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Sample records for bos taurus indicus

  1. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  2. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  3. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  4. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  5. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  6. Genotype x environment interactions for fatty acid profiles in Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

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    Bressan, M C; Rossato, L V; Rodrigues, E C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Ramos, E M; Gama, L T

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize lipid profiles in the M. longissimus thoracis of commercial Brazilian beef and to assess how those profiles are influenced by finishing system, genetic group, and their interaction. Intramuscular fat (IMF) and fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in 160 bulls of the Bos taurus (n = 75) and Bos indicus (n = 85) genetic groups, finished on pasture (n = 46) or with grain supplementation (n = 114) and slaughtered in a commercial abattoir. Finishing system had a major impact on the deposition of IMF, as well as on the concentration of SFA, PUFA, and their ratio, but genetic groups showed important differences in the ability to convert SFA into cis-9 MUFA and to convert 16:0 into 18:0. When compared with pasture-finished animals, those finished with grain had greater content of IMF and SFA (P 0.05), and about one-half the amount of PUFA (P 0.05). With pasture-finishing, no differences were observed among the 2 genetic groups in SFA and MUFA (P > 0.05), but PUFA were decreased in B. taurus (P genetic groups were compared in grain-finishing, B. taurus had a decreased ability for elongation and B. indicus had a decreased aptitude for desaturation of FA. On the other hand, with pasture-finishing a greater deposition of intermediate FA from ruminal biohydrogenation was observed in B. indicus than in B. taurus. Overall, FA profiles were affected more by finishing system in B. indicus than in B. taurus.

  7. Effect of heat stress on the expression profile of Hsp90 among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breed of cattle: a comparative study.

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    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Sengar, G; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-02-25

    We evaluated the effect of thermal challenge on the expression profile of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breeds of cattle. The present investigation was focused on the comparative studies on Hsp90 expression among Frieswal and Sahiwal under in vitro and environmental heat stress. Measured immediately after the in vitro heat shock to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative expression of Hsp90 mRNA was significantly (Pcows consistently recorded higher rectal temperatures than the Sahiwal breed. Further during this peak summer stress, Sahiwal showed significantly higher levels of mRNA transcripts as well as protein concentration compared to the Frieswal breed. Our findings also interestingly showed that, the cell viability of PBMC are significantly higher among the Sahiwal than Frieswal. Taken together, the experiments of both induced in vitro and environmental stress conditions indicate that, Sahiwal may express higher levels of Hsp90 then Frieswal to regulate their body temperature and increase cell survivality under heat stressed conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

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    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (PAngus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (PAngus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force, susceptibility to calpain, apoptosis and postmortem glycolysis, which might also be related to differences in beef quality among Angus and Nellore.

  9. Distribución de la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae sobre Bos taurus y Bos indicus en Costa Rica

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    Víctor Alvarez C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se informa sobre la casuística de A. cajennense encontrada sobre B. taurus y B. indicus en Costa Rica en 532 fincas muestreadas a nivel nacional en los diferentes sistemas de producción (leche, carne y doble propósito. Existe desigual distribución Amblyomma spp. (incluidas A. cajennense, A. maculatum, A. inornatum y A. oblongoguttatum en las diferentes regiones administrativas y en las zonas ecológicas. La presencia de Amblyomma spp. fue 12 veces (X², PResistance to acaricides in the cattle tick population was surveyed in 532 farms throughout Costa Rica. Samples were collected from bovines (Bos taurus and Bos indicus, in three production systems: dairy, meat and double-purpose. There is an uneven distribution of Amblyomma spp. (including A. cajennense, A. maculatum and A. oblongoguttatum in the administrative regions in which the country is divided, as well as in ecological zones. Administratively, Amblyomma spp., was 12 times more frecuent (X², p<0.001 in the Central Pacific and Chorotega regions (Pacific coast, than elsewhere. Ecologically, ticks of this genus were more common in the Tropical Humid Forest (33 % and the Very Humid Montain Forest (18 %. There was at least one sample of Amblyomma in 41% of counties. The most frecuent Amblyomma was A. cajennense. The wide distribution of Amblyomma spp. in very warm places with a marked six months rainy season suggests a potential danger of the substitution capacity of Amblyomma spp., which can also affect public health. The paper also reviews Amblyomma literature in detail.

  10. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

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    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

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    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  12. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

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    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  13. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

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    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, Preproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma cortisol (Preproductive, and health characteristics of beef cattle independent of breed type. Hence, strategies

  14. Heterosis for meat quality and fatty acid profiles in crosses among Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

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    Gama, L T; Bressan, M C; Rodrigues, E C; Rossato, L V; Moreira, O C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles of meat from Bos indicus, Bos taurus and crossbred B. taurus×B. indicus bullocks (n=216), finished on pasture or grain, were used to estimate the effects of heterosis. Meat quality and fatty acid profiles generally benefited with crossbreeding, but the advantages from heterosis differed among finishing systems. The Warner-Bratzler shear-force in fresh and aged meat was reduced due to heterosis in pasture-finishing, but the effect was minor under grain-finishing. With pasture-finishing, heterosis caused an increase of 5% in CLA concentration, but few other changes in fatty acid profiles. In grain-finishing, heterosis caused a reduction in intramuscular fat and cholesterol, increased amounts of PUFA, n-6 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA ratio, and a decline in atherogenic index. The Δ(9) desaturase estimated activity in crossbreds showed a behavior close to B. indicus, suggesting the existence of few loci and a dominance genetic effect on enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dinâmica folicular e taxa de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus tratadas com o protocolo "Ovsynch" para inovulação em tempo fixo

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    Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo em novilhas Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus receptoras de embrião. No Experimento 1, a dinâmica folicular foi acompanhada durante o protocolo "Ovsynch" (G1; n=35 e após a aplicação de PGF2alfa (G2; n=34. No Experimento 2, os mesmos tratamentos foram realizados a campo em 168 (G1 e 177 (G2 novilhas. No D6, colheu-se sangue para dosagem de P4 e se realizaram exames ultra-sonográficos. No D7, realizou-se a inovulação. No Experimento 1, 45,7% dos animais ovularam após o 1º GnRH (P;0,05. Ao final, a taxa de prenhez no Gl foi de 35,7% e no G2 de 25,4% (P<0,05. Foram detectadas em estro 53,7% das novilhas do G2 e 33,3% do Gl (P<0,05. Os corpos lúteos com maior área determinaram maiores concentrações de P4 e taxa de concepção (P<0,05. A sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo aumentou as taxas de ovulação, de aproveitamento e de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião.

  16. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  17. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  18. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

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    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  19. Efecto de la proporción de genes Bos indicus x Bos taurus sobre peso al destete y edad a primer parto en una población multirracial

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    Hugo O. Toledo Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 1,289 registros de hembras de primer parto con diversas proporciones de genes Bos indicus y Bos taurus (Charolais, Suizo, Simmental, Holstein Friesian y Salers. Tanto animales puros y cruzados de un hato comercial, ubicado en el municipio de Hueytamalco, Puebla, nacidas entre 1966 a 2006, con el objetivo de estimar la combinación óptima de genes Cebú y la retención de heterosis (RVH sobre las características de peso al destete ajustado a 270 días (PD y edad a primer parto (EPP. A partir de modelos de regresión múltiple se identificó la proporción de Cebú con el mejor comportamiento para las dos características de acuerdo al coeficiente de determinación (R 2 y al estadístico de Mallow (CP. La mejor respuesta para PD se encontró en el rango de 42 a 70 % de genes Bos indicus ; mientras que las menores EPP se establecieron entre 27 al 40 % de proporción Cebú. La retención de heterosis que mostró mayor potencial para PD fue de 76 a 78 % y para EPP de 79 a 92 %. Estos resultados manifiestan la importancia de los efectos no aditivos en ambas características, así como la necesidad de realizar cruzamientos dirigidos.

  20. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

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    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

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    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  2. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Obtenção de oócitos e produção in vitro de embriões em doadoras lactantes da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Marcos Brandão Dias [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Raças zebuínas (Bos taurus indicus) e seus cruzamentos têm papel fundamental na pecuária brasileira, e a raça Gir, em especial, acrescenta rusticidade e produtividade nas suas descendentes leiteiras. A produção in vitro de embriões bovinos é uma biotécnica de alto valor econômico, que, aliada à utilização de sêmen sexado para cromossoma X, possibilita a multiplicação com fêmeas de valor genético superior. Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a produção in vitro (PIV) d...

  4. Efeitos da injeção de cloreto de cálcio pós-morte e tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Carla de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da injeção pós-morte de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e o tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso. Foram usados 64 machos inteiros (16 Caracu, 16 Guzerá, 16 Nelore Controle e 16 Nelore Seleção. Vinte quatro horas após o abate, foi retirada uma amostra do músculo Longissiumus dorsi (contra-filé entre a 6ª e 9ª vértebras lombares e dividida em nove subamostras. Em cada grupo de três subamostras escolhidas ao acaso, foi injetada, na quantia correspondente a 10% do seu peso, uma das seguintes soluções: a água (controle, b 200 mM de CaCl2 e c 300 mM de CaCl2. Cada subamostra foi, então, embalada a vácuo, congelada (- 2ºC e maturada por 1,7 ou 14 dias até a realização de testes de força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (evaporação, gotejamento e perdas totais. Foi usado delineamento experimental completamente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas, em que a parcela correspondia à raça e a sub-parcela, à combinação entre três níveis de CaCl2 e três tempos de maturação. A raça influenciou a força de cisalhamento, mas não influiu nas perdas por cozimento A maturação por um período de sete dias reduziu os valores de força de cisalhamento e as perdas por evaporação, gotejamento e totais. Maiores concentrações de CaCl2 resultaram em menor força de cisalhamento e maiores perdas por evaporação, embora não tenham influenciado as perdas por gotejamento e totais. A concentração de 200 mM CaCl2 apresentou a melhor redução para a força de cisalhamento. A injeção pós-morte de uma solução de CaCl2 aumentou o processo de amaciamento, sem influir nas perdas por cozimento.ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postmortem calcium chloride (CaCl2 injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus

  5. Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism associated with weight estimated breeding values in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.

  6. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10...

  7. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows II: strategies and factors affecting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, O G; Meneghetti, M; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, we evaluated the effects of temporary weaning (TW), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments on results of a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows. In Experiment 1, treatment with 400 IU eCG or with TW for 48 h consistently improved pregnancy rates (PRs) at TAI, but, in Experiment 2, FSH treatment was less effective than eCG or TW. In Experiment 3, the inclusion of eCG treatment in cows subjected to TW did not improve PRs. We concluded that TW or 400 IU eCG should be included in the TAI protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows to enhance fertility. In Experiment 4, we used records from heifers and cows treated with the proposed protocol during the 2006-2007 (n=27,195) and 2007-2008 (n=36,838) breeding seasons from multiple locations in Brazil to evaluate factors potentially affecting PRs. Overall PR at TAI was 49.6% (31,786 of 64,033). Pregnancy rate differed (Pcow group within farm, by breed (Bos indicus, 48.3% [26,123 of 54,145]; Bos taurus, 61.7% [3652 of 5922]; and crossbred Bos indicus x Bos taurus, 50.7% [2011 of 3966]), category (nulliparous, 39.6% [2095 of 5290]; suckled primiparous, 45.2% [3924 of 8677]; suckled multiparous, 51.8% [24,245 of 46,767]; and nonsuckled multiparous, 46.1% [1522 of 3299]), body condition score at TAI ( or =3.5, 52.7% [9419 of 17,881]). Days postpartum at beginning of protocol did not affect PR (30 to 60 d, 47.6% [4228 of 8881]; 61 to 90 d, 51.7% [16,325 to 31,572]; and 91 to 150 d, 50.8% [7616 to 14,991]; P>0.1). Pregnancy rate was also consistently affected (P<0.01) by sire (results ranging from 7.2% to 77.3%) and artificial insemination technician (results ranging from 15.1% to 81.8%).

  8. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

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    M. Moussa Garba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  9. Recombinant lactoferrin (Lf) of Vechur cow, the critical breed of Bos indicus and the Lf gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Shashidharan; Bhasker, Salini; Mohankumar, Chinnamma

    2012-03-01

    Vechur cow, categorized as a critically maintained breed by the FAO, is a unique breed of Bos indicus due to its extremely small size, less fodder intake, adaptability, easy domestication and traditional medicinal property of the milk. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found predominantly in the milk of mammals. The full coding region of Lf gene of Vechur cow was cloned, sequenced and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant Lf showed suppression of bacterial growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the full coding region of Lf gene of B. indicus Vechur breed is sequenced, successfully expressed in a prokaryotic system and characterized. Comparative analysis of Lf gene sequence of five Vechur cows with B. taurus revealed 15 SNPs in the exon region associated with 11 amino acid substitutions. The amino acid arginine was noticed as a pronounced substitution and the tertiary structure analysis of the BLfV protein confirmed the positions of arginine in the β sheet region, random coil and helix region 1. Based on the recent reports on the nutritional therapies of arginine supplementation for wound healing and for cardiovascular diseases, the higher level of arginine in the lactoferrin protein of Vechur cow milk provides enormous scope for further therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

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    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram colhidas nos dias -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 e, semanalmente, até o 84º dia pós-infecção (DPI. Os bovinos inoculados (GI e GII apresentaram hipertermia do 3º ao 16º DPI. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram detectados (IFI no 5º DPI (1:16, em ambos grupos inoculados (oocistos e taquizoítos, atingindo picos de 1:4096 no 7º DPI. Surtos parasitêmicos ocorreram em todos os bovinos infectados, principalmente do 7º ao 28º DPI, independente da cepa e inóculo utilizados. O bioensaio revelou a presença do parasito em amostras seminais dos bovinos infectados com oocistos (GI e taquizoítos (GII, em diversas datas experimentais, entre o 7º e 84º DPI. Parasitismo tissular por T. gondii foi diagnosticado por meio da bioprova e pela técnica da PCR, em vários fragmentos de tecidos e/ou órgãos. Os achados sugerem a possibilidade da ocorrência da transmissão sexual do T. gondii na espécie bovina.

  11. Evidence of Bos javanicus x Bos indicus hybridization and major QTLs for birth weight in Indonesian Peranakan Ongole cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Hartati; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Garcia, José Fernando; Jakaria, Jakaria; Muladno, Muladno

    2015-07-04

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) is a major Indonesian Bos indicus breed that derives from animals imported from India in the late 19(th) century. Early imports were followed by hybridization with the Bos javanicus subspecies of cattle. Here, we used genomic data to partition the ancestry components of PO cattle and map loci implicated in birth weight. We found that B. javanicus contributes about 6-7% to the average breed composition of PO cattle. Only two nearly fixed B. javanicus haplotypes were identified, suggesting that most of the B. javanicus variants are segregating under drift or by the action of balancing selection. The zebu component of the PO genome was estimated to derive from at least two distinct ancestral pools. Additionally, well-known loci underlying body size in other beef cattle breeds, such as the PLAG1 region on chromosome 14, were found to also affect birth weight in PO cattle. This study is the first attempt to characterize PO at the genome level, and contributes evidence of successful, stabilized B. indicus x B. javanicus hybridization. Additionally, previously described loci implicated in body size in worldwide beef cattle breeds also affect birth weight in PO cattle.

  12. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  13. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk ( Capra hircus ) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ease to locally produce kid rennet contrary to that of calve has led us to compare the proteolytic and clotting activities of these two rennets depending on their action on goat (Capra hircus) milk and cow (Bos taurus) milk. The proteolysis was measured by determining the increase of non-protein nitrogen according to the ...

  14. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethnoveterinary uses of B. taurus by-products by traditional practitioners in Nigeria and South Africa. Conclusion: There ... Moreover, there are over 60 species of bacteria, about 100 species ..... bioremediation of pharmaceutical, pesticides and.

  15. Resposta superovulatória na primeira onda de crescimento folicular em doadoras Nelore (Bos indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Tonissi Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Três experimentos foram realizados para testar a hipótese de que a resposta superestimulatória de doadoras Nelore (Bos indicus) com tratamentos iniciados próximo à ovulação durante a primeira onda de crescimento folicular seria maior ou comparável àquela decorrente de tratamentos convencionais. Os animais foram aleatoriamente alocados em três grupos. As doadoras dos Grupos 1 - Onda 1 s/P4 e 2 - Onda 1 c/P4 foram superestimuladas na primeira onda de crescimento folicular, e as do Grupo 3 - Sin...

  16. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    taurus L urine, bile and dung in Nigeria and South Africa. Mariam O ... traditional health care systems are still in use by majority of the people ..... improving memory, enhancing the function of the liver, slowing ... standard guidelines and database be made available to ... WHO, Traditional and Modern Medicine: Harmonishing.

  17. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  18. Association of udder traits with single nucleotide polymorphisms in crossbred Bos indicus-Bos taurus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, M W; Gill, C A; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Sanders, J O; Riley, D G

    2017-06-01

    The size, support, and health of udders limit the productive life of beef cows, especially those with background, because, in general, such cows have a reputation for problems with udders. Genomic association studies of bovine udder traits have been conducted in dairy cattle and recently in Continental European beef breeds but not in cows with background. The objective of this study was to determine associations of SNP and udder support scores, teat length, and teat diameter in half (Nellore), half (Angus) cows. Udders of cows ( = 295) born from 2003 to 2007 were evaluated for udder support and teat length and diameter ( = 1,746 records) from 2005 through 2014. These included a subjective score representing udder support (values of 1 indicated poorly supported, pendulous udders and values of 9 indicated very well-supported udders) and lengths and diameters of individual teats in the 4 udder quarters as well as the average. Cows were in full-sibling or half-sibling families. Residuals for each trait were produced from repeated records models with cow age category nested within birth year of cows. Those residuals were averaged to become the dependent variables for genomewide association analyses. Regression analyses of those dependent variables included genotypic values as explanatory variables for 34,980 SNP from a commercially available array and included the genomic relationship matrix. Fifteen SNP loci on BTA 5 were associated (false discovery rate controlled at 0.05) with udder support score. One of those was also detected as associated with average teat diameter. Three of those 15 SNP were located within genes, including one each in (), (), and (). These are notable for their functional role in some aspect of mammary gland formation or health. Other candidate genes for these traits in the vicinity of the SNP loci include () and (). Because these were detected in Nellore-Angus crossbred cows, which typically have very well-formed udders with excellent support across their productive lives, similar efforts in other breeds should be completed, because that may facilitate further refinement of genomic regions responsible for variation in udder traits important in multiple breeds.

  19. Tractus génital des vaches zébus (Bos indicus) au Niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Marichatou, H; Issa, M; Abdoul Aziz, ML; Hanzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Les caractéristiques anatomiques et les structures ovariennes et pathologiques du tractus génital de 500 femelles zébus (Bos indicus), appartenant à quatre races bovines (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali), ont été étudiées à l’abattoir de Niamey au Niger du 15 août au 15 décembre 2011. Chaque animal a été examiné avant abattage. Ces vaches et génisses, âgées en moyenne de 8 ± 2,5 ans, ont eu une note d’état corporel moyenne de 1,6 ± 0,6 et un poids moyen de carcasse de 113 ± ...

  20. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  1. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  2. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  3. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballarin

    Full Text Available The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ, and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  4. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  5. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0.01) concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin on d 40 and reduced (P = 0.02) exit velocity on d 200 compared with control heifers. Puberty was hastened in acclimated heifers compared with control (P = 0.01). Results from this study indicate that B. taurus beef cows with aggressive temperament have impaired reproductive performance compared with cohorts with adequate temperament, whereas acclimation to human handling after weaning hastens reproductive development of

  6. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore ( Bos indicus) beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, A.J.M.; Bijma, P.; Oliveira, H.N.; Lobo, R.B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET) closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) of Nellore (Bos indicus) beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving

  7. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  8. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  9. Objective Measures for the Assessment of Post-Operative Pain in Bos indicus Bull Calves Following Castration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Gabrielle C.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Lehmann, Heidi S.; Tuke, S. Jonathon; Collins, Teresa; Johnson, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Surgical castration of cattle is a common husbandry procedure, and although this procedure is known to cause pain in cattle and other species, in some countries it is often performed without anaesthesia or analgesia. Society is increasingly aware of this animal welfare issue and it is creating pressure to drive research into animal welfare science with the aim of identifying practical and economical approaches to pain management in livestock. To effectively manage pain, a pain assessment must be performed. Pain assessment methods are often subjective and therefore influenced by the observer. Ideally, objective assessments that generate consistent and repeatable results between observers should be identified. Bos indicus bull calves were divided into four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative local anaesthetic (CL n = 12); castration with pre-operative anti-inflammatory medication (CM, n = 12); and, castration without pain relief (C, n = 12). A range of objective assessments was performed: bodyweight measurements, activity, and rest levels, and four different compounds in the blood. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of anti-inflammatory medication. The other objective assessments measured in this study were not able to consistently differentiate between treatment groups. These findings emphasise the need for alternative quantifiable and objective indicators of pain in Bos indicus bull calves. Abstract The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration alone (C, n = 12). Bodyweight was measured regularly and pedometers provided data on activity and rest from day −7 (7 days prior to surgery) to 13. Blood

  10. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  12. A clone-free, single molecule map of the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiguo; Goldstein, Steve; Place, Michael; Bechner, Michael; Patino, Diego; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Ravindran, Prabu; Pape, Louise; Rincon, Gonzalo; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; Medrano, Juan F; Schwartz, David C

    2015-08-28

    The cattle (Bos taurus) genome was originally selected for sequencing due to its economic importance and unique biology as a model organism for understanding other ruminants, or mammals. Currently, there are two cattle genome sequence assemblies (UMD3.1 and Btau4.6) from groups using dissimilar assembly algorithms, which were complemented by genetic and physical map resources. However, past comparisons between these assemblies revealed substantial differences. Consequently, such discordances have engendered ambiguities when using reference sequence data, impacting genomic studies in cattle and motivating construction of a new optical map resource--BtOM1.0--to guide comparisons and improvements to the current sequence builds. Accordingly, our comprehensive comparisons of BtOM1.0 against the UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 sequence builds tabulate large-to-immediate scale discordances requiring mediation. The optical map, BtOM1.0, spanning the B. taurus genome (Hereford breed, L1 Dominette 01449) was assembled from an optical map dataset consisting of 2,973,315 (439 X; raw dataset size before assembly) single molecule optical maps (Rmaps; 1 Rmap = 1 restriction mapped DNA molecule) generated by the Optical Mapping System. The BamHI map spans 2,575.30 Mb and comprises 78 optical contigs assembled by a combination of iterative (using the reference sequence: UMD3.1) and de novo assembly techniques. BtOM1.0 is a high-resolution physical map featuring an average restriction fragment size of 8.91 Kb. Comparisons of BtOM1.0 vs. UMD3.1, or Btau4.6, revealed that Btau4.6 presented far more discordances (7,463) vs. UMD3.1 (4,754). Overall, we found that Btau4.6 presented almost double the number of discordances than UMD3.1 across most of the 6 categories of sequence vs. map discrepancies, which are: COMPLEX (misassembly), DELs (extraneous sequences), INSs (missing sequences), ITs (Inverted/Translocated sequences), ECs (extra restriction cuts) and MCs (missing restriction cuts

  13. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

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    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  14. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  15. Influence of the age on hematological parameters of Sindi cattle (Bos indicus in Paraíba backwoods

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    Luciano José Bezerra Delfino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Delfino L.J.B., de Souza B.B., Silva W.W., Ferreira A.F. & Soares C.E.A. Influence of the age on hematological parameters of Sindi cattle (Bos indicus in Paraíba backwoods. [Influência da idade nos parâmetros hematológicos do gado Sindi (Bos indicus no sertão paraibano.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:266-270, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Av. Universitária, s/n, Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. Email: zulu_vet@hotmail.com The aim this work was to establish reference values of the hemogram of Sindi cattle raised in Paraiba backwood and evaluate the influence of same age, on blood samples we collected from 60 clinically healthy animals, being 30 females and 30 males, with the following age groups: Group I: 6 - 24 months, Group II: 24 - 48 months and Group III: up to 48 months. The experiment was conducted at the Center for Research and Development for the Semiarid Tropics (NUPEÁRIDO and the Veterinary Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the Health Center and Rural Technology (CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Patos-PB. Blood samples were placed in tubes containing EDTA (tetracético-ethylenediamine-di-sodium as an anticoagulant were performed the following tests: counting the number of red blood cells, packed cell volume (PCV, Hemoglobin (Hb content, calculations of absolute Erythrocyte count (RBC, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (CHGH. Held global count and differential leukocyte such as segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Reference values for erythrocyte count (RBC, hematocrit (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, MCV and CHGH were, respectively, (6375 to 13,400 X106 / MM3 , (32 – 50 %, (9 - 15 G/DL (37 – 60 µ3, (23 to 33 µµG. And for the WBC were obtained the following results: WBC (5270 to 17,170 UL, segmented neutrophils (from 1360 to 5780

  16. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  17. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

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    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  19. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede

    2013-01-01

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting mastitis incidence and mastitis-related traits such as somatic cell score exist in dairy cows. Previously, QTL haplotypes associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli mastitis in Nordic Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows were identified on Bos taurus...... autosome 9. In the present study, we induced experimental E. coli mastitis in Danish HF cows to investigate the effect of 2 E. coli mastitis-associated QTL haplotypes on the cows' disease phenotypes and recovery in early lactation. Thirty-two cows were divided in 2 groups bearing haplotypes with either low...... the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences...

  1. Do cattle (Bos taurus) retain an association of a visual cue with a food reward for a year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Masahiko; Takeno, Nozomi

    2014-06-01

    Use of visual cues to locate specific food resources from a distance is a critical ability of animals foraging in a spatially heterogeneous environment. However, relatively little is known about how long animals can retain the learned cue-reward association without reinforcement. We compared feeding behavior of experienced and naive Japanese Black cows (Bos taurus) in discovering food locations in a pasture. Experienced animals had been trained to respond to a visual cue (plastic washtub) for a preferred food (grain-based concentrate) 1 year prior to the experiment, while naive animals had no exposure to the cue. Cows were tested individually in a test arena including tubs filled with the concentrate on three successive days (Days 1-3). Experienced cows located the first tub more quickly and visited more tubs than naive cows on Day 1 (usually P visual cue with a food reward within a day and retain the association for 1 year despite a slight decay. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effect of Vitamin E and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cryopreserved Sperm Quality in Bos taurus Bulls Under Testicular Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Rocha, Carolina C; Brito, Maíra M; Perez, Eduardo G A; Tsunoda, Roberta H; Góes, Paola A A; Mendes, Camilla M; Assumpção, Mayra E O A; Barnabe, Valquiria H; Nichi, Marcilio

    2018-04-03

    Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of interaction between PUFAs and vitamin E on sperm quality in Bos taurus bulls under testicular heat stress. Sixteen taurine bulls under testicular heat stress were randomly assigned in four groups: Control, Vitamin E, PUFA, and PUFA + Vitamin E. All groups lasted for 60 days. Samples were cryopreserved/thawed and analyzed for motility variables (CASA), membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and sperm-binding capacity. Results showed that vitamin E had a beneficial effect on some sperm characteristics, whereas PUFA supplementation had an adverse effect when the two treatments were evaluated separately. Finally, the association between PUFAs and vitamin E did not improve sperm quality.

