2007). Structure-function relation of somatotropin with.

  4. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  5. Factors influencing recalving rate in lactating beef cows in the sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    goups the majority was also late calving. Recalving rate was high in all other breeding groups and was not influenced by date of calving. In general, Bos taurus type cows calve significantly earlier in the calving season than Bos indicus types (Bonsma &. Skinner, 1969; Holroyd et al., 1979; Gotti el a/., 1985). This is to some ...

  6. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  7. Background-oriented schlieren (BOS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    This article gives an overview of the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique, typical applications and literature in the field. BOS is an optical density visualization technique, belonging to the same family as schlieren photography, shadowgraphy or interferometry. In contrast to these older techniques, BOS uses correlation techniques on a background dot pattern to quantitatively characterize compressible and thermal flows with good spatial and temporal resolution. The main advantages of this technique, the experimental simplicity and the robustness of correlation-based digital analysis, mean that it is widely used, and variant versions are reviewed in the article. The advantages of each variant are reviewed, and further literature is provided for the reader.

  8. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  9. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salazar B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS (Lucerna or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela. Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remaining animals grazed in an ISS based on Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus. The tick counts were made every 15 days. The data of temperature, humidity, and radiation were taken from a weather station that was inside the ISS. Results. There was a weak relationship between saturation deficit and tick load (R2=0.34 and another between UV radiation and tick load (R2=0.205 for animals grazing in ISS. There were differences in tick counts when comparing animals of similar productivity from both systems evaluated: in La Isabela (sugarcane grass paddocks average counts were 311 ticks perceptible to the touch (TPT and in Lucerna (ISS farm average counts were 206 TPT (p= 0.02. Additionally, there were greater tick counts in high productivity cows compared to low productivity cows. Conclusions. The abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem and animal productivity can affect the TPT counts. In ISS systems, tick counts can be lower than those observed in monoculture grazing systems.

  10. Origin and spread of Bos taurus: new clues from mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroup T1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonfiglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. METHODOLOGY: A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a-T1f. Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified "African-derived American" (AA haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1. This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt, indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers.

  11. A fine structure genetic analysis evaluating ecoregional adaptability of a Bos taurus breed (Hereford.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H D Blackburn

    Full Text Available Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Hereford cattle were genotyped with 50K Bead Chip or 770K Bovine Bead Chip to test the existence of genetic structure in five U.S. ecoregions characterized by precipitation, temperature and humidity and designated: cool arid (CA, cool humid (CH, transition zone (TZ, warm arid (WA, and warm humid (WH. SNP data were analyzed in three sequential analyses. Broad genetic structure was evaluated with STRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE software using 14,312 SNPs after passing quality control variables. The second analysis was performed using principal coordinate analysis with 66 Tag SNPs associated in the literature with various aspects of environmental stressors (e.g., heat tolerance or production (e.g., milk production. In the third analysis TreeSelect was used with the 66 SNPs to evaluate if ecoregional allelic frequencies deviated from a central frequency and by so doing are indicative of directional selection. The three analyses suggested subpopulation structures associated with ecoregions from where animals were derived. ADMIXTURE and PCA results illustrated the importance of temperature and humidity and confirm subpopulation assignments. Comparisons of allele frequencies with TreeSelect showed ecoregion differences, in particular the divergence between arid and humid regions. Patterns of genetic variability obtained by medium and high density SNP chips can be used to acclimatize a temperately derived breed to various ecoregions. As climate change becomes an important factor in cattle production, this study should be used as a proof of concept to review future breeding and conservation schemes aimed at adaptation to climatic events.

  12. Global mapping of miRNA-target interactions in cattle (Bos taurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Moore, Michael J; Luna, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    With roles in development, cell proliferation and disease, micro-RNA (miRNA) biology is of great importance and a potential therapeutic target. Here we used cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and ligation of miRNA-target chimeras on the Argonaute (AGO) protein to globally map miRNA interact...

  13. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Mark

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs. A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P Conclusion We have identified 15,353 putative SNPs in or close to bovine genes and 2,868 of these SNPs were predicted to be non-synonymous. Approximately 29% of the non-synonymous SNPs were polymorphic and common with a minor allele frequency >10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  14. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael A; Keane, Orla M; Glass, Belinda C; Manley, Tim R; Cullen, Neil G; Dodds, Ken G; McCulloch, Alan F; Morris, Chris A; Schreiber, Mark; Warren, Jonathan; Zadissa, Amonida; Wilson, Theresa; McEwan, John C

    2006-11-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs). A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P 10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  15. Comparative bone histology of adult horses (Equus caballus) and cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedda, M; Lepore, G; Manca, P; Chisu, V; Farina, V

    2008-12-01

    Bone microstructure of domestic herbivores is still not completely understood. Indeed, works focused on the bone histology of numerous Mammalian species frequently led to misunderstandings because of the high number of variations such as the kind of bone, section orientation, species, breed and age. Moreover, attempts to identify the species in archaeozoological studies by a mere qualitative approach have not been encouraging and in recent years quantitative methods, based on image processing and statistical analysis, have appeared. The present study was undertaken to determine whether morphometrical and morphological differences exist in the compact bone structure of the femur and humerus between horses and cows. Measurements such as area, perimeter, minimum and maximum diameter of osteons and Haversian canals as well as the osteonal density were carried out on cross sections of eight humeri and eight femurs of the two herbivores investigated. In agreement with other authors, the qualitative investigation confirmed that the compact bone of horses and cows can be classified as dense Haversian tissue. Osteons of the horse were more numerous and composed of a higher number of well-defined lamellae when compared with the cow. Diameter, perimeter and area of osteons and Haversian canals were always higher in horses than in cows and this pattern could be related to the different locomotor behaviour of these animals.

  16. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  17. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  18. Spermatozoal transcripts expression levels are predictive of semen quality and conception rate in bulls (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Arangasamy, Arunachalam; Sivaram, Muniandy; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2017-08-01

    Spermatozoal transcripts expression levels could be used to assess fertility potential of a male. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the predictive ability of the expression levels of growth, apoptosis and homeostasis regulating transcripts on sperm functions and fertility. The expression levels of spermatozoal RNA isolated from the neat semen samples were related to the good (discarded ejaculate, 40%, n = 6) quality semen producer and bulls (n = 12) with known conception rate. The relative fold expression levels of BMP2 were significantly (p conception rate (r = -0.57, p conception rate of the bull. The study provides ample evidence that the sperm transcripts expression levels might be used to predict quality semen production and bull fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  20. Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James M.; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, R.F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can

  1. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk (Capra hircus) using calve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... and Finance, 2001). Much effort has been put into animal rearing and local milk production. This has led to improvements in the production of local milk products ..... beta-casein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 3632-3639. Berridge NJ (1952). An improved method of observing the clotting of milk containing rennin.

  2. Bovine (Bos taurus) humoral immune response against Echinococcus granulosus and hydatid cyst infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Rodolfo; Godoy, Pablo; Rodríguez, Betsabé; García, María Pía; Cabezón, Carolina; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Verónica; Hellman, Ulf; Sáenz, Leonardo; Ferreira, Arturo; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, the agent of hydatid disease, presents an indirect life cycle, with canines (mainly dogs) as definitive hosts, and herbivores and human as intermediary ones. In intermediary hosts fertile and infertile cysts develop, but only the first ones develop protoscoleces, the parasite form infective to definitive hosts. We report the presence of bovine IgGs in the germinal layer from infertile cysts (GLIC), in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer from fertile cysts (GLFC). When extracted with salt solutions, bovine IgGs from GLIC are associated with low or with high affinity (most likely corresponding to non specific and antigen specific antibodies, respectively). Specific IgGs penetrate both the cells of the germinal layer and HeLa cultured cells and recognize parasitic proteins. These results, taken together with previous ones from our laboratory, showing induction of apoptosis in the germinal layer of infertile hydatid cysts, provide the first coherent explanation of the infertility process. They also offer the possibility of identifying the parasite antigens recognized, as possible targets for immune modulation.

  3. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  4. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  5. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  6. SPECTROSCOPY OF PUTATIVE BROWN DWARFS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2 ± 0.5), and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  7. Solid CO in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared vibrational feature of solid state CO at 4.67 μm wavelength is detected towards five sources in or behind the dark cloud complex in Taurus. A comparison with millimetre-wave data suggests that a significant fraction (up to 40 per cent) of the CO may be depleted on to grains. The adjacent CN feature at 4.62 μm observed in W33A by previous authors is absent from the present spectra, suggesting that the grain mantles in Taurus are unannealed. (author)

  8. (Re)Considering cattle farming in Southern Africa under a changing climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer van Garderen, ERM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available in more traditional extensive farming systems) are usually better adapted to higher temperatures. As one example, Bos taurus breeds tend to be more productive in temperate climates and tend to be used for their productivity, while Bos indicus (such...) Comfort threshold for high-producing dairy cows (Herna?ndez et al. 2002); higher for Bos indicus breeds (which are highly adapted to heat stress) 278C Upper limit of comfort zone for maximum milk production in India, which is 28C higher than...

  9. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  10. Photometric peculiarities of the RY Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of photoelectric UBV-observations of RY Taurus carried out in 1965-80 at the Crimean Station of the State Sternberg Astronomical Institute. Two components of brightness variations are observed: fast (days) and slow (years). During fast variations the colour indices U-B and B-V change independently of brightness, however, in particular time inter-- vals the rather strong correlation with the star brightness is observed, positive or negative. During the slow variations only the reverse dependence is observed; the brightness increase is followed by the increase of colour indices (reddening of the star). The comparison of the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization variations has shown that the dependence of polarization degree on brightness is nonmonotonic. At minimum and maximum brightness the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization is maximum and reaches 5-6 %. At the general amplitude of RY TAURUS brightness variations in V rays from 10.sup(m)1 to 11.sup(m)7 the V=11.sup(m)0 value is singled out. First a certain ''avoidance'' of this brightness value by the star is observed. Second, the fracture in the course of polarization dependence on brightness occurs as well in the V=11sup(m) region

  11. Estudo genômico do nível de infecção por Babesia bovis em bovinos da raça angus

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Clarissa Helena [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    A bovinocultura é um setor com importante destaque no agronegócio brasileiro. O carrapato Ripicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é responsável por perdas econômicas significativas aos pecuaristas e é vetor de hemoparasitoses como Anaplasma spp e Babesia spp. Sabe-se que os bovinos Bos taurus taurus são mais susceptíveis à infestação por carrapatos do que Bos taurus indicus. Acredita-se que o mesmo ocorra para a infecção por Babesia bovis. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados, em duas colheitas, 355 bo...

  12. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  13. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  14. Morphological characterization of uterus and oviducts of Nelore bovine fetuses (Bos primigenius indicus at various gestation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a realização desta pesquisa, foram coletados vinte fetos fêmeas em diferentes fases de gestação da raça Nelore. Os cornos uterinos e as tubas uterinas foram dissecados, mensurados e os fragmentos fixados em paraformaldeído tamponado a 4,00%, processados e incluídos em paraplástico. Os cortes com 5 mm foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina, tricrômio de Masson (para fibras colágenas, Verhoeff (para fibras elásticas e com reticulina (para fibras reticulares. Os resultados mostraram que não há diferença significativa das mensurações entre os lados direito e esquerdo para os cornos uterinos e tubas uterinas, porém há correlação entre os valores obtidos das mensurações dos órgãos em função da idade dos fetos, ou seja, o crescimento dos órgãos acompanha o crescimento fetal. O epitélio de revestimento do útero não apresenta variações morfológicas evidentes no período analisado. A partir de 23 semanas de gestação, a mucosa uterina apresenta evolução marcante no desenvolvimento das projeções e não há aparecimento de glândulas endometriais na parede uterina no período analisado. A camada muscular apresenta a subcamada circular interna desenvolvida até 23 semanas de gestação e a partir de 24 semanas há presença das duas subcamadas. A camada serosa é típica e não mostra variabilidade no decorrer da gestação. As tubas uterinas apresentam diferenças de crescimento, principalmente dos pregueamentos que a partir de 23 semanas de gestação tornaram-se mais altos e ramificados, porém sem aparecimento de pregas terciárias. Com o desenvolvimento fetal, os cílios epiteliais do pregueamento tubárico são maiores em tamanho e em número. Até 32 semanas de gestação, a camada muscular das tubas uterinas apresenta apenas a subcamada circular interna. A camada serosa e o mesosalpinge são típicos e não apresentam variações importantes. As variações mais marcantes para os órgãos estudados ocorreram a partir de 23 semanas de gestação.

  15. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r = 0.84. The role of these co-expressed genes in puberty and heifers luteal phase merits further research.

  16. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  17. A Taurus Map on a Minoan Vase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G.

    During the excavation of a shrine at Anemospilia on Crete in 1979, richly decorated vase was discovered, like that appearing on the sarcophagus of Aghia Triada to be used for the collection of the blood of the sacrifices bull. The vase was dated to the Middle Minoan period (around 1700 B.C.) The central motif of the decoration of the vase is a plastic bull painted off- white, with a pattern of red round spots scattered over its body. The whole decoration was considered by the excavators and other investigators, as a "speaking symbol" of a bull sacrifice. In this article we suggest that the pattern of round spots could be considered as a map of the Taurus constellation, the oldest one known in the Aegean moreover, that the whole decoration refers to Spring, when the vernal equinox was located in Taurus in Minoan Times. We also suggest that the beginning of the year would be fixed following this equinox.

  18. The attainment of maturity in male Penaeus indicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-01-15

    Jan 15, 1988 ... extrusability of the spermatophores and mating in confinement, were used to evaluate sexual maturity in male. Penaeus indicus. It was concluded ... The present study on the attainment of sexual maturity in the South African P. ..... primary and secondary sexual characters in the Banana. Prawn, Penaeus ...

  19. Molecular characterization of leptin (obese) gene in domesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... indicus, Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Capra hircus and Ovis aries, respectively. Also, 54 Yak samples from two geographically different regions of India were used for SNP identification in the coding regions of the gene. Both exon 2 and 3 was found to be highly conserved, the interestingly reported bovine ...

  20. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  1. Llllan, w. WAIBOCPH, Keith, T. BALLINGALI, Niall, n. MACHUGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cattle are a hi ghly divergent population possibly due tointrogression by Asian Bos indicus Oiumped) cattle and more recently European B. taurus ... highly divergent Asian, African and European allelic families. This describes signiñcant allelic ..... J. Tïssue Culture Methods Il: 101. 13. Bembridge, G.P. Parsons, K,R., ...

  2. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  3. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  4. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  5. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  6. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...

  7. Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 from Tianzhu White Yak, Bos grunniens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak.

  8. Alternative genotyping method for the single nucleotide polymorphism A2959G (AF159246 of the bovine CAST gene Método alternativo de genotipagem do polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único A2959G (AF159246 do gene CAST bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to genotype the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP A2959G (AF159246 of bovine CAST gene by PCR-RFLP technique, and to report its use for the first time. For this, 147 Bos indicus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus animals were genotyped. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the direct sequencing of PCR products of nine individuals. The lowest frequency of the meat tenderness favorable allele (A in Bos indicus was confirmed. The use of PCR-RFLP for the genotyping of the bovine CAST gene SNP was shown to be robust and inexpensive, which will greatly facilitate its analysis by laboratories with basic structure.O objetivo deste trabalho foi genotipar o polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único ("single nucleotide polymorphism" - SNP A2959G (AF159246 do gene CAST bovino, pela técnica de PCR-RFLP, e reportar a sua utilização pela primeira vez. Para tanto, 147 animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus x Bos indicus foram genotipados. A acurácia do método foi confirmada por meio do seqüenciamento direto de produtos de PCR de nove indivíduos. A menor freqüência do alelo A, favorável à maciez da carne, foi confirmada nos animais Bos indicus. O uso da PCR-RFLP, para a genotipagem do SNP do gene CAST bovino, mostrou-se consistente e de baixo custo, o que permite a sua análise por laboratórios dotados de estrutura básica.

  9. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India. 

  10. Interstellar extinction in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistas, E.; Straizys, V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 89 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of the Taurus dark clouds with corrdinates (1950) 4sup(h)16sup(m)-4sup(h)33sup(m), +16 0 -+20 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitude, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The distance of the dark nebula is found to be 140 pc and is in a good agreement with the distance determined for the dark nebula Khavtassi 286, 278. The average extinction Asub(v) in the investigated area is of the order of 1.4. (author)

  11. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  12. Composição lipídica de carne bovina de grupos genéticos taurinos e zebuínos terminados em confinamento Lipid composition of meat from zebu and taurine cattle finished in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Vercezi Rossato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a composição em lipídeos totais, colesterol e ácidos graxos do músculo longissimus dorsi de bovinos Bos taurus (n=40 e Bos indicus (n=40 com 30 a 36 meses de idade e peso de carcaça entre 240 e 270 kg terminados em confinamento por 90 dias. Os resultados de lipídeos totais foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos. O nível de colesterol foi mais elevado em Bos indicus (66,95 mg/100 g que em Bos taurus (37,37 mg/100 g. Os valores médios dos ácidos graxos saturados de C14:0 e C18:0 foram mais elevados nos Bos indicus (3,52 e 22,45% em comparação aos Bos taurus (3,08 e 18,67%. O C16:0 nos Bos taurus (26,14% foi maior que nos Bos indicus (24,77%. Na análise do perfil de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGM, os Bos taurus apresentaram os percentuais mais elevados de C14:1 cis9, C16:1 cis9, C18:1 cis9, ΣAGM e os menores de C18:1 trans. Os animais Bos taurus apresentaram maiores percentuais de C18:3 n-3, C20:4 n-6 e C22:5 n-3 (ácidos graxos poliinsaturados. Os ácidos graxos C18:2 n-6, CLA, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, ΣAGP e Σn-6 foram semelhantes entre grupos de bovinos. A razão n-6/n-3 foi menor em Bos taurus (4,63 em comparação aos Bos indicus (5,70. Em geral, o grupo genético influencia o perfil de colesterol e ácidos graxos de bovinos e esse efeito é mais pronunciado nos ácidos graxos saturados e monoinsaturados.This study was carried out to evaluate total lipids (TL, cholesterol and fatty acids (FA in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Bos taurus (n=40 and Bos indicus (n=40 bulls, aged 30-36 months and 240-270 kg carcass weight, finished in the feedlot for 90 days. The total lipids content was similar in both groups. Cholesterol was higher in Bos indicus (66.95 mg/100 g than in Bos taurus (37.37 mg/100 g. For saturated fatty acids, the means for C14:0 and C18:0 were higher in Bos indicus (3.52 and 22.45%, than in Bos taurus (3.08 e 18.67%. The C16:0 was higher in Bos taurus (26.14%, as compared to

  13. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  14. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  15. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  16. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  17. The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Gavrilin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the structure of the lymphoid lobules of the parenchyma of the superficial somatic (Limphonodi subiliaci, L. cervicales superficiales, profund somatic (L. axillares proprii L. poplitei, somatovisceral (L. iliaci mediales, L. retropharyngei mediales and visceral (L. mediastinales caudales, L. ileocolici lymph nodes of newborn bull calves of domestic cattle. To visualize clearly the boundaries of the structural components of lymphoid lobules we used the author’s modification of the impregnation of total median frozen histological sections with silver nitrate. We have established a high level of tissue differentiation of the lymph nodes, a significant development of the lymphoid parenchyma, the division of the parenchyma into lymphoid lobules, the presence in the lobules of all the main structural components that are represented by two morphotypes. The first morphotype is ribbon-like perisinusoidal cords (interfollicular zone, paracortical and medullary cords. The second morphotype is rounded lymphoid formations (central zones of deep cortex units, lymphatic nodules. Lymphoid lobules are located along the marginal sinus in one row, they are better developed and differentiated in the visceral lymph nodes. In all the lymph nodes, the lymphoid lobules have a similar histoarchitectonic, and each structural component of the lymphoid lobules has a specific architectonic of the reticular meshwork and the density of the location of the fibroblastic reticulocytes. We determined that the structures of the first morphotype which provide the migration of lymphocytes, the detection of antigens and the accumulation of plasmocytes are more developed. We have established that the relative volume of structures of the first morphotype is 4.5–8.0 times larger than the volume of the structures of the second morphotype, which provide clonal proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, especially in deep somatic lymph nodes. Among the zones of the second morphotype, predominate T-dependent zones, the relative volume of which considerably exceeds the volume of B-dependent zones (lymphoid nodules: in the superficial somatic lymph nodes by 14–30 times, profound somatic by 12–14 times, somatovisceral by 6–7 times and visceral by 4.5–5.5 times. We determined that lymphatic nodules can form in different parts of compartments: in the interfollicular zone and paracortical cords of all lymph nodes and in the medullary cords of the visceral lymph nodes. The study shows that the parenchyma of the lymph nodes of newborn bull calves has a high degree of maturity, contains a full set of structural markers of immunocompetence, among which predominate the components that support lymphocyte migration, antigen detection and accumulation of plasma cells.