  3. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  4. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  5. Evidence of solitary chemosensory cells in a large mammal: the diffuse chemosensory system in Bos taurus airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Merigo, Flavia; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) of the respiratory apparatus is composed of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that resemble taste cells but are not organized in end organs. The discovery of the DCS may open up new approaches to respiratory diseases. However, available data on mammalian SCCs have so far been collected from rodents, the airways of which display some differences from those of large mammals. Here we investigated the presence of the DCS and of SCCs in cows and bulls (Bos taurus), in which the airway cytology is similar to that in humans, focusing our attention on detection in the airways of molecules involved in the transduction cascade of taste [i.e. α-gustducin and phospholipase C of the β2 subtype (PLCβ2)]. The aim of the research was to extend our understanding of airway chemoreceptors and to compare the organization of the DCS in a large mammal with that in rodents. Using immunocytochemistry for α-gustducin, the taste buds of the tongue and arytenoid were visualized. In the trachea and bronchi, α-gustducin-immunoreactive SCCs were frequently found. Using immunocytochemistry for PLCβ2, the staining pattern was generally similar to those seen for α-gustducin. Immunoblotting confirmed the expression of α-gustducin in the tongue and in all the airway regions tested. The study demonstrated the presence of SCCs in cows and bulls, suggesting that DCSs are present in many mammalian species. The description of areas with a high density of SCCs in bovine bronchi seems to indicate that the view of the DCS as made up of isolated cells totally devoid of ancillary elements is probably an oversimplification. PMID:16928202

  6. Microbiota composition, gene pool and its expression in Gir cattle (Bos indicus) rumen under different forage diets using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Ramesh J; Hinsu, Ankit T; Patel, Shriram H; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Koringa, Prakash G; Bruno, Fosso; Psifidi, Androniki; Shah, S V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2018-03-09

    Zebu (Bos indicus) is a domestic cattle species originating from the Indian subcontinent and now widely domesticated on several continents. In this study, we were particularly interested in understanding the functionally active rumen microbiota of an important Zebu breed, the Gir, under different dietary regimes. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were compared at various taxonomic levels to elucidate the differential microbial population and its functional dynamics in Gir cattle rumen under different roughage dietary regimes. Different proportions of roughage rather than the type of roughage (dry or green) modulated microbiome composition and the expression of its gene pool. Fibre degrading bacteria (i.e. Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, Bacillus and Roseburia) were higher in the solid fraction of rumen (Pcomparison of metagenomic shotgun and metatranscriptomic sequencing appeared to be a much richer source of information compared to conventional metagenomic analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Villa-Duque; Claudia Marcela Amaya-Torres; Darwin García-Rojas; Natalia Nieto-Omeara; Natalia Terán-Acuña

    2016-01-01

    En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander). El estudio consis...

  8. Effect of follicular diameter, time of first cleavage and H3K4 methylation on embryo production rates of Bos indicus cattle

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    Paula Alvares Lunardelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed investigate the relationship between epigenetics, follicular diameter and cleavage speed, by evaluating the developmental potential and occurence of H3K4 monomethylation of early-, intermediate- and late-cleaving Bos indicus embryos from in vitro fertilized oocytes originating from follicles up to 2 mm in diameter or between 4 and 8 mm in diameter. Oocytes (n = 699 from small follicles (? 2 mm and 639 oocytes from large follicles (4-8 mm were punched from 1,982 Bos indicus’ slaughterhouse ovaries. After maturation and in vitro fertilization (IVF, the cultured embryos were separated into early (? 28 h post-IVF, intermediate (> 28 h and ? 34 h post-IVF and late (> 34 h and ? 54 h post-IVF cleavage groups. Blastocysts were subjected to an immunofluorescence assessment for H3K4me investigation. The blastocyst rate for large follicles (36.3% was higher than that for small follicles (22.9%, P < 0.05. In addition, blastocyst rates for early and intermediate cleavage groups (45.3% and 33.8%, respectively were higher than that for late cleavage group (13.5%, P < 0.05. The blastocysts from all groups displayed H3K4me staining by immunofluorescence, particularly intense in what seemed to be trophectoderm cells and weak or absent in cells seemingly from the inner cell mass. For the first time for indicus embryos, data from this study demonstrate that higher blastocyst embryo rates are obtained from embryos that cleave within 34 h after fertilization and from those produced from follicles of 4-8 mm in diameter, indicating a greater ability of these embryos to develop to the stage of embryonic preimplantation. This is the first article demonstrating the occurrence of H3K4me in cattle embryos; its presence in all the evaluated blastocysts suggests that this histone modification plays a key role in maintaining embryo viability at preimplantation stage.

  9. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

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    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  10. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdirahman A; O'Neill, Christopher J; Thomson, Peter C; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2012-07-27

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg counts were moderate and opposite between pre

  11. Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large aseasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burthe, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Searle, Kate R; Hall, Stephen J G; Thackeray, Stephen J; Wanless, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    1. Studies examining changes in the scheduling of breeding in response to climate change have focused on species with well-defined breeding seasons. Species exhibiting year-round breeding have received little attention and the magnitudes of any responses are unknown. 2. We investigated phenological data for an enclosed feral population of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in northern England exhibiting year-round breeding. This population is relatively free of human interference. 3. We assessed whether the timing of births had changed over the last 60 years, in response to increasing winter and spring temperatures, changes in herd density, and a regime of lime fertilisation. 4. Median birth date became earlier by 1·0 days per year. Analyses of the seasonal distribution of calving dates showed that significantly fewer calves were born in summer (decline from 44% of total births to 20%) and significantly more in winter (increase from 12% to 30%) over the study period. The most pronounced changes occurred in winter, with significant increases in both the proportion and number of births. Winter births arise from conceptions in the previous spring, and we considered models that investigated climate and weather variables associated with the winter preceding and the spring of conceptions. 5. The proportion of winter births was higher when the onset of the plant growing season was earlier during the spring of conceptions. This relationship was much weaker during years when the site had been fertilised with lime, suggesting that increased forage biomass was over-riding the impacts of changing plant phenology. When the onset of the growing season was late, winter births increased with female density. 6. Recruitment estimates from a stage-structured state-space population model were significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of births in the preceding winter, suggesting that calves born in winter are less likely to survive than those born in other seasons. 7.

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping of calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 in the German Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B; Baes, C; Mayer, M; Reinsch, N; Seidenspinner, T; Thaller, G; Kühn, Ch

    2010-03-01

    Linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18) in the German Holstein population. Six paternal half-sib families consisting of a total of 1,054 animals were genotyped on 28 genetic markers in the telomeric region on BTA18 spanning approximately 30 Mb. Calving traits, body type traits, and udder type traits were investigated. Using univariately estimated breeding values, maternal and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth were analyzed separately for first- and further-parity calvings. The QTL initially identified by separate linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses could be confirmed by a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis for udder composite index, udder depth, fore udder attachment, front teat placement, body depth, rump angle, and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth. Concurrence of QTL peaks and a similar shape of restricted log-likelihood ratio profiles were observed between udder type traits and for body depth and calving traits, respectively. Association analyses were performed for markers flanking the most likely QTL positions by applying a mixed model including a fixed allele effect of the maternally inherited allele and a random polygenic effect. Results indicated that microsatellite marker DIK4234 (located at 53.3 Mb) is associated with maternal effects on stillbirth, direct effects on calving ease, and body depth. A comparison of effects for maternally inherited DIK4234 alleles indicated a favorable, positive correlation of maternal and direct effects on calving. Additionally, the association of maternally inherited DIK4234 marker alleles with body depth implied that conformation traits might provide the functional background of the QTL for calving traits. For udder type traits, the strong coincidence of QTL peaks and the position of the QTL in a

  13. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  14. Abundancia relativa de Amblyomma spp. (Acari: Ixodidae en bovinos (Bos taurus y B. indicus de Costa Rica

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    V. Alvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio describe la abundancia de garrapatas del género Amblyomma encontradas sobre bovino a través de muestreos mensuales llevados a cabo en diez fincas pertenecientes a ocho zonas ecológicas (ZE de Costa Rica. Durante la visita se recolectaban garrapatas >4 mm del lado derecho de los bovinos. El estudio recopiló información meteorológica para algunas de las fincas ubicadas en el ensayo, mostrando que la variable que más fluctúa es la de precipitación. La principal especie de Amblyomma encontrada fue A. cajennense. La presencia de ninfas del género Amblyomma se localizan solo en los meses de enero a mayo, coincidente con la época de menor humedad en la zona de estacionalidad de lluvias, por lo que es esperable solo una generación por año. En el trabajo de laboratorio se mantienen ninfas de Amblyomma a las cuales se les mide el tiempo de muda y de sobrevivencia bajo condiciones controladas, sin encontrar mayores diferencias entre sexo. Los períodos de sobrevivencia muestran la imposibilidad de efectuar un manejo de potreros con el fin de controlar a las especies de este género. La presencia de adultos del género Amblyomma es a lo largo del año sin presentar una preferencia particular por alguna época. El estudio dividió las zonas de estudio en régimen lluvioso estacional y régimen sin patrón de estacionalidad. La mayor presencia de adultos de Amblyomma se da precisamente en el de estacionalidad, o de influencia Pacífico. Se reporta la presencia de A. maculatum solo en la ZE correspondiente al Bosque húmedo Tropical transición a premontano. Igualmente, se informa de la presencia de Ixodes boliviensis en la ZE denominada Bosque muy húmedo Montano bajo.The research describe the big amount of ticks of the Amblyomma genus, found on bovines through monthly samplings carried out in ten farms in eight ecological zones (EZ of Costa Rica. Ticks larger than 4 mm were picked up from the right side of the animals during the visit. The study compiled meteorological information for some farms located in the experiment, showing that the most fluctuant variable is rainfall. The most important Amblyomma species found was A. cajennense. Amblyomma nymphs were found only from January to May, which coincides with the lower humidity season in the rain seasonality area; as for it is expected only one generation per year. In the lab work Amblyomma nymphs are kept to measure the moulting season and the surviving time under controlled conditions, but no major differences were found between both sexes. The surviving periods show that it is not possible to do a grazing land handling, in order to control this genus species. Adults of the genus Amblyomma are present through all the year, not showing any specific preference for a season. The research divided the investigation areas in rain seasonality and not-seasonality systems. The highest amount of Amblyomma is found given in the rain seasonality system or of Pacific influence. A. maculatum is present only in the EZ of Tropical Humid Forest transition to pre-montainous. Likewise, Ixodes boliviensis is found in the EZ of low mountainous Very Humid Forest.

  15. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

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    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  16. Comet assay to determine genetic damage by the use of ivermectin in zebu cows (Bos taurus indicus

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    Donicer Montes-Vergara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the work was evaluate the damage genetic caused by the use of ivermectin (IVM in cows zebu to concentrations of 1% and 3.15% through the test comet. Material and methods. 15 cows, were taken with age between 3 and 4 years old, average weight of 350 kg, body condition between 3 and 3.5. Three experimental groups with five animals per group, which were exposed to the concentration of IVM to 1% to 3.15% more group control (without application of IVM were used. Animal blood sample was performed by venipuncture jugular or medial flow with vacutainer® needle, extracting 8 ml of blood. The blood samples it was collected at 9, 18 and 27 days post-treatment. Results. The display of the comets is made by using fluorescence microscope, the cells were evaluated by means of visual log and the Comet image software. Evidenced the presence of nuclei with DNA migration in all analyzed plates. The values of classification of comets indicate cells with high levels of damage (grade 3: cells with high damage. The rate of DNA damage of the treatment to 1% to 3.15% was significant, to relate to the control group. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the likely genotoxic potential of the use of IVM in cattle.

  17. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites

  18. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Malayan gaur with other species of the genus Bos based on cytochrome b gene DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Zakaria, S S; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Zainal, Z Z; Shukor, M N; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-03-22

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) is one of the three subspecies of gaurs that can be found in Malaysia. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies with other species of the genus Bos (B. javanicus, B. indicus, B. taurus, and B. grunniens). The sequence of a key gene, cytochrome b, was compared among 20 Bos species and the bongo antelope, used as an outgroup. Phylogenetic reconstruction was employed using neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in PAUP and Bayesian inference in MrBayes 3.1. All tree topologies indicated that the Malayan gaur is in its own monophyletic clade, distinct from other species of the genus Bos. We also found significant branching differences in the tree topologies between wild and domestic cattle.

  20. Evaluation of indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amr M; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Ahmed, Laila S; El-Hosary, Amira

    2012-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP)-ELISA, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection among Egyptian baladi cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Molecular confirmation of infection using T. annulata merozoite surface (Tams-1) target amplification by PCR was used as a gold standard. A total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 water buffaloes were investigated in the current study by the three methods. Based on the PCR-confirmed results, the evaluation study revealed higher sensitivity of TaSP-ELISA (72.9% and 75%) as compared to microscopic examination (58.3% and 50%) among cattle and buffaloes, respectively. On the other hand, the specificity of TaSP-ELISA in diagnosis of T. annulata infection was higher (87.5%) in baladi cattle as compared to water buffaloes (37.5%). In conclusion, TaSP-ELISA was shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection in cattle under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus), INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893) DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Schenki; Cláudio Roberto Madruga; Aguemi Kohayagawa; Carla Lopes Mendonça; Dirson Vieira; Raul Kessler

    2006-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus) inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, ...

  2. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  3. in silico identification of cross affinity towards Cry1Ac pesticidal protein with receptor enzyme in Bos taurus and sequence, structure analysis of crystal proteins for stability.

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    Ebenezer, King Solomon; Nachimuthu, Ramesh; Thiagarajan, Prabha; Velu, Rajesh Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Any novel protein introduced into the GM crops need to be evaluated for cross affinity on living organisms. Many researchers are currently focusing on the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on soil and microbial diversity by field experiments. In spite of this, in silico approach might be helpful to elucidate the impact of cry genes. The crystal a protein which was produced by Bt at the time of sporulation has been used as a biological pesticide to target the insectivorous pests like Cry1Ac for Helicoverpa armigera and Cry2Ab for Spodoptera sp. and Heliothis sp. Here, we present the comprehensive in silico analysis of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins with available in silico tools, databases and docking servers. Molecular docking of Cry1Ac with procarboxypeptidase from Helicoverpa armigera and Cry1Ac with Leucine aminopeptidase from Bos taurus has showed the 125(th) amino acid position to be the preference site of Cry1Ac protein. The structures were compared with each other and it showed 5% of similarity. The cross affinity of this toxin that have confirmed the earlier reports of ill effects of Bt cotton consumed by cattle.

  4. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle

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    Artur J.M. Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS of Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving (AFC. We found that MAS resulted in increased genetic gain as compared to selection without AFC quantitative trait loci (AFC-QTL information. With single-stage selection the genetic response (GR increased as follows: GR = 0.68% when the AFC-QTL explained 0.02 of the AFC additive genetic variance (sigma2A; GR = 1.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.05 sigma2A; GR = 3.7% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.1 sigma2A; and GR = 55.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.95 sigma2A. At the same total selected proportion, two-stage selection resulted in less genetic gain than single stage MAS at two-years of age. A single stage selection responses of > 95% occurred with pre-selected proportions of 0.4 (0.1 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, 0.2 (0.3 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL and 0.1 (0.5 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, indicating that the combined use of MAS and pre-selection can substantially reduce the cost of keeping recipient heifers in MOET breeding schemes. When the number of recipients was kept constant, the benefit of increasing embryo production was greater for the QTL explaining a higher proportion of the additive genetic variance. However this advantage had a diminishing return especially for QTL explaining a small proportion of the additive genetic variance. Thus, marker assisted selection of embryos can be used to achieve increased genetic gain or a similar genetic response at reduced expense by decreasing the number of recipient cows and number of offspring raised to two-years of age.

  5. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

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    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  6. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

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    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  7. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

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    Norberto Villa-Duque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander. El estudio consistió en someter pajillas comerciales de 0.5 ml de toros Holstein y Pardo Suizo a la técnica convencional y a tres modificaciones de esta (injurias mediante un diseño randomizado. Ninguna de las fincas evaluadas aplicó correctamente la práctica de la inseminación artificial; errores notorios fueron: exceso de tiempo durante la extracción de la pajilla, descongelación en la región axilar y no combinación correcta entre tiempo y temperatura. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencia significativa (P<0.05 por efecto de la raza para la integridad y resistencia de las membranas espermáticas, para la integridad de las membranas por efecto de los tratamientos cuando la pajilla se descongelo a temperatura corporal en la región axilar y para la integridad de la membrana acrosomal cuando la extracción de la pajilla se realizó en forma incorrecta. El semen de la raza Holstein evidencia una ligera tendencia a ser más resistente que el de la raza Pardo Suizo.

  8. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

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    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Description of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from cattle (Bos taurus coreanae), emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae and creation of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov.

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    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Kim, Ga-Na; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeon, Che Ok; Jeong, Joseph; Lee, Seon Ho; Lim, Ji-Hun; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Chang Ki; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Three rapidly growing mycobacterial strains, QIA-37 T , QIA-40 and QIA-41, were isolated from the lymph nodes of three separate Korean native cattle, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae). These strains were previously shown to be phylogenetically distinct but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 35752 T by taxonomic approaches targeting three genes (16S rRNA, hsp6 and rpoB) and were further characterized using a polyphasic approach in this study. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all three strains showed 99.7 % sequence similarity with that of the M. chelonae type strain. A multilocus sequence typing analysis targeting 10 housekeeping genes, including hsp65 and rpoB, revealed a phylogenetic cluster of these strains with M. chelonae. DNA-DNA hybridization values of 78.2 % between QIA-37 T and M. chelonae indicated that it belongs to M. chelonae but is a novel subspecies distinct from M. chelonae. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences revealed a 95.44±0.06 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) value with M. chelonae, slightly higher than the 95.0 % ANI criterion for determining a novel species. In addition, distinct phenotypic characteristics such as positive growth at 37 °C, at which temperature M. chelonae does not grow, further support the taxonomic status of these strains as representatives of a novel subspecies of M. chelonae. Therefore, we propose an emended description of Mycobacterium chelonae, and descriptions of M. chelonae subsp. chelonae subsp. nov. and M. chelonae subsp. bovis subsp. nov. are presented; strains ATCC 35752 T (=CCUG 47445 T =CIP 104535 T =DSM 43804 T =JCM 6388 T =NCTC 946 T ) and QIA-37 T (=KCTC 39630 T =JCM 30986 T ) are the type strains of the two novel subspecies.

  10. Genome-wide identification, classification, and functional analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in the cattle, Bos Taurus.

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    Li, Fengmei; Liu, Wuyi

    2017-06-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) form a huge superfamily and play crucial roles in many essential developmental, genetic, and physiological-biochemical processes of eukaryotes. In total, 109 putative bHLH TFs were identified and categorized successfully in the genomic databases of cattle, Bos Taurus, after removing redundant sequences and merging genetic isoforms. Through phylogenetic analyses, 105 proteins among these bHLH TFs were classified into 44 families with 46, 25, 14, 3, 13, and 4 members in the high-order groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. The remaining 4 bHLH proteins were sorted out as 'orphans.' Next, these 109 putative bHLH proteins identified were further characterized as significantly enriched in 524 significant Gene Ontology (GO) annotations (corrected P value ≤ 0.05) and 21 significantly enriched pathways (corrected P value ≤ 0.05) that had been mapped by the web server KOBAS 2.0. Furthermore, 95 bHLH proteins were further screened and analyzed together with two uncharacterized proteins in the STRING online database to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of cattle bHLH TFs. Ultimately, 89 bHLH proteins were fully mapped in a network with 67 biological process, 13 molecular functions, 5 KEGG pathways, 12 PFAM protein domains, and 25 INTERPRO classified protein domains and features. These results provide much useful information and a good reference for further functional investigations and updated researches on cattle bHLH TFs.

  11. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus populations

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    Li Meng-Hua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1 and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively were significantly (P FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion Hitchhiking due to tight linkage with alleles at candidate genes, e.g. the POLL gene, is a possible explanation for this pattern. The potential impact of selective breeding by man on cattle populations is discussed in the context of selection effects. Our results also suggest that a practical approach to detect loci under selection is to simultaneously apply multiple neutrality tests based on different assumptions and estimations.

  12. Withers height of pig - Sus scrofa domestica L. 1758, domestic cow - Bos taurus L. 1758 and sheep - Ovis aries L. 1758 at the “Gornja šuma” archaeological site (Novi Sad

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    Radmanović Darko P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2012, osteological material was collected at the “Gornja Šuma” site (site no. 47, located in the territory of Novi Sad, and it was dated to the early 9th century. The withers heights of pig - Sus scrofa domestica, domestic cow - Bos taurus and sheep - Ovis aries, as the three most dominant species at this archaeological site, were analysed based on the length of bones and according to various authors [Boessneck 1956; Zalkin 1960; Matolcsi 1970; Teichert 1975]. It was determined that in these three species the withers heights mostly corresponded to the data from the Middle Ages.

  13. Efeito estacional sobre características ovarianas e produção de oócitos em vacas Bos indicus no Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Carlos Eurico Fernandes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito de duas distintas estações do ano (seca e chuvosa sobre algumas características ovarianas em vacas Bos indicus abatidas na região de Campo Grande, MS. Ovários (n = 10 foram obtidos nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1998 e de janeiro a outubro de 1999. No laboratório, os ovários foram avaliados quanto ao peso (g, volume (Vol. (cm³ = 3/4 p x comprimento/2 x largura/2 x espessura/2, número de corpos lúteos, número de folículos com >; 9 mm de diâmetro, número total de folículos com menos de 9 mm, número de oócitos, oócitos viáveis e oócitos degenerados. O efeito principal da estação (seca ou chuvosa foi estimado pela análise de variância (teste t, para modelos completamente ao acaso. Utilizou-se a análise da correlação simples entre as variáveis estudadas, ajustadas para o efeito da estação. Os resultados revelaram que o peso dos ovários (5,1 x 6,5 g, folículos totais (10,1 x 13,7, corpos lúteos (0,32 x 0,47, p < 0,05 e a percentagem de oócitos viáveis (19,6% x 35,6% sobre o total de oócitos variaram significativamente (p < 0,01 entre as estações seca e chuvosa, respectivamente. A análise da correlação (r mostrou coeficientes significativos (p < 0,01 entre peso e volume (r = 0,78, peso e total de folículos (r = 0,32, peso e corpos lúteos (r = 0,41, total de folículos e oócitos viáveis (r = 57, entre outros. Concluiu-se que importantes modificações na função ovariana, com base na produção e qualidade dos oócitos, podem ser estimadas entre a estação seca e chuvosa. Com base nestas características, a estação chuvosa torna-se mais favorável para a implantação de programas reprodutivos em rebanhos comerciais.

  14. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on feedlot performance of Bos taurus feeder cattle originated from a rangeland-based cow-calf system.

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    Francisco, C L; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Mills, R R; Bohnert, D W

    2012-12-01

    = 0.03) and tended to have decreased DMI (P = 0.07) compared with controls. Acclimated steers had greater plasma haptoglobin on d 4 (P = 0.04) and greater ceruloplasmin from d 0 to 10 (P ≤ 0.04) and tended to have greater cortisol on d 1 (P = 0.08) than controls. In conclusion, temperament affects productivity of beef operations based on Bos taurus feeder cattle reared in extensive rangeland systems until weaning whereas acclimation to handling ameliorated cattle temperament but did not benefit feedlot receiving performance.

  15. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

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    Reinsch Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The somatic cell score (SCS is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18. In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833 in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A. Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9 to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A with SCS. For this

  16. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus, INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893 DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

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    Maria Aparecida Schenki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Babesia bigemina, parasitemia, bioquímica sérica.

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

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    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  18. GENERAL ASPECTS OF BODY MEASURES, WEIGHT AND SCORE CONDITION FEMALE NELORE BREED (Bos taurus indicus ON THE PERIOD OF 12 MONTHS ESTUDIO DE MEDIDAS CORPORALES, PESO VIVO Y CONDICIÓN CORPORAL DE BOVINOS HEMBRAS DE LA RAZA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus POR 12 MESES ESTUDO DE MEDIDAS CORPORAIS, PESO VIVO E CONDIÇÃO CORPORAL DE FÊMEAS DA RAÇA NELORE (Bos taurus indicus AO LONGO DE 12 MESES

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    Arcádio de Los Reys Borjas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and eighty cattle were used to verify alterations and correlations among corporal measures in Nelore zebu herd with cows and heifers. Body weight and length, corporal condition, heart girth, withers height and hip measures were evaluated. Eight collections were accomplished along the months of October of 2002 and October of 2003. In heifers there was increase of the averages of corporal measures with significant difference (p <0,05 among collections only the heart girth was different (p <0,05 in cows. The relationship between the body weight and body condition with the time were quadratic parallel curves (p <0,001. There were correlations among lineal measures body with hip measures (p<0,001 except for heart girth with hip length. The correlations of body weight and body condition among body measures were significant (p<0,001 except body condition with hip length in cows. It could be concluded that there was a growing variation of the body measures in heifers in the experimental period. The body weight, the body condition and heart girth were related with different periods of the year that the evaluation was accomplished. In cows the variations along the year were of 14,79%, 31,53% and 6,74%, respectively. The isquiun – iliun external measures, as height and width were correlated with size measures and weight. The body weight and body condition in heifers behave in way similar to cows. Further researches in relationship among body measures, body weight and body condition with productive and reproductive aspect are necessary. Con el objetivo de verificar alteraciones y correlaciones entre medidas corporales en un rebaño bovino de vaquillonas y vacas de la raza Nelore. Evaluaron-se 487 hembras en peso vivo, condición corporal, perímetro toráxico, largura corporal, altura de la cruz y medidas da anca. Fueron realizadas ocho coletas a lo largo de los meses de octubre de 2002 y octubre de 2003. En las vaquillonas hubo un aumento de las medidas corporales (p<0,05 entre colectas. Para las vacas el perímetro toráxico presentó diferencia significativa (p<0,05. La relación entre peso vivo condición corporal con el tiempo mostró ecuación cuadrática y fueron parecidas y paralelas para a condición corporal. En el peso vivo, la parte cóncava de la curva para las vacas fue mas abierta comparada a las de vaquillonas. Los coeficientes de correlación entre medidas corporales lineares con las medidas de la anca fueron elevadas (p<0,001, excepto para el perímetro toráxico con largura de la anca. Las correlaciones del peso vivo y condición corporal con medidas corporales fueron significativas (p<0,001, excepto para la condición corporal con la largura de la anca en las categorías; condición corporal versus altura de la anca y peso vivo con largura de la anca para las vacas. Como conclusiones de este trabajo: hubo una variación creciente de las medidas corporales en las vaquillonas en el período de las colecta. El peso vivo, la condición corporal y perímetro toráxico estuvieron relacionados con diferentes períodos del ano que fue realizada el experimento. En vacas las variações a lo largo de año fueron de 14,79%, 31,53% e 6,74%, respectivamente. Las medidas externas ísquio-iliacas, como altura e largura, estuvieron correlacionadas con medidas de tamaño y peso. Vaquillonas en fase de crecimiento tuvieron un comportamiento de forma análoga a las vacas con respecto al peso vivo y condición corporal. Mas investigaciones serian necesarias de las relaciones de las medidas corporales, peso vivo y condición corporal con los aspectos productivos e reproductivos. RESUMO – Objetivou-se verificar alterações e correlações entre medidas corporais em rebanho bovino de novilhas e vacas da raça Nelore. Avaliaram-se 487 fêmeas, quanto ao peso vivo, condição corporal, perímetro torácico, comprimento corporal, altura de cernelha e medidas da garupa. Foram realizadas oito coletas ao longo dos meses de outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Nas novilhas houve aumento das médias de medidas corporais com diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre coletas. Para vacas o perímetro torácico apresentou diferença significativa (p<0,05. Na análise quadrática do peso vivo e condição corporal, as curvas se assemelharam, de maneira paralela para a condição corporal. Quanto ao peso vivo, a parte côncava da curva para vacas foi mais aberta comparada às novilhas. Coeficientes de correlação entre medidas lineares com medidas de garupa apresentaram significância (p<0,001, exceto para perímetro torácico com comprimento de garupa. Nas correlações do peso vivo e condição corporal com medidas corporais foram significativas (p<0,001, exceto para condição corporal versus comprimento de garupa nas categorias; condição corporal versus altura de garupa e peso vivo versus comprimento de garupa para vacas. Pode-se concluir que houve uma variação crescente das medidas corporais nas novilhas no período de coleta. O peso vivo, a condição corporal e perímetro torácico estiveram relacionados com diferentes períodos do ano que foi realizada a avaliação. Em vacas as variações ao longo do ano foram de 14,79%, 31,53% e 6,74%, respectivamente. As medidas externas ísquio-iliacas, como altura e largura, estão correlacionadas com medidas de tamanho e peso. Fêmeas em fase de crescimento comportam-se de maneira análoga às fêmeas adultas quanto ao peso vivo e condição corporal. Pesquisas da relação das medidas corporais, peso vivo e condição corporal com o aspecto produtivo e reprodutivo são necessários.

  19. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

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    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  20. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

    2014-09-01

    Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research.

  1. BREEDING SOUNDNESS EVALUATION OF TWO AND THREE YEAR OLD NELORE (BOS TAURUS INDICUS BULLS, RAISED UNDER PASTURE CONDITION CLASSIFICAÇÃO ANDROLÓGICA POR PONTOS (CAP DE TOUROS NELORE (Bos taurus indicus DE DOIS E TRÊS ANOS DE IDADE, CRIADOS SOB PASTEJO

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    Juliano Cesar Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Data from 583 Nelore bulls, aging from two and three years old, raised under pasture condition, were used to study andrologic traits (physical aspects: motility and vigor; and morphologic: major and total defects of the semen and testicular measurements (scrotal circumference - SC and testicular volume - TVOL to establish a profile of andrologic classification for fertility (BSE. The animals were divided in two groups: young bulls (N = 345, with ages from 18 to 30 months (2 years old, and adult (N = 238, with ages from 31 to 42 months (3 years old. Differences were observed (p < 0.05 for body weight, SC, physical and morphologic characteristics of the semen and TVOL in the two year olds with BSE above and below 60 points. In the three years old bulls differences were observed (p < 0.05 for SC and physical and morphologic characteristics of the semen in bulls with BSE above and below 60 points. The results suggested that body weight and SC affected the reproductive condition of young Nelore bulls. SC and seminal traits were the determining factors in the selection for a better reproductive condition, showing the importance of semen analysis when evaluating bulls raised under pasture conditions.

    KEY WORDS: Andrology, breeding soundness evaluation, scrotal circumference, semen, zebu. 

    Avaliaram-se 583 touros Nelore, de dois e três anos de idade, criados extensivamente, para estudar as características andrológicas (aspectos físicos: motilidade e vigor espermáticos; e morfológicos: defeitos espermáticos maiores e totais e de biometria testicular (circunferência escrotal – CE – e volume testicular – VOLT, permitindo classificá-los andrologicamente por pontos e estabelecer parâmetros andrológicos. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: touros jovens (N = 345, com idades de 18 a 30 meses (2 anos, e adultos (N = 238, com idades de 31 a 42 meses (3 anos. Observaram-se diferenças (p < 0,05 de peso, CE, características físicas e morfológicas do sêmen e VOLT nos animais de dois anos de idade com CAP acima e abaixo de 60 pontos. Nos animais de três anos de idade observaram-se diferenças (p < 0,05 de CE e características físicas e morfológicas do sêmen nos touros com CAP acima e abaixo de 60 pontos. Esses dados sugerem que peso e CE influenciam a condição reprodutiva de touros jovens da raça Nelore e que os fatores determinantes na seleção para uma melhor condição reprodutiva foram as CE, juntamente com as características seminais, indicando a importância da análise de sêmen na avaliação de touros criados a pasto. 

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Andrologia, classificação andrológica por pontos, circunferência escrotal, sêmen, zebu.

  2. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Hélder Silva e Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica clássica. Os folículos primordiais expostos à concentração de 40% apresentaram redução do diâmetro folicular e ovocitário quando comparados ao grupo controle (sem exposição, 10% e 20% (P0,05. Esses resultados sugerem que folículos primários são mais resistentes aos efeitos do etileno glicol quando comparados aos primordiais.The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different concentrations of ethylene glycol on the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of the preantral ovarian follicles. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%. Tissue analysis was done using classical histology techniques. The primordial follicles expose at a concentration of 40% showed reduction of the follicular diameter and oocyte when compared to the control (non exposing, 10 and 20% groups (P0.05. These results suggest that primary follicles are more resistant to the effect of ethylene glycol when compared to primordial ones.

  3. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  4. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  5. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

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    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a byproduct of the dairy industry.

  6. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea kinetics between yaks (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J W; Zhong, C L; Liu, H; Degen, A A; Titgemeyer, E C; Ding, L M; Shang, Z H; Guo, X S; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Yang, G; Long, R J

    2017-10-01

    Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks () graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle () require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle. Four isocaloric forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentrations (10.3, 19.5, 28.5, and 37.6 g N/kg DM) were formulated, and by design, DMI were similar between species and across diets. Urea kinetics were determined with continuous intravenous infusion of NN urea for 104 h, and total urine and feces were concomitantly collected. Urea production, urea recycling to the gut, and ruminal microbial protein synthesis all linearly increased ( Urea production was greater in yaks than in cattle at the 3 lowest N diets but greater in cattle than in yaks at the highest N diet (species × diet, Urea N recycled to the gut ( urea N captured by ruminal bacteria ( urea recycling was through saliva, with no difference between species ( = 0.61). Glomerular filtration rate was lower ( = 0.05) in yaks than in cattle. The higher urea recycling and greater capture of recycled urea by ruminal microbes in yaks than in cattle suggest that yaks use mechanisms to utilize dietary N more efficiently than cattle, which may partially explain the better survival of yaks than cattle when fed low-N diets.

  8. crossbreeding wit}i africander dam as basis . 3. post-weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n stelsel van rntensiewe vetmesting, het laasgenoemde drie 8os taurus vaarras nageslaggroepe opvallend beter presteer as eersgenoemde twee Bos indicus vaarras nageslaggroepe. Onder ekstensiewe veldtoestande het alle krusgeteelde groepe egter die Afrikanerkontroles geklop. Die nageslag van beide Bos indicus ...

  9. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  10. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.

  11. Biochemical polymorphism in Egyptian Baladi cattle and their relationship with other breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graml, R; Ohmayer, G; Pirchner, F; Erhard, L; Buchberger, J; Mostageer, A

    1986-01-01

    Gene frequencies were estimated in a sample of Baladi cattle for milk proteins, blood proteins and blood groups. Gene frequency estimates of Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Sanga breeds were assembled from the literature. The gene frequencies were utilized for estimating the genetic distance between the breeds and breed groups. The Egyptian Baladi cattle appeared to be closer to Bos taurus breeds than to the Sanga. They are far removed from Zebus.

  12. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

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    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle.

  13. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle. PMID:23078429

  14. Morfometría ovárica de hembras Cebú (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la morfometría ovárica está directamente relacionado con sus aplicaciones para analizar e interpretar los hallazgos, en los exámenes ginecológicos de las vacas. Para este trabajo se recolectaron 114 pares de ovarios en frigorífico, clasificados a partir del ancho, grueso, largo, volumen, diámetro del folículo, diámetro y área del cuerpo lúteo. Fue observada una diferencia significativa en el ancho (1,95cm y 1,83cm y el volumen (7,26 mL y 6,23 mL de los ovarios izquierdos y derechos, respectivamente. En cuanto al tamaño y el volumen de los folículos, el diámetro y el área de los cuerpos lúteos, no hubo diferencia relevante. En los lados hubo correlación positiva (p<0,01 entre el volumen del ovario izquierdo y el área del cuerpo lúteo. La presencia de folículos con diámetro igual o superior a 9mm, el cuerpo lúteo de tipo macizo y protruso presente en 43,39% de los 53 ovarios, predominó con relación al tipo cóncavo. De los 84 ovarios con cuerpos lúteos, el 26,20% eran de tipo extrapolado. Se concluye, que la presencia de cuerpo lúteo incluso, en vacas cebú, puede resultar en fallas diagnósticas durante el examen de palpación rectal para estimar la actividad ovárica.

  15. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Jamwal, Manu; Singh, Surender V.; Kumar, Saravanan; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; Hariprasad, Gururao; Jena, Manoj Kumar; Anand, Vijay R.; Kumar, Sudarshan Suresh; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Dang, Ajaykumar; Mukesh, Manishi; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Reddy, Vanga Siva Belum; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134

  16. Pharmacodynamics of piroxicam from novel solid lipid microparticles formulated with homolipids from Bos indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Petra O; Attama, Anthony A; Kenechukwu, Franklin C; Ibezim, Emmanuel C; Adikwu, Michael U

    2013-12-01

    The dissolution of piroxicam is a limiting step in its bioavailability on account of its hydrophobicity. The objective of this research was to formulate novel solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on homolipids (admixtures of tallow fat (TF) and Softisan(®) 142 (SFT) templated with Phospholipon(®) 90G (P90G), a heterolipid for the delivery of piroxicam. Lipid matrices consisting of TF and SFT in ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were templated with the heterolipid, P90G and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SLMs produced by hot homogenization technique using the matrices were characterized in terms of thermal properties, particle size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, stability studies and in vitro diffusion studies. In vivo pharmacodynamic study was performed using egg albumin- induced pedal edema in rats. The results showed that addition of Softisan(®) 142 improved the drug holding capacity of the micellar solution of 2:1 mixture of TF and SFT. The in vitro diffusion of piroxicam from this SLM showed maximum release of 87.53 % and followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetic mechanism. At dose equivalence of 10 mg, piroxicamloaded SLMs showed superior in vivo anti-inflammatory properties at 3 h than Feldene(®) and the pure drug sample. This study has shown that surface-modified SLMs could confer favourable properties with respect to drug release and antiinflammatory activity on SLMs for the delivery of piroxicam, thus encouraging further development of the formulations.

  17. Effect of high energy intake on carcass composition and hypothalamic gene expression in Bos indicus heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Diniz-Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high or low energy intake on carcass composition and expression of hypothalamic genes related to the onset of puberty. Twenty-four prepubertal Nellore heifers, 18-20- months-old, with 275.3±18.0 kg body weight (BW, and 4.9±0.2 (1-9 scale body condition score (BCS were randomly assigned to two treatments: high-energy diet (HE and low-energy diet (LE. Heifers were housed in two collective pens and fed diets formulated to promote average daily gain of 0.4 (LE or 1.2 kg (HE BW/day. Eight heifers from each treatment were slaughtered after the first corpus luteum detection - considered as age of puberty. The 9-10-11th rib section was taken and prepared for carcass composition analyses. Samples from hypothalamus were collected, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C. Specific primers for targets (NPY, NPY1R, NPY4R, SOCS3, OXT, ARRB1, and IGFPB2 and control (RPL19 and RN18S1 genes were designed for real-time PCR and then the relative quantification of target gene expression was performed. High-energy diets increased body condition score, cold carcass weight, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area and decreased age at slaughter. High-energy diets decreased the expression of NPY1R and ARRB1 at 4.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the hastening of puberty with high energy intake is related with greater body fatness and lesser hypothalamic expression of NPY1 receptor and of β-arrestin1, suggesting a less sensitive hypothalamus to the negative effects of NPY signaling.

  18. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  19. Polimorfisme Genetik DNA Mikrosatellite GEN BoLA Lokus DRB3 Pada Sapi Bali (Bos Indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Puja , I Ketut; Wandia, I Nengah; Suastika, Putu; Sulabda, I Nyoman

    2011-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan informasi dasar mengenai distribusi frekuensi lokus DRB3 gen BoLa (bovine lymphocyte antigen) pada sapi Bali. Untuk isolasi DNA digunakan sampel darah sapi Bali yang diambil dari populasi sapi Bali yang berasal dari Bali dan sapi Bali yang berasal dari Nusa Penida. Jumlah sampel untuk sapi Bali yang berasal dari Bali adalah 22 ekor dan sapi yang berasal dari Nusa Penida 21 ekor. Jumlah allel lokus DRB3 pada sapi...

  20. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  1. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  3. Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Rungwe district in Tanzania, to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation on reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle. Cattle used were crossbreds, mainly between Friesian (Bos taurus) and indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (Bos indicus). All animals were managed under ...

  4. The effect of dietary rations on the gut morphology of Zebu Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in the Bos taurus cattle have shown the gut morphology to be affected by diet, but there is a paucity of such information in the Bos indicus cattle. A study was conducted to evaluate the morphology of digestive tract of the Tanzanian Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle under different dietary treatments. A total of 54 TSHZ ...

  5. 9 CFR 94.0 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than poultry or game birds). Bovine. Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison. Bovine spongiform... loaded with meat product, or the areas at various points along the belt in an oven chamber, slowest to.... Game birds. Migratory birds, including certain ducks, geese, pigeons, and doves (“migratory” refers to...

  6. Factors influencing recalving rate in lactating beef cows in the sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    goups the majority was also late calving. Recalving rate was high in all other breeding groups and was not influenced by date of calving. In general, Bos taurus type cows calve significantly earlier in the calving season than Bos indicus types (Bonsma &. Skinner, 1969; Holroyd et al., 1979; Gotti el a/., 1985). This is to some ...

  7. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  8. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  9. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affect their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CAT's) are considered as indicators of stress, ...

  10. Uso de extratos vegetais, vitaminas e sua associação sobre o desempenho, temperamento e qualidade de carne de bovinos nelore confinados com dieta de alto grão

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maurícia Brandão da [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-six Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) young bulls of 360 (±19,8) kg initial weight and 20 month of age were used to evaluate the effect of plant extract, vitamins A, D3 supplementation and their associations on the temperament, feedlot performance (finishing phase) and meat quality of Bos indicus cattle. Animals were located in individual pens during 105 days (21 and 84 days, for adaptation and trial period, respectively). Animals were individually weighed, and blocked by initial body weight...

  11. Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Bull; abbrev. Tau, gen. Tauri; area 797 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Aries and Orion, and culminates at midnight in late November. It is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to when the Sun was in that part of the sky at the vernal (spring) equinox, between about 4000 and 1800 BC. Later, in Greek mythology, it was identified with the form assumed by...

  12. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    OpenAIRE

    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  13. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk (Capra hircus) using calve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... Goat and cow milk protein are 24 and 27 g×L-1 respectively. These values .... Formagramm obtained by kid rennet on cow milk (raw picture was .... structure, and functionality of low-fat Iranian white cheese made with different ...

  14. Abundant mtDNA diversity and ancestral admixture in Colombian criollo cattle (Bos taurus).

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Bermudez, Nelson; Olivera-Angel, Martha; Estrada, Luzardo; Ossa, Jorge; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Various cattle populations in the Americas (known as criollo breeds) have an origin in some of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). These cattle constitute a potentially important genetic reserve as they are well adapted to local environments and show considerable variation in phenotype. To examine the genetic ancestry and diversity of Colombian criollo we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for 110 ...

  15. Abundant mtDNA diversity and ancestral admixture in Colombian criollo cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Bermudez, Nelson; Olivera-Angel, Martha; Estrada, Luzardo; Ossa, Jorge; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2003-11-01

    Various cattle populations in the Americas (known as criollo breeds) have an origin in some of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). These cattle constitute a potentially important genetic reserve as they are well adapted to local environments and show considerable variation in phenotype. To examine the genetic ancestry and diversity of Colombian criollo we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for 110 individuals from seven breeds. Old World haplogroup T3 is the most commonly observed CR lineage in criollo (0.65), in agreement with a mostly European ancestry for these cattle. However, criollo also shows considerable frequencies of haplogroups T2 (0.9) and T1 (0.26), with T1 lineages in criollo being more diverse than those reported for West Africa. The distribution and diversity of Old World lineages suggest some North African ancestry for criollo, probably as a result of the Arab occupation of Iberia prior to the European migration to the New World. The mtDNA diversity of criollo is higher than that reported for European and African cattle and is consistent with a differentiated ancestry for some criollo breeds.

  16. Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James M.; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, R.F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can

  17. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  18. Global mapping of miRNA-target interactions in cattle (Bos taurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Moore, Michael J; Luna, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    With roles in development, cell proliferation and disease, micro-RNA (miRNA) biology is of great importance and a potential therapeutic target. Here we used cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and ligation of miRNA-target chimeras on the Argonaute (AGO) protein to globally map miRNA interact...

  19. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  20. Natural autoantibodies in Bos taurus calves during the first twelve weeks of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have a role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and prevention of infections, and have been found in mammalian species tested so far. Albeit NAAb levels rise with age, little is known about the origin, function, regulation and initiation of NAAb in young

  1. A fine structure genetic analysis evaluating ecoregional adaptability of a Bos taurus breed (Hereford)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Herefor...

  2. Independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in North Eastern Asian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannen, H; Kohno, M; Nagata, Y; Tsuji, S; Bradley, D G; Yeo, J S; Nyamsamba, D; Zagdsuren, Y; Yokohama, M; Nomura, K; Amano, T

    2004-08-01

    In order to clarify the origin and genetic diversity of cattle in North Eastern Asia, this study examined mitochondrial displacement loop sequence variation and frequencies of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Y chromosome haplotypes in Japanese, Mongolian, and Korean native cattle. In mitochondrial analyses, 20% of Mongolian cattle carried B. indicus mitochondrial haplotypes, but Japanese and Korean cattle carried only B. taurus haplotypes. In contrast, all samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotypes. This may be due to the import of zebu and other cattle during the Mongol Empire era with subsequent crossing with native taurine cattle. B. taurus mtDNA sequences fall into several geographically distributed haplogroups and one of these, termed here T4, is described in each of the test samples, but has not been observed in Near Eastern, European or African cattle. This may have been locally domesticated from an East Eurasian strain of Bos primigenius.

  3. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  4. SPECTROSCOPY OF PUTATIVE BROWN DWARFS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2 ± 0.5), and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  5. Detection and quantification of Duffy antigen on bovine red blood cell membranes using a polyclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa B.F. Antonangelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is one of the most important diseases affecting livestock agriculture worldwide. Animals from the subspecies Bos taurus indicus are more resistant to babesiosis than those from Bos taurus taurus. The genera Babesia and Plasmodium are Apicomplexa hemoparasites and share features such as invasion of red blood cells (RBC. The glycoprotein Duffy is the only human erythrocyte receptor for Pasmodium vivax and a mutation which abolishes expression of this glycoprotein on erythrocyte surfaces is responsible for making the majority of people originating from the indigenous populations of West Africa resistant to P. vivax. The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. ELISA tests showed that the antibody that was raised against Duffy antigens detected the presence of Duffy antigen in both subspecies and that the amount of this antigen on those erythrocyte membranes was similar. These results indicate that the greater resistance of B. taurus indicus to babesiosis cannot be explained by the absence or lower expression of Duffy antigen on RBC surfaces.

  6. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  7. Solid CO in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared vibrational feature of solid state CO at 4.67 μm wavelength is detected towards five sources in or behind the dark cloud complex in Taurus. A comparison with millimetre-wave data suggests that a significant fraction (up to 40 per cent) of the CO may be depleted on to grains. The adjacent CN feature at 4.62 μm observed in W33A by previous authors is absent from the present spectra, suggesting that the grain mantles in Taurus are unannealed. (author)

  8. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  9. Photometric peculiarities of the RY Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of photoelectric UBV-observations of RY Taurus carried out in 1965-80 at the Crimean Station of the State Sternberg Astronomical Institute. Two components of brightness variations are observed: fast (days) and slow (years). During fast variations the colour indices U-B and B-V change independently of brightness, however, in particular time inter-- vals the rather strong correlation with the star brightness is observed, positive or negative. During the slow variations only the reverse dependence is observed; the brightness increase is followed by the increase of colour indices (reddening of the star). The comparison of the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization variations has shown that the dependence of polarization degree on brightness is nonmonotonic. At minimum and maximum brightness the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization is maximum and reaches 5-6 %. At the general amplitude of RY TAURUS brightness variations in V rays from 10.sup(m)1 to 11.sup(m)7 the V=11.sup(m)0 value is singled out. First a certain ''avoidance'' of this brightness value by the star is observed. Second, the fracture in the course of polarization dependence on brightness occurs as well in the V=11sup(m) region

  10. Época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo de terneiros cruzas taurinos e zebuínos sobre o peso ao nascer, à desmama e eficiência individual de primíparas Hereford

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Gilson de; Pimentel,Marcelo Alves; Cardellino,Ricardo Alberto; Osório,José Carlos da Silveira

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo do terneiro sobre a eficiência individual das vacas à desmama (relação percentual entre o peso do terneiro à desmama e o peso da vaca), peso ao nascer e peso à desmama dos terneiros. Foram utilizadas 48 vacas da raça Hereford (Bos taurus), com idade de três anos, manejadas sobre campo natural, 16 inseminadas com um touro da raça Red Angus (Bos taurus) e 32 com Nelore (Bos indicus). Os fatores estudados fora...

  11. Estudo genômico do nível de infecção por Babesia bovis em bovinos da raça angus

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Clarissa Helena [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    A bovinocultura é um setor com importante destaque no agronegócio brasileiro. O carrapato Ripicephalus (Boophilus) microplus é responsável por perdas econômicas significativas aos pecuaristas e é vetor de hemoparasitoses como Anaplasma spp e Babesia spp. Sabe-se que os bovinos Bos taurus taurus são mais susceptíveis à infestação por carrapatos do que Bos taurus indicus. Acredita-se que o mesmo ocorra para a infecção por Babesia bovis. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados, em duas colheitas, 355 bo...

  12. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  13. Llllan, w. WAIBOCPH, Keith, T. BALLINGALI, Niall, n. MACHUGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cattle are a hi ghly divergent population possibly due tointrogression by Asian Bos indicus Oiumped) cattle and more recently European B. taurus ... highly divergent Asian, African and European allelic families. This describes signiñcant allelic ..... J. Tïssue Culture Methods Il: 101. 13. Bembridge, G.P. Parsons, K,R., ...

  14. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  15. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP: hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA. Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF, which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P0.05. The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required.

  16. Developmental block and programmed cell death in Bos indicus embryos: effects of protein supplementation source and developmental kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Merlo Garcia

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235 or Slow (n = 485 based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively. The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow. Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos.

  17. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r = 0.84. The role of these co-expressed genes in puberty and heifers luteal phase merits further research.

  18. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon for in vitro embryo production (IVEP. The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9% and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm. Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10 and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI: oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII: oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII: oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV: denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS and pregnancy status of cow on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%. Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%, 2.72±0.15 (24.82%, 2.24±0.15 (20.43% and 2.47±0.20 (22.54% respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05 compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP.

  19. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  20. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P  0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  1. Reducing toughness of beef from Bos indicus draught steers by injection of calcium chloride: Effect of concentration and time postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, S; Thirawong, P; Leangwunta, V; Kreuzer, M

    2004-09-01

    Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution in concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 M was injected at 10% (wt/wt) either 45 min or 24 h postmortem into longissimus dorsi muscles of eight draught steers discharged from work and >4 years of age. Shear force, after 7 days of aging, declined by CaCl(2) injection by up to 50% of control, depending on CaCl(2) concentration. Prerigor treatment was twice as efficient as postrigor injection. Collagen content and solubility were less clearly affected. Sensory tenderness scores were higher by 50% with all CaCl(2) concentrations, but only with prerigor treatment. A bitter taste was noted only with the highest concentration of CaCl(2), but overall acceptance did not increase with CaCl(2) concentration. CaCl(2) enhanced electrical conductivity, reduced redness and luminosity, and increased drip and thawing loss, but not boiling loss, of longissiumus dorsi. Results indicate a high potential of CaCl(2) treatment in extraordinarily tough meat.

  2. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  3. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  4. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  6. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  7. Interstellar extinction in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistas, E.; Straizys, V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 89 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of the Taurus dark clouds with corrdinates (1950) 4sup(h)16sup(m)-4sup(h)33sup(m), +16 0 -+20 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitude, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The distance of the dark nebula is found to be 140 pc and is in a good agreement with the distance determined for the dark nebula Khavtassi 286, 278. The average extinction Asub(v) in the investigated area is of the order of 1.4. (author)

  8. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  9. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  10. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  11. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  12. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  13. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India. 

  14. Questionnaire investigation to clarify the occurrence rate and characteristics of maternal rejection behavior in Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohari, Daisuke; Takakura, Azusa

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was 'Occurred from the first birth (65.6%)' and behavior manner was performing no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior (75%). Almost all the farmers assisted in each parturition (P cattle was approximately 6% and many of the rejective cows continuously performed no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our results suggest similar cognitive capacities of kin and non kin discrimination in AI and cloned animals. Kinship may be a common factor in determining the social grouping within a herd. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The cell agglutination agent, phytohemagglutinin-L, improves the efficiency of somatic nuclear transfer cloning in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuliang; Shen, Perng-Chih; Xu, Jie; Sung, Li-Ying; Jeong, B-Seon; Lucky Nedambale, Tshimangadzo; Riesen, John; Cindy Tian, X; Cheng, Winston T K; Lee, Shan-Nan; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2006-02-01

    One of the several factors that contribute to the low efficiency of mammalian somatic cloning is poor fusion between the small somatic donor cell and the large recipient oocyte. This study was designed to test phytohemagglutinin (PHA) agglutination activity on fusion rate, and subsequent developmental potential of cloned bovine embryos. The toxicity of PHA was established by examining its effects on the development of parthenogenetic bovine oocytes treated with different doses (Experiment 1), and for different durations (Experiment 2). The effective dose and duration of PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min incubation) was selected and used to compare membrane fusion efficiency and embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (Experiment 3). Cloning with somatic donor fibroblasts versus cumulus cells was also compared, both with and without PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min). Fusion rate of nuclear donor fibroblasts, after phytohemagglutinin treatment, was increased from 33 to 61% (P cell nuclear donors. The nuclear transfer (NT) efficiency per oocyte used was improved following PHA treatment, for both fibroblast (13% versus 22%) as well as cumulus cells (17% versus 34%; P cloned embryos, both with and without PHA treatment, were subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer testing, and resulted in similar survival (approximately 90% hatching) and pregnancy rates (17-25%). Three calves were born following vitrification and embryo transfer of these embryos; two from the PHA-treated group, and one from non-PHA control group. We concluded that PHA treatment significantly improved the fusion efficiency of somatic NT in cattle, and therefore, increased the development of cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, within a determined range of dose and duration, PHA had no detrimental effect on embryo survival post-vitrification, nor on pregnancy or calving rates following embryo transfer.