  18. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  19. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  20. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus and swine (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paul F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB, and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly] were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  1. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-03

    Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  2. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  3. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  4. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium [Fischoeder 1901] (Digenea: Paramphistomidae), a parasite of Bos taurus in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane

    2007-08-01

    The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7 microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body". Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.

  5. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901; Digenea, Paramphistomidae), a parasite of Bos taurus in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane

    2007-07-01

    The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7-microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body." Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.

  6. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  7. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Wani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was carried out to sequence and phylogenetic analysis of CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, from a group of forty eight Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, blood samples were collected randomly from eight animals, out of which four were healthy and four were mastitic. Results: The amplification of Interleukin-8B (IL-8B receptor gene target sequence was carried out using the primer pair in an optimized polymerase chain reaction. Partial sequencing of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis (Murrah has been done successfully. The sequences of IL-8B receptor gene showed 99% homology to that of Bos indicus × Bos taurus, 98% to that of Bos taurus, 97% to that of Ovis aries, 93% to that of Sus scrofa, 92% to that of Equus caballus and 90% to that of Felis catus. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that the PCR amplification procedure for target region of IL-8B receptor gene yielding 459 bp products has been standardized, which yielded consistent and specific amplification. Amplification of partial IL-8B receptor gene (exon 2- 459 bp using self designed primers specific for cattle ortholog sequence signifies that the locus is conserved in cattle and buffaloes. In phylogenetic tree, the target sequence of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis were found to be more closely related to Bos indicus × Bos Taurus and Bos taurus than to Ovis aries and Sus scrofa.

  8. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  9. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A.; Biebel, O.; Mameghani, R.; Merkl, D.; Rauscher, F.; Schaile, D.; Ströhmer, R.

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  10. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  11. THE DISK POPULATION OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  12. The BOS loci of Arabidopsis are required for resistance to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Paola; Chen, Xi; Bluhm, Burton; Salmeron, John; Dietrich, Robert; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2004-11-01

    Three Botrytis-susceptible mutants bos2, bos3, and bos4 which define independent and novel genetic loci required for Arabidopsis resistance to Botrytis cinerea were isolated. The bos2 mutant is susceptible to B. cinerea but retains wild-type levels of resistance to other pathogens tested, indicative of a defect in a response pathway more specific to B. cinerea. The bos3 and bos4 mutants also show increased susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola, another necrotrophic pathogen, suggesting a broader role for these loci in resistance. bos4 shows the broadest range of effects on resistance, being more susceptible to avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Interestingly, bos3 is more resistant than wild-type plants to virulent strains of the biotrophic pathogen Peronospora parasitica and the bacterial pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato. The Pathogenesis Related gene 1 (PR-1), a molecular marker of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance pathway, shows a wild-type pattern of expression in bos2, while in bos3 this gene was expressed at elevated levels, both constitutively and in response to pathogen challenge. In bos4 plants, PR-1 expression was reduced compared with wild type in response to B. cinerea and SA. In bos3, the mutant most susceptible to B. cinerea and with the highest expression of PR-1, removal of SA resulted in reduced PR-1 expression but no change to the B. cinerea response. Expression of the plant defensin gene PDF1-2 was generally lower in bos mutants compared with wild-type plants, with a particularly strong reduction in bos3. Production of the phytoalexin camalexin is another well-characterized plant defense response. The bos2 and bos4 mutants accumulate reduced levels of camalexin whereas bos3 accumulates significantly higher levels of camalexin than wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. The BOS2, BOS3, and BOS4 loci may affect camalexin levels and responsiveness to ethylene and jasmonate. The three new mutants appear to mediate

  13. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Qu, Kai-Xing; Yan, Shou-Qing; Yang, Min-Min; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal. PMID:29048483

  14. Polarimetric study of the interstellar medium in Taurus Dark Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical linear polarimetric survey was completed for more than 300 stars in an area of 6.5 0 x 10 0 toward the Taurus Dark Clouds Complex. It was found that the orientation of the magnetic field is roughly perpendicular to the elongation direction of the dust lanes, indicating cloud contraction along the magnetic field lines. The distance to the front edge of the dark clouds in Taurus is determined to be 126 pc. There is only insignificant amount of obscuring material between the cloud complex and the Sun. Besides the polarization data, the reddenings of about 250 stars were also obtained from the UBV photometry. The mean polarization to reddening ratio in the Taurus region is 4.6, which is similar to that of the general interstellar matter. The wavelengths of maximum polarization were determined for 30 stars in Taurus. They show an average value of lambda/sub max/ = 0.57 μm, which is only slightly higher than the mean value of the general interstellar medium, lambda/sub max/ = 0.55 μm. A few stars that show higher values of lambda/sub max/ are found near the small isolated regions of very high extinction. One such highly obscured small region where very complex long chain molecules have been discovered in the ratio spectra, is the Taurus Molecular Cloud 1

  15. Correlation analysis of the Taurus molecular cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Autocorrelation and power spectrum methods were applied to the analysis of the density and velocity structure of the Taurus Complex and Heiles Cloud 2 as traced out by 13 CO J = 1 → 0 molecular line observations obtained with the 14m antenna of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. Statistically significant correlations in the spacing of density fluctuations within the Taurus Complex and Heiles 2 were uncovered. The length scales of the observed correlations correspond in magnitude to the Jeans wavelengths characterizing gravitational instabilities with (i) interstellar atomic hydrogen gas for the case of the Taurus complex, and (ii) molecular hydrogen for Heiles 2. The observed correlations may be the signatures of past and current gravitational instabilities frozen into the structure of the molecular gas. The appendices provide a comprehensive description of the analytical and numerical methods developed for the correlation analysis of molecular clouds

  16. Study on the flare stars in the Taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the search of flare stars and their photometric, Hsub(α)-spectroscopic and statistical study in the Taurus are presented. By means of photographic observations carried out during 1980-1984, 92 new flare stars were discovered, 13 of which are known Orion Population variables, and 16 repeated flare-ups among 13 known flare stars. Spatial distribution of these stars was considered and the problem of their membership was discussed. Comparative analysis of the data of flare stars in the Taurus with that of other systems has been carried out. The Herzsprung-Russel and two-colour (U-B, B-V) diagrams for the Taurus flare stars are similar to the diagrams of stellar clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion etc.). The estimated total number of flare stars in this region is larger than 500

  17. A study of flare stars in the taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of a search for flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus together with the results of photometric, H /sub alpha/ -spectroscopic, and statistical investigations of them. Photographic observations during 1980-1984 revealed 92 new flare stars, 13 of which were found to be known Orion variables with 16 repeated flares of 13 previously known flare stars. Their apparent distribution is considered. The question of whether the flare stars belong to a dark cloud is discussed. A comparative analysis of the flare stars in the Taurus region and other aggregates is made. The Hertzsprung-Russell (V, B - V) and two-color (U - B, B - V) diagrams for the flare stars are similar to the corresponding diagrams constructed for star clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion, etc.). The total number of flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus is estimated at ≥ 500

  18. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  19. De prijsvorming van hout uit het Nederlandse bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.

    1984-01-01

    De prijsvorming van hout op stam en hout geveld uit het Nederlandse bos op het niveau van het bosbedrijf staat centraal in deze publikatie. Na een schets van een aantal facetten die invloed hebben op de prijsvorming wordt nader ingegaan op de prijsvorming zelf. Onderzocht wordt of er verschil in

  20. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  1. Interstellar ice grains in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, M.F.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations made in November 1981 using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea of the 3 μm ice absorption feature in the spectra of several obscured stars in the Taurus interstellar clouds are reported. The feature correlated in strength with extinction at visual wavelengths (Asub(v)), and is present in stars with Asub(v) as low as 4-6 mag. Ice may be widespread in the Taurus clouds, vindicating ideas on grain composition and growth first reported nearly 50 yr ago. (author)

  2. T Tauri stars in Taurus - the IRAS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Stella; Clegg, Peter; Hughes, Joanne

    1988-01-01

    Statistical studies of star-formation have traditionally been beset with selection effects. We have developed a technique, using the completeness of the IRAS catalogue, which circumvents these effects. We have taken the properties of known T Tau stars within Taurus as a template to establish a purely IRAS-based definition of such sources. We then use this definition to extract, from the IRAS catalogue, all sources within a specific region of Taurus having those same IRAS properties. This wider class of source is examined and discussed. (author)

  3. Imunoidentification of Albumin and Osteopontin in Seminal Plasma of Taurine and Zebuine Bulls/ Imunoidentificação de Albumina e Osteopontina no Plasma Seminal de Reprodutores Taurinos e Zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa Mattos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in seminal plasma of seven Bos taurus taurus and seven Bos taurus indicus bulls with high semen freezability, from an artificialinsemination center. In a 8% polyacrylamide gels, three bands of 195, 66 and 55 kDa, present in 100% of the samples in both sub-species, were analyzed by their optical densities. In Bos taurus samples, the opticals densities of 55 kDa band, imunoidentified as osteopontin were superior (pAs proteínas do plasma seminal de 14 reprodutores (7 Bos taurus taurus e 7 Bos taurus indicus, foram analisadas por eletroforese bidimensional, em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%, corados por Comassie Blue. Três bandas protéicas, presentes em 100% das amostras de plasma seminal, foram quantificadas de acordo com a densidade óptica exibida: 195 kDa, pI 6,5-7,5 ; 66 kDa, pI 5,4 e 55 kDa, pI 4,5. As amostras de plasma seminal provenientes de taurinos apresentaram densidades ópticas significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 às dos zebuínos na banda de 55 kDa, que foi imunoidentificada como osteopontina. As demais proteínas analisadas não apresentaram variações significativas entre as subespécies. A banda protéica de 66 kDa, foi imunoidentificada como albumina. Nas amostras provenientes de taurinos, as densidades ópticas das três bandas protéicas quantificadas não evidenciaram variação significativa entre os reprodutores. Entretanto, nos zebuínos, as densidades ópticas da albumina apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os touros (p < 0,05.

  4. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indicus x sanga and indicus x taurus direct heterosis effects on all weight traits were greater than either the taurus x sanga or taurus x taurus effects, whereas the indicus x sanga maternal heterosis effect was consistently less than the estimated taurus x sanga maternal heterosis effect. Keywords: Direct effects, heterosis, ...

  5. The temporal behaviour of Taurus X-1 (the Crab Nebula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, P.J.N.

    1975-01-01

    Copernicus data on Taurus X-1 and the Crab pulsar extending over a 2 1/2-yr period indicate that under normal conditions the source has a flux that is constant to within 2.5 per cent at the 90 per cent confidence level. The pulsed/total flux ratio also shows no significant changes during the same time. (author)

  6. Recent TAURUS results on Hα velocities in M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Atherton, P.D.; Oosterloo, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary Hα observations with the TAURUS imaging spectrometer confirm a pattern of systematic radial motions in a section of spiral arm in M83. The velocity gradients are not consistent with those predicted for the neutral gas. Non-circular motions have also been discovered in the central regions of the galaxy. (Auth.)

  7. Neospora caninum abortion in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M; Osmann, C; Wohlsein, P; Schares, G

    2017-05-30

    A captive 17-year old female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. The fetus showed an early state of mummification. Histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. Although immunohistologically, Neospora (N.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, N. caninum DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in brain, heart, liver and lung of the fetus. N. caninum DNA was extracted from the aborted fetus and the microsatellite marker MS10 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The obtained MS10 microsatellite pattern has not been described in Germany yet. Nevertheless, the MS10 pattern was very similar to those reported for N. caninum isolated from dogs and cattle in Germany. Because of the histological pattern and extent of the lesions, neosporosis was suspected as the cause of fetal death and abortion. This case report describes for the first time transplacental transmission of N. caninum and abortion due to neosporosis in a tapir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Vitamin E Supplemented Diet on Charque Quality and Lipid Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Facco, EMP; Lage, ME; Godoy, HT

    2009-01-01

    The present work evaluated and compared the lipid oxidation of charque, taken from, the semi-tendinosus muscle of animals from the Nelore breed (Bos taurus indicus), supplemented with α-tocopherol. Charque was produced submitting the samples to salt moisture, salt drying and exposition to the sun for dehydration until water activity values (Aw) reached 0.75. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant differences in the values of cholesterol, total lipid...

  9. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  10. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klotz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45 from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G. mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and

  11. Occurrence of abnormal starfish Astropecten indicus (Doderlein, 1888 (Echinodermata: Astroidea along Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABHU kOLANDHASAMY

    2012-08-01

    Starfish Astropecten indicus was collected from bycatch landings at Mudasalodai fishing harbour, Tamil Nadu (India in November 2011. Totally 134 specimens collected among three specimens (2,2% have abnormally developed four and six arms. Normally, A. indicus has five arms and the deviation from pentamerism is a rare phenomenon in starfishes. The present observations suggest that deviations from pentamerism are not a heritable character but are a consequence of environmental perturbations on the metamorphosis of larvae and/or abnormal regeneration of arms.

  12. Occurrence of abnormal starfish Astropecten indicus (Doderlein, 1888 (Echinodermata: Astroidea along Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prabhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Starfish Astropecten indicus was collected from bycatch landings at Mudasalodai fishing harbour, Tamil Nadu (India in November 2011. Totally 134 specimens collected among three specimens (2,2% have abnormally developed four and six arms. Normally, A. indicus has five arms and the deviation from pentamerism is a rare phenomenon in starfishes. The present observations suggest that deviations from pentamerism are not a heritable character but are a consequence of environmental perturbations on the metamorphosis of larvae and/or abnormal regeneration of arms.

  13. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  14. Avaliação da autozigosidade em vacas Nelore (Bos indicus) através de genótipos SNP de alta densidade

    OpenAIRE

    Zavarez, Ludmilla Balbo [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The current beef cattle chain has had significant help of animal breeding programs to its success. The development of different methods to perform phenotypic and genotypic evaluation has the objective of selecting flocks and producing genetically superior animals with standardized production. The productive standardization of a herd must be the result of directed matings, which can lead to increased incidence of homozygous alleles in the genome of animals. The increase of autozygosity in the ...

  15. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M ☉ ).