  17. Ectopic KIT copy number variation underlies impaired migration of primordial germ cells associated with gonadal hypoplasia in cattle (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Venhoranta

    Full Text Available Impaired migration of primordial germ cells during embryonic development causes hereditary gonadal hypoplasia in both sexes of Northern Finncattle and Swedish Mountain cattle. The affected gonads exhibit a lack of or, in rare cases, a reduced number of germ cells. Most affected animals present left-sided gonadal hypoplasia. However, right-sided and bilateral cases are also found. This type of gonadal hypoplasia prevails in animals with white coat colour. Previous studies indicated that gonadal hypoplasia is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion with incomplete penetrance. In order to identify genetic regions underlying gonadal hypoplasia, a genome-wide association study (GWAS and a copy number variation (CNV analysis were performed with 94 animals, including 21 affected animals, using bovine 777,962 SNP arrays. The GWAS and CNV results revealed two significantly associated regions on bovine chromosomes (BTA 29 and 6, respectively (P=2.19 x 10(-13 and P=5.65 x 10(-6. Subsequent cytogenetic and PCR analyses demonstrated that homozygosity of a ~500 kb chromosomal segment translocated from BTA6 to BTA29 (Cs29 allele is the underlying genetic mechanism responsible for gonadal hypoplasia. The duplicated segment includes the KIT gene that is known to regulate the migration of germ cells and precursors of melanocytes. This duplication is also one of the two translocations associated with colour sidedness in various cattle breeds.

  18. Genetic differentiation among geographically isolated populations of Criollo cattle and their divergence from other Bos taurus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, N D; Rios, J; Erosa, G; Remmenga, M D; Hawkins, D E

    2000-09-01

    The microsatellites HEL5, HEL9, INRA063, and BM2113 were used to analyze genetic similarities and differences of geographically isolated Criollo cattle herds in Mexico. Criollo cattle from five counties within the state of Chihuahua and one county from the state of Tamaulipas (n = 60) were sampled. The five counties in Chihuahua included Cerocahui (n = 14), Chinipas (n = 10), Guachochi (n = 15), Morelos (n = 30), and Temoris (n = 9). Samples of DNA were amplified by PCR and separated on a 7% polyacrylamide gel. Microsatellite size was established by comparison to M13mp18 DNA ladder and a documented set of four bovine controls. Allele frequencies and genotypic deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested using the GENEPOP program. Eleven alleles were generated at HEL5 for the populations sampled (149 to 169 bp). Allele frequencies were greatest for the 163-bp allele in Criollo cattle from Cerocahui, Chinipas, Moralos, and Tamaulipas (0.23 to 0.5). Cattle from Guachochi had an allele frequency of 0.38 for the 151-bp allele, and cattle from Temoris had an allele frequency of 0.25 for the 149- and 167-bp alleles, with no 163-bp allele. Amplification with HEL9 produced 12 alleles (145, 149 to 169 bp) and showed common high-frequency alleles at 149, 157, and 159 bp for animals from all regions. The Chinipas population showed a moderate allele frequency at 145 bp; no other regions contained this allele. For INRA063 there were five alleles with 182 and 184 bp in low frequency. For BM2113 there were 10 alleles in the Criollo cattle (125 to 143 bp), with an equal distribution of frequencies for all alleles. In two regions, Guachochi and Morelos, genotypic frequencies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cattle from the Temoris region were genetically most distant from Criollo cattle of the other five regions.

  19. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic......Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  20. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  1. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  2. The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Gavrilin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the structure of the lymphoid lobules of the parenchyma of the superficial somatic (Limphonodi subiliaci, L. cervicales superficiales, profund somatic (L. axillares proprii L. poplitei, somatovisceral (L. iliaci mediales, L. retropharyngei mediales and visceral (L. mediastinales caudales, L. ileocolici lymph nodes of newborn bull calves of domestic cattle. To visualize clearly the boundaries of the structural components of lymphoid lobules we used the author’s modification of the impregnation of total median frozen histological sections with silver nitrate. We have established a high level of tissue differentiation of the lymph nodes, a significant development of the lymphoid parenchyma, the division of the parenchyma into lymphoid lobules, the presence in the lobules of all the main structural components that are represented by two morphotypes. The first morphotype is ribbon-like perisinusoidal cords (interfollicular zone, paracortical and medullary cords. The second morphotype is rounded lymphoid formations (central zones of deep cortex units, lymphatic nodules. Lymphoid lobules are located along the marginal sinus in one row, they are better developed and differentiated in the visceral lymph nodes. In all the lymph nodes, the lymphoid lobules have a similar histoarchitectonic, and each structural component of the lymphoid lobules has a specific architectonic of the reticular meshwork and the density of the location of the fibroblastic reticulocytes. We determined that the structures of the first morphotype which provide the migration of lymphocytes, the detection of antigens and the accumulation of plasmocytes are more developed. We have established that the relative volume of structures of the first morphotype is 4.5–8.0 times larger than the volume of the structures of the second morphotype, which provide clonal proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, especially in deep somatic lymph nodes. Among the zones of the second morphotype, predominate T-dependent zones, the relative volume of which considerably exceeds the volume of B-dependent zones (lymphoid nodules: in the superficial somatic lymph nodes by 14–30 times, profound somatic by 12–14 times, somatovisceral by 6–7 times and visceral by 4.5–5.5 times. We determined that lymphatic nodules can form in different parts of compartments: in the interfollicular zone and paracortical cords of all lymph nodes and in the medullary cords of the visceral lymph nodes. The study shows that the parenchyma of the lymph nodes of newborn bull calves has a high degree of maturity, contains a full set of structural markers of immunocompetence, among which predominate the components that support lymphocyte migration, antigen detection and accumulation of plasma cells.

  3. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  4. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  5. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Červený, Č.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs

  6. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  7. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Červený, Č. [Vysoka Skola Veterinarni, Brno, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1985-06-15

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs.

  8. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  9. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  10. Ford Taurus Ethanol-Fueled Sedan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford Tauruses: one E85 (85% gasoline/15% ethanol) model (which was tested on both E85 and gasoline) and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  11. Characterization of pterin deaminase from Mucor indicus MTCC 3513

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandeeswaran, M.; Karthika, P.; Mahendran, R.; Palaniswamy, M.; Angayarkanni, J.

    2018-03-01

    Pterin deaminase is an amidohydrolase enzyme which hydrolyses pteridines to produce lumazine derivatives and ammonia. Even though the enzyme was shown as early as 1959 for its anticancer efficacy there was a long gap in the communique after that which was in 2013. In our study we have chosen Mucor indicus MTCC 3513 which was a promising strain for production of different industrial products.The pterin deaminase enzyme was harvested and extracellular from M. indicus. The extracellular sample was partially purified by using ethanol precipitation and ion exchange column (Hi-Trap QFF) in Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified pterin deaminase enzyme was apparently determined by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was further biochemically characterized. Molecular docking studies with the predicted sequence showed higher binding affinity towards folic acid interaction. The structure of this protein may open the windows for new drug targets for cancer therapy.

  12. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  13. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Vercammen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  14. Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  16. Star Formation in Taurus: Preliminary Results from 2MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A.; Jarrett, T.

    1993-01-01

    Data with the 2MASS prototype camera were obtained in a 2.3 sq. deg region in Taurus containing Heiles Cloud 2, a region known from IRAS observations to contain a number of very young solar type stars.

  17. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA ENTRE SUBPOBLACIONES RACIALES BOVINAS DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue cuantificar la diversidad genética entre 16 subpoblaciones raciales bovinas de Costa Rica, con base en 1412 muestras de ADN bovino de todo el país, evaluadas mediante 18 marcadores microsatélites. El número promedio de alelos (Na por locus dentro de raza fue de 10,3, que varían entre 8 (Holstein×Jersey y 13 (Criolla para doble propósito. El número promedio de alelos efectivo (Ne fue de 5,04, con cambios entre 4,18 (Jersey y 5,64 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad observada promedio fue de 0,77, variando entre 0,73 (Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad esperada (He promedio fue de 0,78, que oscilan entre 0,74 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El contenido de información polimórfica (PIC fue de 0,76, con variaciones entre 0,71 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,79 (Criollas para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El FIS promedio fue de 0,02, con oscilaciones entre -0,03 (Holstein×Jersey a 0,04 (Brahman, Criolla para carne y Cruces para leche. La desviación del equilibrio Hardy Weinberg no fue significativa (p>0,05 en la mayoría de los loci para las subpoblaciones raciales. El subgrupo con mayor número de loci en desequilibrio fue Jersey (8 loci, mientras que los subgrupos Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para leche y Holstein×Jersey presentaron solo 1 locus en desequilibrio. Los índices de fijación FIS (0,02, FIT (0,05 y FST (0,03 indicaron cierta tendencia hacia la homocigosidad. Los dendrogramas mostraron 3 agrupaciones raciales claramente diferenciadas que coinciden con las razas de origen Bos taurus, Bos indicus y sus respectivos cruces. Los resultados del análisis indicaron que el número de microsatélites empleados sí permitió establecer una discriminación clara a nivel de las frecuencias alélicas y en la distribución del tamaño de los alelos entre las

  18. THE DISK POPULATION OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  19. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  20. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A.; Biebel, O.; Mameghani, R.; Merkl, D.; Rauscher, F.; Schaile, D.; Ströhmer, R.

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  1. Polarimetric study of the interstellar medium in Taurus Dark Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical linear polarimetric survey was completed for more than 300 stars in an area of 6.5 0 x 10 0 toward the Taurus Dark Clouds Complex. It was found that the orientation of the magnetic field is roughly perpendicular to the elongation direction of the dust lanes, indicating cloud contraction along the magnetic field lines. The distance to the front edge of the dark clouds in Taurus is determined to be 126 pc. There is only insignificant amount of obscuring material between the cloud complex and the Sun. Besides the polarization data, the reddenings of about 250 stars were also obtained from the UBV photometry. The mean polarization to reddening ratio in the Taurus region is 4.6, which is similar to that of the general interstellar matter. The wavelengths of maximum polarization were determined for 30 stars in Taurus. They show an average value of lambda/sub max/ = 0.57 μm, which is only slightly higher than the mean value of the general interstellar medium, lambda/sub max/ = 0.55 μm. A few stars that show higher values of lambda/sub max/ are found near the small isolated regions of very high extinction. One such highly obscured small region where very complex long chain molecules have been discovered in the ratio spectra, is the Taurus Molecular Cloud 1

  2. Correlation analysis of the Taurus molecular cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Autocorrelation and power spectrum methods were applied to the analysis of the density and velocity structure of the Taurus Complex and Heiles Cloud 2 as traced out by 13 CO J = 1 → 0 molecular line observations obtained with the 14m antenna of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. Statistically significant correlations in the spacing of density fluctuations within the Taurus Complex and Heiles 2 were uncovered. The length scales of the observed correlations correspond in magnitude to the Jeans wavelengths characterizing gravitational instabilities with (i) interstellar atomic hydrogen gas for the case of the Taurus complex, and (ii) molecular hydrogen for Heiles 2. The observed correlations may be the signatures of past and current gravitational instabilities frozen into the structure of the molecular gas. The appendices provide a comprehensive description of the analytical and numerical methods developed for the correlation analysis of molecular clouds

  3. Study on the flare stars in the Taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the search of flare stars and their photometric, Hsub(α)-spectroscopic and statistical study in the Taurus are presented. By means of photographic observations carried out during 1980-1984, 92 new flare stars were discovered, 13 of which are known Orion Population variables, and 16 repeated flare-ups among 13 known flare stars. Spatial distribution of these stars was considered and the problem of their membership was discussed. Comparative analysis of the data of flare stars in the Taurus with that of other systems has been carried out. The Herzsprung-Russel and two-colour (U-B, B-V) diagrams for the Taurus flare stars are similar to the diagrams of stellar clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion etc.). The estimated total number of flare stars in this region is larger than 500

  4. A study of flare stars in the taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of a search for flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus together with the results of photometric, H /sub alpha/ -spectroscopic, and statistical investigations of them. Photographic observations during 1980-1984 revealed 92 new flare stars, 13 of which were found to be known Orion variables with 16 repeated flares of 13 previously known flare stars. Their apparent distribution is considered. The question of whether the flare stars belong to a dark cloud is discussed. A comparative analysis of the flare stars in the Taurus region and other aggregates is made. The Hertzsprung-Russell (V, B - V) and two-color (U - B, B - V) diagrams for the flare stars are similar to the corresponding diagrams constructed for star clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion, etc.). The total number of flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus is estimated at ≥ 500

  5. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  6. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Qu, Kai-Xing; Yan, Shou-Qing; Yang, Min-Min; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal. PMID:29048483

  7. Interstellar ice grains in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, M.F.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations made in November 1981 using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea of the 3 μm ice absorption feature in the spectra of several obscured stars in the Taurus interstellar clouds are reported. The feature correlated in strength with extinction at visual wavelengths (Asub(v)), and is present in stars with Asub(v) as low as 4-6 mag. Ice may be widespread in the Taurus clouds, vindicating ideas on grain composition and growth first reported nearly 50 yr ago. (author)

  8. T Tauri stars in Taurus - the IRAS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Stella; Clegg, Peter; Hughes, Joanne

    1988-01-01

    Statistical studies of star-formation have traditionally been beset with selection effects. We have developed a technique, using the completeness of the IRAS catalogue, which circumvents these effects. We have taken the properties of known T Tau stars within Taurus as a template to establish a purely IRAS-based definition of such sources. We then use this definition to extract, from the IRAS catalogue, all sources within a specific region of Taurus having those same IRAS properties. This wider class of source is examined and discussed. (author)

  9. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  10. Feeding efficiency of Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in different experimental substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Balasubramanian, T.; Iyer, H.K.; Kutty, M.K.

    Preying efficiency in the substrata of different concentrations of mud sand, silt and clay and also in mud from natural habitat was examined with respect to Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in order to understand the factors in their natural...

  11. Imunoidentification of Albumin and Osteopontin in Seminal Plasma of Taurine and Zebuine Bulls/ Imunoidentificação de Albumina e Osteopontina no Plasma Seminal de Reprodutores Taurinos e Zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa Mattos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in seminal plasma of seven Bos taurus taurus and seven Bos taurus indicus bulls with high semen freezability, from an artificialinsemination center. In a 8% polyacrylamide gels, three bands of 195, 66 and 55 kDa, present in 100% of the samples in both sub-species, were analyzed by their optical densities. In Bos taurus samples, the opticals densities of 55 kDa band, imunoidentified as osteopontin were superior (pAs proteínas do plasma seminal de 14 reprodutores (7 Bos taurus taurus e 7 Bos taurus indicus, foram analisadas por eletroforese bidimensional, em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%, corados por Comassie Blue. Três bandas protéicas, presentes em 100% das amostras de plasma seminal, foram quantificadas de acordo com a densidade óptica exibida: 195 kDa, pI 6,5-7,5 ; 66 kDa, pI 5,4 e 55 kDa, pI 4,5. As amostras de plasma seminal provenientes de taurinos apresentaram densidades ópticas significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 às dos zebuínos na banda de 55 kDa, que foi imunoidentificada como osteopontina. As demais proteínas analisadas não apresentaram variações significativas entre as subespécies. A banda protéica de 66 kDa, foi imunoidentificada como albumina. Nas amostras provenientes de taurinos, as densidades ópticas das três bandas protéicas quantificadas não evidenciaram variação significativa entre os reprodutores. Entretanto, nos zebuínos, as densidades ópticas da albumina apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os touros (p < 0,05.

  12. The temporal behaviour of Taurus X-1 (the Crab Nebula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, P.J.N.

    1975-01-01

    Copernicus data on Taurus X-1 and the Crab pulsar extending over a 2 1/2-yr period indicate that under normal conditions the source has a flux that is constant to within 2.5 per cent at the 90 per cent confidence level. The pulsed/total flux ratio also shows no significant changes during the same time. (author)

  13. Recent TAURUS results on Hα velocities in M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Atherton, P.D.; Oosterloo, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary Hα observations with the TAURUS imaging spectrometer confirm a pattern of systematic radial motions in a section of spiral arm in M83. The velocity gradients are not consistent with those predicted for the neutral gas. Non-circular motions have also been discovered in the central regions of the galaxy. (Auth.)

  14. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  15. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indicus x sanga and indicus x taurus direct heterosis effects on all weight traits were greater than either the taurus x sanga or taurus x taurus effects, whereas the indicus x sanga maternal heterosis effect was consistently less than the estimated taurus x sanga maternal heterosis effect. Keywords: Direct effects, heterosis, ...

  16. De prijsvorming van hout uit het Nederlandse bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.

    1984-01-01

    De prijsvorming van hout op stam en hout geveld uit het Nederlandse bos op het niveau van het bosbedrijf staat centraal in deze publikatie. Na een schets van een aantal facetten die invloed hebben op de prijsvorming wordt nader ingegaan op de prijsvorming zelf. Onderzocht wordt of er verschil in

  17. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M ☉ ).

  18. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis reports a large-scale survey of carbon monoxide ( 12 CO) emission (at λ = 2.6 mm) from dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus. CO spectra at 4395 points were obtained within an area of about 800 square degrees generally west of the galactic anti-center. The spatial resolution of the instrument was eight arcminutes and velocity resolution was 2.6 km s -1 /. CO emission is strongest wherever extinction by dust is greatest, spilling over the apparent outer boundaries of the dust clouds observed optically. Combining CO velocity for the nebulae with optically determined distances shows that the clouds in the survey area form several layers. The molecular cloud mass closest to the sun is the Taurus and Auriga complex about 150 +/- 50 pc). Nearer to the Per )B2 OB association (at 350 +/- 100 pc) than the Taurus clouds are the Per OB2 molecular cloud (350 +/- 100 pc) and the California Nebula = NGC15979 molecular clouds (at 400 +/- 150 pc). Cloud masses were determined from integrated CO emission intensity alone by assuming that γ-ray emission intensities can be used to relate H 2 column densities to CO emission intensities

  19. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  20. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, B.J.F.; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective

  1. Morphological dimorphism in the Y chromosome of "pé-duro" cattle in the Brazilian State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M.C. Britto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available "Pé-duro" (hard foot is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 "pé-duro" bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa herd in the Brazilian State of Piauí. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus in a cattle that has been considered closest to its European origin (B. t. taurus. The presence of both submetacentric and acrocentric Y chromosomes, typical of B. t. taurus and B. t. indicus, respectively, and the larger preputial sheath in bulls with an acrocentric Y chromosome indicated racial contamination of the "pé-duro" herd with Zebu cattle. Phenotypic parameters involving horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, indicative of apparent racial contamination, were not associated with acrocentric Y chromosome.Um plantel de touros "pé-duro", consistindo de 75 animais do núcleo da Embrapa envolvido com a preservação desse gado no Estado do Piauí, foi examinado quanto à morfologia do seu cromossomo Y, bem como em relação a elementos da genitália externa e outras características fenotípicas dos machos. O objetivo era investigar a contaminação racial por animais zebuínos (Bos taurus indicus num gado bovino que tem sido considerado mais próximo de sua origem européia (Bos taurus taurus. Tanto a forma submetacêntrica quanto a forma acrocêntrica do cromossomo Y, típicas das sub-espécies B. t. taurus e B. t. indicus, respectivamente, bem como maior bainha prepucial nos espécimes portadores do cromossomo Y acrocêntrico, indicativa de contaminação racial por gado zebuíno, foram detectadas no rebanho "pé-duro" mantido no núcleo da Embrapa. Outras características fenotípicas analisadas que podem informar sobre a contaminação racial aparente n

  2. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-07-12

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective review of the literature revealed 13 cases. Eight (76.9%) patients had disseminated infections, and the overall mortality rate was 30.7%. A pulmonary infection caused by M. indicus genotype I in a liver transplant recipient was disseminated to include the skin and was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgery. M. indicus can infect a wide variety of patients with no real preference for the site of infection. We concluded that M. indicus has emerged as a significant cause of invasive mycosis in severely immunocompromised patients worldwide. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could enhance survival in these immunocompromised patient populations.

  4. Neospora caninum abortion in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M; Osmann, C; Wohlsein, P; Schares, G

    2017-05-30

    A captive 17-year old female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. The fetus showed an early state of mummification. Histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. Although immunohistologically, Neospora (N.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, N. caninum DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in brain, heart, liver and lung of the fetus. N. caninum DNA was extracted from the aborted fetus and the microsatellite marker MS10 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The obtained MS10 microsatellite pattern has not been described in Germany yet. Nevertheless, the MS10 pattern was very similar to those reported for N. caninum isolated from dogs and cattle in Germany. Because of the histological pattern and extent of the lesions, neosporosis was suspected as the cause of fetal death and abortion. This case report describes for the first time transplacental transmission of N. caninum and abortion due to neosporosis in a tapir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Cooking on Quality Commonly Consumed Marine Fish Platycephalidae (Platycephalus indicus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish Platycephalus indicus usually are consumed by southern people in Iran. The present study assessed the effect of processing on proximate compositions in the fillets of P.indicus. The fish samples were prepared by boiling, baking and frying, while proximate analysis was done by standard methods. Boiling processing method significantly reduced ash content in the fillet whereas fat content was significantly increased in frying. Baking method recorded highest ash content of 10.64%. The highest protein concentration was obtained for boiled fillet (82.73%. Lipid content was recorded highest in fried fillet (17.27%. P. indicus was, rich in fat, protein, and ash, thus its consumption should be encouraged.

  6. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klotz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45 from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G. mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and

  7. Marcadores moleculares asociados a la Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) en carne de Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Gutiérrez, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    La Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) es una de las características de la carne con mayor efecto sobre la rentabilidad del sector, al estar asociada a las mermas y a la jugosidad. Los objetivos principales son: resaltar la importancia de la CRA de la carne de bovino, evaluar el desempeño de estos parámetros según los factores tiempo de maduración y cruce de los animales y establecer polimorfismos en genes candidatos asociados al parámetro evaluado. Varios genes y sus polimorfismos han sido ...

  8. Assessment of DGAT1 and LEP gene polymorphisms in three Nelore (Bos indicus) lines selected for growth and their relationship with growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F R P; Mercadante, M E Z; Fonseca, L F S; Ferreira, L M S; Regatieri, I C; Ayres, D R; Tonhati, H; Silva, S L; Razook, A G; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (Sertãozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  9. A eficiência do sistema superprecoce com bovinos de diferentes proporções do genótipo Bos indicus

    OpenAIRE

    Cucki, Thalita Oliveira [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da proporção de sangue zebuíno no desempenho animal em confinamento, mensuração do crescimento animal, bem como as características de carcaça ao abate de bovinos jovens. Foram utilizados 96 novilhos não castrados, sendo, 24 da raça Nelore (N), 24 three cross Angus x Nelore x Brahman (TBH), 24 da raça Brangus (BG) e 24 three cross Angus x Nelore x Pardo - Suíço (TPS). Maior peso ao abate foi apresentado pelo grupo TPS (

  10. Estudo anatômico comparativo do útero e tubas uterinas de vacas e novilhas da raça Nelore (Bos primigenius indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao finalizarmos esta pesquisa, obtivemos dados anatômicos comparativos dos comprimentos dos cornos uterinos e tubas uterinas de vacas e novilhas da raça Nelore. Foram utilizadas para tais fins 45 amostras dos órgãos para cada grupo de animais. Os resultados mostraram que os comprimentos médios dos cornos uterinos e das tubas uterinas direitos e esquerdos das vacas não diferem estatisticamente entre si, sendo de 26,0 cm para os cornos uterinos direito e esquerdo, 17,6 cm para a tuba uterina direita e 17,7 cm para a esquerda. Os comprimentos médios dos cornos uterinos e das tubas uterinas direitos e esquerdos das novilhas não diferem estatisticamente entre si, apresentando 14,6 cm para o corno direito, 14,8 cm para o esquerdo, 15,4 cm para a tuba uterina direita e 15,2 cm para a esquerda. Há diferença estatisticamente significativa no comprimento médio dos cornos uterinos entre vacas e novilhas, com, respectivamente, 26,01 cm e 14,72 cm. Há diferença estatisticamente significativa no comprimento médio das tubas uterinas entre vacas e novilhas, com, respectivamente 17,64 cm e 15,29 cm. Nas vacas, o comprimento médio dos cornos uterinos, 26,01 cm, é maior que o comprimento médio das tubas uterinas, 17,64 cm. Nas novilhas, o comprimento médio dos cornos uterinos, 14,72 cm, é ligeiramente menor que o comprimento médio das tubas uterinas, 15,29 cm. Quando há aumento do comprimento médio dos cornos uterinos, há aumento concomitante das tubas uterinas em vacas, não acontecendo o mesmo em novilhas.

  11. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    , with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were......, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea...

  13. Gastrointestinal Strongyle Egg Output and its Relationship with Tick Burden in Gambian N'dama and Gobra Zebu Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli, RC.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly quantitative analysis of rectal faecal samples for the presence of strongyle eggs were carried out from May 1992 to April 1993 on 11 Gambian N'dama Bos taurus and 11 Gobra zebu Bos indicus cattle. Significantly (P <0.001 lower strongyle egg outputs were found in N'dama in comparison with zebu cattle. No correlation was found between individual cumulative tick burden and strongyle egg output in either breed, although individual variations in parasite burdens were lower in N'dama than in zebu cattle. This study strenghtens the evidence for the presence of a natural resistant trait to strongyle infection in N'dama cattle.

  14. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A V ∼ 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 μG and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales (∼2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  15. New insights on multiplicity and clustering in Taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle; Mundy, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Multiplicity and clustering of young stars are critical clues to constraint star formation process. The Taurus molecular complex is the archetype of a quiescent star forming region that may retain primeval signature of star formation.Using statistical and clustering tools such as nearest neighbor statistics, correlation functions and the density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm, this work reveals new spatial substructures in Taurus.We have identified unexpected ultra wide pairs (UWPs) candidates of high order multiplicity in Taurus in the 5-60 kAU separation range (Joncour et al 2017), beyond the separation assessed for wide pairs (Kraus & Hillenbrand 2009).Our work reveals 20 local stellar substructures, the Nested Elementary Structures (NESTs). These NESTs contain nearly half the stars of Taurus and 75% of the Class 0/I objects probing that they are the preferred sites of star formation (Joncour et al, sub.). The NESTs size ranges from few kAU up to 80 kAU making a length scale bridge between wide pairs and loose group (few hundreds kAU, Kirk & Myers, 2011). The NESTs mass ranges from 0.5-10 solar mass. The balance between Class I, II and III in NESTs suggests that they may be ordered as an evolutionary temporal scheme, some of them got infertile, while other shelter stars in infancy.The UWPs and the NESTs may be pristine imprints of their spatial configuration at birth. The UWPs population may result from a cascade fragmentation scenario of the natal molecular core. They could be the older counterparts, to the 0.5 Myr prestellar cores/Class 0 multiple objects observed at radio/millimeter wavelengths (Tobin et al 2010, 2016) and the precursors of the large number of UWPs (10–100 kAU) recently identified in older moving groups (Floriano-Alonso et al, 2015 ; Elliot et al 2016). The NESTs may result from the gravitational collapse of a gas clump that fragments to give a tight collection of stars within few millions years

  16. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  17. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  18. Successful treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with intralesional fluorouracil in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Templeton, R S; Karpinski, L

    2000-06-01

    An oral mass was observed in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. A series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.

  19. Growth and maturation of Penaeus indicus under blue and green light

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of the penaeid prawn Penaeus indicus was tested by comparing dim green ... light quantity and quality. tank size and/or handling stress. It was decided to ... Three circular, temperature-controlled 8000 e (2,8 m diameter) glass ... of eggs and nauplii in the water. Occasional ..... Penaeus vannamei Boone. J. expo mar.

  20. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  1. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I...... with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-07-27

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.

  3. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  4. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1–8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3ʹUTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3ʹUTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:26225956

  5. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  6. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  7. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes....... In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31...... Holstein cows divided into 4 groups representing repeated experiments and, within group, divided according to quantitative trait locus haplotype. All cows were inoculated with viable E. coli, and milk samples were collected 27 times from −6 to 396 h post-E. coli inoculation (PI). Activity of the 4 enzymes...

  9. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively, into three monophyletic clusters, with S. bovifelis and S. bovini being a sister group to S. sinensis. In contrast, phylogenies based on each of the three regions of the rDNA unit did not separate sequences of the three species completely from each other. Characterisation of cox1 of 56 isolates of S. hirsuta from four countries revealed only 13 haplotypes and an intraspecific sequence identity of 99.3-100 %. In the three regions of the rDNA unit, there was more extensive sequence variation, particularly in the ITS1 region. The 22 cox1 sequences of S. cruzi displayed a moderate intraspecific variation (98.6-100 %), whereas there was no variation at the 18S rRNA gene among 10 sequenced isolates. Sequencing of 16 clones of the partial 28S rRNA gene of S. cruzi yielded two markedly different sequence types, having an overall sequence identity of 95-100 %.

  10. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  11. A comparison between buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cow (Bos taurus) rumen fluids in terms of the in vitro fermentation characteristics of three fibrous feedstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabrò, S.; Williams, B.A.; Piccolo, V.; Infascelli, F.; Tamminga, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen fluids from fistulated buffalos (Italy-BRF) and cows (Netherlands-CRF) were used as inocula to determine the fermentation kinetics of three forages. These were corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS) and wheat straw (WS) which had originated from both regions, giving six substrates in total.

  12. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; Brink, Nico van den; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. - Highlights: ► Vegetation selection, social behavior, and seasonal variation determine exposure. ► Soft rush consumption highly increased daily Cd intake during winter. ► Most Cd and Pb levels in vegetation exceeded the maximum tolerable feed levels. - This study reveals that spatial heterogeneity and foraging behavior play a more important role in the metal exposure pattern of large grazers than generally is presumed.

  13. Interstellar extinction in the dark Taurus clouds. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straizys, V.; Meistas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 74 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of Taurus dark clouds with coordinates (1950) 4sup(h)20sup(m)-4sup(h)48sup(m)+24 0 .5-+27 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitudes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The dark cloud Khavtassi 286, 278 and the surrounding absorbing nebulae are found to extend from 140 to 175 pc from the sun. The average interstellar extinction Asub(V) on both sides of the dark cloud is of the order of 1sup(m).5. We find no evidence of the existence of several absorbing clouds situated at various distances. (author)

  14. Stability of Stellar Periods in the Hyades and Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Stauffer, John R.; K2 Clusters Team

    2018-06-01

    K2 has opened to us the study of high-precision light curves from which we can derive stellar rotation periods. We have presented period distributions for the Pleiades, Praesepe, Upper Sco and Rho Oph. But, how stable are the periods we are deriving from them? Early ground-based work in Orion (Rebull 2001) suggested that, for the youngest stars, about half the stars had sufficiently different spot distributions in two consecutive years such that periods could not be recovered in the second year. However, now that we have K2, precision and diurnal windowing functions are no longer really much of a concern. For a handful of stars in Hyades and Taurus, the K2 spacecraft monitored them for two non-consecutive 70d windows (campaigns 4, 2015 Feb and 13, 2017 Mar). In this poster, we examine whether or not the light curves are similar in the two epochs, and how accurately the same period can be recovered.

  15. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  16. Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) for Scramjet Inlet-isolator Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Idris, Azam; Rashdan Saad, Mohd; Hing Lo, Kin; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2018-05-01

    Background-oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique is a recently invented non-intrusive flow diagnostic method which has yet to be fully explored in its capabilities. In this paper, BOS technique has been applied for investigating the general flow field characteristics inside a generic scramjet inlet-isolator with Mach 5 flow. The difficulty in finding the delicate balance between measurement sensitivity and measurement area image focusing has been demonstrated. The differences between direct cross-correlation (DCC) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) raw data processing algorithm have also been demonstrated. As an exploratory study of BOS capability, this paper found that BOS is simple yet robust enough to be used to visualize complex flow in a scramjet inlet in hypersonic flow. However, in this case its quantitative data can be strongly affected by 3-dimensionality thus obscuring the density value with significant errors.

  17. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  18. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  19. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  20. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  1. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  2. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  3. relationship of thyroid and adrenal function to growth rate in bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of thyroid function, lower energy turnover and therefore thermal stability of B. indicus breeds (Fuller, 1969). The significant negative correlations between growth rates and plasma cortisol levels agree with the finding that cattle with low levels of glucocorticoid activity tend to grow more rapidly (Purchas, 1970; Hafs et ai. 1971) ...

  4. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Interstellar C2 molecules in a Taurus dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Black, J.H.; van Dishoeck, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Five relatively strong interstellar absorption lines of the 2--0) Phillips band of C 2 near lambda8760 are detected in the spectrum of HD 29647, a late B star which lies behind a substantial part of the Taurus molecular cloud complex about 20triangle-solid from TMC-1. In combination with newly determined oscillator strengths, the observations yield a column density N(C 2 )roughly-equal9 x 10 13 cm -2 , which is comparable to those of widely distributed molecules like CH and H 2 O. Theoreticl models of the observed C 2 rotational level populations indicate a kinetic temperature T = 14 +8 /sub -/ 5 K and a mean density n 3 cm -3 . A narrow, anomalous strong, stellar Mn II line yields for HD 29647 a project rotational velocity v sin i -1 and is explained by previous identifications HD 29647 as a Hg-Mn peculiar star. Similar spectra of ν Cyg and omicron And give an upper limit W/sub lambda/ 2 lines in the 2--0) band, toward both stars

  6. Observations of HC5N and NH3 in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, P.C.; Ho, P.T.P.; Benson, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of HC 5 N lines toward TMC-2 indicate that it is a small (Lapprox.0.1 pc), dense (napprox.4 x 10 4 cm -3 ), low-mass (Mapprox.1 M/sub sun/) fragment in the Taurus complex, with velocity dispersion at the emission peak only about twice thermal (Δvapprox.0.2 km s -1 ). The HC 5 N emission region in TMC-2 has roughly half the projected area of that in TMC-1, and is more round than filamentary. The HC 5 N and NH 3 emission regions in TMC-2 are coincident, with N (HC 5 N)/N (NH 3 ) approx.0.1. The line width is much smaller than the free-fall width; the deduced values of L, n, and T satisfy the virial-theorem requirement for stable equilibrium. The temporary equilibrium of such fragments may serve to lengthen the time scales for formation of low-mass stars and long-chain molecules

  7. Post-Eocene tectonics of the Central Taurus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün AKAY

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available In post-Eocene time, the Central Taurus mountains have been subjected to four episodes of compression in probably Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene, Langhian, Upper Tortonian, and Upper Pliocene to recent times. In the Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene compressional period, Ecemiş, and Beyşehir conjugate faults which have both vertical and lateral components have been formed after an N - S compression. In the Langhian compression period, the Lycian nappes were emplaced from the NW to SE and this tectonic movement has also effected the Antalya and the Adana Miocene basins. In the Upper Tortonian compression period, firstly a WSW-ENE compression has resulted in the formation of Aksu thrust, Kırkkavak oblique reverse fault, Köprüçay syncline, Beşkonak anticline, Radyoring anticline, Taşağıl syncline and Kargı reverse faults. In this period a later phase of N — S compression has formed Çakallar folds, Gökçeler normal fault, the smooth anticline in Mut Karaman and the syncline in Ulukışla. In the latest compressional period from Upper Pliocene to recent, first on E — W compression which can be recognized by some mesoscopic faults has been developed and later a N — S compression resulted in the formation of the active faults on Ecemiş and Gökçeler faults, and the Antalya bay graben.

  8. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  9. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-05-25

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Thaddeus, P.

    1987-01-01

    A new SIS receiver with extremely low noise temperature, used on the Columbia 1.2-m telescope has permitted mapping CO rapidly with full sampling. Results are presented of a survey for which the angular resolution of the telescope was reduced to 0.5 deg, allowing the observations for the complete region of 750 square degrees to be finished within four months, while retaining sufficient resolution to see significant substructure. Most positions with emission are in the Taurus-Auriga dark nebulae, a cloud associated with IC 348 and NGC 1333, and a cloud associated with the California nebula (NGC 1499) and NGC 1579, which overlaps the northern Taurus-Auriga nebulae but is separated from them in velocity. Also seen were several small clouds at Galactic latitude -25 deg to -35 deg southwest of the Taurus clouds, and the L1558 and L1551 clouds in the south. 89 references

  12. A near-infrared survey for pre-main sequence stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mercedes; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee

    1994-01-01

    We present a near-infrared survey of approximately 2 sq deg covering parts of L1537, L1538, and Heiles cloud 2 in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. Although this study is more sensitive than previous attempts to identify pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga, our survey regions contain only one new optically visible, young star. We did find several candidate embedded protostars; additional 10 micrometer photometry is necessary to verify the pre-main sequence nature of these sources. Our results--combined with those of previous surveys--show that the L1537/L1538 clouds contain no pre-main sequence stars. These two clouds are less dense than the active star formation sites in Taurus-Auriga, which suggests a cloud must achieve a threshold density to form stars.

  13. Molecular approach of the fragile chromosomal region Xq31-34 in cattle (Bos taurus by microdissection and DOP-PCR Aproximação molecular da região cromossômica frágil Xq31-34 em bovinos (Bos taurus utilizando microdissecação cromossômica e DOP-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Llambí

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fragile sites (FS are chromosomal regions where the normal compactation of chromatine is not observed. FRAXA (Fra Xq27.3, X sexual chromosome is one of the most studied FS in humans. FRAXA is an expansion of the trinucleotide CGG located in the gene FMR-1. In cattle, sites of chromosomal fragility were reported in BTAX, associated with different pathologies and fertility impairment. Chromosomal microdissection has became a valuable tool for isolating chromatine fragments. In this work, it was combined the chromosomal microdissection technique with DOP-PCR in order to carry out a molecular analysis of the fragile chromosomal region BTAXq31-34. In that region, polymorphic DNA-RAPD sequences (GC rich are present and sequences of the gene FMR-1 are missing. The results showed the usefulness of the microdissection-DOP-PCR technique for molecular characterization of fragile chromosomal sites in cattle.Os sítios frágeis (FS são regiões de cromossomo onde a compactação normal da cromatina não é realizada. O FRAXA (Fra Xq27.3, cromossomo sexual X é um dos FS mais estudados em seres humanos. O FRAXA apresenta expansão do trinucleotídeo CGG localizado no gene FMR-1. Em bovinos, existem estudos informando sobre fragilidade cromossômica em BTAX associada com diversas patologias e alterações na fertilidade. A microdissecação cromossômica é uma valiosa técnica para isolar fragmentos de cromatina. Neste trabalho, combinou-se a técnica de microdissecação de cromossomo com DOP-PCR para executar a análise molecular da região do sitio frágil cromossômico BTAXq31-34. Naquela região estão presentes seqüências do polimorfo DNA-RAPD (rico em GC, em que as seqüências do gene FMR-1 estão ausentes. Os resultados mostram a utilidade da técnica de microdissecação-DOP-PCR para a caracterização molecular de sítios frágeis cromossômicos em bovinos.

  14. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M ∼ 4-7 M Jup ). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M sun ) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  15. The role of genotype on classification grades of beef carcasses produced under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Zorrilla-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio identificó la distribución de 22,850 canales de bovino de diferentes genotipos. Éstos, en función del juzgamiento visual del tamaño de la giba (grande, representativa de un genotipo Bos indicus; mediana, genotipo producto de la cruza entre B. taurus y B. indicus y pequeña, considerada como genotipo B. taurus en los grados de clasificación obtenidos bajo la norma mexicana NMX-FF-078-SCFI-2002, en el rastro Tipo Inspección Federal No. 51 de La Unión, Tabasco (México. Se determinó el grado de asociación y la proporción de canales, juzgados por el tamaño de su giba; y el criterio de clasificación de la canal, por el procedimiento analítico de Chi-Cuadrada. Cincuenta y cuatro por ciento de las canales correspondieron al tipo de giba grande (genotipo B. indicus, 35% al de pequeña (genotipo B. taurus y el 10.70% al de mediana (genotipo producto de la cruza entre B. taurus y B. indicus. En los genotipos B. taurus y cruza se concentró un mayor número de canales con clasificación de selecta (P<0.0001; 17.90 y 18.50%, respectivamente y estándar (55.20 y 60.10%, respectivamente que el genotipo B. indicus (10.10% para canales selectas y 39.30% de estándar. El genotipo B. indicus concentró un mayor número de canales de grado comercial (36.20% y fuera de clasificación (14.40% (P<0.0001. Los tres genotipos de bovinos considerados (B. indicus, B. taurus y Cruzas dieron lugar a canales clasificadas como selectas, sugiriendo que el genotipo no sea un factor de sesgo en la norma de clasificación de canales de bovino mexicano NMX-FF-078-SCFI-2002.

  16. METHANOL IN THE STARLESS CORE, TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: soma@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To explore the formation mechanisms of gas phase CH{sub 3}OH in cold starless cores, we have conducted high spectral resolution observations toward the cyanopolyyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral lines of CH{sub 3}OH toward TMC-1 CP are found to have a double-peaked profile separated by 0.5 km s{sup −1}. Since the double-peaked profile is observed for {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, it is not due to optical depth and/or self-absorption effects. The spectral line profile of CH{sub 3}OH is much different from those of C{sup 34}S, C{sub 3}S, and HC{sub 7}N observed toward this source. The H{sub 2} densities of the emitting region of CH{sub 3}OH for the blueshifted and redshifted components are derived to be (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and (4.3 ± 1.2) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, respectively. These densities are similar to or slightly lower than those found for the other molecules. These results suggest a chemical differentiation between CH{sub 3}OH and the other molecules, which has indeed been confirmed by mapping observations of the CH{sub 3}OH and C{sup 34}S lines. These results are consistent with the general idea that CH{sub 3}OH is formed on dust grains and is liberated into the gas phase by non-thermal desorption. The grain-surface origin of CH{sub 3}OH is further confirmed by the CH{sub 3}OH/{sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH ratio. Weak shocks caused by accreting diffuse gas to the TMC-1 filament, photoevaporation caused by cosmic-ray induced UV radiation, and the desorption of excess reaction energy in the formation of CH{sub 3}OH on dust grains are discussed for the desorption mechanisms.

  17. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  18. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns. 3. Growth pattern of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Kutty, M.K.

    Experimental studies on the growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ for three and a half months under different levels of feeding gave a growth pattern different from that of von Bertalanffy. The two distinct growth patterns...

  19. Successful treatment of a necrotizing fasciitis patient caused by Mucor indicus with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yijin; Zeng, Fanqin; Huang, Xiaowen; Li, Qun; Tan, Guozhen; Xi, Liyan; Lu, Changming; Guo, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis, an uncommon disease caused by Mucorales, predominantly occurs in immunocompromised host. The present case is a primary cutaneous mucormycosis due to Mucor indicus in an immunocompetent individual. It is with the features of necrotizing fasciitis over the right pretibial area. We are presenting this case owing to its rarity and the successful treatment with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

  20. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  1. Anomalous strength of the 2200 Angstroem feature in Cassiopeia-Taurus association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, C.; Ruiz del Arbol, J.A.; Llorente de Andres, F.

    1980-01-01

    From a large sample of reddened stars we computed the individual extinction curves which agree with that calculated by Nandy et al. (1976), except for four stars which show that the extinction at the 2200 Angstroem feature is greater than that deduced for the rest of stars. These four stars belong to the Cassiopeia-Taurus association. (orig.)

  2. EGRET observations of diffuse gamma-ray emission in taurus and perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.; Grenier, Isabelle A.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission observed toward the extensive molecular cloud complexes in Taurus and Perseus by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The region's large size (more than 300 square degrees) and location below the plane in the anticenter are advantageous for straightforward interpretation of the interstellar emission. The complex of clouds in Taurus has a distance of ∼140 pc and is near the center of the Gould Belt. The complex in Perseus, adjacent to Taurus on the sky, is near the rim of the Belt at a distance of ∼300 pc. The findings for the cosmic-ray density and the molecular mass-calibrating ratio N(H 2 )/W CO in Taurus and Perseus are compared with results for other nearby cloud complexes resolved by EGRET. The local clouds that now have been studied in gamma rays can be used to trace the distribution of high-energy cosmic rays within 1 kpc of the sun

  3. Detection of warm water vapour in Taurus protoplanetary discs by Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Menard, F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Woitke, P.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Mendigutia, I.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.

    Line spectra of 68 Taurus T Tauri stars were obtained with the Herschel-PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument as part of the GASPS (GAS evolution in Protoplanetary Systems) survey of protoplanetary discs. A careful examination of the linescans centred on the [OI] 63.18 mu m

  4. Correlations between the stellar and disc properties of Taurus PMS stars in the GASPS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Pascual, Natalia; Montesinos, Benjamín; Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Eiroa, Carlos; Dent, Bill

    The Herschel Open Time Key Programme GASPS (P.I. B. Dent) has observed a large number of pre-main sequence TTauri stars in Taurus with PACS (photometry and spectroscopy). In addition, we have also carried out new ground-based optical and near-IR observations (photometry and spectroscopy) of most of

  5. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  6. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  7. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M.R.; Chen, W.; Lenstra, J.A.; Goderie, C.R.J.; MacHugh, D.E.; Park, S.D.E.; Magee, D.A.; Matassino, D.; Ciani, F.; Megens, H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  8. Genetic variation in the β-lactoglobulin of Chinese yak ( Bos ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is distributed in the area of Central. Asian highlands, it thrives in conditions of extreme harsh- ness with severely cold winters, short growing seasons for herbage and no absolutely frost-free periods (Wiener et al. 2003). The total population of yak is estimated to be 14 mil- lion, about 90% of the domestic ...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  10. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  11. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  12. Far-infrared investigation of the Taurus star-forming region using the IRAS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Taurus-Auriga complex was selected as the first molecular cloud to be investigated in this study. The Taurus clouds were defined as lying between 04h and 05h in R.A. and +16 to +31 degrees in Dec., then the IRAS point-source catalogue was searched for sources with good or moderate quality fluxes in all three of the shortest IRAS bands. The sources selected were then classified into subgroups according to their IRAS colors. Taurus is generally believed to be an area of low-mass star formation, having no luminous O-B associations within or near to the cloud complex. Once field stars, galaxies and planetary nebulae had been removed from the sample only the molecular cloud cores, T Tauri stars and a few emission-line A and B stars remained. The great majority of these objects are pre-main sequence in nature and, as stated by Chester (1985), main sequence stars without excess far-infrared emission would only be seen in Taurus if their spectral types were earlier than about A5 and then not 25 microns. By choosing our sample in this way we are naturally selecting the hotter and thus more evolved sources. To counteract this, the molecular cloud core-criterion was applied to soruces with good or moderate quality flux at 25, 60 and 100 microns, increasing the core sample by about one third. The candidate protostar B335 is only detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns while Taurus is heavily contaminated by cirrus at 100 microns. This means that detection at 25 microns is also required with those at 60 and 100 microns to avoid confusing a ridge of cirrus with a genuine protostar. The far-infrared luminosity function of these sources is then calculated and converted to the visual band by a standard method to compare with the field star luminosity function of Miller and Scalo

  13. Revisiting the field geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated 40Ar/39Ar analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M3 spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence of two

  14. Revisiting the Field Geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated Ar-40/Ar-39 analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M(sup 3) spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence

  15. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    -length sequences of these immune-relevant genes, this study highlighted their conserved natures, which perhaps make them important defence-related proteins in the innate immune system of F. indicus....

  16. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati...

  17. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Esophageal dissection and hematoma associated with obstruction in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Kristen A; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Pye, Geoffrey W; Pessier, Allan P; Clippinger, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    A 42-year-old female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) developed a sudden onset of excessive salivation and dysphagia. Esophageal obstruction was suspected; possibly related to palm frond ingestion. Esophageal endoscopy revealed a mat of plant material in the distal esophagus. An initial attempt at relieving the obstruction was unsuccessful, but subsequent use of custom-made instruments along with insufflation and hydropulsion enabled partial removal of the material. Postimmobilization care included aggressive intravenous and rectal fluids, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic administration, and fasting. Despite treatment, the dysphagia persisted and the elephant was euthanized due to lack of improvement and grave prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed remaining plant material in the esophagus, complicated by an esophageal dissection, mural hematoma, and secondary bacterial infection. Iatrogenic trauma may have contributed to the extent of esophageal injury. Although treatment was ultimately unsuccessful, the supportive care employed could potentially aid recovery in cases of less severe esophageal trauma.

  19. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  20. ORF Alignment: NT_033779 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rEMBL::g2674107:GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-EXCHANGE ... PROTEIN. organism:BOS TAURUS (BOVINE). dbxref:GenBank...; ... AF023451; g2674107; -.'', species:''BOS TAURUS ... Length = 185 ... Query: 586 METGIELFNRKP

  1. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Shukla, S. J.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg 2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg 2 ) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  2. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  3. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Shukla, S. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [eXtreme Gravity Institute, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg{sup 2} fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg{sup 2}) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: solid carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra centred on the spectral feature of solid CO at 4.67 μm wavelength are presented for eight stars in or behind the quiescent dark cloud complex in Taurus. The solid CO profile is dominated by a sharp component centred at 4.673 μm (2140 cm -1 ). As in previous observations of the feature, asymmetry in the profile is consistent with the presence of a weaker, somewhat broader, overlapping component centred at ∼ 4.682 μm (2136 cm -1 ). New and previously published data for Taurus stars are combined to study the correlation of the peak optical depth in the CO feature with visual extinction and with the depth of the water-ice feature at 3.0 μm. (author)

  5. Flares of Orion population variables in the association Taurus T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.; AN Armyanskoj SSR, Byurakan. Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen new flare stars, proved to be irregular variables of Orion Population, were discovered from a study of the Taurus Dark Cloud region by the homogeneous photographic multipose method on the wide angle Schmidt telescopes of the Byurakan Astorphysical Observatory. Seventeen flares on these stars were detected for about 750 hours of the effective observing time. The analysis of the complicated light curves of these flares shows a great variety and multiplicity of this phenomenon and various dynamics of flare energy release processes. The existence of flare stars with some properties typical for both of the T Tauri and UV Ceti stars simulteneously indicates nonstable stars. The population of flare stars in the Taurus Dark Cloud region is apparently as young as in Orion and Monoceros

  6. Ratio of total-to-selective extinction in the Taurus dark cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, F.J.; Rydgren, A.E.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    UBVRI and JHK photometry, as well as spectral classifications are presented for seven reddened early-type field stars that are observed through the Taurus dark cloud complex. The ratio of total-to-selective extinction is derived for each star by the color-difference method. For six stars with absolute magnitudes in violet of more than 1.7 and less than 3.2 mag, a normal ratio R of total-to-selective extinction of about 3.1 is found. The mildly anomalous R value of about 3.5 for the well-studied star HD 29647 was also confirmed. The results provide further evidence that the interstellar extinction law in the Taurus dark cloud complex is basically normal for lines of sight with absolute magnitudes in violet of less than 3 mag. 24 references

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.

  8. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF T TAURI STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 μm spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 μm features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 μm silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 μm emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  9. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  10. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively

  11. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  12. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M-dwarfs and small for BDs. Conclusions: The existence of a strong decline in the binary fraction - primary mass diagram will become verifiable in future surveys on BD and VLMS binarity in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The binary fraction - primary mass diagram is a diagnostic of the (non-)continuity of star formation along the mass scale, the separateness of the stellar and BD populations, and the dominant formation channel for BDs and BD binaries in regions of low stellar density hosting dynamically unprocessed populations.

  13. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum in Bos javanicus ('Bali cattle') from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damriyasa, I Made; Schares, Gereon; Bauer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain first information on the presence of Neospora caninum infection in Bos javanicus ('Bali cattle'), the predominant beef cattle in the Eastern Islands of Indonesia. Serum samples were collected from 438 Bali cattle of two age classes (2 years) and both genders at three slaughterhouses in the Bali island, and examined for N. caninum-specific antibodies using native NcSRS2 (p38 antigen) as an ELISA antigen. The estimated overall seroprevalence of antibodies was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.5-8.0%). The seroprevalence was not significantly associated with age class or gender of the animals. The results give first serological evidence for the presence of natural N. caninum infection in Bos javanicus and indicate its occurrence in Indonesia.

  15. Development of Uncertainty Quantification Method for MIR-PIV Measurement using BOS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jee Hyun; Song, Min Seop; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Matching Index of Refraction (MIR) is frequently used for obtaining high quality PIV measurement data. ven small distortion by unmatched refraction index of test section can result in uncertainty problems. In this context, it is desirable to construct new concept for checking errors of MIR and following uncertainty of PIV measurement. This paper proposes a couple of experimental concept and relative results. This study developed an MIR uncertainty quantification method for PIV measurement using SBOS technique. From the reference data of the BOS, the reliable SBOS experiment procedure was constructed. Then with the combination of SBOS technique with MIR-PIV technique, velocity vector and refraction displacement vector field was measured simultaneously. MIR errors are calculated through mathematical equation, in which PIV and SBOS data are put. These errors are also verified by another BOS experiment. Finally, with the applying of calculated MIR-PIV uncertainty, correct velocity vector field can be obtained regardless of MIR errors

  16. Isolation and genetic diversity of endangered grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Adam; Zenger, Kyall; Briscoe, David; Gillings, Michael; Peddemors, Victor; Otway, Nicholas; Harcourt, Robert

    2006-06-22

    Anthropogenic impacts are believed to be the primary threats to the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus), which is listed as critically endangered, and the most threatened population globally. Analyses of 235 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci and 700 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA control region provide the first account of genetic variation and geographical partitioning (east and west coasts of Australia, South Africa) in C. taurus. Assignment tests, analysis of relatedness and Fst values all indicate that the Australian populations are isolated from South Africa, with negligible migration between the east and west Australian coasts. There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. Australian C. taurus, particularly the eastern population, has significantly less AFLP variation than the other sampling localities. Further, the eastern Australian sharks possess only a single mitochondrial haplotype, also suggesting a small number of founding individuals. Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. These findings have implications for the viability of the eastern Australian population of grey nurse sharks.