  17. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis reports a large-scale survey of carbon monoxide ( 12 CO) emission (at λ = 2.6 mm) from dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus. CO spectra at 4395 points were obtained within an area of about 800 square degrees generally west of the galactic anti-center. The spatial resolution of the instrument was eight arcminutes and velocity resolution was 2.6 km s -1 /. CO emission is strongest wherever extinction by dust is greatest, spilling over the apparent outer boundaries of the dust clouds observed optically. Combining CO velocity for the nebulae with optically determined distances shows that the clouds in the survey area form several layers. The molecular cloud mass closest to the sun is the Taurus and Auriga complex about 150 +/- 50 pc). Nearer to the Per )B2 OB association (at 350 +/- 100 pc) than the Taurus clouds are the Per OB2 molecular cloud (350 +/- 100 pc) and the California Nebula = NGC15979 molecular clouds (at 400 +/- 150 pc). Cloud masses were determined from integrated CO emission intensity alone by assuming that γ-ray emission intensities can be used to relate H 2 column densities to CO emission intensities

  18. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  19. Petroleum systems in the eastern and central Taurus region, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, I.H. [Hacettepe Univ., Beytepe-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2004-09-01

    The Autochthonous Taurus 'known' petroleum system is geographically located in the eastern Taurus region and includes the Allochthonous Units and Miocene-Pliocene sequences in the Adana Basin. The total thickness of the Early Palaeozoic to Cenozoic sediments reaches 9500-10400 m. The eastern Taurus region is a major petroleum source area with three source rocks: Upper Devonian limestones, Lower Carboniferous shales and dark carbonates, and Upper Permian algal limestones and shales. The Burdigalian-Serravillian sandstones and limestones and the Late Tortonian-Messinian evaporites and shales of the Adana Basin constitute the reservoir-seal rock combinations in this petroleum system. The main periods for oil generation from these source rocks occurred during the Aptian to Bartonian, Maastrichtian and Lutetian to the present. However, the main periods for oil generation for the effective source rocks (Lower Carboniferous and Upper Permian formations) began 40 mybp and continued to 20 mybp. Oil and gas traps in this petroleum system are formed by thrusting due to Late Cretaceous and Late Eocene tectonism, strike- slip faults and unconformity surfaces. (author)

  20. Morphological dimorphism in the Y chromosome of "pé-duro" cattle in the Brazilian State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M.C. Britto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available "Pé-duro" (hard foot is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 "pé-duro" bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa herd in the Brazilian State of Piauí. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus in a cattle that has been considered closest to its European origin (B. t. taurus. The presence of both submetacentric and acrocentric Y chromosomes, typical of B. t. taurus and B. t. indicus, respectively, and the larger preputial sheath in bulls with an acrocentric Y chromosome indicated racial contamination of the "pé-duro" herd with Zebu cattle. Phenotypic parameters involving horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, indicative of apparent racial contamination, were not associated with acrocentric Y chromosome.Um plantel de touros "pé-duro", consistindo de 75 animais do núcleo da Embrapa envolvido com a preservação desse gado no Estado do Piauí, foi examinado quanto à morfologia do seu cromossomo Y, bem como em relação a elementos da genitália externa e outras características fenotípicas dos machos. O objetivo era investigar a contaminação racial por animais zebuínos (Bos taurus indicus num gado bovino que tem sido considerado mais próximo de sua origem européia (Bos taurus taurus. Tanto a forma submetacêntrica quanto a forma acrocêntrica do cromossomo Y, típicas das sub-espécies B. t. taurus e B. t. indicus, respectivamente, bem como maior bainha prepucial nos espécimes portadores do cromossomo Y acrocêntrico, indicativa de contaminação racial por gado zebuíno, foram detectadas no rebanho "pé-duro" mantido no núcleo da Embrapa. Outras características fenotípicas analisadas que podem informar sobre a contaminação racial aparente n

  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2 gene in crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibitor decreases the activity of calpain, which are the enzymes responsible for the degradation of muscle fibers during the maturation of the meat. Moreover, there were previously observed differences in the frequencies of allele A of calpain among European breeds (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Holstein and Bos taurus indicus (Gir, Guzerá and Nelore. This variability has been related to tenderness of meat, as cattle with Bos taurus taurus origin have more tender meat than Bos taurus indicus, showing small values of shear force. One explanation is that the Capn2A product could confer greater proteolytic activity than the encoded by the allele Capn2B. If allele A is associated with tender meat, it will be possible the early identification of the animals that have the potential to produce meat with qualities that attend the needs of the consumer market, in order to add economic value to the final product of the animal production chain. For this reason, biochemical and genetic studies related to calpain and calpastatin systems have been considered promising for the clarification of the physiological changes that occur in muscle structure during the period post-mortem, whose results have contributed to the improvement of meat quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RFLP in calpain (Capn2 gene and its relation with meat tenderization in 252 crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus. The analyses were carried through by PCR-RFLP technique

  2. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  3. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  4. Functional Characterization of a c-type Lysozyme from Indian Shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Viswanathan; Kamalakannan, Vijayan; Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparambu Saidumuhammed; Singh, Issac S Bright; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2014-06-01

    Lysozyme gene from Fenneropenaeus indicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The cDNA consists of 477 base pairs and encodes amino acid sequence of 159 residues. F. indicus lysozyme had high identity (98%) with Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Fenneropenaeus chinensis and exhibits low to moderate identities with lysozymes of other invertebrates and vertebrates. This lysozyme is presumed to be chicken types as it possesses two catalytic and eight cysteine residues that are conserved across c-type lysozymes and a c-terminal extension, which is a characteristic of lysozymes from marine invertebrates. Further, the antimicrobial properties of the recombinant lysozyme from F. indicus were determined in comparison with recombinant hen egg white lysozyme. This exhibited high activity against a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and two fungal strains Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in turbidimetric assay. Distribution of lysozyme gene and protein in tissues of shrimps infected with white spot syndrome virus revealed that the high levels of lysozyme are correlated with low and high viral load in abdominal muscle and tail, respectively. In conclusion, lysozyme from F. indicus has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties, which once again emphasizes its role in shrimp innate immune response.

  5. Gastrointestinal Strongyle Egg Output and its Relationship with Tick Burden in Gambian N'dama and Gobra Zebu Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli, RC.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly quantitative analysis of rectal faecal samples for the presence of strongyle eggs were carried out from May 1992 to April 1993 on 11 Gambian N'dama Bos taurus and 11 Gobra zebu Bos indicus cattle. Significantly (P <0.001 lower strongyle egg outputs were found in N'dama in comparison with zebu cattle. No correlation was found between individual cumulative tick burden and strongyle egg output in either breed, although individual variations in parasite burdens were lower in N'dama than in zebu cattle. This study strenghtens the evidence for the presence of a natural resistant trait to strongyle infection in N'dama cattle.

  6. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A V ∼ 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 μG and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales (∼2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  7. New insights on multiplicity and clustering in Taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle; Mundy, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Multiplicity and clustering of young stars are critical clues to constraint star formation process. The Taurus molecular complex is the archetype of a quiescent star forming region that may retain primeval signature of star formation.Using statistical and clustering tools such as nearest neighbor statistics, correlation functions and the density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm, this work reveals new spatial substructures in Taurus.We have identified unexpected ultra wide pairs (UWPs) candidates of high order multiplicity in Taurus in the 5-60 kAU separation range (Joncour et al 2017), beyond the separation assessed for wide pairs (Kraus & Hillenbrand 2009).Our work reveals 20 local stellar substructures, the Nested Elementary Structures (NESTs). These NESTs contain nearly half the stars of Taurus and 75% of the Class 0/I objects probing that they are the preferred sites of star formation (Joncour et al, sub.). The NESTs size ranges from few kAU up to 80 kAU making a length scale bridge between wide pairs and loose group (few hundreds kAU, Kirk & Myers, 2011). The NESTs mass ranges from 0.5-10 solar mass. The balance between Class I, II and III in NESTs suggests that they may be ordered as an evolutionary temporal scheme, some of them got infertile, while other shelter stars in infancy.The UWPs and the NESTs may be pristine imprints of their spatial configuration at birth. The UWPs population may result from a cascade fragmentation scenario of the natal molecular core. They could be the older counterparts, to the 0.5 Myr prestellar cores/Class 0 multiple objects observed at radio/millimeter wavelengths (Tobin et al 2010, 2016) and the precursors of the large number of UWPs (10–100 kAU) recently identified in older moving groups (Floriano-Alonso et al, 2015 ; Elliot et al 2016). The NESTs may result from the gravitational collapse of a gas clump that fragments to give a tight collection of stars within few millions years

  8. Kinematics of Lithium-Rich Stars South of Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, R.; Frink, S.; Torres, G.; Sterzik, M. F.; Roeser, S.; Randich, S.

    We have obtained single-order echelle spectra for 106 late-type stars found with ROSAT south of Taurus, including some 30 stars that have been claimed to be low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. 19 stars are located on the Lambda Ori cloud, nine of which are K-type stars with lithium in excess of the zero-age-main-sequence (ZAMS) level; i.e., are PMS stars. At least 40 of the remaining off-cloud stars display detectable lithium, 24 of which show lithium at least as strong as IC 2602 stars with the same spectral types and, therefore, are probably not older than IC 2602 (~3 x 10^7 yr). Of those 24 stars, nine (25% of the off-cloud stars with detectable lithium) are PMS stars isolated from cloud material; all have spectral type K, and three of them are spectroscopic binaries. The remaining 15 off-cloud stars have spectral type G and lithium comparable to IC 2602 stars, i.e., may have arrived already on the ZAMS, as the G-type IC 2602 stars have. However, these 24 off-cloud lithium-excess stars are probably not older than IC 2602 (~3 x 10^7 yr). For 18 of the lithium-excess stars south of Taurus, we have determined proper motions with a typical accuracy of 5 mas/yr from the STARNET catalog, a combination of the HST GSC1.2 and the Astrographic Catalog. Most of these 18 stars have spectral type G. Their 3D space velocity is different from the 3D velocity distribution of bona-fide T Tauri stars in central Taurus. We conclude that the new G-type stars among the lithium-excess population may be young Gould Belt members. Since both the GSC and the AC are magnitude-limited, only the brightest stars (i.e., the G-type stars) are listed in STARNET. Run-away T Tauri stars, however, should be most frequent among lower-mass stars. We also discuss alternative modes of origin of the isolated PMS stars south of Taurus.

  9. Profiling of a few immune responsive genes expressed in postlarvae of Fenneropenaeus indicus challenged with Vibrio harveyi D3

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ajay, K.M.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    We identified 38 genes and eight hypothetical proteins by sequencing of 1200 clones from a Vibrio harveyi challenged Fenneropenaeus indicus subtracted cDNA library. Based on physiological roles and functions these genes were categorized into 10...

  10. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  11. Pengaruh Pengadukan Dan Variasi Feeding Terhadap Pembentukan Biogas Dari Sampah Dapur Rumah Makan Pada Reaktor Batch Dengan Aktivator Feses Sapi (Bos Taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Utomo, Doron; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sudarno, Sudarno

    2014-01-01

    Food waste is organic waste that is quite lot and have not good treatment now. Food waste in anaerobic treatment have potential to produce biogas with addition cow feces as an activator. Stirring is one effort to increase the production of biogas. Research has been conducted in a batch system but the results have not been produced an optimal biogas. This research use two big reactors (19 liter) and 16 small reactors (600 ml dan 500 ml). There are four parameters that were observed the biogas...

  12. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively, into three monophyletic clusters, with S. bovifelis and S. bovini being a sister group to S. sinensis. In contrast, phylogenies based on each of the three regions of the rDNA unit did not separate sequences of the three species completely from each other. Characterisation of cox1 of 56 isolates of S. hirsuta from four countries revealed only 13 haplotypes and an intraspecific sequence identity of 99.3-100 %. In the three regions of the rDNA unit, there was more extensive sequence variation, particularly in the ITS1 region. The 22 cox1 sequences of S. cruzi displayed a moderate intraspecific variation (98.6-100 %), whereas there was no variation at the 18S rRNA gene among 10 sequenced isolates. Sequencing of 16 clones of the partial 28S rRNA gene of S. cruzi yielded two markedly different sequence types, having an overall sequence identity of 95-100 %.

  13. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  14. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  15. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes. ...

  16. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  18. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  19. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; Brink, Nico van den; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. - Highlights: ► Vegetation selection, social behavior, and seasonal variation determine exposure. ► Soft rush consumption highly increased daily Cd intake during winter. ► Most Cd and Pb levels in vegetation exceeded the maximum tolerable feed levels. - This study reveals that spatial heterogeneity and foraging behavior play a more important role in the metal exposure pattern of large grazers than generally is presumed.

  20. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  2. Flavoring extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots and Vanilla planifolia pods exhibit in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anish; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are important for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Search for potent and safe AChEIs from plant sources still continues. In the present work, we explored fragrant plant extracts that are traditionally used in flavoring foods, namely, Hemidesmus indicus and Vanilla planifolia, as possible sources for AChEI. Root and pod extracts of H. indicus and V. planifolia, respectively, produce fragrant phenolic compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin). These methoxybenzaldehydes were shown to have inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vanillin (IC50 = 0.037 mM) was detected as more efficient inhibitor than MBALD (IC50 = 0.047 mM). This finding was supported by kinetic analysis. Thus, plant-based food flavoring agents showed capacity in curing Alzheimer's disease and other neurological dysfunctions.

  3. Biocatalytic and antibacterial visualization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Hemidesmus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Sumathi, M; Manikandan, R; Arumugam, A; Prabhu, N M

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  5. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  6. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  7. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  8. Different concentration of the ethylene glycol in nuclear chromatin organization of the preantral ovarian follicles from bovine (Bos indicus). Diferentes concentrações de etileno-glicol na organização da cromatina nuclear de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino ("Bos indicus")

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela Nelson Costa; Luciana Alves Lijeron; Hélder Silva Luna

    2007-01-01

    The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this investigation was to verify the effect of the ethylene glycol in different concentrations in nuclear organization de ovarian preantral follicles. Ovaries had been gotten in slaughter house. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%). Tissues analysis were run using classic techniques of his...

  9. Interstellar extinction in the dark Taurus clouds. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straizys, V.; Meistas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 74 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of Taurus dark clouds with coordinates (1950) 4sup(h)20sup(m)-4sup(h)48sup(m)+24 0 .5-+27 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitudes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The dark cloud Khavtassi 286, 278 and the surrounding absorbing nebulae are found to extend from 140 to 175 pc from the sun. The average interstellar extinction Asub(V) on both sides of the dark cloud is of the order of 1sup(m).5. We find no evidence of the existence of several absorbing clouds situated at various distances. (author)

  10. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  11. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Koenig, X.; Padgett, D.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P.; Hillenbrand, L.; Knapp, G.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 square degrees. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a 260 square degree region designed to encompass previously-identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present: a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  12. Heteroses materna e individual para ganho de peso pré-desmama em bovinos Nelore × Hereford e Nelore × Angus Maternal and individual heterosis for preweaning daily gain in Nellore × Hereford and Nellore × Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Teixeira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dados de 62.985 animais das raças Nelore, Hereford, Angus e produtos de cruzamentos Nelore × Angus e Nelore × Hereford de rebanhos comerciais a fim de estimar os efeitos de heterose materna e individual para o ganho médio diário no período pré-desmama (GMD. Os valores obtidos de heterose individual e materna considerando-se o valor médio de GMD da população representam um acréscimo de 6,2% e 11,2% no GMD para os animais F1 e filhos de vacas F1, respectivamente. A heterose materna correspondeu a 64,5% da heterose total. Animais cruzados Bos taurus × Bos indicus obtêm GMD maior do que o dos animais das raças puras.Data on 62.985 Nellore, Hereford, Angus and Nellore × Angus and Nellore × Hereford crossbred calves were analyzed to estimate maternal and individual heterosis for preweaning daily weight gain (PWD. The individual and maternal heterosis of average daily weight gain showed improvements of 6.2 and 11.2% for PWD of F1 calves and for calves borne from F1 dams. Maternal heterosis corresponded to 64.5% of total heterosis. Bos taurus × Bos indicus crossbred cattle have a PWD larger than the average of purebred cattle.

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China.

  14. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-05-25

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  16. Antiviral Effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd Leaves Extract Against Replication of Dengue Virus (DENV In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beti Ernawati Dewi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world with lack of approved vaccines and effective antiviral therapies. With no current treatment for illness attributed to dengue virus (DENV infection other than supportive care, therapeutic strategies that use natural extract was developed. Indonesia have many plants that potential for antiviral drµgs such as Pterocarpus indicus Willd (P. indicus. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of P. indicus to inhibit DENV replication. We used a well-differentiated hepatocytes-derived cellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7 it-1 cells to determine and select antiviral activity. The toxicity effects were determined by MTT assay. Then, the suppression of DENV replication was determined by Focus assay. Dengue infected cells with DMSO were used as control. We found that crude extract (Pi, hexane (Pi.1 and ethyl acetate (Pi.2 extract showed strong inhibition with high selectivity index (SI of 1,392; 285.36 and 168.56 respectively.  Sub fraction of Pi.1 and Pi.2 still showed strong inhibition with high SI.  Further sub-sub fraction of Pi.2 such as Pi.2.12 and Pi.2.12.1 still showed inhibition of DENV replication but there was reduction of SI value. The mechanism experiment of Pi.2.12, we found that Pi 2.12 more profound to inhibit in the post infection stage that entry or pre-infection. We conclude that the sub-fraction of Pi.2.12 has potential antiviral activity against DV infection in vitro. Further studies are still needed to investigate the pure compound of Pi.2.12 that inhibit and have advantages in the future as alternative for treatment of DENV infection.

  17. Interstellar C2 molecules in a Taurus dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Black, J.H.; van Dishoeck, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Five relatively strong interstellar absorption lines of the 2--0) Phillips band of C 2 near lambda8760 are detected in the spectrum of HD 29647, a late B star which lies behind a substantial part of the Taurus molecular cloud complex about 20triangle-solid from TMC-1. In combination with newly determined oscillator strengths, the observations yield a column density N(C 2 )roughly-equal9 x 10 13 cm -2 , which is comparable to those of widely distributed molecules like CH and H 2 O. Theoreticl models of the observed C 2 rotational level populations indicate a kinetic temperature T = 14 +8 /sub -/ 5 K and a mean density n 3 cm -3 . A narrow, anomalous strong, stellar Mn II line yields for HD 29647 a project rotational velocity v sin i -1 and is explained by previous identifications HD 29647 as a Hg-Mn peculiar star. Similar spectra of ν Cyg and omicron And give an upper limit W/sub lambda/ 2 lines in the 2--0) band, toward both stars

  18. Observations of HC5N and NH3 in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, P.C.; Ho, P.T.P.; Benson, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of HC 5 N lines toward TMC-2 indicate that it is a small (Lapprox.0.1 pc), dense (napprox.4 x 10 4 cm -3 ), low-mass (Mapprox.1 M/sub sun/) fragment in the Taurus complex, with velocity dispersion at the emission peak only about twice thermal (Δvapprox.0.2 km s -1 ). The HC 5 N emission region in TMC-2 has roughly half the projected area of that in TMC-1, and is more round than filamentary. The HC 5 N and NH 3 emission regions in TMC-2 are coincident, with N (HC 5 N)/N (NH 3 ) approx.0.1. The line width is much smaller than the free-fall width; the deduced values of L, n, and T satisfy the virial-theorem requirement for stable equilibrium. The temporary equilibrium of such fragments may serve to lengthen the time scales for formation of low-mass stars and long-chain molecules

  19. Magnetic and turbulent evolution of the Taurus molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemeon-Heyer, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the interstellar magnetic field in the dynamics of molecular clouds is investigated from extensive mapping of the 13 CO J = 1 - 0 emission to delineate gas morphology and kinematics and polarization of background starlight to determine the magnetic field direction within the Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex. The signature for a dynamically significant magnetic field is a rotating, flattened cloud with the rotational and minor axes parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. It was found that molecular regions characterized by mean densities less than 10 3 cm -3 exhibit such magnetic signatures and are likely a result of magnetically dominated evolution. A method to spatially and kinematically isolate the subcondensations within the clouds is developed. These cores are characterized by mean densities greater than 10 4 cm -3 and are the sites of star formation. However, based on core morphology and kinematics, it appears the magnetic field no longer provides a significant stress to the mostly neutral gas. Therefore, a constraint on the mean density at which the magnetic field decouples from the gas is a molecular density of less than 10 4 cm -3 . The role of stellar winds from pre-main sequence stars as an internal energy source for molecular clouds is investigated from 12 CO and 13 CO mapping of star forming regions delineated by point sources of far infrared emission. Evidence for mass outflow is found toward three of the thirty sources surveyed

  20. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini, R.; Shakila, R. Jeya; Jeyasekaran, G.; Jeevithan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Octopus (Cistopus indicus) were examined for the changes in autolytic activity, ammoniacal nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), free fatty acid (FFA) content, aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality based on Quality Index Method (QIM) during ice storage. They were sensorily acceptable up to 7 days when QIM score was 10.97 out of 16.00. Autolytic activity increased from the initial value of 174 to 619 nmoles Tyr/g/h within day 3 and later decreased. ...

  1. Effect of temperature on the oxygen consumption in the larvae of Dineutes indicus aube (Gyrinidae, Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonapi, G.T.; Mohan Rao, H.N.

    1977-04-04

    Oxygen uptake of the larvae of Dineutes indicus Aube has been measured at different temperatures. It has been observed that the oxygen uptake increases with the rise in the temperature but falls sharply after 34/sup 0/C. The data obtained corresponds to a straight line when plotted on an Arrhenius graph. Q/sub 10/ values decrease with the increase in weight and it has been observed that the smallest individual has the highest Q/sub 10/ value. Nevertheless, the calculated energies of activation reported here apply only to the limited temperature range studied.

  2. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  3. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  4. Complex Organic Molecules in Taurus Molecular Cloud-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We have observed the millimeter-wave rotational spectral lines of CH3CHO, H2CCO, cyclopropenone, and H2CO toward the cyanoployyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP). The spectral line profile of CH3CHO is found to reveal a well-separated double peak. It is similar to the line profile of CH3OH, but is much different from those of carbon-chain molecules and C34S. The different line profiles mean different distributions along the line of sight. The similarity of the spectral line profiles between CH3CHO and CH3OH suggests that CH3CHO is mainly formed on dust grains as CH3OH or through gas-phase reactions starting from CH3OH. On the other hand, the spectral line profiles of H2CCO and cyclopropenone are rather similar to those of carbon-chain molecules and C34S, implying their gas-phase productions. H2CO shows a composite spectral line profile reflecting the contributions of both gas-phase and grain-surface productions. In addition, we have detected the spectral lines of CH3CHO and HCOOCH3 toward the methanol peak near TMC-1 CP. We have also tentatively detected one line of (CH3)2O. Considering the chemical youth of TMC-1, the present results indicate that fairly complex organic species have already been formed in the early evolutionary phase of starless cores. TMC-1 is thus recognized as a novel source where formation processes of complex organic molecules can be studied on the basis of the line profiles.

  5. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  6. On the growth of Penaeus indicus experimented in cages at different densities in a selected nursery ground

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.; Paulinose, V.T.; Balasubramanian, T.; Menon, P.G.; Kutty, M.K.

    Effect of different densities on the growth of Penaeus indicus was studied in a higly productive nursery ground located at Ramanthuruth Island (lat. 9~'58'50"N, long. 76~'15'40"E) using cages. Eight cages of the same size were placed with prawns...

  7. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  8. Calving and weaning characteristics of Angus-, Gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and Red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L

    1991-06-01

    Calving and weaning data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included calving and weaning records of F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows and sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. At calving, Angus-sired calves had shorter gestations and lower (more desirable) calving ease scores and were smaller than Bos indicus-sired calves. Among the Bos indicus crosses, Gir calves had the shortest gestations, lowest calving ease scores, lightest birth weights (P less than .05), and smallest cannon bone lengths and heart girths. Nellore calves had the longest gestations (P less than .05) and largest heart girths. Calves by Indu-Brazil sires had the highest calving ease scores, highest birth weights (P less than .05), and greatest cannon bone lengths (P less than .05). Gray Brahman- and Red Brahman-sired calves were similar and intermediate for all calving characters. At weaning, Angus-sired calves had gained slightly faster than the Gir crosses and weighed more but were shorter at the hip than Gir crosses. Gir calves gained the least preweaning, weighed the least, and were shortest at weaning of the Bos indicus crosses. The Nellore and Indu-Brazil crosses were intermediate in preweaning gain and weaning weight to the Gir and the Red and Gray Brahman but were tallest at weaning. Gray Brahman and Red Brahman calves gained the most and were heaviest at weaning but were not as tall as the Nellore and Indu-Brazil.

  9. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Thaddeus, P.

    1987-01-01

    A new SIS receiver with extremely low noise temperature, used on the Columbia 1.2-m telescope has permitted mapping CO rapidly with full sampling. Results are presented of a survey for which the angular resolution of the telescope was reduced to 0.5 deg, allowing the observations for the complete region of 750 square degrees to be finished within four months, while retaining sufficient resolution to see significant substructure. Most positions with emission are in the Taurus-Auriga dark nebulae, a cloud associated with IC 348 and NGC 1333, and a cloud associated with the California nebula (NGC 1499) and NGC 1579, which overlaps the northern Taurus-Auriga nebulae but is separated from them in velocity. Also seen were several small clouds at Galactic latitude -25 deg to -35 deg southwest of the Taurus clouds, and the L1558 and L1551 clouds in the south. 89 references

  10. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    and Taurus in order to characterize the presence and morphology of emission from high density (ncrit > 106 cm-3) and high column density gas, respectively. These are supplemented with archival dust continuum maps observed with SCUBA on the JCMT and Herschel PACS to compare the morphology of the gas and dust...... in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+J = 4-3 and 850 μm dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I sources in Perseus and Taurus are not Stage I, but are likely to be more evolved Stage II pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with disks...... in the Perseus star forming region are truly embedded Stage I sources (71%), while the Taurus cloud hosts a majority of evolved PMS stars with disks (68%). The concentration factor method is useful to correct misidentified embedded YSOs, yielding higher accuracy for YSO population statistics and Stage timescales...

  11. A near-infrared survey for pre-main sequence stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mercedes; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee

    1994-01-01

    We present a near-infrared survey of approximately 2 sq deg covering parts of L1537, L1538, and Heiles cloud 2 in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. Although this study is more sensitive than previous attempts to identify pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga, our survey regions contain only one new optically visible, young star. We did find several candidate embedded protostars; additional 10 micrometer photometry is necessary to verify the pre-main sequence nature of these sources. Our results--combined with those of previous surveys--show that the L1537/L1538 clouds contain no pre-main sequence stars. These two clouds are less dense than the active star formation sites in Taurus-Auriga, which suggests a cloud must achieve a threshold density to form stars.

  12. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  13. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M ∼ 4-7 M Jup ). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M sun ) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  14. Assessment of Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Yak (Bos grunniens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Fang, Lei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Chai, Shatuo; Liu, Shujie; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbial community composition in the rumen of yaks under different feeding regimes. Microbial communities were assessed by sequencing bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments obtained from yaks (Bos grunniens) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,

  15. Measurement of the fluctuating temperature field in a heated swirling jet with BOS tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Henning M.; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Sieber, Moritz

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the potential of background-oriented schlieren tomography (3D-BOS) for the temperature field reconstruction in a non-isothermal swirling jet undergoing vortex breakdown. The evaluation includes a quantitative comparison of the mean and phase-averaged temperature field with thermocouple and fast-response resistance thermometer as well as a qualitative comparison between the temperature field and the flow field obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV). Compared to other temperature-measuring techniques, 3D-BOS enables non-invasive capturing of the entire three-dimensional temperature field. In contrast to previous 3D-BOS applications, the present investigation makes use of the special character of the flow, which provides a global instability that leads to a rotational symmetry of the jet. Additionally, the rotational motion of the jet is used to obtain a tomographic reconstruction from a single camera. The quality of 3D-BOS results with respect to the physical setup as well as the numerical procedure is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, a new approach for the treatment of thin occluding objects in the field of view is presented.

  16. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371747228; Lenstra, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412585650; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  17. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M.R.; Chen, W.; Lenstra, J.A.; Goderie, C.R.J.; MacHugh, D.E.; Park, S.D.E.; Magee, D.A.; Matassino, D.; Ciani, F.; Megens, H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  19. Pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrus in tropical Zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardena, H; Dematawewa, C M B

    2004-07-01

    Bos indicus breeds, commonly known as Zebu cattle, have spread from their center of origin in Western Asia into large areas of Asia (including the Asia-Pacific basin), Africa, South and Central America (including the Caribbean islands). The original Zebu genotype, however, has been modified by planned and unplanned cross-breeding programs involving many native and Bos taurus breeds in their new habitats. Though accurate estimates are not available, more than half of the world's cattle population includes a proportion of B. indicus germ plasma. B. indicus native breeds have developed by natural selection over centuries for their ability to survive in rough, harsh tropical environments. Most of these non-described breeds still exhibit high fertility, in terms of calving rates, and disease resistance but they grow very slowly and take well over 3 years to reach puberty and produce only a few liters of milk over a short lactation period. Selection has been carried out in some areas and distinct Zebu breeds have been developed that have moderately high growth rate and milk production. However, they are slow breeders and have extended pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrous periods, compared to their temperate counterparts exposed to similar environment and management. The reproductive biology of B. indicus is similar to that of B. taurus. Most of the proven management, nutritional, hormonal and biotechnological interventions developed through experimentation with B. taurus breeds are equally applicable to B. indicus and their crosses. Zebu breeds predominate in most tropical countries where the majority of the human population lives. If meat and milk production are to be increased in the tropics, Zebu cow productivity, in terms of number of calves produced per lifetime or per unit area of land, must be increased and the time from birth to slaughter must be reduced. This goal could be achieved either by selection within local Zebu populations or through planned cross

  20. METHANOL IN THE STARLESS CORE, TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: soma@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To explore the formation mechanisms of gas phase CH{sub 3}OH in cold starless cores, we have conducted high spectral resolution observations toward the cyanopolyyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral lines of CH{sub 3}OH toward TMC-1 CP are found to have a double-peaked profile separated by 0.5 km s{sup −1}. Since the double-peaked profile is observed for {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, it is not due to optical depth and/or self-absorption effects. The spectral line profile of CH{sub 3}OH is much different from those of C{sup 34}S, C{sub 3}S, and HC{sub 7}N observed toward this source. The H{sub 2} densities of the emitting region of CH{sub 3}OH for the blueshifted and redshifted components are derived to be (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and (4.3 ± 1.2) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, respectively. These densities are similar to or slightly lower than those found for the other molecules. These results suggest a chemical differentiation between CH{sub 3}OH and the other molecules, which has indeed been confirmed by mapping observations of the CH{sub 3}OH and C{sup 34}S lines. These results are consistent with the general idea that CH{sub 3}OH is formed on dust grains and is liberated into the gas phase by non-thermal desorption. The grain-surface origin of CH{sub 3}OH is further confirmed by the CH{sub 3}OH/{sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH ratio. Weak shocks caused by accreting diffuse gas to the TMC-1 filament, photoevaporation caused by cosmic-ray induced UV radiation, and the desorption of excess reaction energy in the formation of CH{sub 3}OH on dust grains are discussed for the desorption mechanisms.

  1. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati...

  2. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati......, accumulation of Vt in the ovaries was increasingly greater during oogenesis. These results indicate that the contribution of Vtg synthesized by the hepatopancreas is not sufficient for adequate development of oocytes in the female prawn F. indicus during vitellogenesis....

  3. In Vitro Study of the Cytotoxic, Cytostatic, and Antigenotoxic Profile of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) Crude Drug Extract on T Lymphoblastic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcabrini, Cinzia; Tacchini, Massimo; Efferth, Thomas; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Catanzaro, Elena; Greco, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    In traditional Indian medicine, the crude drug Hemidesmus indicus root—commonly known as Indian sarsaparilla—is used alone or in poly-herbal preparations for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The present study focuses on the cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of H. indicus extracts on an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM). With this aim in mind, we subjected H. indicus roots to two subsequent extractions (hydro-alcoholic extraction and soxhlet extraction). As DNA damage is an important prerequisite for the induction of mutations/cancer by genotoxic carcinogens, cancer chemoprevention may be achieved by preventing genotoxicity. Through an integrated experimental approach, we explored the genoprotective potential of the soxhlet H. indicus extract against different mutagenic compounds and its cytotoxic, proapoptotic, and cytostatic properties. In our experimental conditions, H. indicus induced a cytotoxic effect involving the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and blocked the cell cycle in the S phase. Moreover, the antigenotoxicity results showed that the extract was able to mitigate DNA damage, an essential mechanism for its applicability as a chemopreventive agent, via either the modulation of extracellular and intracellular events involved in DNA damage. These data add to the growing body of evidence that H. indicus can represent a noteworthy strategy to target early and late stages of cancer. PMID:29415441

  4. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality.

  5. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  6. Anomalous strength of the 2200 Angstroem feature in Cassiopeia-Taurus association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, C.; Ruiz del Arbol, J.A.; Llorente de Andres, F.

    1980-01-01

    From a large sample of reddened stars we computed the individual extinction curves which agree with that calculated by Nandy et al. (1976), except for four stars which show that the extinction at the 2200 Angstroem feature is greater than that deduced for the rest of stars. These four stars belong to the Cassiopeia-Taurus association. (orig.)

  7. EGRET observations of diffuse gamma-ray emission in taurus and perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.; Grenier, Isabelle A.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission observed toward the extensive molecular cloud complexes in Taurus and Perseus by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The region's large size (more than 300 square degrees) and location below the plane in the anticenter are advantageous for straightforward interpretation of the interstellar emission. The complex of clouds in Taurus has a distance of ∼140 pc and is near the center of the Gould Belt. The complex in Perseus, adjacent to Taurus on the sky, is near the rim of the Belt at a distance of ∼300 pc. The findings for the cosmic-ray density and the molecular mass-calibrating ratio N(H 2 )/W CO in Taurus and Perseus are compared with results for other nearby cloud complexes resolved by EGRET. The local clouds that now have been studied in gamma rays can be used to trace the distribution of high-energy cosmic rays within 1 kpc of the sun

  8. Detection of warm water vapour in Taurus protoplanetary discs by Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Menard, F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Woitke, P.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Mendigutia, I.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.

    Line spectra of 68 Taurus T Tauri stars were obtained with the Herschel-PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument as part of the GASPS (GAS evolution in Protoplanetary Systems) survey of protoplanetary discs. A careful examination of the linescans centred on the [OI] 63.18 mu m

  9. Correlations between the stellar and disc properties of Taurus PMS stars in the GASPS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Pascual, Natalia; Montesinos, Benjamín; Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Eiroa, Carlos; Dent, Bill

    The Herschel Open Time Key Programme GASPS (P.I. B. Dent) has observed a large number of pre-main sequence TTauri stars in Taurus with PACS (photometry and spectroscopy). In addition, we have also carried out new ground-based optical and near-IR observations (photometry and spectroscopy) of most of

  10. The diet of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus is a large predator of inshore coastal waters in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Born at about 1m long and attaining approximately 3m, stomach content analyses have shown that it feeds largely on teleosts and elasmobranchs, although cephalopods are taken to a lesser extent.

  11. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  12. Revisiting the Field Geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated Ar-40/Ar-39 analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M(sup 3) spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence

  13. Revisiting the field geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated 40Ar/39Ar analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M3 spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence of two

  14. Far-infrared investigation of the Taurus star-forming region using the IRAS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Taurus-Auriga complex was selected as the first molecular cloud to be investigated in this study. The Taurus clouds were defined as lying between 04h and 05h in R.A. and +16 to +31 degrees in Dec., then the IRAS point-source catalogue was searched for sources with good or moderate quality fluxes in all three of the shortest IRAS bands. The sources selected were then classified into subgroups according to their IRAS colors. Taurus is generally believed to be an area of low-mass star formation, having no luminous O-B associations within or near to the cloud complex. Once field stars, galaxies and planetary nebulae had been removed from the sample only the molecular cloud cores, T Tauri stars and a few emission-line A and B stars remained. The great majority of these objects are pre-main sequence in nature and, as stated by Chester (1985), main sequence stars without excess far-infrared emission would only be seen in Taurus if their spectral types were earlier than about A5 and then not 25 microns. By choosing our sample in this way we are naturally selecting the hotter and thus more evolved sources. To counteract this, the molecular cloud core-criterion was applied to soruces with good or moderate quality flux at 25, 60 and 100 microns, increasing the core sample by about one third. The candidate protostar B335 is only detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns while Taurus is heavily contaminated by cirrus at 100 microns. This means that detection at 25 microns is also required with those at 60 and 100 microns to avoid confusing a ridge of cirrus with a genuine protostar. The far-infrared luminosity function of these sources is then calculated and converted to the visual band by a standard method to compare with the field star luminosity function of Miller and Scalo

  15. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  16. Distribution, reproductive biology and biochemical composition of Rhopalophthalmus indicus (Crustacea: Mysida) from a tropical estuary (Cochin backwater) in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Gireesh, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    2), is comparable with that of recent studies on this species reared in laboratory (Biju, Unpublished data). Earlier repot reveals that, duration of each stage varied with species (Johnston et al., 1997). In the present study, eyeless larvae had... five morphologically different larval development stages, which suggest that, this phase might have taken longest duration in the larval development of R. indicus. In mysid, duration of incubation period is also varying with species. The shortest...

  17. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  18. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  19. Development of Uncertainty Quantification Method for MIR-PIV Measurement using BOS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jee Hyun; Song, Min Seop; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Matching Index of Refraction (MIR) is frequently used for obtaining high quality PIV measurement data. ven small distortion by unmatched refraction index of test section can result in uncertainty problems. In this context, it is desirable to construct new concept for checking errors of MIR and following uncertainty of PIV measurement. This paper proposes a couple of experimental concept and relative results. This study developed an MIR uncertainty quantification method for PIV measurement using SBOS technique. From the reference data of the BOS, the reliable SBOS experiment procedure was constructed. Then with the combination of SBOS technique with MIR-PIV technique, velocity vector and refraction displacement vector field was measured simultaneously. MIR errors are calculated through mathematical equation, in which PIV and SBOS data are put. These errors are also verified by another BOS experiment. Finally, with the applying of calculated MIR-PIV uncertainty, correct velocity vector field can be obtained regardless of MIR errors

  20. Suplementasi Blok Multinutrisi terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik Ransum pada Sapi Bali (Bos sondaicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Rimbun H.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    RIMBUN HOT ASI HASOLOAN NABABAN : The Supplementation Nutrition Block in Feed on The Digestibility of Dry Matter and Organic Matter of Bos sondaicus. Under advised by MA’RUF TAFSIN and ROESWANDY. The nutrition supplement is a feed additive which can increase the quality feed of cattle then increase the palatability of feed. The nutrition supplement can manipulate the microorganism in cattle and finally can support the digestibility of cattle. The present experiment was conducted to inv...