  17. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  18. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature

  19. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

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    Suganya Venkateshan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dietary changes playmajor risk roles in oxidative stress andcardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action.  Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group andfed with a standard diet (control, high-fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight andoxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profilein rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus(200 mg/kg offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (pConclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H.indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage.

  20. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

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    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  1. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  2. PEMANFAATAN KULIT KAYU ANGSANA (Pterocarpus indicus SEBAGAI SUMBER ZAT WARNA ALAM PADA PEWARNAAN KAIN BATIK SUTERA

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    Dwi Wiji Lestari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pemanfaatan kulit kayu angsana (Pterocarpus indicus sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk pewarnaan kain batik sutera. Ekstraksi ZWA dilakukan dengan pelarut air dengan variasi suhu ekstraksi 75 °C dan 100 °C. Pewarnaan zat warna alam kemudian diaplikasikan pada kain batik sutera pada kondisi pencelupan asam (pH 4 dan basa (pH 10. Mordan awal yang digunakan adalah tawas dan jirak. Diakhir pewarnaan alam dilakukan fiksasi dengan menggunakan tawas dan tunjung. Berdasar hasil penelitian, kulit kayu angsana terbukti dapat digunakan sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk batik sutera. Ketuaan warna paling tinggi diperoleh pada pewarnaan batik sutera dengan menggunakan mordan jirek pada suhu ekstraksi 100 °C dalam kondisi pencelupan basa dengan fiksator tunjung. Arah warna yang dihasilkan adalah coklat tua pada suasana pencelupan asam dengan fiksasi tunjung, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan asam fiksasi tawas, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan basa fiksasi tawas dan coklat tanah pada suasana  pencelupan basa dengan fiksasi tunjung. Hasil uji ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dari sampel pewarnaan menunjukkan kualitas baik yaitu pada skala 4-5 (Baik. Study on utilizationof angsana (Pterocarpus indicus as natural dye for silk batik has been conducted. The study was aimed to determine the quality of the natural dyeing of the bark of angsana by use jirak (Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. and alum as the natural mordant. Extraction of natural dye was carried out using water by varying the extraction temperature of 75 and 100 °C. The coloration was applied to silk batik at both acid (pH 4 and basic (pH 6 impregnations. The mordant employed  were alum and jirak. The last stage was fixation using alum and ferrosulfate. Based on the results, angsana was proved to be used as a source of natural dyes for silk batik. The highest color intensity was obtained by using angsana bark extract and jirak as mordant at

  3. Infestation by Haematopinus quadripertusus on cattle in São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil Infestação por Haematopinus quadripertusus em bovinos de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil

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    Alessandra Scofield

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe infestation with lice was observed on crossbred cattle (Bos taurus indicus ×Bos taurus taurus in the municipality of São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil. Sixty-five animals were inspected and the lice were manually collected, preserved in 70% alcohol and taken to the Animal Parasitology Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Brazil, for identification. The adult lice were identified as Haematopinus quadripertusus, and all the cattle examined were infested by at least one development stage of this ectoparasite. The specimens collected were located only on the tail in 80% (52/65 of the cattle, while they were around the eyes as well as on the ears and tail in 20% (13/65. Nits, nymphs and adults of the parasite were respectively collected from 98.46% (64/65, 38.46% (25/65 and 23.08% (15/65 of the animals examined. This is the first report of bovine pediculosis caused by H. quadripertusus in the state of Pará, Brazil. Further studies should be conducted to determine the occurrence pattern of this species in Brazil and its importance to livestock production.Alta infestação por piolhos foi observada em vacas mestiças Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus do município de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil. Sessenta e cinco animais foram inspecionados e os piolhos foram coletados manualmente, armazenados em álcool 70% e transportados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Pará para a identificação. Os exemplares adultos foram identificados como Haematopinus quadripertusus e todos os animais examinados apresentaram pelo menos um estágio de desenvolvimento do ectoparasito. Em 80% (52/65 dos animais, os exemplares coletados localizavam-se somente na cauda e em 20% (13/65 na região periocular, orelha e cauda. Lêndeas, ninfas e adultos foram coletados, respectivamente, em 98,46% (64/65, em 38,46% (25/65 e em 23

  4. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

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    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  5. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  6. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

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    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  7. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  8. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

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    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12 months; group IV-12 to 24 months; group V-24 to 48 months; group VI-48 to 72 months and group VII-older than 72 months were studied. The highest and lowest mean values observed were total white blood cell/mm³-16992±4104 (group III and 10353±2397 (group VI; neutrophils/mm³-3931±1578 (group I and 2416 ±1118 (group III; eosinophils/ mm³-999±499 (group V and 265±276 (group II; basophils/mm³-67±88 (group VII and 39±78 (group III; typical lymphocytes/ mm³-12758±3608 (group III and 5906±1883 (group VI; atypical lymphocytes/ mm³-1310±603 (group II and 760±419 (group VI ; lymphocytes total/ mm³-14079±4027 (group III and 6666±2059 (group VI; monocytes/mm³-27±62 (group I and 0 (group III. The differences (p>0.05 observed among the groups in relation to total white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils can be related to the influence of the age on leukogram of Nelore (Zebu cattle raised in São Paulo- Brazil.

  9. Análisis de PCR-RFLP del gen de leptina y su asociación con características de la leche en ganado nativo (Bos indicus de Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una muestra ganadera experimental para la caracterización de los genes y las frecuencias genotípicas y evaluar la asociación entre los polimorfismos de longitud del fragmento de restricción BsaAI en el gen de leptina y las características lácteas. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de 390 vacas proporcionadas por el censo ganadero de la provincia de Guilán en Irán. La extracción de ADN genómico se basó en el método modificado de precipitación salina. El fragmento de 522 bp que comprende la región parcial del exón 3 e intrón 2 del locus del gen de leptina se amplificó mediante PCR-RFLP e iniciadores específicos. La digestión del fragmento amplificado con la enzima de restricción BsaAI reveló dos alelos de A y B con frecuencias de 0.447 y 0.553, y tres genotipos de AA, AB, BB con frecuencias de 0.185, 0.526 y 0.289 en la población estudiada, respectivamente. El resultado del contenido de polimorfismo fue 0.372 y para heterocigosis 0.526. Los resultados demostraron que la población estudiada estaba en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg. El análisis estadístico indicó que el polimorfismo LEP- BsaAI tiene un efecto significativo en la producción de leche, porcentaje de grasa y proteína de la leche ( P <0.01. Animales portadores del genotipo heterocigoto (AB produjeron 1.17 y 0.7 kg/d más leche que los animales homocigotos AA y BB, respectivamente. Los animales con el genotipo AA tuvieron mayor grasa (0.28 % y porcentaje de proteína (0.17 % que el genotipo AB. Tales resultados pueden utilizarse como criterios para facilitar la selección genética en los programas de cría animal.

  10. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

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    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  11. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with Ca II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren 'HVR', (1986) are reported. Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km/s precision. The kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li are found to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. It is suggested following Jones and Herbig (1979), that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  12. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with CA II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-04-01

    The authors report radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren (HVR). Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km s-1 precision. The authors find the kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. The authors suggest, following Jones and Herbig, that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  13. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    . An additional 16% are confused sources with an uncertain evolutionary stage. Outflows are found to make a negligible contribution to the integrated HCO+ intensity for the majority of sources in this study. Conclusions. Separating classifications by cloud reveals that a high percentage of the Class 0+I sources...... in the Perseus star forming region are truly embedded Stage I sources (71%), while the Taurus cloud hosts a majority of evolved PMS stars with disks (68%). The concentration factor method is useful to correct misidentified embedded YSOs, yielding higher accuracy for YSO population statistics and Stage timescales...

  14. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M ☉ ). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15 −0.03 +0.05 for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M ☉ ) and 4/108 = 0.04 −0.01 +0.03 for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M ☉ ) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  15. Ice in the Taurus molecular cloud: modelling of the 3-μm profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bult, C.E.P.M. van de; Greenberg, J.M.; Whittet, D.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the absorption by interstellar core-mantle particles with mantles of different compositions are compared with observations of the 3μm ice band in the Taurus molecular cloud. The strength and shape of the 3-μm band is shown to be a remarkably good diagnostic of the physical state and evolution of the dust in molecular clouds. The strength of the band is consistent with large fractional H 2 O mantle concentrations, in the range 60-70 per cent, as predicted by theoretical studies of cloud chemistry and as expected from the high oxygen abundance in pre-molecular clouds. (author)

  16. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS AND DUST IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chapman, Nicholas; Li Di; Snell, Ronald L.; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100 deg 2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H 2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12 CO and 13 CO J = 1 → 0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200'' corresponding to 0.14 pc at a distance of 140 pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction A V and N(CO) is linear between A V ≅ 3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213-L1495 filament. In other regions, the linear relation is flattened for A V ∼> 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ∼30%-70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO 2 ices and A V , we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon monoxide and dust for observed visual extinctions up to the maximum value in our data ≅23 mag. We have used these data to study a sample of dense cores in Taurus. Fitting an analytical column density profile to these cores we derive an average volume density of about 1.4 x 10 4 cm -3 and a CO depletion age of about 4.2 x 10 5 yr. At visual extinctions smaller than ∼3 mag, we find that the CO fractional abundance is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The data show a large scatter suggesting a range of physical conditions of the gas. We estimate the H 2 mass of Taurus to be about 1.5 x 10 4 M sun , independently derived from the A V and N(CO) maps. We derive a CO integrated intensity to H 2 conversion factor of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , which applies even in the region where the [CO]/[H 2 ] ratio is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The distribution of column densities in our Taurus maps resembles a log

  17. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  18. Aspectos clínicos da indução experimental de acidose láctica ruminal em zebuínos e taurinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lippi Ortolani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To compare the clinical signs and the susceptibility to acute rumen lactic acidosis (ARLA, experimentally induced, five Jersey (J (Bos taurus and five Gir (G (Bos indicus steers were used. The ARLA caused in all animals tachycardia, decreased rumen movement, diarrhoea, and dehydration; Although G steers presented higher tachycardia and tendency to a more severe dehydration, the J steers exhibited a pronounced depression in the general state, requiring an intense treatment to recover. J steers needed more time to recover the normal appetite. Thus, regarding clinical picture, was observed that J steers are more susceptible to ARLA than G. Positive correlation was found between plasma volume deficit and tachycardia (r = 0.67; blood pH did not influence heart rate (r= - 0.25.

  19. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  20. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki

    2016-01-01

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when not used in accordance with the use of the in-house Bos

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  3. The phylogenomic position of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Lamniformes, Odontaspididae) inferred from the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Deborah L; Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Bennett, Michael B; Bustamante, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus is described from 25 963 828 sequences obtained using Illumina NGS technology. Total length of the mitogenome is 16 715 bp, consisting of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA and 2 non-coding regions thus updating the previously published mitogenome for this species. The phylogenomic reconstruction inferred from the mitogenome of 15 species of Lamniform and Carcharhiniform sharks supports the inclusion of C. taurus in a clade with the Lamnidae and Cetorhinidae. This complete mitogenome contributes to ongoing investigation into the monophyly of the Family Odontaspididae.

  4. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  5. Effect of heat stress on rumen temperature of three breeds of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A. M.; Lees, J. C.; Lisle, A. T.; Sullivan, M. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m2/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m2) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment. Ambient dry bulb temperature ( T A; °C), relative humidity (RH; %), wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction, and solar radiation (SR; W/m2) were recorded at 10 min intervals. Rainfall (mm) was collected daily at 0900 h. From these data, black globe temperature (BGT; °C), temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI), and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average and then mean hourly T RUM were converted to a mean within hour T RUM across the 130 days. Rumen temperatures were analyzed using an autoregressive repeated measures model. The model analyzed the effect of breed ( P < 0.0002), treatment ( P = 0.3543), time of day (hour, h; P < 0.0001), breed × treatment ( P < 0.3683), breed × h ( P < 0.0001), treatment × h ( P < 0.0001), breed × treatment × h ( P = 0.0029), pen within treatment ( P = 0.0195), and animal × breed × treatment within pen ( P = 0.1041). Furthermore, there were breed × treatment × hour differences in T RUM ( P = 0.0036), indicating that Bos indicus and Bos taurus regulate T RUM differently.

  6. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.

  8. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  10. Isolation and partial purification of antimicrobial peptides/proteins from dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus immune hemolymph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanth Patil, H.B.; Sathish Kumar, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes and not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application. (author)

  11. ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED FIELD AND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS TOWARD TAURUS AND UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, K.; Hillenbrand, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Cycle 1 guest investigator program covering 56 deg 2 near the Taurus T association and 12 deg 2 along the northern edge of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We combined photometry in the GALEX far-ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet bands with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to identify candidate young (∼<100 Myr old) stars as those with an ultraviolet excess relative to older main-sequence stars. Follow-up spectroscopy of a partial sample of these candidates suggests five new members of Taurus, with 8-20 expected from additional observations, and five new members of Upper Scorpius, with three to six expected from additional observations. These candidate new members appear to represent a distributed, non-clustered population in either region, although our sample statistics are as of yet too poor to constrain the nature or extent of this population. Rather, our study demonstrates the ability of GALEX observations to identify young stellar populations distributed over a wide area of the sky. We also highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the Galactic ultraviolet source population to support similar investigations. In particular, we report a large population of stars with an ultraviolet excess but no optical indicators of stellar activity or accretion, and briefly argue against several interpretations of these sources.

  12. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  14. Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis in Santana do Livramento, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.R.; Correa, B.L.; Cereser, V.H.; Arteche, C.C.P.; Guglielmone, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Some aspects of the epidemiology of Babesia bovis were studied in Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by analysing cattle raising practices applied to 101 herds and by diagnosing B. bovis antibodies in cattle of about 11 months old using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 15% to 80% were considered at risk of babesiosis outbreaks of economic importance (enzootic instability). 53% of herds were found in enzootic instability to B. bovis. The proportion of Bos taurus and B. indicus x B. taurus herds in instability were similar (P=0.771, qui square) and the number of acaricides treatments applied yearly had no influence in the instability to B. bovis (P=0.866, chi square). Herds maintained along with sheep in a ratio < 1.5 (P=0.012, chi square); this probability was further increased in herds maintained on properties greater than 500 ha (P=0.057, chi square). High B. bovis antibody prevalence was found in B. taurus x B. indicus herds subjected to an average of 5.8 tick treatments yearly with long residual period acaricides, indicating misuse of the chemicals or tick resistance to them. The epidemiological situation to B. bovis seems to justify vaccination to avoid economic losses in herds in enzootic instability and those in enzootic stability due to low antibody prevalence. (author)

  15. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  16. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  17. MAPPING STUDY OF 71 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE TAURUS, PERSEUS, AND CALIFORNIA COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanyi; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie

    2013-01-01

    A mapping study of 71 Planck cold clumps was made with 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) lines at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. For all the clumps, 12 CO(1-0) and 13 CO(1-0) emissions were detected, while for 55 of them, C 18 O(1-0) emissions were detected. Of the 71 Clumps, 34 are in the Taurus Complex, 24 in the California Complex, and 13 are in the Perseus Complex. In the 76 velocity components, 38 cores are found in 27 clumps; 19 of these cores are in the Taurus Complex, 16 in the California Complex, and 3 in the Perseus Complex. We acquired V lsr , T A and FWHM of lines. Physical parameters including T ex , N H 2 , σ Therm , σ NT , and σ 3D were calculated. Generally, the cores are of T ex = 2-16 K, N H 2 =10 21 --10 22 cm –2 , and σ 3D = 0.2-1.0 km s –1 . In the Taurus Complex, the cores are less dense on average and have smaller σ Therm than the cores in the Perseus and California Complexes. Two of the three cores in the Perseus Complex are revealed to have larger T ex , N H 2 , and σ 3D than the mean values in the other two regions. Most of the cores have σ NT larger than σ Therm , suggesting a dominance of turbulence in our cores. The majority of the cores have M vir /M LTE >> 1, which indicates these cores are not bound and will disperse. By comparing our results with the dust properties revealed by the Planck Early Release Cold Cores Catalog, we investigated the coupling of gas and dust components. We found that most of the cores have dust temperatures higher than their gas temperatures. The stellar objects associated with our sources were checked and 90% of the cores were found to be starless

  18. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitro en los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of fortified and concentrated hay supplementation on the production of bovine milk (Bos taurus L. during the dry season in the Achaca-Tiahuanacu community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty-Quispe Magda Hortencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the Achaca Community of the Municipality of Tiahuanacu, with the objective of evaluating the effect of supplementation with fortified and concentrated hay on milk production, feed conversion, total solids and production costs in three periods (Control, adaptation and supplementation during the dry season (October and November. 12 Holstein mestizo cows were used between 4 and 6 months of lactation. The design used was completely randomized blocks with factorial arrangement of 2Ax3Bx (3 with three replicates. The average milk yield of 4.69 kg of cows supplemented with fortified hay and 6.24 kg with concentrate were higher than the production of 3.94 and 5.11 kg respectively in the adaptation period and finally the production of 3.58 and 3.42 kg in the control period. The feed conversion with fortified hay supplementation of 2.60 kg was greater than 2.12 and 1.90 kg respectively. While feed conversion between supplements was 1.61 and 1.78 kg with concentrate in the adaptation period and finally with 2.12 and 2.60 kg with fortified hay in the supplementation period. The total solids content of 10.52 ºBrix was superior to the adaptation period of 10.30 ºBrix and control with 10.05 ºBrix. Meanwhile, total solids between supplements were 10.19 ºBrix with fortified hay and 10.39 ºBrix with concentrate.

  20. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitroen los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  1. Bos frontalis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMEEULLAH MEMON

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... In rat, mouse, rabbit and pig, there was a single gene of the DQ genes, whereas in ... 1997). Hence, the polymorphisms as well as the duplication of DQ gene ... constructed using the commercial RevertAid First Strand. cDNA synthesis kit .... icance of maintaining their molecular conformation and function to ...

  2. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population, the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds. However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. The Taurus molecular clouds were selected for observations, in the form of a preliminary survey in the 2-4 μm window. It is concluded that the carrier of the 3μm absorption feature appears to reside in the general cloud medium and is probably amorphous water ice. (author)

  3. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  4. Spectropolarimetry of the 3μm ice band in Elias 16 (Taurus Dark Cloud)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide

    1988-01-01

    Polarization data between 1.2 and 3.8 μm, including spectro-polarimetry in the 3-μm ice feature, are presented for the highly reddened field star Elias 16 in the Taurus Dark Cloud. The polarization is observed to increase with optical depth in the ice feature in a manner similar to that found for the BN object, that is, consistent with dichroic absorption by aligned grains. The polarization feature can be well modelled assuming grains composed of ammonia-water ices, with the ratio of H 2 O:NH 3 greater than 3:1. The continuum polarization can be well fitted over most of the observed wavelength range assuming a mix of silicate and graphite grains with size ∼ 0.13μm. (author)

  5. Transient periodic x-ray source in Taurus, A0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, H.; Mayer, W.; Buff, J.; Clark, G.W.; Doxsey, R.; Hearn, D.; Jernigan, G.; Joss, P.C.; Laufer, B.; Lewin, W.; Li, F.; Matilsky, T.; McClintock, J.; Primini, F.; Rappaport, S.; Schnopper, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light curves of the 104 s periodicity in the transient X-ray source in Taurus (A0535+26) are presented for six energy intervals in the range 1-35 keV for the period 1975 May 30-June 2. The pulse structure ranges from an apparently simple modulation at higher energies to a very complex pattern at lower energies. No Doppler shift is observed in the 104 s pulse period during the three days of observations. This places severe constraints upon possible binary orbital motion. Upper limits on the power at other periodicities are approximately-less-than10 percent for 2 ms-2s and approximately-less-than2 percent for 2 s-2000 s

  6. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  7. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  8. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  9. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M sun , raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M sun ) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M sun ) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ∼>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M B /M A ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.

  10. DYNA3D, INGRID, and TAURUS: an integrated, interactive software system for crashworthiness engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Stillman, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    Crashworthiness engineering has always been a high priority at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because of its role in the safe transport of radioactive material for the nuclear power industry and military. As a result, the authors have developed an integrated, interactive set of finite element programs for crashworthiness analysis. The heart of the system is DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, large deformation structural dynamics code. DYNA3D has the following four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and accurate analysis of crashes: (1) fully nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure, (2) a broad range of constitutive models for representing the materials, (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for the impact interactions, and (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact zones at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing any accuracy in the momentum calculations. To generate the large and complex data files for DYNA3D, INGRID, a general purpose mesh generator, is used. It runs on everything from IBM PCs to CRAYS, and can generate 1000 nodes/minute on a PC. With its efficient hidden line algorithms and many options for specifying geometry, INGRID also doubles as a geometric modeller. TAURUS, an interactive post processor, is used to display DYNA3D output. In addition to the standard monochrome hidden line display, time history plotting, and contouring, TAURUS generates interactive color displays on 8 color video screens by plotting color bands superimposed on the mesh which indicate the value of the state variables. For higher quality color output, graphic output files may be sent to the DICOMED film recorders. We have found that color is every bit as important as hidden line removal in aiding the analyst in understanding his results. In this paper the basic methodologies of the programs are presented along with several crashworthiness calculations

  11. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  12. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  13. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  14. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  15. Influence of cow breed type, age and previous lactation status on cow height, calf growth, and patterns of body weight, condition, and blood metabolites for cows grazing bahiagrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Williams, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year. At monthly intervals, all cows were weighed, measured at the hip (HH), scored for BCS, and blood samples collected by jugular puncture from 10 cows per cow breed/block group for plasma urea N (PUN), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed on cows that calved with a statistical model that included fixed effects of year, cowage, cow breed, month, block, supplement group (n = 2, but not presented), and whether the cow weaned a calf the previous year. Cow was a repeated observation over mo. Three-way interactions involving monthly patterns for cowage x year, year x lactation status the previous year, cowage × cow breed, year × cow breed, and cow breed × lactation status the previous year were significant (P cow breed × month was important (P cows compared to 3-yr old cows; 2) greater BW and BCS before calving for cows that did not lactate the previous year; 3) PUN levels were above 11 mg/dl except for February, August and September, and was generally greater in tropically adapted breeds; 4) GLU was greatest in Brahman, lowest in Angus, and intermediate in Romosinuano cows; and 5) plasma levels of NEFA escalated at calving and then declined, but Brahman cows maintained greater (P Cows that lactated the previous year had less NEFA than those that did not lactate. Brahman cows were less fertile than Bos taurus breeds, and weaned heavier calves.

  16. A CENSUS OF ROTATION AND VARIABILITY IN L1495: A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF TRANS-ATLANTIC EXOPLANET SURVEY LIGHT CURVES FOR PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hongyu; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.; Rebull, Luisa; Charbonneau, David; Mandushev, Georgi; O'Donovan, Francis; Slesnick, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We analyze light curves obtained by the Trans-atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES) for a field centered on the L1495 dark cloud in Taurus. The Spitzer Taurus Legacy Survey catalog identifies 179 bona fide Taurus members within the TrES field; 48 of the known Taurus members are detected by TrES, as well as 26 candidate members identified by the Spitzer Legacy team. We quantify the variability of each star in our sample using the ratio of the standard deviation of the original light curve (σ orig. ) to the standard deviation of a light curve that has been smoothed by 9 or 1001 epochs (σ 9 and σ 1001 , respectively). Known Taurus members typically demonstrate (σ orig. /σ 9 ) orig. /σ 1001 ) orig. /σ 9 ) ∼ 3.0 and (σ orig. /σ 1001 ) ∼ 10, as expected for light curves dominated by unstructured white noise. Of the 74 Taurus members/candidates with TrES light curves, we detect significant variability in 49 sources. Adapting a quantitative metric originally developed to assess the reliability of transit detections, we measure the amount of red and white noise in each light curve and identify 18 known or candidate Taurus members with highly significant period measurements. These appear to be the first periods measured for four of these sources (HD 282276, CX Tau, FP Tau, TrES J042423+265008), and in two other cases, the first non-aliased periods (LkCa 21 and DK Tau AB). For the remainder, the TrES measurements typically agree very well (δP < 1%) with previously reported values. Including periods measured at lower confidence for 15 additional sources, we report periods for 11 objects where no previous periods were found, including 8 confirmed Taurus members. We also identify 10 of the 26 candidate Taurus members that demonstrate variability levels consistent with being bona fide T Tauri stars. A Kolomgorov-Smirnov (K-S) test confirms that these new periods confirm the distinction between the rotation period distributions of stars with and without circumstellar

  17. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  18. Comparative "in vitro" evaluation of the antiresorptive activity residing in four Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Hemidesmus indicus emerges for its potential in the treatment of bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pompo, Gemma; Poli, Ferruccio; Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Roncuzzi, Laura; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    2014-06-11

    Four Indian plants, traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine: Asparagus racemosus Willd., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., and Rubia cordifolia L. were selected on the basis of their ethnobotanical use and of scientific evidence that suggests a potential efficacy in the treatment of bone-loss diseases. The antiresorptive properties of the four plants have been investigated. The aim was to provide adequate evidence for the exploitation of natural compounds as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of diseases caused by increased osteoclast activity. Decoctions were prepared from dried plant material according to the traditional procedure and standardization by HPLC was performed using marker compounds for each species. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity of the decoctions were also determined. The bioactivity of the plant decoctions was evaluated in subsequent phases. (1) A cytotoxicity screening was performed on the mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cell line to define the concentrations that could be utilized in the following step. (2) The antiresorptive properties of plant decoctions were compared with that of a "gold standard" drug (alendronate) by measuring osteoclastogenesis inhibition and osteoclast apoptosis. (3) The toxic effect on bone forming cells was excluded by evaluating the impact on the proliferation of osteogenic precursors (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). All the decoctions inhibited osteoclastogenesis similarly to alendronate at the highest doses, but Hemidesmus indicus and Rubia cordifolia were also effective at lower concentrations. Apoptosis increased significantly when cells were exposed to the highest concentration of Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus, and Rubia cordifolia. All concentrations of Emblica officinalis tested inhibited the proliferation of osteogenic precursors, while only the highest doses of Asparagus racemosus and Rubia cordifolia were toxic. On the contrary, Hemidesmus indicus

  19. Temperature effect on behaviour, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and tolerance limit of the post larvae of shrimp Penaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, R; Mohamed, E H Syed; Rao, T Subba; Venugopalanj, V P; Hameed, P Shahul

    2008-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to know the effect of temperature on behaviour, equilibrium loss and tolerance limit of the post larvae of shrimp Penaeus indicus. The experimental temperatures were selected based on the thermal tolerance limit. The experiments were conducted at a specific temperature for duration of 48 hr. The thermal tolerance experiments were conducted in two ways: in direct exposure and in gradually increasing temperature. The upper and lower lethal temperatures for the post larvae of shrimp P. indicus were 43.5 degrees C and 8 degrees C respectively. During tolerance experiment, no mortality was observed at 33 degrees C and 35 degrees C. But at 38 degrees C with gradual increase in temperature, 30% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 24.31 hrs and 25.07 hrs, and the remaining 70% were alive. On the contrary, when the post larvae of shrimps were directly exposed to 38 degrees C, almost 80% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 30.22 hrs and 30.40 hrs, remaining 20% were alive. At 40 degrees C with gradual increase in temperature, 100% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 25.32 hrs and 25.56 hrs. On the other hand, when the post larvae of shrimps were directly exposed to 40 degrees C, 100% loss of equilibrium was observed in 0.37 hrs and mortality in 1.40 hrs. These behavioral responses include an elevated temperature of 12 degrees C, surfacing, dashing against glass wall, jumping out of the water, etc. In general, the rate of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion was found to enhance with increasing temperature. In the present study, it was found that gradual increase in temperature favours the shellfish population to escape from the thermal exposure as compared to direct exposure.