  1. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis included placebo patients treated with open-label azithromycin after study withdrawal. Outcome The ITT analysis (n=46, 177 observations) estimated mean difference in FEV1 between treatments (azithromycin minus placebo) was 0.035 L, with a 95% CI of −0.112 L to 0.182 L (p=0.6). Five withdrawals, who were identified at the end of the study as having been randomised to placebo (four with rapid loss in FEV1, one withdrawn consent) had received rescue open-label azithromycin, with improvement in subsequent FEV1 at 12 weeks. Study Completers showed an estimated mean difference in FEV1 between treatment groups (azithromycin minus placebo) of 0.278 L, with 95% CI for the mean difference: 0.170 L to 0.386 L (p=azithromycin group had ≥10% gain in FEV1 from baseline. No patients in the placebo group had ≥10% gain in FEV1 from baseline while on placebo (p=0.002). Seven serious adverse events, three azithromycin, four in the placebo group, were deemed unrelated to study medication. Conclusions Azithromycin therapy improves FEV1 in patients with BOS and appears superior to placebo. This study strengthens evidence for clinical practice of initiating azithromycin therapy in BOS. Trial registration number EU-CTR, 2006-000485-36/GB. PMID:25714615

  2. ORF Alignment: NT_033779 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rEMBL::g2674107:GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-EXCHANGE ... PROTEIN. organism:BOS TAURUS (BOVINE). dbxref:GenBank...; ... AF023451; g2674107; -.'', species:''BOS TAURUS ... Length = 185 ... Query: 586 METGIELFNRKP

  3. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Shukla, S. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [eXtreme Gravity Institute, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg{sup 2} fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg{sup 2}) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  4. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  5. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Shukla, S. J.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg 2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg 2 ) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  6. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, L. M.; Koenig, X. P.; Padgett, D. L.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg2. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ~260 deg2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: solid carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra centred on the spectral feature of solid CO at 4.67 μm wavelength are presented for eight stars in or behind the quiescent dark cloud complex in Taurus. The solid CO profile is dominated by a sharp component centred at 4.673 μm (2140 cm -1 ). As in previous observations of the feature, asymmetry in the profile is consistent with the presence of a weaker, somewhat broader, overlapping component centred at ∼ 4.682 μm (2136 cm -1 ). New and previously published data for Taurus stars are combined to study the correlation of the peak optical depth in the CO feature with visual extinction and with the depth of the water-ice feature at 3.0 μm. (author)

  8. Flares of Orion population variables in the association Taurus T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.; AN Armyanskoj SSR, Byurakan. Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen new flare stars, proved to be irregular variables of Orion Population, were discovered from a study of the Taurus Dark Cloud region by the homogeneous photographic multipose method on the wide angle Schmidt telescopes of the Byurakan Astorphysical Observatory. Seventeen flares on these stars were detected for about 750 hours of the effective observing time. The analysis of the complicated light curves of these flares shows a great variety and multiplicity of this phenomenon and various dynamics of flare energy release processes. The existence of flare stars with some properties typical for both of the T Tauri and UV Ceti stars simulteneously indicates nonstable stars. The population of flare stars in the Taurus Dark Cloud region is apparently as young as in Orion and Monoceros

  9. Ratio of total-to-selective extinction in the Taurus dark cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, F.J.; Rydgren, A.E.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    UBVRI and JHK photometry, as well as spectral classifications are presented for seven reddened early-type field stars that are observed through the Taurus dark cloud complex. The ratio of total-to-selective extinction is derived for each star by the color-difference method. For six stars with absolute magnitudes in violet of more than 1.7 and less than 3.2 mag, a normal ratio R of total-to-selective extinction of about 3.1 is found. The mildly anomalous R value of about 3.5 for the well-studied star HD 29647 was also confirmed. The results provide further evidence that the interstellar extinction law in the Taurus dark cloud complex is basically normal for lines of sight with absolute magnitudes in violet of less than 3 mag. 24 references

  10. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF T TAURI STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 μm spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 μm features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 μm silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 μm emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  11. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  12. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively

  13. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  14. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Karaarslan Emel; Uyanöz Refik; Doğu Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was ma...

  15. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature

  16. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  17. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey. IV. The Taurus-Auriga Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ~1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  18. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  19. Anterior ocular abnormalities of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiwong, Natapong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Diskul, Phiphatanachatr; Charoenphan, Patara; Pintawong, Weerasak; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2016-07-01

    To survey and classify anterior ocular abnormalities in 1478 captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in six regions of Thailand. Anterior ocular examination was performed in both eyes (n = 2956) of 1478 elephants selected from the annual health check program involving 2958 animals within six regions of Thailand from January to November 2013. Lesions were described and compared between age and gender. A total of 17.83% (527/2956) of examined eyes from 24.97% (369/1478) of examined elephants had anterior ocular abnormalities. The most common lesions in these examined eyes were frothy ocular discharge (5.85%), corneal edema (5.31%), and conjunctivitis (5.18%). In addition, epiphora, phthisis bulbi, other corneal abnormalities, anterior uveitis, and lens abnormalities were noted. Almost all lesions increased in frequency with age (P elephants should be included in their annual health check program. Early detection and treatment of any ocular abnormality may avoid the development of subsequent irreversible ocular pathology. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; Shakila, R Jeya; Jeyasekaran, G; Jeevithan, E

    2015-10-01

    Octopus (Cistopus indicus) were examined for the changes in autolytic activity, ammoniacal nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), free fatty acid (FFA) content, aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality based on Quality Index Method (QIM) during ice storage. They were sensorily acceptable up to 7 days when QIM score was 10.97 out of 16.00. Autolytic activity increased from the initial value of 174 to 619 nmoles Tyr/g/h within day 3 and later decreased. There was also an increase in NPN (34.88 to 76.16 mg %), ammoniacal nitrogen (0 to 7.30 ppm) and free fatty acid content (0.35 to 1.69 % of oleic acid) during storage. TVBN values did not correlate with the spoilage, as it increased from 28 to 145 mg% within day 5, exceeding the limit of acceptability; although total QIM score was 7.47. Aerobic plate count did not show significant change suggesting that the spoilage in octopus was not microbial. The rapid spoilage in octopus was mainly due to the release of NPN compounds following autolytic activity leading to the formation of ammoniacal nitrogen, rather than microbial spoilage. Hence, ammoniacal nitrogen can be taken as an index for spoilage of ice stored octopus.

  1. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  2. Massive gene acquisitions in Mycobacterium indicus pranii provide a perspective on mycobacterial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vikram; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Tyagi, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria. PMID:22965120

  3. Packaging performance of organic acid incorporated chitosan films on dried anchovy (Stolephorus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimaladevi, S; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Xavier, K A Martin; Bindu, J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial chitosan films were prepared with acetic acid and propionic acid with glycerol as plasticizer and its efficiency was compared with polyester-polyethylene laminate (PEST/LDPE). The tensile strength of acetic acid/chitosan (ACS) films were higher than propionic acid/chitosan (PCS) films. The elongation percentage (6.43-11.3) and water vapour permeability (0.015-0.03 g/m(2)/day) were significantly lower (panchovy (Stolephorus indicus) wrapped in these films were stored at ambient temperature for three months. Quality indices like peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and microbiological parameters such as aerobic plate count (APC) and total fungal count (TFC) were periodically determined. In terms of microbial and chemical indices, anchovies wrapped in ACS and PCS films were superior to those wrapped with PEST/LDPE films during storage. Study revealed the suitability of chitosan film as wraps for increasing storage stability of dried fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  5. Análisis de PCR-RFLP del gen de leptina y su asociación con características de la leche en ganado nativo (Bos indicus de Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una muestra ganadera experimental para la caracterización de los genes y las frecuencias genotípicas y evaluar la asociación entre los polimorfismos de longitud del fragmento de restricción BsaAI en el gen de leptina y las características lácteas. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de 390 vacas proporcionadas por el censo ganadero de la provincia de Guilán en Irán. La extracción de ADN genómico se basó en el método modificado de precipitación salina. El fragmento de 522 bp que comprende la región parcial del exón 3 e intrón 2 del locus del gen de leptina se amplificó mediante PCR-RFLP e iniciadores específicos. La digestión del fragmento amplificado con la enzima de restricción BsaAI reveló dos alelos de A y B con frecuencias de 0.447 y 0.553, y tres genotipos de AA, AB, BB con frecuencias de 0.185, 0.526 y 0.289 en la población estudiada, respectivamente. El resultado del contenido de polimorfismo fue 0.372 y para heterocigosis 0.526. Los resultados demostraron que la población estudiada estaba en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg. El análisis estadístico indicó que el polimorfismo LEP- BsaAI tiene un efecto significativo en la producción de leche, porcentaje de grasa y proteína de la leche ( P <0.01. Animales portadores del genotipo heterocigoto (AB produjeron 1.17 y 0.7 kg/d más leche que los animales homocigotos AA y BB, respectivamente. Los animales con el genotipo AA tuvieron mayor grasa (0.28 % y porcentaje de proteína (0.17 % que el genotipo AB. Tales resultados pueden utilizarse como criterios para facilitar la selección genética en los programas de cría animal.

  6. Análise morfológica dos ovários de fetos bovinos da raça Nelore (Bos primigenius indicus em diferentes fases de gestação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte fetos fêmeas em diferentes fases de gestação da raça Nelore foram coletados para a realização desta pesquisa. Os ovários direitos e esquerdos foram dissecados e mensurados para verificação de seus comprimentos e larguras e em seguida, foram fixados inteiros em paraformaldeído tamponado a 4,00%, processados e incluídos em paraplástico. Os cortes com 5 mm foram submetidos à coloração com hematoxilina, tricrômio de Masson (para fibras colágenas, Verhoeff (para fibras elásticas e com reticulina (para fibras reticulares. Os resultados mostraram que não há diferença significativa das mensurações entre os lados direito e esquerdo para os ovários dos fetos bovinos em diferentes fases de gestação, mas há correlação entre os valores obtidos das mensurações dos ovários em função da idade dos fetos, ou seja, o crescimento dos ovários acompanha o crescimento fetal. Os fetos em diferentes fases de gestação, apresentam epitélio germinativo, túnica albugínea e tecido conjuntivo no córtex e medula característicos da morfologia ovariana. Nos ovários de fetos com até 19 semanas de idade gestacional, é evidente a presença em grande quantidade de folículos primordiais e primários. A partir de 22 semanas de gestação, é evidente a presença em grande número, de folículos ovarianos em diferentes estágios de crescimento. A partir de 17 semanas de gestação, observa-se na medula, cordões com luz irregular revestidos por células cúbicas. As variações mais marcantes ocorreram a partir de 22 semanas de gestação.

  7. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  8. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12 months; group IV-12 to 24 months; group V-24 to 48 months; group VI-48 to 72 months and group VII-older than 72 months were studied. The highest and lowest mean values observed were total white blood cell/mm³-16992±4104 (group III and 10353±2397 (group VI; neutrophils/mm³-3931±1578 (group I and 2416 ±1118 (group III; eosinophils/ mm³-999±499 (group V and 265±276 (group II; basophils/mm³-67±88 (group VII and 39±78 (group III; typical lymphocytes/ mm³-12758±3608 (group III and 5906±1883 (group VI; atypical lymphocytes/ mm³-1310±603 (group II and 760±419 (group VI ; lymphocytes total/ mm³-14079±4027 (group III and 6666±2059 (group VI; monocytes/mm³-27±62 (group I and 0 (group III. The differences (p>0.05 observed among the groups in relation to total white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils can be related to the influence of the age on leukogram of Nelore (Zebu cattle raised in São Paulo- Brazil.

  9. Análise histológica e histoquímica de cistos intra-epiteliais de tubas uterinas de novilhas mestiças Histological and histochemical analysis of intraepithelial cysts of the uterine tubes of crossbred heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Valle

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tubas uterinas de 21 novilhas mestiças Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus indicus, em diferentes fases do ciclo estral natural (estro, metaestro e diestro ou induzido pelo tratamento superovulatório (estro e metaestro superovulados, foram avaliadas quanto à presença de cistos intra-epiteliais e à caracterização histoquímica de seu conteúdo. Verificou-se a ocorrência de cistos intra-epiteliais nas tubas uterinas em todos os animais, mais freqüentes nas regiões do infundíbulo e ampola. Eles ocorreram nos lados direito e esquerdo, ipsi- e contralateral ao ovário ativo (folículo pré-ovulatório ou corpo lúteo, nas fases estrogênica e progesterônica do ciclo. No conteúdo cístico, houve predominância de mucinas neutras e ácidas carboxiladas, sendo as mucinas sulfatadas presentes em menor intensidade, e não se observou glicogênio. Os resultados sustentam a hipótese de que esses cistos formam-se pela fusão de luminações intracitoplasmáticas e/ou vacúolos ciliados do epitélio tubário.Uterine tubes from 21 crossbred heifers (Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus indicus at different phases of the natural estrus cycle (estrus, metaestrus and diestrus or submitted to superovulation (superovulated estrus and metaestrus were evaluated for the presence of intraepithelial cysts and for histochemical labelling of its contents. All studied animals had intraepithelial cysts mainly in the infundibular and ampullary regions. Such cysts were present regardless of the side of the uterine tube, ipsi- or contralateral to the active ovary (preovulatory follicle or corpus luteum or of the cycle phase (estrogenic or progesteronic. Histochemical analysis revealed that neutral and acid mucins were the major substances found within the cysts. Sulphated mucins were present in low amounts and glycogen was absent. These results suggest that these cysts are probably formed by the fusion of intracytoplasmic lumina and/or ciliated vacuoles of the uterine

  10. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki

    2016-01-01

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  13. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  14. Genotype x environment interaction on post-weaning performance and carcass in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lunardini Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed average daily gain from weaning to yearling (ADG, yearling weight (YW, rib eye area, and subcutaneous fat thickness of 91 Angus, Hereford, Caracu, and Nellore cattle, and their crosses. The animals were split into two grazing groups: improved natural grassland (n = 47 and natural grassland (n = 44. The environment was found to influence all traits, and the highest measures of performance were observed in improved natural grassland. The genetic group x environment interaction was verified only for ADG and YW (P < 0.05. We found the best performance trait averages for crossbreeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus. In addition, we found genetic x environment interaction effects in growing traits and Longissimus muscle area between the evaluated genotype groups. Finally, we found that between the evaluated genotype groups, subcutaneous adipose fat was not influenced by the environment.

  15. Aspectos clínicos da indução experimental de acidose láctica ruminal em zebuínos e taurinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lippi Ortolani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To compare the clinical signs and the susceptibility to acute rumen lactic acidosis (ARLA, experimentally induced, five Jersey (J (Bos taurus and five Gir (G (Bos indicus steers were used. The ARLA caused in all animals tachycardia, decreased rumen movement, diarrhoea, and dehydration; Although G steers presented higher tachycardia and tendency to a more severe dehydration, the J steers exhibited a pronounced depression in the general state, requiring an intense treatment to recover. J steers needed more time to recover the normal appetite. Thus, regarding clinical picture, was observed that J steers are more susceptible to ARLA than G. Positive correlation was found between plasma volume deficit and tachycardia (r = 0.67; blood pH did not influence heart rate (r= - 0.25.

  16. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  17. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  18. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is population synthesis model in which stellar binary formation is universal with a large binary fraction close to unity. Peripheral objects form separately in circumstellar disks with a distinctive initial mass function (IMF), their own orbital parameter distributions for binaries, and small binary fractions, according to observations and expectations from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid-based computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M-dwarfs and small for BDs. Conclusions: The existence of a strong decline in the binary fraction - primary mass diagram will become verifiable in future surveys on BD and VLMS binarity in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The binary fraction - primary mass diagram is a diagnostic of the (non-)continuity of star formation along the mass

  19. Ice in the Taurus molecular cloud: modelling of the 3-μm profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bult, C.E.P.M. van de; Greenberg, J.M.; Whittet, D.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the absorption by interstellar core-mantle particles with mantles of different compositions are compared with observations of the 3μm ice band in the Taurus molecular cloud. The strength and shape of the 3-μm band is shown to be a remarkably good diagnostic of the physical state and evolution of the dust in molecular clouds. The strength of the band is consistent with large fractional H 2 O mantle concentrations, in the range 60-70 per cent, as predicted by theoretical studies of cloud chemistry and as expected from the high oxygen abundance in pre-molecular clouds. (author)

  20. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M ☉ ). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15 −0.03 +0.05 for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M ☉ ) and 4/108 = 0.04 −0.01 +0.03 for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M ☉ ) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS AND DUST IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chapman, Nicholas; Li Di; Snell, Ronald L.; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100 deg 2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H 2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12 CO and 13 CO J = 1 → 0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200'' corresponding to 0.14 pc at a distance of 140 pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction A V and N(CO) is linear between A V ≅ 3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213-L1495 filament. In other regions, the linear relation is flattened for A V ∼> 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ∼30%-70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO 2 ices and A V , we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon monoxide and dust for observed visual extinctions up to the maximum value in our data ≅23 mag. We have used these data to study a sample of dense cores in Taurus. Fitting an analytical column density profile to these cores we derive an average volume density of about 1.4 x 10 4 cm -3 and a CO depletion age of about 4.2 x 10 5 yr. At visual extinctions smaller than ∼3 mag, we find that the CO fractional abundance is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The data show a large scatter suggesting a range of physical conditions of the gas. We estimate the H 2 mass of Taurus to be about 1.5 x 10 4 M sun , independently derived from the A V and N(CO) maps. We derive a CO integrated intensity to H 2 conversion factor of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , which applies even in the region where the [CO]/[H 2 ] ratio is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The distribution of column densities in our Taurus maps resembles a log

  2. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  3. The occurrence of the strongylid nematodes Kalicephalus brachycephalus, K. bungari and K. indicus in snake species from Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Wang, T; Liu, T B; Tan, L; Lv, C C; Liu, Y

    2017-05-01

    Kalicephalus is a genus of strongylid nematodes infecting snakes and causing serious diseases and even death when it is complicated with secondary bacterial infections. The infection of snakes with Kalicephalus has been reported in many countries in the world. However, little information is available on the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in China. In the present study, the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes was investigated. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. Three species of Kalicephalus, namely K. indicus, K. bungari and K. brachycephalus, were found in six species of snakes (Elaphe carinata, Zaocys dhumnade, Naja najaatra, Elaphe taeniura, Bungarus multicinctus and Dinodon rufozonatum). The total prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in Hunan Province was 39.7%. The most common species was K. indicus, with the highest prevalence 72.8%, followed by K. bungari (24.0%). The prevalence of K. brachycephalus was 0.9%. This is the first report on the prevalence of Kalicephalus species in snakes in China, and the findings have important implications for the control of Kalicephalus infections in snakes in China.

  4. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with Ca II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren 'HVR', (1986) are reported. Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km/s precision. The kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li are found to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. It is suggested following Jones and Herbig (1979), that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  5. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with CA II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-04-01

    The authors report radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren (HVR). Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km s-1 precision. The authors find the kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. The authors suggest, following Jones and Herbig, that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  6. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  7. Effect of heat stress on rumen temperature of three breeds of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A. M.; Lees, J. C.; Lisle, A. T.; Sullivan, M. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m2/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m2) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment. Ambient dry bulb temperature ( T A; °C), relative humidity (RH; %), wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction, and solar radiation (SR; W/m2) were recorded at 10 min intervals. Rainfall (mm) was collected daily at 0900 h. From these data, black globe temperature (BGT; °C), temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI), and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average and then mean hourly T RUM were converted to a mean within hour T RUM across the 130 days. Rumen temperatures were analyzed using an autoregressive repeated measures model. The model analyzed the effect of breed ( P < 0.0002), treatment ( P = 0.3543), time of day (hour, h; P < 0.0001), breed × treatment ( P < 0.3683), breed × h ( P < 0.0001), treatment × h ( P < 0.0001), breed × treatment × h ( P = 0.0029), pen within treatment ( P = 0.0195), and animal × breed × treatment within pen ( P = 0.1041). Furthermore, there were breed × treatment × hour differences in T RUM ( P = 0.0036), indicating that Bos indicus and Bos taurus regulate T RUM differently.

  8. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  9. Internationale gevolgen van geïntegreerd bosbeheer in Nederland; verwaarloost Nederland de rol van bos als natuurlijke hulpbron?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Goede, de D.

    2001-01-01

    De lange-termijneffecten van een meer natuurlijk bosbeheer in Europa wat betreft de leeftijdsklassenverdeling van het Europese bos en de verwachte veranderingen in de import- en exportstromen van naald- en loofhout binnen Europa (Scandinavië, Oost-Europa, Centraal-Europa, Middellandse-Zeegebied).

  10. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  11. ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED FIELD AND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS TOWARD TAURUS AND UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, K.; Hillenbrand, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Cycle 1 guest investigator program covering 56 deg 2 near the Taurus T association and 12 deg 2 along the northern edge of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We combined photometry in the GALEX far-ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet bands with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to identify candidate young (∼<100 Myr old) stars as those with an ultraviolet excess relative to older main-sequence stars. Follow-up spectroscopy of a partial sample of these candidates suggests five new members of Taurus, with 8-20 expected from additional observations, and five new members of Upper Scorpius, with three to six expected from additional observations. These candidate new members appear to represent a distributed, non-clustered population in either region, although our sample statistics are as of yet too poor to constrain the nature or extent of this population. Rather, our study demonstrates the ability of GALEX observations to identify young stellar populations distributed over a wide area of the sky. We also highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the Galactic ultraviolet source population to support similar investigations. In particular, we report a large population of stars with an ultraviolet excess but no optical indicators of stellar activity or accretion, and briefly argue against several interpretations of these sources.

  12. Isolation and partial purification of antimicrobial peptides/proteins from dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus immune hemolymph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanth Patil, H.B.; Sathish Kumar, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes and not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application. (author)

  13. Bos grunniens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... genera viz indicine (Dubey, 2008) and taurine (Liefers et al., 2003; Konfortnov et al., 2006; Friedman and Halaas,. 1998) in exon 2 were found to be fixed with T allele. The observed allele fixation might be due high altitude adaptation or bulky body selection by nature for its survival, but this needs more ...

  14. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Synchronization of ovulation in crossbred dairy heifers using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, prostaglandin F2alpha and human chorionic gonadotrophin or estradiol benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, C; Gambini, A L; Fernandes, P; Trinca, L A; Teixeira, A B; Barros, C M

    2000-01-01

    Girolando (Gir x Holstein) is a very common dairy breed in Brazil because it combines the rusticity of Gir (Bos indicus) with the high milk yield of Holstein (Bos taurus). The ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal treatments for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination were studied in Girolando heifers. The injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist was followed 6 or 7 days (d) later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Twenty-four hours after PGF2alpha injection either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, GPh-d6 and GPh-d7 groups) or estradiol benzoate (EB, GPE-d6 and GPE-d7 groups) was administered to synchronize ovulation and consequently allow timed artificial insemination (AI) 24 and 30 h after hCG and EB injection, respectively. Follicular dynamics in Girolando heifers was characterized by the predominance of three follicular waves (71.4%) with sizes of dominant follicles (10-13 mm) and corpus luteum (approximately 20 mm) similar to those for Bos indicus cattle. In the GnRH-PGF-hCG protocol, hCG administration induced earlier ovulation (67.4 h, PGirolando heifers was used to determine pregnancy rates in the present study, pregnancy rates should be confirmed with a larger number of animals.

  16. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

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    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  17. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitro en los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  18. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitroen los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  19. Isolation and biological and molecular characterization of Neospora caninum (NC-SP1) from a naturally infected adult asymptomatic cattle (Bos taurus) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Solange; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Aizawa, Juliana; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Silva, Natália Quadros Bressa; Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus

    2017-05-01

    The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days. The DNA obtained from oocysts was characterized molecularly and the final sequence was 99% identical to homologous sequences of N. caninum available in GenBank®. For bioassay, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 10 100 and 1000 oocysts; all gerbils remained clinically normal but developed N. caninum antibodies 14 days PI. Cell culture isolation was successful using the brain homogenate from one of the gerbils and tachyzoites were observed 24 days PI. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile for this new reference isolate.

  20. Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis in Santana do Livramento, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Arteche, C.C.P.; Guglielmone, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis were studied in Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by analysing cattle raising practices applied to 101 herds and by diagnosing B. bovis antibodies in cattle of about 11 months old using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 15% to 80% were considered at risk of babesiosis outbreaks of economic importance (enzootic instability). 53% of herds were found in enzootic instability to B. bovis. The proportion of Bos taurus and B. indicus x B. taurus herds in instability were similar (P=0.771, qui square) and the number of acaricides treatments applied yearly had no influence in the instability to B. bovis (P=0.866, chi square). Herds maintained along with sheep in a ratio < 1.5 (P=0.012, chi square); this probability was further increased in herds maintained on properties greater than 500 ha (P=0.057, chi square). High B. bovis antibody prevalence was found in B. taurus x B. indicus herds subjected to an average of 5.8 tick treatments yearly with long residual period acaricides, indicating misuse of the chemicals or tick resistance to them. The epidemiological situation to B. bovis seems to justify vaccination to avoid economic losses in herds in enzootic instability and those in enzootic stability due to low antibody prevalence. (author)

  1. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  2. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  3. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Arzner, K.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Feigelson, E. D.; Franciosini, E.; Glauser, A.; Grosso, N.; Micela, G.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) is the nearest large star-forming region, prototypical for the distributed mode of low-mass star formation. Pre-main sequence stars are luminous X-ray sources, probably mostly owing to magnetic energy release. Aims. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (EST) presented in this paper surveys the most populated =5 square degrees of the TMC, using the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory to study the thermal structure, variability, and long-term evolution of hot plasma, to investigate the magnetic dynamo, and to search for new potential members of the association. Many targets are also studied in the optical, and high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy has been obtained for selected bright sources. Methods. The X-ray spectra have been coherently analyzed with two different thermal models (2-component thermal model, and a continuous emission measure distribution model). We present overall correlations with fundamental stellar parameters that were derived from the previous literature. A few detections from Chandra observations have been added. Results. The present overview paper introduces the project and provides the basic results from the X-ray analysis of all sources detected in the XEST survey. Comprehensive tables summarize the stellar properties of all targets surveyed. The survey goes deeper than previous X-ray surveys of Taurus by about an order of magnitude and for the first time systematically accesses very faint and strongly absorbed TMC objects. We find a detection rate of 85% and 98% for classical and weak-line T Tau stars (CTTS resp. WTTS), and identify about half of the surveyed protostars and brown dwarfs. Overall, 136 out of 169 surveyed stellar systems are detected. We describe an X-ray luminosity vs. mass correlation, discuss the distribution of X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratios, and show evidence for lower X-ray luminosities in CTTS compared to WTTS. Detailed analysis (e.g., variability, rotation

  4. MAPPING STUDY OF 71 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE TAURUS, PERSEUS, AND CALIFORNIA COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanyi; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie

    2013-01-01

    A mapping study of 71 Planck cold clumps was made with 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) lines at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. For all the clumps, 12 CO(1-0) and 13 CO(1-0) emissions were detected, while for 55 of them, C 18 O(1-0) emissions were detected. Of the 71 Clumps, 34 are in the Taurus Complex, 24 in the California Complex, and 13 are in the Perseus Complex. In the 76 velocity components, 38 cores are found in 27 clumps; 19 of these cores are in the Taurus Complex, 16 in the California Complex, and 3 in the Perseus Complex. We acquired V lsr , T A and FWHM of lines. Physical parameters including T ex , N H 2 , σ Therm , σ NT , and σ 3D were calculated. Generally, the cores are of T ex = 2-16 K, N H 2 =10 21 --10 22 cm –2 , and σ 3D = 0.2-1.0 km s –1 . In the Taurus Complex, the cores are less dense on average and have smaller σ Therm than the cores in the Perseus and California Complexes. Two of the three cores in the Perseus Complex are revealed to have larger T ex , N H 2 , and σ 3D than the mean values in the other two regions. Most of the cores have σ NT larger than σ Therm , suggesting a dominance of turbulence in our cores. The majority of the cores have M vir /M LTE >> 1, which indicates these cores are not bound and will disperse. By comparing our results with the dust properties revealed by the Planck Early Release Cold Cores Catalog, we investigated the coupling of gas and dust components. We found that most of the cores have dust temperatures higher than their gas temperatures. The stellar objects associated with our sources were checked and 90% of the cores were found to be starless

  5. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2014-03-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2-11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in which the activity of more than 80% was retained. Protein hydrolysate solution with a concentration of 5 mg/ml significantly lowered TBA values of Croaker fish fillet and maintained yellowishness of skin colour compared to untreated control sample during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 4 °C. SWPH also restricted the increase of PV and FFA values in Croaker fish fillet within acceptable limit.

  6. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  7. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  8. Spectropolarimetry of the 3μm ice band in Elias 16 (Taurus Dark Cloud)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide

    1988-01-01

    Polarization data between 1.2 and 3.8 μm, including spectro-polarimetry in the 3-μm ice feature, are presented for the highly reddened field star Elias 16 in the Taurus Dark Cloud. The polarization is observed to increase with optical depth in the ice feature in a manner similar to that found for the BN object, that is, consistent with dichroic absorption by aligned grains. The polarization feature can be well modelled assuming grains composed of ammonia-water ices, with the ratio of H 2 O:NH 3 greater than 3:1. The continuum polarization can be well fitted over most of the observed wavelength range assuming a mix of silicate and graphite grains with size ∼ 0.13μm. (author)

  9. Transient periodic x-ray source in Taurus, A0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, H.; Mayer, W.; Buff, J.; Clark, G.W.; Doxsey, R.; Hearn, D.; Jernigan, G.; Joss, P.C.; Laufer, B.; Lewin, W.; Li, F.; Matilsky, T.; McClintock, J.; Primini, F.; Rappaport, S.; Schnopper, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light curves of the 104 s periodicity in the transient X-ray source in Taurus (A0535+26) are presented for six energy intervals in the range 1-35 keV for the period 1975 May 30-June 2. The pulse structure ranges from an apparently simple modulation at higher energies to a very complex pattern at lower energies. No Doppler shift is observed in the 104 s pulse period during the three days of observations. This places severe constraints upon possible binary orbital motion. Upper limits on the power at other periodicities are approximately-less-than10 percent for 2 ms-2s and approximately-less-than2 percent for 2 s-2000 s

  10. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaarslan Emel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was made. All tested plants are considered mycorrhizal plants. We determined three spore species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus hoi and Scutellospora calospora from the surveyed soils. The spore distribution rates were as follows: G. Mossea 61.54 %, G. Hoi 23.07 % and Scutellospora calospora 15.38 %. Results suggest that VAM fungal spores and root colonization display variation in rhizosphere under bulbous plants in different ecological conditions.

  11. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  12. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M sun , raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M sun ) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M sun ) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ∼>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M B /M A ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.

  13. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  14. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  15. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  16. DYNA3D, INGRID, and TAURUS: an integrated, interactive software system for crashworthiness engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Stillman, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    Crashworthiness engineering has always been a high priority at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because of its role in the safe transport of radioactive material for the nuclear power industry and military. As a result, the authors have developed an integrated, interactive set of finite element programs for crashworthiness analysis. The heart of the system is DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, large deformation structural dynamics code. DYNA3D has the following four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and accurate analysis of crashes: (1) fully nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure, (2) a broad range of constitutive models for representing the materials, (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for the impact interactions, and (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact zones at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing any accuracy in the momentum calculations. To generate the large and complex data files for DYNA3D, INGRID, a general purpose mesh generator, is used. It runs on everything from IBM PCs to CRAYS, and can generate 1000 nodes/minute on a PC. With its efficient hidden line algorithms and many options for specifying geometry, INGRID also doubles as a geometric modeller. TAURUS, an interactive post processor, is used to display DYNA3D output. In addition to the standard monochrome hidden line display, time history plotting, and contouring, TAURUS generates interactive color displays on 8 color video screens by plotting color bands superimposed on the mesh which indicate the value of the state variables. For higher quality color output, graphic output files may be sent to the DICOMED film recorders. We have found that color is every bit as important as hidden line removal in aiding the analyst in understanding his results. In this paper the basic methodologies of the programs are presented along with several crashworthiness calculations

  17. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  18. Evolution of the bovine TLR gene family and member associations with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A Fisher

    Full Text Available Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50 between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to

  19. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  20. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  1. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  2. Expression of KCNQ1OT1, CDKN1C, H19, and PLAGL1 and the methylation patterns at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 imprinting control regions is conserved between human and bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Katherine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS is a loss-of-imprinting pediatric overgrowth syndrome. The primary features of BWS include macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. Secondary features that are frequently observed in BWS patients are hypoglycemia, nevus flammeus, polyhydramnios, visceromegaly, hemihyperplasia, cardiac malformations, and difficulty breathing. BWS is speculated to occur primarily as the result of the misregulation of imprinted genes associated with two clusters on chromosome 11p15.5, namely the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2. A similar overgrowth phenotype is observed in bovine and ovine as a result of embryo culture. In ruminants this syndrome is known as large offspring syndrome (LOS. The phenotypes associated with LOS are increased birth weight, visceromegaly, skeletal defects, hypoglycemia, polyhydramnios, and breathing difficulties. Even though phenotypic similarities exist between the two syndromes, whether the two syndromes are epigenetically similar is unknown. In this study we use control Bos taurus indicus X Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrid bovine concepti to characterize baseline imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status of imprinted domains known to be misregulated in BWS. This work is intended to be the first step in a series of experiments aimed at determining if LOS will serve as an appropriate animal model to study BWS. Results The use of F1 B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus tissues provided us with a tool to unequivocally determine imprinted status of the regions of interest in our study. We found that imprinting is conserved between the bovine and human in imprinted genes known to be associated with BWS. KCNQ1OT1 and PLAGL1 were paternally-expressed while CDKN1C and H19 were maternally-expressed in B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus F1 concepti. We also show that in bovids, differential methylation exists at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 ICRs. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that the

  3. Molecular analysis of clinical isolates previously diagnosed as Mycobacterium intracellulare reveals incidental findings of "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" genotypes in human lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Han, Seung-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-09-30

    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a major cause of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in many countries. Molecular studies have revealed several new Mycobacteria species that are closely related to M. intracellulare. The aim of this study was to re-identify and characterize clinical isolates from patients previously diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease at the molecular level. Mycobacterial isolates from 77 patients, initially diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease were re-analyzed by multi-locus sequencing and pattern of insertion sequences. Among the 77 isolates, 74 (96 %) isolates were designated as M. intracellulare based on multigene sequence-based analysis. Interestingly, the three remaining strains (4 %) were re-identified as "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" according to distinct molecular phylogenetic positions in rpoB and hsp65 sequence-based typing. In hsp65 sequevar analysis, code 13 was found in the majority of cases and three unreported codes were identified. In 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequevar analysis, all isolates of both species were classified within the Min-A ITS sequevar. Interestingly, four of the M. intracellulare isolates harbored IS1311, a M. avium-specific element. Two of three patients infected with "M. indicus pranii" had persistent positive sputum cultures after antibiotic therapy, indicating the clinical relevance of this study. This analysis highlights the importance of precise identification of clinical isolates genetically close to Mycobacterium species, and suggests that greater attention should be paid to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease caused by "M. indicus pranii".

  4. A CENSUS OF ROTATION AND VARIABILITY IN L1495: A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF TRANS-ATLANTIC EXOPLANET SURVEY LIGHT CURVES FOR PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hongyu; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.; Rebull, Luisa; Charbonneau, David; Mandushev, Georgi; O'Donovan, Francis; Slesnick, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We analyze light curves obtained by the Trans-atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES) for a field centered on the L1495 dark cloud in Taurus. The Spitzer Taurus Legacy Survey catalog identifies 179 bona fide Taurus members within the TrES field; 48 of the known Taurus members are detected by TrES, as well as 26 candidate members identified by the Spitzer Legacy team. We quantify the variability of each star in our sample using the ratio of the standard deviation of the original light curve (σ orig. ) to the standard deviation of a light curve that has been smoothed by 9 or 1001 epochs (σ 9 and σ 1001 , respectively). Known Taurus members typically demonstrate (σ orig. /σ 9 ) orig. /σ 1001 ) orig. /σ 9 ) ∼ 3.0 and (σ orig. /σ 1001 ) ∼ 10, as expected for light curves dominated by unstructured white noise. Of the 74 Taurus members/candidates with TrES light curves, we detect significant variability in 49 sources. Adapting a quantitative metric originally developed to assess the reliability of transit detections, we measure the amount of red and white noise in each light curve and identify 18 known or candidate Taurus members with highly significant period measurements. These appear to be the first periods measured for four of these sources (HD 282276, CX Tau, FP Tau, TrES J042423+265008), and in two other cases, the first non-aliased periods (LkCa 21 and DK Tau AB). For the remainder, the TrES measurements typically agree very well (δP < 1%) with previously reported values. Including periods measured at lower confidence for 15 additional sources, we report periods for 11 objects where no previous periods were found, including 8 confirmed Taurus members. We also identify 10 of the 26 candidate Taurus members that demonstrate variability levels consistent with being bona fide T Tauri stars. A Kolomgorov-Smirnov (K-S) test confirms that these new periods confirm the distinction between the rotation period distributions of stars with and without circumstellar

  5. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida.