  20. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-507F20 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232941 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-255J15 (Children...'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232940 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-62I11 (Children's... 48 0.79 1 ( A...C232929 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-291F15 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232768 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-460C15 (Childre...n'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232755 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-409J7 (Children...'s... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232753 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-45P20 (Children's... 48 0.7

  2. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K{sub s}, which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M {sub Jup} according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M{sub Jup}).

  3. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K s , which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M Jup according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M Jup ).

  4. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  5. Molecular analysis of clinical isolates previously diagnosed as Mycobacterium intracellulare reveals incidental findings of "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" genotypes in human lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Young; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Han, Seung-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-09-30

    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a major cause of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in many countries. Molecular studies have revealed several new Mycobacteria species that are closely related to M. intracellulare. The aim of this study was to re-identify and characterize clinical isolates from patients previously diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease at the molecular level. Mycobacterial isolates from 77 patients, initially diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease were re-analyzed by multi-locus sequencing and pattern of insertion sequences. Among the 77 isolates, 74 (96 %) isolates were designated as M. intracellulare based on multigene sequence-based analysis. Interestingly, the three remaining strains (4 %) were re-identified as "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" according to distinct molecular phylogenetic positions in rpoB and hsp65 sequence-based typing. In hsp65 sequevar analysis, code 13 was found in the majority of cases and three unreported codes were identified. In 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequevar analysis, all isolates of both species were classified within the Min-A ITS sequevar. Interestingly, four of the M. intracellulare isolates harbored IS1311, a M. avium-specific element. Two of three patients infected with "M. indicus pranii" had persistent positive sputum cultures after antibiotic therapy, indicating the clinical relevance of this study. This analysis highlights the importance of precise identification of clinical isolates genetically close to Mycobacterium species, and suggests that greater attention should be paid to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease caused by "M. indicus pranii".

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: ice and silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Adamson, A.J.; McFadzean, A.D.; Aitken, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra are presented of the 3 μm water-ice and 10 μm silicate dust features for stars in the direction of the extensive dark cloud complex in Taurus. A total of 22 stars were observed at 3 μm, and 16 at 10 μm. Our sample includes both dust-embedded objects and background field stars seen through the cloud. New and previously published results are combined to investigate the correlation of the strengths of both features with visual extinction A v , and we demonstrate the existence of a very close linear correlation between the peak optical depth in the 3 μm feature and A v for field stars. Ice is detected in all cases where A v exceeds a threshold value of 3.3 ± 0.1 mag, a result which provides a firm observational basis for models of volatile mantle growth on grains in the dark cloud environment. In contrast, the silicate feature is rather poorly correlated with A v . (author)

  7. SMA and CARMA observations of young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular outflows provide vital information about the earliest stages in the birth of stars, studying the molecular outflow properties is therefore crucial for understanding how stars form. Brown dwarfs with masses between that of stars and planets are not massive enough to maintain stable hydrogen-burning fusion reactions during most of their lifetime. Their origins are subject to much debate in recent literature because their masses are far below the typical mass where core collapse is expected to occur. Based on Submillimeter Array (SMA and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA observations, we present the first detections of bipolar molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus. Our results demonstrate that the bipolar molecular outflow operates down to brown dwarf masses, occurring in brown dwarfs as a scaled-down version of the universal process seen in young low-mass stars. This demonstrates that brown dwarfs and low-mass stars likely share the same formation mechanism.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M line = 17 M sun pc -1 , reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M sun and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent Γ = 1.2 ± 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  9. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  10. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  11. Radial Velocity Survey of T Tauri Stars in Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Christopher; Mahmud, N.; Huerta, M.; Prato, L.; Johns-Krull, C.; Hartigan, P.; Jaffe, D.

    2009-01-01

    Is the frequency of giant planet companions to young stars similar to that seen around old stars? Is the "brown dwarf desert" a product of how low-mass companion objects form, or of how they evolve? Some models indicate that both giant planets and brown dwarfs should be common at young ages within 3 AU of a primary star, but migration induced by massive disks drive brown dwarfs into the parent stars, leaving behind proportionally more giant planets. Our radial velocity survey of young stars will provide a census of the young giant planet and brown dwarf population in Taurus-Auriga. In this poster we present our progress in quantifying how spurious radial velocity signatures are caused by stellar activity and in developing models to help distinguish between companion induced and spot induced radial velocity variations. Early results stress the importance of complementary observations in both visible light and NIR. We present our technique to determine radial velocities by fitting telluric features and model stellar features to our observed spectra. Finally, we discuss ongoing observations at McDonald Observatory, KPNO, and the IRTF, and several new exoplanet host candidates.

  12. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  14. Implementasi Kebijakan Pembiayaan Pendidikan pada Era Otonomi Daerah (Studi Kasus Implementasi Dana BOS dan BKM Pada Sekolah yang Terpilih di Kabupaten Kebumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuntun Nur Karomah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui implementasi kebijakan pembiayaan pendidikan pada era otonomi daerah studi di Kabupaten Kebumen dilihat dari aspek pelaksanaan, sumber-sumber dan alokasi anggaran pendidikan. Teknik pengumpulan data yaitu observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Uji keabsahan data adalah triangulasi. Hasil penelitian ini adalah pelaksanaan BOS diimplementasikan berdasarkan RAKS dan RAPBS, dan BKM berdasarkan penjaringan dari pihak sekolah. Dana BOS bersumber dari APBN (pemerintah pusat, BKM bersumber dari APBD Kabupaten (pemerintah daerah dan sumbangan sukarela bersumber dari masyarakat. Alokasi dana BOS setiap sekolah berbeda-beda, yang mempengaruhi hal itu adalah perbedaan jenjang sekolah, banyaknya jumlah siswa yang ada di sekolah, perbedaan letak sekolah. Hal ini, karena setiap sekolah mempunyai perbedaan kebutuhan operasional sekolah dan kegiatan-kegiatan yang dilakukan sekolah. Sumbangan sukarela untuk memenuhi kekurangan biaya yang diperlukan sekolah. Alokasi dana BKM tepat sasaran, namun waktu alokasi pencairannya kurang efektif .  This research aims to determine the education funding policy implementation at the regional autonomy in Kebumen, seen from the aspect implementation, resources and the education budget allocation for education. Data collection techniques are observation, interviews, and documentation. Test the validity of the data is triangulation. The results of this study are the implementation of BOS based RAKS and RAPBS, and BKM based networking from the school. BOS funds from the state budget (central government, BKM sourced from district budget (local government and voluntary contributions provided by the community. BOS funding is in each school different, the casue of difference in levels of schooling, the amount of students in the school, the school location. This is because each school has different operational needs and the activities. Voluntary donations for meet defiency from BOS. Allocation of

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  18. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  19. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  1. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  2. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (<1km) lunar subsurface structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  3. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals isolation of imperilled grey nurse shark populations (Carcharias taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, H; Harcourt, R G; Stow, A J

    2009-11-01

    Loss of sharks and other upper-trophic marine predators has sparked worldwide concern for the stability of ocean ecosystems. The grey nurse (ragged-tooth or sand tiger) shark (Carcharias taurus) is Vulnerable on a global scale, Critically Endangered in Australia and presumed extinct in parts of its historical range. We used 193 muscle and fin samples collected from six extant populations to assess global mtDNA and microsatellite diversity and the degree of global population genetic structure. Control region mtDNA diversity was low in every population, and two populations (eastern Australia and Japan) contained only a single mtDNA haplotype. Genetic signatures of recent losses of genetic variation were not yet apparent at microsatellite loci, indicating that this low mtDNA variation is not a result of anthropogenic population declines. Population differentiation was substantial between each population pair except Brazil and South Africa, F(ST) values ranged from 0.050 to 0.699 and 0.100 to 1.00 for microsatellite and mitochondrial data respectively. Bayesian analysis clearly partitioned individuals into five of the populations from which they were sampled. Our data imply a low frequency of immigrant exchange among each of these regions and we suggest that each be recognized as a distinct evolutionary significant unit. In contrast to pelagic species such as whale shark and white shark that may cross ocean basins and where cooperative international efforts are necessary for conservation, grey nurse shark, like many coastal species, need to be managed regionally.

  4. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  5. DISK BRAKING IN YOUNG STARS: PROBING ROTATION IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duy Cuong Nguyen; Jayawardhana, Ray; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Damjanov, Ivana; Brandeker, Alexis; Scholz, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of rotation, disk, and accretion signatures for 144 T Tauri stars in the young (∼2 Myr old) Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions based on multi-epoch high-resolution optical spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In contrast to previous studies in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264, we do not see a clear signature of disk braking in Tau-Aur and Cha I. We find that both accretors and non-accretors have similar distributions of vsin i. This result could be due to different initial conditions, insufficient time for disk braking, or a significant age spread within the regions. The rotational velocities in both regions show a clear mass dependence, with F-K stars rotating on average about twice as fast as M stars, consistent with results reported for other clusters of similar age. Similarly, we find the upper envelope of the observed values of specific angular momentum j varies as M 0.5 for our sample which spans a mass range of ∼0.16-3 M sun . This power law complements previous studies in Orion which estimated j ∝ M 0.25 for ∼ sun . Furthermore, the overall specific angular momentum of this ∼10 Myr population is five times lower than that of non-accretors in our sample, and implies a stellar braking mechanism other than disk braking could be at work. For a subsample of 67 objects with mid-infrared photometry, we examine the connection between accretion signatures and dusty disks: in the vast majority of cases (63/67), the two properties correlate well, which suggests that the timescale of gas accretion is similar to the lifetime of inner disks.

  6. Subsurface density structure of Taurus-Littrow Valley using Apollo 17 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Stanley, S.; Hatch, D.; Carroll, K. A.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) from the Apollo 17 mission was the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon, revealing the local gravity field at Taurus-Littrow Valley (TLV). TLV is hypothesized to be a basalt-filled graben, oriented radial to Serenitatis basin. We implemented modern 3-D modeling techniques using recent high-resolution Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter topography and image data sets to reinvestigate the subsurface structure of TLV and constrain the volcanic and tectonic history of the region. Updated topography led to significant improvements in the accuracy of free-air, Bouguer, and terrain corrections. To determine the underlying geometry for TLV, we tested a range of possible thicknesses, dips, and wall positions for the graben fill. We found that the thickness and position previously determined by Talwani et al. (1973) represent our preferred model for the data, but with walls with dips of 30°, rather than 90°. We found large model misfits due to unmodeled 3-D structure and density anomalies, as well as parameter trade-offs. We performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the parameter trade-offs in an ideal future survey, assuming dominantly 2-D geological structure. At the TGE survey noise level (2.5 mGal), the fill thickness was constrained to ±150 m, the wall angle to ±5∘20∘ and the wall positions to ±1 km of the preferred model. This information can be used to inform the design of future lunar gravimetry experiments in regions similar to TLV.

  7. The GBT 3mm Survey of Infall and Fragmentation of Dense Cores in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin; Goldsmith, Paul; Shirley, Yancy L.; Church, Sara; Frayer, David

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the infall and fragmentation survey toward a complete population of prestellar cores in Taurus that was carried out with the 16-element W-band focal plane array receiver (Argus) on the 100m Green Bank Telescope. The survey is designed take advantage of the 8.5” angular resolution and high sensitivity of Argus on the GBT to trace infall motions in HCN 1-0 & HCO+ 1-0 and find any evidence of fragmentation in N2H+ & NH2D within prestellar cores ranging in size from 0.05 pc to 0.0075 pc (1500 AU), which is a typical size scale of individual planetary systems. The scientific goal is to estimate the fraction of infall candidates from a complete population of prestellar cores and to understand internal velocity structure during the final gravitational collapse before forming stars. The survey started in the winter of 2016 and is to continue to the end of January 2018. So far, we observed 23 prestellar cores out of 65 targets in HCN 1-0 and HCO+ 1-0. We have so far found only two prestellar cores (L1495A-N, L1521D) out of 23 observed that show infall signatures, which is a fraction of infalling cores less than half of that reported by the previous surveys toward the bright, dense cores in various molecular clouds (Lee et al. 2004; Sohn et al. 2007). We also found that L1495A-N has a highly asymmetric infall motion which does not fit to a conventional model of dense core collapse, while L1521D has a slow infall motion similar to L1544.

  8. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  9. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at ∼3'' resolution and an rms of ∼100 mJy beam -1 at ∼0.5 km s -1 . The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO + 3-2, CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 , and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2 22 -1 11 , DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 -2 02 , and 4 14 -3 13 are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH 3 OH 4 21 -3 1 2 and c-C 3 H 2 are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO + , DCN, N 2 H + , and H 2 CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  10. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  11. Efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis and underlying immune responses in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankan Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 9-month-long chemotherapy of tuberculosis often results in poor compliance and emergence of drug-resistant strains. So, improved therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Immunotherapy could be beneficial for the effective management of the disease. Previously we showed the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP when given as prophylactic vaccine in animal models of tuberculosis. METHODS: We sought to investigate whether MIP can be used as an adjunct to the chemotherapy in guinea pig models of tuberculosis. Efficacy of MIP was evaluated when given subcutaneously or by aerosol. RESULTS: MIP-therapy as an adjunct to the chemotherapy was found to be effective in accelerating bacterial killing and improving organ pathology. MIP-immunotherapy resulted in higher numbers of activated antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes in the infected lungs and also modulated the granulomatous response. Early increase in protective Th1 immune response was observed in the immunotherapy group. Following subsequent doses of MIP, decrease in the inflammatory response and increase in the immunosuppressive response was observed, which resulted in the improvement of lung pathology. CONCLUSION: MIP immunotherapy is a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis. Aerosol route of immunotherapy can play a crucial role for inducing immediate local immune response in the lung.

  12. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  13. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  14. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND ρ OPHIUCHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M J , which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10 -5 M sun and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10 -10 M sun . These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  16. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A RESOLVED CENSUS OF MILLIMETER EMISSION FROM TAURUS MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Robert J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Kraus, Adam L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution millimeter-wave dust continuum imaging survey of circumstellar material associated with the individual components of 23 multiple star systems in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster. Combined with previous measurements in the literature, these new data permit a comprehensive look at how the millimeter luminosity (a rough tracer of disk mass) relates to the separation and mass of a stellar companion. Approximately one-third (28%-37%) of the individual stars in multiple systems have detectable millimeter emission, an incidence rate half that for single stars (∼62%) which does not depend on the number of companions. There is a strong, positive correlation between the luminosity and projected separation (a p ) of a stellar pair. Wide pairs (a p > 300 AU) have a similar luminosity distribution as single stars, medium pairs (a p ≈ 30-300 AU) are a factor of five fainter, and close pairs (a p < 30 AU) are ∼5× fainter yet (aside from a small, but notable population of bright circumbinary disks). In most cases, the emission is dominated by a disk around the primary (or a wide tertiary in hierarchical triples), but there is no clear relationship between luminosity and stellar mass ratio. A direct comparison of resolved disk sizes with predictions from tidal truncation models yields mixed results; some disks are much larger than expected given the projected distances of their companions. We suggest that the presence of a stellar companion impacts disk properties at a level comparable to the internal evolution mechanisms that operate in an isolated system, with both the multiple star formation process itself and star-disk tidal interactions likely playing important roles in the evolution of circumstellar material. From the perspective of the mass content of the disk reservoir, we expect that (giant) planet formation is inhibited around the components of close pairs or secondaries, but should be as likely as for single stars around the

  18. CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼80 m s –1 with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

  19. Observations of the polarized emission of Taurus A, Cas A and Cygnus A at 9-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flett, A.M.; Henderson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the total intensity and degree of linear polarization of the supernova remnants Taurus A and Cas A and of the radiogalaxy Cygnus A have been made at lambda 9 mm using the 25-m radiotelescope at Chilbolton. A new experimental technique involving Faraday rotation of the incoming polarized radiation was employed. Taurus A shows the expected strong and uniform polarization over the central area investigated, and Cas A the ring-like distribution observed at other wavelengths. The beamwidth of 1.5 arcmin resolves the two major components of Cygnus A and it is found that the polarization in the E component has a position angle of 53 +- 3 0 and P = 7.5 +- 1.2 per cent, and the W component a position angle of 133 +- 3 0 and P = 9.6 +-1.1 per cent. When these results are combined with earlier data at longer wavelengths, the large rotation measure of the E component and the fall of the degree of polarization of the W component at short wavelength are further established. (author)

  20. Evidence for detection of 1--10 MeV emission from the Taurus region in 1971 August

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, D.E.; Ling, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Taurus region was scanned in mid-1971 during three balloon flights with an actively shielded NaI detector sensitive between 0.2 and 10 MeV. Below 1 MeV, these observations yielded measurements and upper limits consistent with extensions of the X-ray power laws of 0.0035 (E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 2 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 and 0.0008(E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 1 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 for the Crab Nebula and NP 0532, respectively. Above 1 MeV an apparent unpulsed flux, enhanced well above the extrapolated Crab Nebula power law, was observed during the 1971 August 8 flight; it was the most sensitive of the three. For the NP 0532 above 1 MeV on the same date, the measured upper limit of a factor of 8 above the extrapolated power law excludes only the possibility of a large flare-up. The possibility that the observation reported here for 1971 August 8 was a purely instrumental effect, or was produced by environmental radiations, is thoroughly examined, with negative results. If of cosmic origin, the emission must have been short-term (approx.days, months), because other observations in 1973 and 1974 have shown null results. The possibility of variable MeV range emission is discussed in the context of other reported variable emissions in recent years from the Crab and the Taurus region

  1. Gene : CBRC-TTRU-01-1304 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| PREDICTED: similar to vomeronasal 1 receptor, K1 [Bos taurus] 2e-45 50% MILMHLTLANIMTILFRGIQDAMSSFGIWPIMG...DIGCKSLLYIHRVTQGISLCTISVLNTFQAIRISPRNSKRAWLKPQISTCILPSFLFFWVINMLIYFWIITNNKAVTNASAAQPGYSLAYCTTKQGGYRVSAVFQSAMLI*NFLCINLMIWTSGYMVMLLYNHHKTVQNLRGNNFSPRLSPETKLPTPFCS ...

  2. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Sàlim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  3. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  5. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  6. Possible maternal offloading of metals in the plasma, uterine and capsule fluid of pregnant ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) on the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kristina; Chuturgoon, Anil; Cliff, Geremy; Singh, Sanil; Ellis, Megan; Otway, Nicholas; Vosloo, Andre; Gregory, Michael

    2017-07-01

    We studied the possible metal offloading onto the progeny of three pregnant female ragged-tooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) (C. taurus). The presences of five metals, i.e. aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) were validated by mass spectrometry in the maternal plasma as well as the intracapsular and uterine fluids (UF) in which embryos develop. Metals were ranked in a decreasing concentration as follows: Plasma: As > Al > Se > Pb > Cd; ICF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb and UF: As > Se > Al > Cd > Pb. As was present in the highest concentration in all three sharks. Al, Pb and Cd were found to be the highest within the plasma, while concentrations of Se were similar in all three fluids. These results indicate that C. taurus embryos are exposed to metals during early development, but the impact of this exposure remains unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to confirm the presence of metals in the fluids that surround the developing C. taurus embryos, a species that is already listed as vulnerable.

  7. Bekalking en toevoegen van nutriënten; evaluatie van de effecten op de vitaliteit van het bos; een veldonderzoek naar boomgroei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, R.J.A.M.; Engels, M.E.; Knotters, M.; Schraven, R.; Boertjes, M.

    2006-01-01

    Dit rapport doet verslag van een deelonderzoek uit de Evaluatie van effectgerichte maatregelen in multifunctionele bossen 2004-2005 en is gericht op de effecten van de maatregelen bemes-ting en bekalking in bossen als overbruggingsmaatregel in het kader van het Overlevingsplan Bos en Natuur (OBN).

  8. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-target activity of Hemidesmus indicus decoction against innovative HIV-1 drug targets and characterization of Lupeol mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Mandrone, Manuela; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Carli, Ilaria; Distinto, Simona; Corona, Angela; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Piano, Dario; Tacchini, Massimo; Maccioni, Elias; Cottiglia, Filippo; Saccon, Elisa; Poli, Ferruccio; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2017-08-31

    Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals, there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors. Hence, here we tested the pentacyclic triterpene Lupeol, showing that it inhibits the HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H function. We then performed combination studies of Lupeol and the active site RNase H inhibitor RDS1759, and blind docking calculations, demonstrating that Lupeol binds to an HIV-1 RT allosteric pocket. On the bases of these results and searching for potential multitarget active drug supplement, we also investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of Hemidesmus indicus, an Ayurveda medicinal plant containing Lupeol. Results supported the potential of this plant as a valuable multitarget active drug source. In fact, by virtue of its numerous active metabolites, H. indicus was able to inhibit not only the RT-associated RNase H function, but also the HIV-1 RT-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and the cellular α-glucosidase. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. VLBA DETERMINATION OF THE DISTANCE TO NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS. III. HP TAU/G2 AND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Rosa M.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Using multiepoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations, we have measured the trigonometric parallax of the weak-line T Tauri star HP Tau/G2 in Taurus. The best fit yields a distance of 161.2 ± 0.9 pc, suggesting that the eastern portion of Taurus (where HP Tau/G2 is located) corresponds to the far side of the complex. Previous VLBA observations have shown that T Tau, to the south of the complex, is at an intermediate distance of about 147 pc, whereas the region around L1495 corresponds to the near side at roughly 130 pc. Our observations of only four sources are still too coarse to enable a reliable determination of the three-dimensional structure of the entire Taurus star-forming complex. They do demonstrate, however, that VLBA observations of multiple sources in a given star-forming region have the potential not only to provide a very accurate estimate of its mean distance, but also to reveal its internal structure. The proper motion measurements obtained simultaneously with the parallax allowed us to study the kinematics of the young stars in Taurus. Combining the four observations available so far, we estimate the peculiar velocity of Taurus to be about 10.6 km s -1 almost completely in a direction parallel to the Galactic plane. Using our improved distance measurement, we have refined the determination of the position on the H-R diagram of HP Tau/G2, and of two other members of the HP Tau group (HP Tau itself and HP Tau/G3). Most pre-main-sequence evolutionary models predict significantly discrepant ages (by 5 Myr) for those three stars-expected to be coeval. Only in the models of Palla and Stahler do they fall on a single isochrone (at 3 Myr).

  11. Large-scale structure of the Taurus molecular complex. II. Analysis of velocity fluctuations and turbulence. III. Methods for turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, S.C.; Dickman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The velocity autocorrelation function (ACF) of observed spectral line centroid fluctuations is noted to effectively reproduce the actual ACF of turbulent gas motions within an interstellar cloud, thereby furnishing a framework for the study of the large scale velocity structure of the Taurus dark cloud complex traced by the present C-13O J = 1-0 observations of this region. The results obtained are discussed in the context of recent suggestions that widely observed correlations between molecular cloud widths and cloud sizes indicate the presence of a continuum of turbulent motions within the dense interstellar medium. Attention is then given to a method for the quantitative study of these turbulent motions, involving the mapping of a source in an optically thin spectral line and studying the spatial correlation properties of the resulting velocity centroid map. 61 references

  12. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  13. Discovery of a bright microlensing event with planetary features towards the Taurus region: a super-Earth planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Licchelli, D.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Strafella, F.; Katysheva, N.; Shugarov, S.

    2018-05-01

    The transient event labelled as TCP J05074264+2447555 recently discovered towards the Taurus region was quickly recognized to be an ongoing microlensing event on a source located at distance of only 700-800 pc from Earth. Here, we show that observations with high sampling rate close to the time of maximum magnification revealed features that imply the presence of a binary lens system with very low-mass ratio components. We present a complete description of the binary lens system, which host an Earth-like planet with most likely mass of 9.2 ± 6.6 M⊕. Furthermore, the source estimated location and detailed Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to classify the event as due to the closest lens system, being at a distance of ≃380 pc and mass ≃0.25 M⊙.