  6. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  7. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  8. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  9. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torralba-Burrial

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species, especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS, University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records, especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16,604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-507F20 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232941 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-255J15 (Children...'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232940 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-62I11 (Children's... 48 0.79 1 ( A...C232929 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-291F15 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232768 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-460C15 (Childre...n'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232755 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-409J7 (Children...'s... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232753 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-45P20 (Children's... 48 0.7

  12. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K{sub s}, which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M {sub Jup} according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M{sub Jup}).

  13. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K s , which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M Jup according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M Jup ).

  14. FIRST ISOLATION OF TENACIBACULUM MARITIMUM IN A CAPTIVE SAND TIGER SHARK (CARCHARIAS TAURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Daniela; Gridelli, Stefano; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a case of the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from a captive-bred adult female sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) housed at the Cattolica Aquarium (Italy). The animal showed, between the second dorsal fin and the precaudal pit, skin lesions characterized by the presence of abundant whitish necrotic tissue. Through routine bacteriological examination, a bacterium was isolated from a skin lesion and subsequently identified as T. maritimum by phenotypic characters and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated strain was evaluated for 11 antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic therapy was conducted with enrofloxacin at 10 mg kg(-1) i.m. on alternate days for 10 days. One month after the end of treatment skin lesions showed complete resolution and the shark recovered completely. The case presented here represents the first report of infection by T. maritimum in a sand tiger shark and highlights the potential pathogenic role of this microorganism in elasmobranchs kept in an aquarium.

  15. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  16. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  18. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs

  19. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  20. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  1. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  2. Efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis and underlying immune responses in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankan Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 9-month-long chemotherapy of tuberculosis often results in poor compliance and emergence of drug-resistant strains. So, improved therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Immunotherapy could be beneficial for the effective management of the disease. Previously we showed the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP when given as prophylactic vaccine in animal models of tuberculosis. METHODS: We sought to investigate whether MIP can be used as an adjunct to the chemotherapy in guinea pig models of tuberculosis. Efficacy of MIP was evaluated when given subcutaneously or by aerosol. RESULTS: MIP-therapy as an adjunct to the chemotherapy was found to be effective in accelerating bacterial killing and improving organ pathology. MIP-immunotherapy resulted in higher numbers of activated antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes in the infected lungs and also modulated the granulomatous response. Early increase in protective Th1 immune response was observed in the immunotherapy group. Following subsequent doses of MIP, decrease in the inflammatory response and increase in the immunosuppressive response was observed, which resulted in the improvement of lung pathology. CONCLUSION: MIP immunotherapy is a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis. Aerosol route of immunotherapy can play a crucial role for inducing immediate local immune response in the lung.

  3. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Biodegradation dynamics and cell maintenance for the treatment of resorcinol and p-cresol by filamentous fungus Gliomastix indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Deepika; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra

    2011-12-30

    Biodegradation of resorcinol and p-cresol using fungus Gliomastix indicus MTCC 3869 was investigated in batch culture experiments at 28°C temperature and pH of 6 in the medium up to the initial concentration of 1300 mg/L and 700 mg/L for resorcinol and p-cresol, respectively. Five specific growth kinetic models and five specific degradation rate models were fitted to the experimental data in order to get best fitted kinetic models. The variation of observed growth yield and maintenance energy requirement with the initial substrate concentration was also studied. The model for maintenance energy coefficient was fitted to the experimental data. The model parameters were: m(1)=0.0135 h(-1), k=0.054, μ(max)=0.132 h(-1) for resorcinol and m(1)=0.0229 h(-1), k=0.011, μ(max)=0.102 h(-1) for p-cresol. Two mathematical models comprising of two sets of ODE were solved simultaneously to get degradation profiles with time. The model with varying growth yield and maintenance energy was found to be most appropriate biodegradation model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasekaran, G; Ganesan, P; Anandaraj, R; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2006-09-01

    Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. Shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. Shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. Total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) cfu g(-1). Total lactics were found in the levels of 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1). H(2)S producers were from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Lowest temperature of -4.8 degrees C was observed in shrimps stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio. Bacterial flora associated with fresh raw shrimp were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Aeromonas constituted 38% of the flora in raw shrimp. Flavobacterium (43%), Pseudomonas (47%) and Pseudomonas (38%) were the dominant bacterial flora in the shrimp stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio, in the combination package, and in water ice at 1:1 ratio, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of foot and mouth vaccination for yak (Bos grunniens) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Khan, E H Haq; Ali, I; Manzoor, S; Jamil, A; Abubakar, M; Afzal, M; Hussain, M

    2017-04-01

    In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes 'O' (PanAsia-2), 'A' (Iran-05), and 'Asia-1' (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country ('O'-PanAsia-2; 'A'-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes 'O,' 'A,' and 'Asia-1.' These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus.

  7. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  8. Analysis of the plant bos1 mutant highlights necrosis as an efficient defence mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Kraepiel

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection.

  9. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at ∼3'' resolution and an rms of ∼100 mJy beam -1 at ∼0.5 km s -1 . The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO + 3-2, CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 , and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2 22 -1 11 , DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 -2 02 , and 4 14 -3 13 are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH 3 OH 4 21 -3 1 2 and c-C 3 H 2 are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO + , DCN, N 2 H + , and H 2 CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  10. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  11. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  12. Subsurface density structure of Taurus-Littrow Valley using Apollo 17 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Stanley, S.; Hatch, D.; Carroll, K. A.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) from the Apollo 17 mission was the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon, revealing the local gravity field at Taurus-Littrow Valley (TLV). TLV is hypothesized to be a basalt-filled graben, oriented radial to Serenitatis basin. We implemented modern 3-D modeling techniques using recent high-resolution Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter topography and image data sets to reinvestigate the subsurface structure of TLV and constrain the volcanic and tectonic history of the region. Updated topography led to significant improvements in the accuracy of free-air, Bouguer, and terrain corrections. To determine the underlying geometry for TLV, we tested a range of possible thicknesses, dips, and wall positions for the graben fill. We found that the thickness and position previously determined by Talwani et al. (1973) represent our preferred model for the data, but with walls with dips of 30°, rather than 90°. We found large model misfits due to unmodeled 3-D structure and density anomalies, as well as parameter trade-offs. We performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the parameter trade-offs in an ideal future survey, assuming dominantly 2-D geological structure. At the TGE survey noise level (2.5 mGal), the fill thickness was constrained to ±150 m, the wall angle to ±5∘20∘ and the wall positions to ±1 km of the preferred model. This information can be used to inform the design of future lunar gravimetry experiments in regions similar to TLV.

  13. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks. III. Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Romero, Gisela A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merín, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    As part of an ongoing program aiming to characterize a large number of Spitzer-selected transition disks (disks with reduced levels of near-IR and/or mid-IR excess emission), we have obtained (sub)millimeter wavelength photometry, high-resolution optical spectroscopy, and adaptive optics near-infrared imaging for a sample of 31 transition objects located in the Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga molecular clouds. We use these ground-based data to estimate disk masses, multiplicity, and accretion rates in order to investigate the mechanisms potentially responsible for their inner holes. Following our previous studies in other regions, we combine disk masses, accretion rates, and multiplicity data with other information, such as spectral energy distribution morphology and fractional disk luminosity, to classify the disks as strong candidates for the following categories: grain-growth-dominated disks (seven objects), giant planet-forming disks (six objects), photoevaporating disks (seven objects), debris disks (11 objects), and cicumbinary disks (one object, which was also classified as a photoevaporating disk). Combining our sample of 31 transition disks with those from our previous studies results in a sample of 74 transition objects that have been selected, characterized, and classified in a homogenous way. We discuss this combined high-quality sample in the context of the current paradigm of the evolution and dissipation of protoplanetary disks and use its properties to constrain different aspects of the key processes driving their evolution. We find that the age distribution of disks that are likely to harbor recently formed giant planets favors core accretion as the main planet formation mechanism and a ~2-3 Myr formation timescale. Based in part on observations made with the CFHT, under programs 09BH48, 09BH10, 10AH06, and 10BH97.

  14. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) exhibits heritable variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2011-03-01

    Sperm competition is thought to be an important selective pressure shaping sperm form and function. However, few studies have moved beyond gross examinations of sperm morphology. Sperm length is subject to sexual selection via sperm competition in the scarab beetle Onthophagus taurus. Here, the structure and ultrastructure of spermatozoa in this species were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Spermatozoa were found to be filiform, measuring about 1,200 mm in length. The sperm head consists of a three-layered acrosome and a nuclear region bearing the anterior extension of the centriole adjunct. Acrosome and nuclear regions are bilaterally symmetric, with their axes of symmetry being orthogonal to each other. Head and flagellar structures are connected by a well-developed centriole adjunct. The sperm heads are asymmetrically surrounded by accessory material and embedded into the cytoplasm of the spermatocyst cell. The accessory material is produced inside the spermatids and then transferred to the outside due to a new membrane formed around the sperm's organelles. The old spermatid membrane separates the accessory material from the cyst cell. The flagellum contains a 9+9+2 axoneme, two accessory bodies, and two mitochondrial derivatives of unequal size. The major mitochondrial derivative is significantly larger than the minor one. The axoneme is arranged in a sinusoidal manner parallel along the major mitochondrial derivative. The spermatozoa show no progressive motility when released in buffer solution which is likely to be the result of the flagellar arrangement and the structure of the major mitochondrial derivative. The cross-sectional area of the minor and the major mitochondrial derivatives show different patterns of genetic variation. The data provide the first estimates of genetic variation in sperm ultrastructure for any species, and give evidence for the persistence of genetic variation in ultrastructure required for the rapid and divergent

  15. The GBT 3mm Survey of Infall and Fragmentation of Dense Cores in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin; Goldsmith, Paul; Shirley, Yancy L.; Church, Sara; Frayer, David

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the infall and fragmentation survey toward a complete population of prestellar cores in Taurus that was carried out with the 16-element W-band focal plane array receiver (Argus) on the 100m Green Bank Telescope. The survey is designed take advantage of the 8.5” angular resolution and high sensitivity of Argus on the GBT to trace infall motions in HCN 1-0 & HCO+ 1-0 and find any evidence of fragmentation in N2H+ & NH2D within prestellar cores ranging in size from 0.05 pc to 0.0075 pc (1500 AU), which is a typical size scale of individual planetary systems. The scientific goal is to estimate the fraction of infall candidates from a complete population of prestellar cores and to understand internal velocity structure during the final gravitational collapse before forming stars. The survey started in the winter of 2016 and is to continue to the end of January 2018. So far, we observed 23 prestellar cores out of 65 targets in HCN 1-0 and HCO+ 1-0. We have so far found only two prestellar cores (L1495A-N, L1521D) out of 23 observed that show infall signatures, which is a fraction of infalling cores less than half of that reported by the previous surveys toward the bright, dense cores in various molecular clouds (Lee et al. 2004; Sohn et al. 2007). We also found that L1495A-N has a highly asymmetric infall motion which does not fit to a conventional model of dense core collapse, while L1521D has a slow infall motion similar to L1544.

  16. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND ρ OPHIUCHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M J , which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10 -5 M sun and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10 -10 M sun . These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  17. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  18. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  19. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  20. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Sàlim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  1. Modelado de las distribuciones espectrales de energía para tres protoestrellas de Clase I en Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, V. L.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B. A.

    In this contribution we present initial results on the mo-deling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a group of 3 Class I embedded sources (protostars) belonging to the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We compiled fluxes between 1.25 and 800 µm from the literature for each source. We used a radiative transfer code developed by Whitney et al. (2003) to model the SEDs. We derived geometrical and physical parameters of the star + disk system and compared our results with those obtained by other authors. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Cattle breed-variation in infestation by the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Curto, E; Anziani, O S; Mangold, A J

    2000-09-01

    A study was carried out to assess the resistance of pure and cross-bred groups of cattle to the horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in northern Argentina. Pure-bred cattle were Criolla, Iberian Bos taurus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Nellore, Bos indicus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cross-bred cattle were Hereford, British B. taurus (34%) X Nellore (66%) and Hereford (66%) X Nellore (34%). All were heifers and animals were maintained in two groups, each containing a mixture of pure and cross-breeds. The lowest fly numbers were found on Criolla heifers and the highest on Hereford X Nellore cross-breeds. However, it could not be determined from this study whether this was a consequence of breed and/or size, as Criolla heifers were lighter than the corresponding Hereford X Nellore heifers. Fly numbers on the heifers followed an approximately negative binomial distribution. However, the ranking of individual animals in their level of infestation within subgroups was not consistent. Hence, culling the most infested heifers on any given date would at best give only a small improvement in H. irritans control.

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-131 73% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0397 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-151 85% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1132 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1132 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 3e-53 70% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0520 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 6e-62 69% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2372 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2372 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-127 71% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0605 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0605 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-135 74% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0010 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 6e-65 81% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0130 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-149 83% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1099 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 9e-88 57% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2166 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2166 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-140 84% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0695 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0695 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 2e-85 72% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0275 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-101 71% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2300 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2300 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 8e-44 81% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0460 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-149 84% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0282 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-125 69% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1445 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-116 76% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0607 ref|XP_001250098.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001787946.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos t...aurus] ref|XP_001788047.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001250098.1 1e-108 65% ...

  20. Multi-target activity of Hemidesmus indicus decoction against innovative HIV-1 drug targets and characterization of Lupeol mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Mandrone, Manuela; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Carli, Ilaria; Distinto, Simona; Corona, Angela; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Piano, Dario; Tacchini, Massimo; Maccioni, Elias; Cottiglia, Filippo; Saccon, Elisa; Poli, Ferruccio; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2017-08-31

    Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals, there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors. Hence, here we tested the pentacyclic triterpene Lupeol, showing that it inhibits the HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H function. We then performed combination studies of Lupeol and the active site RNase H inhibitor RDS1759, and blind docking calculations, demonstrating that Lupeol binds to an HIV-1 RT allosteric pocket. On the bases of these results and searching for potential multitarget active drug supplement, we also investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of Hemidesmus indicus, an Ayurveda medicinal plant containing Lupeol. Results supported the potential of this plant as a valuable multitarget active drug source. In fact, by virtue of its numerous active metabolites, H. indicus was able to inhibit not only the RT-associated RNase H function, but also the HIV-1 RT-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and the cellular α-glucosidase. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Bekalking en toevoegen van nutriënten; evaluatie van de effecten op de vitaliteit van het bos; een veldonderzoek naar boomgroei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, R.J.A.M.; Engels, M.E.; Knotters, M.; Schraven, R.; Boertjes, M.

    2006-01-01

    Dit rapport doet verslag van een deelonderzoek uit de Evaluatie van effectgerichte maatregelen in multifunctionele bossen 2004-2005 en is gericht op de effecten van de maatregelen bemes-ting en bekalking in bossen als overbruggingsmaatregel in het kader van het Overlevingsplan Bos en Natuur (OBN).

  2. Verantwoordelijkheden bij risico- en crisisbeheersing van bos- en natuurbranden : taken en bevoegdheden bij risicoberheersing, bestrijding, nazorg en herstel en een overzicht van de hiaten in regelgeving en taakverdeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffe, van J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007/2008 is gekeken welke partijen een rol spelen bij de risico- en crisisbeheersing van (grote) bos- en natuurbranden, wat hun rol precies is en welke taken en bevoegdheden ze hebben. Ook is geïnventariseerd welke hiaten er zijn in de bestaande taakverdeling en regelgeving. Hiaten die de

  3. A RESOLVED CENSUS OF MILLIMETER EMISSION FROM TAURUS MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Robert J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Kraus, Adam L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution millimeter-wave dust continuum imaging survey of circumstellar material associated with the individual components of 23 multiple star systems in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster. Combined with previous measurements in the literature, these new data permit a comprehensive look at how the millimeter luminosity (a rough tracer of disk mass) relates to the separation and mass of a stellar companion. Approximately one-third (28%-37%) of the individual stars in multiple systems have detectable millimeter emission, an incidence rate half that for single stars (∼62%) which does not depend on the number of companions. There is a strong, positive correlation between the luminosity and projected separation (a p ) of a stellar pair. Wide pairs (a p > 300 AU) have a similar luminosity distribution as single stars, medium pairs (a p ≈ 30-300 AU) are a factor of five fainter, and close pairs (a p < 30 AU) are ∼5× fainter yet (aside from a small, but notable population of bright circumbinary disks). In most cases, the emission is dominated by a disk around the primary (or a wide tertiary in hierarchical triples), but there is no clear relationship between luminosity and stellar mass ratio. A direct comparison of resolved disk sizes with predictions from tidal truncation models yields mixed results; some disks are much larger than expected given the projected distances of their companions. We suggest that the presence of a stellar companion impacts disk properties at a level comparable to the internal evolution mechanisms that operate in an isolated system, with both the multiple star formation process itself and star-disk tidal interactions likely playing important roles in the evolution of circumstellar material. From the perspective of the mass content of the disk reservoir, we expect that (giant) planet formation is inhibited around the components of close pairs or secondaries, but should be as likely as for single stars around the

  4. CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼80 m s –1 with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

  5. Observations of the polarized emission of Taurus A, Cas A and Cygnus A at 9-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flett, A.M.; Henderson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the total intensity and degree of linear polarization of the supernova remnants Taurus A and Cas A and of the radiogalaxy Cygnus A have been made at lambda 9 mm using the 25-m radiotelescope at Chilbolton. A new experimental technique involving Faraday rotation of the incoming polarized radiation was employed. Taurus A shows the expected strong and uniform polarization over the central area investigated, and Cas A the ring-like distribution observed at other wavelengths. The beamwidth of 1.5 arcmin resolves the two major components of Cygnus A and it is found that the polarization in the E component has a position angle of 53 +- 3 0 and P = 7.5 +- 1.2 per cent, and the W component a position angle of 133 +- 3 0 and P = 9.6 +-1.1 per cent. When these results are combined with earlier data at longer wavelengths, the large rotation measure of the E component and the fall of the degree of polarization of the W component at short wavelength are further established. (author)

  6. Evidence for detection of 1--10 MeV emission from the Taurus region in 1971 August

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, D.E.; Ling, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Taurus region was scanned in mid-1971 during three balloon flights with an actively shielded NaI detector sensitive between 0.2 and 10 MeV. Below 1 MeV, these observations yielded measurements and upper limits consistent with extensions of the X-ray power laws of 0.0035 (E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 2 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 and 0.0008(E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 1 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 for the Crab Nebula and NP 0532, respectively. Above 1 MeV an apparent unpulsed flux, enhanced well above the extrapolated Crab Nebula power law, was observed during the 1971 August 8 flight; it was the most sensitive of the three. For the NP 0532 above 1 MeV on the same date, the measured upper limit of a factor of 8 above the extrapolated power law excludes only the possibility of a large flare-up. The possibility that the observation reported here for 1971 August 8 was a purely instrumental effect, or was produced by environmental radiations, is thoroughly examined, with negative results. If of cosmic origin, the emission must have been short-term (approx.days, months), because other observations in 1973 and 1974 have shown null results. The possibility of variable MeV range emission is discussed in the context of other reported variable emissions in recent years from the Crab and the Taurus region

  7. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-1304 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| PREDICTED: similar to vomeronasal 1 receptor, K1 [Bos taurus] 2e-45 50% MILMHLTLANIMTILFRGIQDAMSSFGIWPIMG...DIGCKSLLYIHRVTQGISLCTISVLNTFQAIRISPRNSKRAWLKPQISTCILPSFLFFWVINMLIYFWIITNNKAVTNASAAQPGYSLAYCTTKQGGYRVSAVFQSAMLI*NFLCINLMIWTSGYMVMLLYNHHKTVQNLRGNNFSPRLSPETKLPTPFCS ...

  8. Possible maternal offloading of metals in the plasma, uterine and capsule fluid of pregnant ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) on the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kristina; Chuturgoon, Anil; Cliff, Geremy; Singh, Sanil; Ellis, Megan; Otway, Nicholas; Vosloo, Andre; Gregory, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We studied the possible metal offloading onto the progeny of three pregnant female ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) (C. taurus). The presences of five metals, i.e. aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) were validated by mass spectrometry in the maternal plasma as well as the intracapsular and uterine fluids (UF) in which embryos develop. Metals were ranked in a decreasing concentration as follows: Plasma: As > Al > Se > Pb > Cd; ICF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb and UF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb. As was present in the highest concentration in all three sharks. Al, Pb and Cd were found to be the highest within the plasma, while concentrations of Se were similar in all three fluids. These results indicate that C. taurus embryos are exposed to metals during early development, but the impact of this exposure remains unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to confirm the presence of metals in the fluids that surround the developing C. taurus embryos, a species that is already listed as vulnerable.

  9. VLBA DETERMINATION OF THE DISTANCE TO NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS. III. HP TAU/G2 AND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Rosa M.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Using multiepoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations, we have measured the trigonometric parallax of the weak-line T Tauri star HP Tau/G2 in Taurus. The best fit yields a distance of 161.2 ± 0.9 pc, suggesting that the eastern portion of Taurus (where HP Tau/G2 is located) corresponds to the far side of the complex. Previous VLBA observations have shown that T Tau, to the south of the complex, is at an intermediate distance of about 147 pc, whereas the region around L1495 corresponds to the near side at roughly 130 pc. Our observations of only four sources are still too coarse to enable a reliable determination of the three-dimensional structure of the entire Taurus star-forming complex. They do demonstrate, however, that VLBA observations of multiple sources in a given star-forming region have the potential not only to provide a very accurate estimate of its mean distance, but also to reveal its internal structure. The proper motion measurements obtained simultaneously with the parallax allowed us to study the kinematics of the young stars in Taurus. Combining the four observations available so far, we estimate the peculiar velocity of Taurus to be about 10.6 km s -1 almost completely in a direction parallel to the Galactic plane. Using our improved distance measurement, we have refined the determination of the position on the H-R diagram of HP Tau/G2, and of two other members of the HP Tau group (HP Tau itself and HP Tau/G3). Most pre-main-sequence evolutionary models predict significantly discrepant ages (by 5 Myr) for those three stars-expected to be coeval. Only in the models of Palla and Stahler do they fall on a single isochrone (at 3 Myr).

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE BOVINOS DAS RAÇAS JERSEY E GIR À ACIDOSE LÁCTICA RUMINAL: II - ACIDOSE METABÓLICAE METABOLIZAÇÃO DO LACTATO-L SUSCEPTIBILITY OF JERSEY AND GIR STEERS TO RUMEN LACTIC ACIDOSIS: II - METABOLIC ACIDOSIS AND L-LACTATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Akio Maruta

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro garrotes Jersey (J (Bos taurus e quatro Gir (G (Bos indicus foram utilizados para comparar a susceptibilidade de zebuínos e taurinos à acidose láctica ruminal (ALR. Neste trabalho, acompanhou-se o grau da acidose metabólica (AM e a metabolização do lactato-L. A ALR foi induzida com a administração de sacarose intraruminal. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas nos seguintes momentos: zero, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 e 24 horas. Foram determinadas as concentrações de lactato total, de seus isômeros L e D e o perfil hemogasométrico. Nos momentos mais críticos observados (14ªh a 18ªh, a AM foi severa em ambas as raças, porém, ao término do experimento, esta passou a grau moderado nos garrotes G, mantendo-se severa nos J. Os animais J absorveram, do rúmen, maiores quantidades de lactato-D, o qual apresentou correlação negativa com o pH sangüíneo (r = - 0,78. Por outro lado, o lactato-L foi mais absorvido e utilizado nos bovinos G, contribuindo para a restauração parcial do equilíbrio ácido-básico e gerando alterações nas pCO2 e pO2. Os garrotes zebuínos da raça Gir apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à AM que os taurinos da raça Jersey.In order to compare the susceptibility to acute rumen lactic acidosis (RLA, four Jersey (J (Bos taurus and four Gir (G (Bos indicus steers were used to evaluate the degree of metabolic acidosis (MA and the metabolism of L-lactate during the RLA. The RLA was induced by the administration of sucrose into the rumen. Blood samples were collected at following times: zero, 14th,16th, 18th, 20th, 22nd and 24th h. Total lactic acid and its isomers, and blood gas determination were measured. At the most critical moments (14th to 18th h the MA was severe in both breeds, but the MA became moderate in the G steers and remained severe in the J steers at the end of the trial. Higher amounts of D-lactate was absorbed from the rumen to the blood of the J steers; the higher the D-lactate plasma level, the

  11. Large-scale structure of the Taurus molecular complex. II. Analysis of velocity fluctuations and turbulence. III. Methods for turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, S.C.; Dickman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The velocity autocorrelation function (ACF) of observed spectral line centroid fluctuations is noted to effectively reproduce the actual ACF of turbulent gas motions within an interstellar cloud, thereby furnishing a framework for the study of the large scale velocity structure of the Taurus dark cloud complex traced by the present C-13O J = 1-0 observations of this region. The results obtained are discussed in the context of recent suggestions that widely observed correlations between molecular cloud widths and cloud sizes indicate the presence of a continuum of turbulent motions within the dense interstellar medium. Attention is then given to a method for the quantitative study of these turbulent motions, involving the mapping of a source in an optically thin spectral line and studying the spatial correlation properties of the resulting velocity centroid map. 61 references

  12. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  13. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez; De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions

  14. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez [AEGORA Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel [Fac. de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 1, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  15. Yield-per-Recruit and Relative Mean Biomass Estimates, and their Management Consequences, to the Penaeus Indicus Fishery in the Gulf of Masirah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. M. Siddeek

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The von Bertalanffy growth parameters estimated based on the 1990/91 carapace length data of Penaeus indicus  from the Gulf of Masirah, Oman were used to calculate total mortality, yield-per-recruit ( i.e. average weight of a shrimp from a cohort under a given fishing pattern , and relative mean biomass ( i.e. exploited cohort biomass over un-exploited cohort biomass for the population sampled. The instantaneous total mortality coefficient value indicated under exploitation in 1990/91. When different fishing seasons scenarios were considered with the current total mortality level but with a range of natural mortality values, high yield, per recruit and relative mean biomass values were shown for October-April and November-April fishing seasons. The fishing season is currently late August to end of April. Thus, a one to two-month delay in the fishing season appears to be beneficial to this fishery.

  16. Compression distance can discriminate animals by genetic profile, build relationship matrices and estimate breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Kijas, James W; Reverter, Antonio

    2015-10-13

    Genetic relatedness is currently estimated by a combination of traditional pedigree-based approaches (i.e. numerator relationship matrices, NRM) and, given the recent availability of molecular information, using marker genotypes (via genomic relationship matrices, GRM). To date, GRM are computed by genome-wide pair-wise SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) correlations. We describe a new estimate of genetic relatedness using the concept of normalised compression distance (NCD) that is borrowed from Information Theory. Analogous to GRM, the resultant compression relationship matrix (CRM) exploits numerical patterns in genome-wide allele order and proportion, which are known to vary systematically with relatedness. We explored properties of the CRM in two industry cattle datasets by analysing the genetic basis of yearling weight, a phenotype of moderate heritability. In both Brahman (Bos indicus) and Tropical Composite (Bos taurus by Bos indicus) populations, the clustering inferred by NCD was comparable to that based on SNP correlations using standard principal component analysis approaches. One of the versions of the CRM modestly increased the amount of explained genetic variance, slightly reduced the 'missing heritability' and tended to improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in both populations when compared to both NRM and GRM. Finally, a sliding window-based application of the compression approach on these populations identified genomic regions influenced by introgression of taurine haplotypes. For these two bovine populations, CRM reduced the missing heritability and increased the amount of explained genetic variation for a moderately heritable complex trait. Given that NCD can sensitively discriminate closely related individuals, we foresee CRM having possible value for estimating breeding values in highly inbred populations.

  17. DIAGNÓSTICO DE LA CAPACIDAD REPRODUCTIVA DE TOROS EN GANADERÍAS DE TRES MUNICIPIOS DEL ALTO MAGDALENA

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    Vejarano OA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la funcionalidad reproductiva de toros del alto magdalena analizandoel efecto de la edad y la raza sobre la calidad del semen y otras características reproductivas. La investigaciónse realizó en los municipios de Paicol, La Plata y Nátaga (Huila - Colombia, cubriendo zonas de bosqueseco tropical (bs-T y bosque húmedo premontano (bh-PM. 60 toros de diferentes razas y edades fueronevaluados bajo condiciones de monta natural y sin reposo sexual previo al examen, usando la metodologíarecomendada por la American Society of Therigenology (AST. Para evaluar el efecto del tipo racial sobrealgunas características reproductivas se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos ydiferentes número de repeticiones por tratamiento: T1: Bos indicus , T2: Bos indicus x Bos taurus y T3: Bostaurus . El efecto de la edad fue determinado estableciendo un diseño con siete tratamientos y diferentenúmero de repeticiones por tratamientoí: T1: 54 meses de edad. Se aplicó la prueba Diferencia Mínima Significativa para determinarlas diferencias estadísticas y se estableció un modelo de predicción para movilidad masal. Elcomportamiento reproductivo expresado en calidad del material seminal, libido y demás característicasreproductivas en los toros del alto magdalena, estuvo dentro de los valores normales. El tipo racial notuvo un efecto significativo sobre las características reproductivas. Con excepción de la circunferenciaescrotal y el volumen del eyaculado, la edad tampoco ejerció un efecto sobre las variables analizadas. Elmodelo de predicción para la movilidad masal (Y, a partir de un valor dado de circunferencia escrotal (Xes: Y = (1.90275 (X.

  18. Effect of biological type of cattle on the incidence of the dark, firm, and dry condition in the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Dikeman, M E

    1994-02-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to characterize longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness for beef carcasses of diverse biological types and to determine the genetic parameters of lean color, texture, and firmness. The carcasses (n = 3,641) used in this experiment were from steers produced by mating Angus, Brahman, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chianina, Galloway, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Longhorn, Maine Anjou, Nellore, Piedmontese, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, Sahiwal, Salers, Shorthorn, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise sires to Hereford and Angus dams. Steers were fed a corn-corn silage diet from weaning until slaughter at 356 to 575 d of age. Steers were slaughtered at commercial packing plants and longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness were scored by trained carcass evaluators. Sire line least squares means for lean color, texture, and firmness ranged approximately one unit on a 7-point scale. Chianina crosses had darker-colored lean than all breed groups except Tarentaise and Simmental crosses (P < .05). Moreover, a higher percentage (P < .05) of Chianina crosses than of all other breed groups had unacceptably dark-colored ("dark red" or darker) lean. Bos indicus sire lines were not different from Bos taurus sire lines in frequency of carcasses with unacceptably dark-colored lean. However, Bos indicus crosses were more likely to be scored "very light cherry-red." Lean color and texture were lowly heritable, whereas lean firmness was moderately heritable. Thus, this experiment demonstrated that there is genetic variation in the incidence of the DFD condition; however, genetic variation was small relative to environmental variation.

  19. Efeito da idade de desmame e suplementação no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte Effect of weaning age and supplementation on beef heifers growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Salgueiro Pio de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de 47 novilhas de corte cruzas Bos taurus x Bos indicus até os dois anos de idade, desmamadas precocemente (DP, com idade média de 91 dias e peso mínimo de 70 kg de peso vivo, ou desmamadas à idade convencional (DC, com média de 170 dias de idade e 130,3 kg, suplementadas (Su ou não (NSu com suplemento comercial com 14% de proteína bruta e 75% de NDT, durante 91 dias no primeiro inverno pós-desmame. Os animais do DP e o grupo não-suplementado apresentaram menores pesos vivos até um ano de idade. A idade do desmame não influenciou a taxa de prenhez das novilhas (77,3 e 72%, para o DP e DC, respectivamente. A suplementação no primeiro inverno não influenciou o desempenho das novilhas aos dois anos de idade. O desmame precoce não afetou o desenvolvimento e a fertilidade das novilhas aos dois anos de idade, quando comparado ao desmame à idade convencional.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 47 Bos taurus x Bos indicus beef heifers until two years of age. Heifers were early weaned (EW with average age of 91 days and minimum of 70 kg of liveweight or weaned at conventional age with average of 170 days and average liveweight of 130.3 kg (CW, supplemented (Su or not (NSu with concentrate containing 14% crude protein and 75% total digestible nutrients (TDN during 91 days in the first winter. The early weaning and the no supplemented group were lightier until one year of age. Weaning age did not affect pregnancy rate (77.3% and 72% to EW and CW, respectively. The supplementation during the first winter did not affect the heifers performance until two years of age. Early weaning did not affected the growth and the fertility of heifers until two years of age when compaired with the weaning at the conventional age.

  20. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  1. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  2. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones

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    Izaskun Merino-Sáinz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  3. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

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    Xiangning Bai

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx 1 and stx 2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96% stx 1 and/or stx 2-positive samples, 85 (61.59% were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a and 5 stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, stx 2c, stx 2d and stx 2g were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfA O157/OI-141, lpfA O157/OI-154, lpfA O113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC.

  4. Promoter region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene: single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cattle and association with performance in Brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2008-12-01

    Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., Brahman cattle averaged 27.4 +/- 0.07% divergence from the Bos taurus breeds, whereas divergence of Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  5. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  6. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  7. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keawrayup S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758, S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2% and S. calcitrans (49.5%. S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%. The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05. The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00 during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies.

  8. The nature of the high-velocity gas in NGC 1275: first results with TAURUS-2 on the William Herschel telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Taylor, K.; Pedlar, A.; Ghataure, H.S.; Penston, M.V.; Robinson, A.

    1990-01-01

    Observations with a new imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, TAURUS-2, show that there is a close spatial association between the two systems of emission-line gas in the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A, 3C84). It therefore seems likely that, as first suggested by previous authors, we are witnessing two galaxies in the process of colliding. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with all available observations of this object. (author)

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscato Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bos primigenius, the aurochs, is the wild ancestor of modern cattle breeds and was formerly widespread across Eurasia and northern Africa. After a progressive decline, the species became extinct in 1627. The origin of modern taurine breeds in Europe is debated. Archaeological and early genetic evidence point to a single Near Eastern origin and a subsequent spread during the diffusion of herding and farming. More recent genetic data are instead compatible with local domestication events or at least some level of local introgression from the aurochs. Here we present the analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a pre-Neolithic Italian aurochs. Results In this study, we applied a combined strategy employing both multiplex PCR amplifications and 454 pyrosequencing technology to sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of an 11,450-year-old aurochs specimen from Central Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the aurochs mtDNA genome supports the conclusions from previous studies of short mtDNA fragments - namely that Italian aurochsen were genetically very similar to modern cattle breeds, but highly divergent from the North-Central European aurochsen. Conclusions Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for several modern cattle and two pre-Neolithic mtDNA genomes from very different geographic areas. These data suggest that previously identified sub-groups within the widespread modern cattle mitochondrial T clade are polyphyletic, and they support the hypothesis that modern European breeds have multiple geographic origins.

  10. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui; Liu, Zhengfei

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China's yak herds. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China July 2011-July 2012 to estimate the prevalence of BoHV-1 antibody in yak herds. We collected 1,840 serum samples from yaks on the QTP, in Tibet (988 yaks), Qinghai (475 yaks), and Sichuan (377 yaks) Provinces. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 381 (38.6%) of the Tibetan samples, 212 (44.6%) of the Qinghai samples, and 105 (27.9%) of the Sichuan samples had detectable antibodies to BoHV-1. Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0021 ref|NP_851363.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Bos t...aurus] dbj|BAA84960.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor long form [Bos taurus] NP_851363.1 1e-127 59% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2615 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2615 ref|NP_851363.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Bos t...aurus] dbj|BAA84960.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor long form [Bos taurus] NP_851363.1 0.0 94% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1314 ref|NP_851363.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Bos t...aurus] dbj|BAA84960.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor long form [Bos taurus] NP_851363.1 0.0 90% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1440 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1440 ref|NP_851363.1| growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Bos t...aurus] dbj|BAA84960.1| growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor long form [Bos taurus] NP_851363.1 1e-148 72% ...

  15. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B; Buitenhuis, A J

    2008-01-01

    either a pleiotropic QTL affecting 2 traits or 2 QTL each affecting 1 trait gave some evidence to distinguish between these models. For Bos taurus autosome 5, the most likely models were a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM2, CM3, and SCS, and a linked QTL affecting fat yield index. For Bos taurus autosome 9...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-03-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-03-0016 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-115 50% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0631 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0631 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-102 53% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-17-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-17-0016 ref|NP_776543.2| myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocor...ticoid response [Bos taurus] gb|AAI04572.1| Myocilin, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response [Bos taurus] NP_776543.2 1e-99 58% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1454 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1454 ref|XP_875347.3| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001788816.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 561 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_875347.3 1e-146 84% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1320 ref|XP_001255625.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predict...ed) [Bos taurus] ref|XP_001252523.1| PREDICTED: similar to olfactory receptor 586 (predicted) [Bos taurus] XP_001255625.1 1e-131 73% ...