  14. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE BOVINOS DAS RAÇAS JERSEY E GIR À ACIDOSE LÁCTICA RUMINAL: II - ACIDOSE METABÓLICAE METABOLIZAÇÃO DO LACTATO-L SUSCEPTIBILITY OF JERSEY AND GIR STEERS TO RUMEN LACTIC ACIDOSIS: II - METABOLIC ACIDOSIS AND L-LACTATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Akio Maruta

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro garrotes Jersey (J (Bos taurus e quatro Gir (G (Bos indicus foram utilizados para comparar a susceptibilidade de zebuínos e taurinos à acidose láctica ruminal (ALR. Neste trabalho, acompanhou-se o grau da acidose metabólica (AM e a metabolização do lactato-L. A ALR foi induzida com a administração de sacarose intraruminal. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas nos seguintes momentos: zero, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 e 24 horas. Foram determinadas as concentrações de lactato total, de seus isômeros L e D e o perfil hemogasométrico. Nos momentos mais críticos observados (14ªh a 18ªh, a AM foi severa em ambas as raças, porém, ao término do experimento, esta passou a grau moderado nos garrotes G, mantendo-se severa nos J. Os animais J absorveram, do rúmen, maiores quantidades de lactato-D, o qual apresentou correlação negativa com o pH sangüíneo (r = - 0,78. Por outro lado, o lactato-L foi mais absorvido e utilizado nos bovinos G, contribuindo para a restauração parcial do equilíbrio ácido-básico e gerando alterações nas pCO2 e pO2. Os garrotes zebuínos da raça Gir apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à AM que os taurinos da raça Jersey.In order to compare the susceptibility to acute rumen lactic acidosis (RLA, four Jersey (J (Bos taurus and four Gir (G (Bos indicus steers were used to evaluate the degree of metabolic acidosis (MA and the metabolism of L-lactate during the RLA. The RLA was induced by the administration of sucrose into the rumen. Blood samples were collected at following times: zero, 14th,16th, 18th, 20th, 22nd and 24th h. Total lactic acid and its isomers, and blood gas determination were measured. At the most critical moments (14th to 18th h the MA was severe in both breeds, but the MA became moderate in the G steers and remained severe in the J steers at the end of the trial. Higher amounts of D-lactate was absorbed from the rumen to the blood of the J steers; the higher the D-lactate plasma level, the

  15. Perfil de ácidos grasos en carne de toretes Europeo x Cebú finalizados en pastoreo y en corral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Montero-Lagunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos en grasa intramuscular de toretes encastados de Europeo (Bos taurus con Cebú (Bos indicus, finalizados en pastoreo y en corral. Cincuenta y dos toretes se analizaron con un ANDEVA en un arreglo factorial 2 x 2. La mitad de los animales fueron finalizados en pastoreo , siendo el pasto estrella de África [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum Pilg.] la base de la alimentación, y la otra mitad en corral alimentados con 65 % de maíz, 10 % de pasta de soya, 20 % de heno, 4 % de sebo, 1 % de urea y minerales. La mitad de cada grupo consistió de toretes con más de ¾ B. taurus, y la otra mitad mayormente ¾ B. indicus . Los toretes se sacrificaron con 500 kg de peso. Se tomaron muestras del músculo Longissimus dorsi de la región de la 12a costilla. Los lípidos se analizaron por cromatografía de gases. El ácido graso más abundante (mg/g de grasa fue el C18,1 (381±16.4 seguido por el C16,0 (250±5.3 y el C18,0 (201±8.6, El contenido de C18:2, 9-cis, 11-trans fue de 6.1±0.67. C14,0 y C16,0 fueron mayores en corral, y C18,0 fue más alto en pastoreo (P<0.01. C14,0, C16,0, C18,2, C18,3 y CLA total fueron mayores (P<0.05 en B. indicus y C18,0 fue más alto (P<0.05 en B. taurus. Se concluye que el perfil de ácidos grasos en toretes cruzados de Europeo por Cebú es diferente si es finalizado en pastoreo o en corral y por el nivel de encaste.

  16. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez; De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions

  18. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez [AEGORA Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel [Fac. de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 1, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  19. Body condition and suckling as factors influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, F; Ahuja, C

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anestrus is a main factor limiting reproductive efficiency in cattle, particularly in Bos indicus and Bos taurus/Bos indicus cows from tropical regions, because it prevents achievement of a 12 month calving interval. During anestrus, ovulation does not occur despite ovarian follicular development, because growing follicles do not mature. Although many factors affect postpartum anestrus, nutrition and suckling are the major factors influencing the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, as they affect hypothalamic, pituitary and ovarian activity and thus inhibit follicular development. Under-nutrition contributes to prolonged postpartum anestrus, particularly among cows dependent upon forages to meet their feed requirements and it apparently interacts with genetic, environmental or management factors to influence the duration of anestrus. The nutritional status or balance of an animal is evaluated through body condition score (BCS), as it reflects the body energy reserves available for metabolism, growth, lactation and activity. There is a converse relationship between energy balance and time to resumption of postpartum ovarian activity; inadequate nutrient intake results in loss of weight and BCS and finally cessation of estrous cycles. Suckling interferes with hypothalamic release of GnRH, provoking a marked suppression in pulsatile LH release, resulting in extended postpartum anestrus. The effects of suckling on regulation of tonic LH release are determined by the ability of the cow to identify a calf as her own or as unrelated. Vision and olfaction play critical roles in the development of the maternal-offspring bond, allowing the cow to identify her own calf, and abolition of both senses attenuates the negative effects of suckling on LH secretion. Thus, the maternal-offspring bond is essential for prolonged postpartum suckling-induced anovulation, and the suppressive influence of suckling is independent of neurosensory pathways within the

  20. Compression distance can discriminate animals by genetic profile, build relationship matrices and estimate breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Kijas, James W; Reverter, Antonio

    2015-10-13

    Genetic relatedness is currently estimated by a combination of traditional pedigree-based approaches (i.e. numerator relationship matrices, NRM) and, given the recent availability of molecular information, using marker genotypes (via genomic relationship matrices, GRM). To date, GRM are computed by genome-wide pair-wise SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) correlations. We describe a new estimate of genetic relatedness using the concept of normalised compression distance (NCD) that is borrowed from Information Theory. Analogous to GRM, the resultant compression relationship matrix (CRM) exploits numerical patterns in genome-wide allele order and proportion, which are known to vary systematically with relatedness. We explored properties of the CRM in two industry cattle datasets by analysing the genetic basis of yearling weight, a phenotype of moderate heritability. In both Brahman (Bos indicus) and Tropical Composite (Bos taurus by Bos indicus) populations, the clustering inferred by NCD was comparable to that based on SNP correlations using standard principal component analysis approaches. One of the versions of the CRM modestly increased the amount of explained genetic variance, slightly reduced the 'missing heritability' and tended to improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in both populations when compared to both NRM and GRM. Finally, a sliding window-based application of the compression approach on these populations identified genomic regions influenced by introgression of taurine haplotypes. For these two bovine populations, CRM reduced the missing heritability and increased the amount of explained genetic variation for a moderately heritable complex trait. Given that NCD can sensitively discriminate closely related individuals, we foresee CRM having possible value for estimating breeding values in highly inbred populations.

  1. Factors affecting the first service conception rate of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M A R; Das, Z C; Bhattacharjee, J; Rahman, M M; Islam, M M; Haque, M A; Parrish, J J; Shamsuddin, M

    2013-06-01

    The successful outcome of an insemination is a combination of both male and female fertility-linked factors. We investigated the first service conception rate of cows at artificial insemination (AI) in the smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh. Frozen straws were prepared from ejaculates of Bos indicus (n = 7) and Bos indicus × Bos taurus (n = 7) AI bulls. Fertility was determined from 6101 first services in cows that were performed by 18 technicians in four regions between April 2004 and March 2005. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation between 60 and 90 days post-insemination. The Asian version of Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA ASIA) was used for bulls-, cows- and AI-related data recording, and later retrieved for analysis. The mean ± SD number of inseminations performed from individual bulls and their conception rates were 436.0 ± 21.6 and 50.7 ± 1.9%, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated body condition scores (BCS), heat detection signs, months of AI and their interactions had greatest effects (odds ratios: 1.24-16.65, p conception rate in cows. Fertility differed (p conception rate of 53.6%, 48.8% and 50.1%, respectively (p Conception rate between technicians ranged between 43.4% and 58.6% (p < 0.05). The days interval from calving to first service (overall mean ± SD = 153.4 ± 80.6) had relationship (p < 0.001) with BCS, months of previous calving and parity of the cows. Fertility at AI in smallholder farms can be improved by training farmers on nutrition and reproductive management of the cows. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Pan-STARRS1 Proper-motion Survey for Young Brown Dwarfs in Nearby Star-forming Regions. I. Taurus Discoveries and a Reddening-free Classification Method for Ultracool Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Liu, Michael C.; Best, William M. J.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2018-05-01

    We are conducting a proper-motion survey for young brown dwarfs in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud based on the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey. Our search uses multi-band photometry and astrometry to select candidates, and is wider (370 deg2) and deeper (down to ≈3 M Jup) than previous searches. We present here our search methods and spectroscopic follow-up of our high-priority candidates. Since extinction complicates spectral classification, we have developed a new approach using low-resolution (R ≈ 100) near-infrared spectra to quantify reddening-free spectral types, extinctions, and gravity classifications for mid-M to late-L ultracool dwarfs (≲100–3 M Jup in Taurus). We have discovered 25 low-gravity (VL-G) and the first 11 intermediate-gravity (INT-G) substellar (M6–L1) members of Taurus, constituting the largest single increase of Taurus brown dwarfs to date. We have also discovered 1 new Pleiades member and 13 new members of the Perseus OB2 association, including a candidate very wide separation (58 kau) binary. We homogeneously reclassify the spectral types and extinctions of all previously known Taurus brown dwarfs. Altogether our discoveries have thus far increased the substellar census in Taurus by ≈40% and added three more L-type members (≲5–10 M Jup). Most notably, our discoveries reveal an older (>10 Myr) low-mass population in Taurus, in accord with recent studies of the higher-mass stellar members. The mass function appears to differ between the younger and older Taurus populations, possibly due to incompleteness of the older stellar members or different star formation processes.

  3. Efeito da idade de desmame e suplementação no desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte Effect of weaning age and supplementation on beef heifers growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Salgueiro Pio de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de 47 novilhas de corte cruzas Bos taurus x Bos indicus até os dois anos de idade, desmamadas precocemente (DP, com idade média de 91 dias e peso mínimo de 70 kg de peso vivo, ou desmamadas à idade convencional (DC, com média de 170 dias de idade e 130,3 kg, suplementadas (Su ou não (NSu com suplemento comercial com 14% de proteína bruta e 75% de NDT, durante 91 dias no primeiro inverno pós-desmame. Os animais do DP e o grupo não-suplementado apresentaram menores pesos vivos até um ano de idade. A idade do desmame não influenciou a taxa de prenhez das novilhas (77,3 e 72%, para o DP e DC, respectivamente. A suplementação no primeiro inverno não influenciou o desempenho das novilhas aos dois anos de idade. O desmame precoce não afetou o desenvolvimento e a fertilidade das novilhas aos dois anos de idade, quando comparado ao desmame à idade convencional.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of 47 Bos taurus x Bos indicus beef heifers until two years of age. Heifers were early weaned (EW with average age of 91 days and minimum of 70 kg of liveweight or weaned at conventional age with average of 170 days and average liveweight of 130.3 kg (CW, supplemented (Su or not (NSu with concentrate containing 14% crude protein and 75% total digestible nutrients (TDN during 91 days in the first winter. The early weaning and the no supplemented group were lightier until one year of age. Weaning age did not affect pregnancy rate (77.3% and 72% to EW and CW, respectively. The supplementation during the first winter did not affect the heifers performance until two years of age. Early weaning did not affected the growth and the fertility of heifers until two years of age when compaired with the weaning at the conventional age.

  4. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  5. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  6. Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2006-06-15

    The present study reports the isolation and purification of lupeol acetate from the methanolic root extract of Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA(2) activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate. Snake venom neutralization by lupeol acetate and its possible mechanism of action has been discussed.

  7. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  8. Morphometry and granulosa cells number of preantral ovarian follicles from bovine (“Bos indicus” preserved at 4ºC in saline solution for different periods of time Morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais de bovino ("Bos indicus" preservados a 4ºC em solução salina por diferentes períodos de tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélder Silva Luna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the objective to evaluate the effect of cooling at 4 ºC, at different periods of time, in the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of preantral ovarian follicles of bovines. Ovaries were gotten from slaughterhouse, divided in 4 parts and distributed in 4 groups: control (without cooling and groups cooled for 12, 24 and 48 h in saline solution (NaCl 0.9% at 4 ºC. After treatment, samples were fixed in Carnoy and forwarded to classic histology techniques. The follicles were analyzed with optic and ocular microscope with micrometric scale. Total of 340 follicles were analyzed, which 242 were primordial and 98 primary. Results indicated that the primordial and primary follicles when cooled in saline solution at 4 ºC did not present variation in oocyte and diameter and amount of cells of the granulosa when comparing the control group to 12, 24 and 48 h groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, the temperature at 4 ºC does not influence the morphometry of the follicles and the amount of the granulosa cells.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do resfriamento a 4 ºC, em diferentes períodos de tempo, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais de ovário bovino. Os ovários foram obtidos em abatedouro, divididos em 4 partes e distribuídos em 4 grupos: controle (sem resfriamento e grupos resfriados por 12, 24 e 48 h em solução salina (NaCl a 0,9% a 4 ºC. Após tratamento, as amostras foram fixadas em Carnoy e encaminhadas para rotina histológica clássica. Para análise folicular, utilizou-se microscópio óptico e ocular com escala micrométrica. Foram analisados um total de 340 folículos, sendo 242 primordiais e 98 primários. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os folículos primordiais e primários, quando resfriados em solução salina a 4 ºC, não apresentam variação em sua morfometria e quantidade de células da granulosa, quando comparado o grupo controle com grupos 12, 24 e 48 h (P > 0,05. Conclui-se que o resfriamento, à temperatura de 4 ºC, não influencia na morfometria folicular e quantidade de células da granulosa.

  9. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  10. The nature of the high-velocity gas in NGC 1275: first results with TAURUS-2 on the William Herschel telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Taylor, K.; Pedlar, A.; Ghataure, H.S.; Penston, M.V.; Robinson, A.

    1990-01-01

    Observations with a new imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, TAURUS-2, show that there is a close spatial association between the two systems of emission-line gas in the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A, 3C84). It therefore seems likely that, as first suggested by previous authors, we are witnessing two galaxies in the process of colliding. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with all available observations of this object. (author)

  11. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  12. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  13. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-15-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-15-0022 ref|NP_001073692.1| solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters...), member 3 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI26742.1| Solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters), member 3 [Bos taurus] NP_001073692.1 9e-68 49% ...

  16. Gene : CBRC-PABE-07-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-82 48% ref|XP_001253185.1| PREDICTED: similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor [Bos taurus] ref|XP_00...1250982.1| PREDICTED: similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor [Bos taurus] 1e-130 78% MINDSYFSGFILLGFT...QIFIDVALYSVECILLAMMSCDRLNAICKPLHHMTIMNLQLCQGLVVISWVVGVINCIIPSPYAMSLPRSMEVTTFAMCLIIVLVPLLLILVSYGFIAVAVLKIKSAA

  17. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-07-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-79 50% ref|XP_001253185.1| PREDICTED: similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor [Bos taurus] ref|XP_00...1250982.1| PREDICTED: similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor [Bos taurus] 1e-120 76% MINDSRFSGFILLGFT...QLFIDVALYSVECILLSMMSYDRLNAICKPLHHMTIMNLQLCQGLVVISWIVGVINCIIPSPYAMSLPRSMEVTTFAMCLIIVLVPLLLILVSYGFIAVAVLKIKSAAGRQKAFGTCSSHLIVVSIFYGTVRYMYTQPGNSPSQDEGKLLHIFYSIFTPTLNPSH ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0499 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0499 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-175 86% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0106 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0106 ref|NP_001071419.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member I...X [Bos taurus] gb|AAI22754.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member IX [Bos taurus] NP_001071419.1 0.0 87% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2314 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-161 89% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-0894 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-0894 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-176 84% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-05-0235 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-05-0235 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-169 83% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-23-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-23-0005 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-120 65% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0428 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0428 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-149 76% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0771 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0771 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-180 87% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1596 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1596 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 0.0 89% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1190 ref|NP_001071419.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member I...X [Bos taurus] gb|AAI22754.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member IX [Bos taurus] NP_001071419.1 0.0 96% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0287 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0287 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 0.0 94% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1487 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1487 ref|NP_001033642.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member V...II [Bos taurus] gb|AAI11285.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VII [Bos taurus] NP_001033642.1 1e-179 87% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1010 ref|NP_001071419.1| progestin and adipoQ receptor family member I...X [Bos taurus] gb|AAI22754.1| Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member IX [Bos taurus] NP_001071419.1 0.0 92% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0672 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0672 ref|NP_001039933.1| protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons... 2 [Bos taurus] gb|AAI14746.1| Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 [Bos taurus] NP_001039933.1 1e-178 74% ...

  12. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bai

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx 1 and stx 2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96% stx 1 and/or stx 2-positive samples, 85 (61.59% were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a and 5 stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, stx 2c, stx 2d and stx 2g were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfA O157/OI-141, lpfA O157/OI-154, lpfA O113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC.

  13. Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus: genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females.

  14. The Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS). IV. Distance, Depth, and Kinematics of the Taurus Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Phillip A. B.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-Léon, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina; Dzib, Sergio A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Hartmann, Lee; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Torres, Rosa M.; Rivera, Juana L.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John J.; Heyer, Mark

    2018-05-01

    We present new trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of young stellar objects in the Taurus molecular cloud complex from observations collected with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of the Gould’s Belt Distances Survey. We detected 26 young stellar objects and derived trigonometric parallaxes for 18 stars with an accuracy of 0.3% to a few percent. We modeled the orbits of six binaries and determined the dynamical masses of the individual components in four of these systems (V1023 Tau, T Tau S, V807 Tau, and V1000 Tau). Our results are consistent with the first trigonometric parallaxes delivered by the Gaia satellite and reveal the existence of significant depth effects. We find that the central portion of the dark cloud Lynds 1495 is located at d =129.5 ± 0.3 pc, while the B216 clump in the filamentary structure connected to it is at d = 158.1 ± 1.2 pc. The closest and remotest stars in our sample are located at d = 126.6 ± 1.7 pc and d = 162.7 ± 0.8 pc, yielding a distance difference of about 36 pc. We also provide a new distance estimate for HL Tau that was recently imaged. Finally, we compute the spatial velocity of the stars with published radial velocity and investigate the kinematic properties of the various clouds and gas structures in this region.

  15. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  16. Dynamical Timescale of Pre-collapse Evolution Inferred from Chemical Distribution in the Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1) Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Bourke, Tyler L. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); II, Neal J. Evans, E-mail: yunhee.choi@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present observations and analyses of the low-mass star-forming region, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1). CS ( J = 2–1)/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ( J = 1–0) and C{sup 17}O ( J = 2–1)/C{sup 18}O ( J = 2–1) were observed with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory, respectively. In addition, Spitzer infrared data and 1.2 mm continuum data observed with Max-Planck Millimetre Bolometer are used. We also perform chemical modeling to investigate the relative molecular distributions of the TMC-1 filament. Based on Spitzer observations, there is no young stellar object along the TMC-1 filament, while five Class II and one Class I young stellar objects are identified outside the filament. The comparison between column densities calculated from dust continuum and C{sup 17}O 2–1 line emission shows that CO is depleted much more significantly in the ammonia peak than in the cyanopolyyne peak, while the column densities calculated from the dust continuum are similar at the two peaks. N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not depleted much in either peak. According to our chemical calculation, the differential chemical distribution in the two peaks can be explained by different timescales required to reach the same density, i.e., by different dynamical processes.

  17. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  18. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui; Liu, Zhengfei

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China's yak herds. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China July 2011-July 2012 to estimate the prevalence of BoHV-1 antibody in yak herds. We collected 1,840 serum samples from yaks on the QTP, in Tibet (988 yaks), Qinghai (475 yaks), and Sichuan (377 yaks) Provinces. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 381 (38.6%) of the Tibetan samples, 212 (44.6%) of the Qinghai samples, and 105 (27.9%) of the Sichuan samples had detectable antibodies to BoHV-1. Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

  19. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Fascioliasis in Yaks, Bos grunniens, from Three Counties of Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens , from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica . The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.

  20. REVIEW: The Characteristics of Genetic Resource of Bali Cattle (Bos-bibos banteng and the Alternative of It's Conservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.

  1. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Somavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.

  2. A Novel Bromophenol Derivative BOS-102 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells via ROS-Mediated PI3K/Akt and the MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Long Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromophenol is a type of natural marine product. It has excellent biological activities, especially anticancer activities. In our study of searching for potent anticancer drugs, a novel bromophenol derivative containing indolin-2-one moiety, 3-(4-(3-([1,4′-bipiperidin]-1′-ylpropoxy-3-bromo-5-methoxybenzylidene-N-(4-bromophenyl-2-oxoindoline-5-sulfonamide (BOS-102 was synthesized, which showed excellent anticancer activities on human lung cancer cell lines. A study of the mechanisms indicated that BOS-102 could significantly block cell proliferation in human A549 lung cancer cells and effectively induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via targeting cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4. BOS-102 could also induce apoptosis, including activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm, and leading cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Further research revealed that BOS-102 deactivated the PI3K/Akt pathway and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway resulting in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which indicated that BOS-102 has the potential to develop into an anticancer drug.

  3. Identification and characterization of variants in the 5' flanking region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... productivity, reduction in costs, enrichment of milk compositions and extension of ... from six bovine species, 18 samples of Leiqiong cattle (Bos indicus) ..... growth hormone receptor genes with blood serum insulin-like growth.

  4. doublesex alters aggressiveness as a function of social context and sex in the polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Oliver M; Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P

    2017-10-01

    Despite sharing nearly the same genome, individuals within the same species can vary drastically in both morphology and behaviour as a function of developmental stage, sex or developmental plasticity. Thus, regulatory processes must exist that enable the stage-, sex- or environment-specific expression of traits and their integration during ontogeny, yet exactly how trait complexes are co-regulated and integrated is poorly understood. In this study, we explore the developmental genetic basis of the regulation and integration of environment-dependent sexual dimorphism in behaviour and morphology in the horn-polyphenic dung beetle Onthophagus taurus through the experimental manipulation of the transcription factor doublesex (dsx). The gene dsx plays a profound role in the developmental regulation of morphological differences between sexes as well as alternative male morphs by inhibiting horn formation in females but enabling nutrition-responsive horn growth in males. Specifically, we investigated whether experimental downregulation of dsx expression affects male and female aggressive and courtship behaviours in two social contexts: interactions between individuals of the same sex and interactions between males and females. We find that dsx downregulation significantly alters aggressiveness in both males and females, yet does so differently for both sexes as a function of social context: dsx RNAi males exhibited elevated aggression towards males but showed reduced aggression towards females, whereas dsx RNAi females became more aggressive towards males, while their aggressiveness towards other females was unaffected. Moreover, we document unexpectedly high levels of female aggression independent of dsx treatment in both wild-type and control-injected individuals. Lastly, we found no effects of dsx RNAi on courtship and mating behaviours. We discuss the role of dsx in the regulation of sex-specific and plastic behaviours, the unexpectedly high levels of aggression of

  5. Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformities in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, in public aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Huber, Daniel R; Berzins, Ilze K

    2012-12-01

    A number of captive sandtiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria have developed spinal deformities over the past decade, ranging in severity from mild curvature to spinal fracture and severe subluxation. To determine the frequency and etiologic basis of this disease, U.S. public aquaria participated in a two-stage epidemiologic study of resident sharks: 1) a history and husbandry survey and 2) hematology, clinical chemistry, and radiography conducted during health exams. Eighteen aquaria submitted data, samples, or both from 73 specimens, including 19 affected sharks (26%). Sharks caught off the Rhode Island coast or by pound net were smaller at capture and demonstrated a higher prevalence of deformity than did larger sharks caught from other areas via hook and line. Relative to healthy sharks, affected sharks were deficient in zinc, potassium, and vitamins C and E. Capture and transport results lead to two likely etiologic hypotheses: 1) that the pound-net capture process induces spinal trauma that becomes exacerbated over time in aquarium environments or 2) that small (and presumably young) sharks caught by pound net are exposed to disease-promoting conditions (including diet or habitat deficiencies) in aquaria during the critical growth phase of their life history. The last hypothesis is further supported by nutrient deficiencies among affected sharks documented in this study; potassium, zinc, and vitamin C play critical roles in proper cartilage-collagen development and maintenance. These correlative findings indicate that public aquaria give careful consideration to choice of collection methods and size at capture and supplement diets to provide nutrients required for proper development and maintenance of cartilaginous tissue.

  6. Identification and isolation of gene differentially expressed on scrotal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of BLAST with GenBank show that three genes or expressed sequence tag (ESTs) were unknown, and there were eight sequences highly identified to be Bos taurus mRNA for proline-rich protein P-B and other sequences were B. taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene, B. taurus similar to F-box only protein 21 isoform 2, ...

  7. Development and Application of a Sensitive, Second Antibody Format Enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for Estimation of Plasma FSH in Mithun (Bos frontalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mohan; Baruah, Kishore Kumar; Prakash, B S

    2016-01-01

    Mithun (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild rare ruminant species. A simple sensitive enzymeimmunoassay suitable for assaying FSH in the blood plasma of mithun is not available which thereby limits our ability to understand this species reproductive processes. Therefore, the aim of this article was to develop a simple and sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for estimation of FSH in mithun plasma and apply the assay to understand the estrous cycle and superovulatory process in this species. To accomplish this goal, biotinylated FSH was bridged between streptavidin-peroxidase and immobilized antiserum in a competitive assay. Forty microlitre mithun plasma was used directly in the EIA. The FSH standards were prepared in hormone free plasma and ranged from 5-1280 pg/well/40 μL. The sensitivity of EIA was 5 pg/well FSH, which corresponds to 0.125 ng/mL plasma and the 50% relative binding sensitivity was 90 pg/well/40 μL. Although the shape of the standard curve was not influenced by different plasma volumes viz. 40 and 80 μL, a slight drop in the OD450 was observed with the increasing volume of plasma. Parallelism tests conducted between the endogenous mithun FSH and bovine FSH standards showed good homology between them. Plasma FSH estimated using the developed EIA and commercially available FSH EIA kit in the same samples were correlated (r = 0.98) and showed linearity. Both the Intra- and inter-assay CV were below 6%. Recovery of known concentrations of added FSH showed linearity (r = 0.99). The developed EIA was further validated biologically by estimating FSH in cyclic cows for the entire estrous cycle, in mithun heifers administered with GnRH analogues and in mithun cows during superovulatory treatment with FSH. In conclusion, the EIA developed for FSH determination in mithun blood plasma is simple and highly sensitive for estimation of mithun FSH in all physiological conditions.

  8. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... indicus x taurus direct heterosis effects on all weight traits were greater than .... An important advantage of partitioning breed effects as described above is .... value-unit of products under varying management and marketing ...

  9. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  10. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  11. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  14. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, M.J.; Msanga, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  15. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  16. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M J [Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Msanga, Y N [Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Tanga (Tanzania)

    1999-07-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author) 22 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  18. EFFECT OF FSH β-SUB UNIT AND FSHR GENES POLYMORPHISMS ON SUPEROVULATORY RESPONSE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH is a pituitary expressed glycoprotein hormone that regulatesreproduction in mammals which composed of α and β-sub unit. The β-sub unit dictates its bindingspecificity with their receptor (FSHR. This study aimed to identify polymorphism of FSH β-sub unitand FSHR genes, and its effect to superovulatory response traits on superovulated cows. Study was doneon 32 cows including Angus, Friesian Holstein (FH, Limousin, Simmental and Brahman in CipelangLivestock Embryo Center. Cows used have been treated superovulation and mated by artificialinsemination. Superovulation response (SR, ovulation rate (OR, fertilization percentage (FP andviable transfer embryo percentage (VP were analyzed to investigate the effect of FSH β-sub unit andFSHR polymorphism. Allele frequency of FSH β-sub unit|PstI and FSH|AluI were opposite withinspecies. Mostly B allele and C allele for FSH β-sub unit and FSHR respectively have a high number inBos taurus species while those were in contrast in Bos indicus species. The highest heterozygosity wasfound in FH cattle (0.250 for FSH β-sub unit and Brahman (0.333 for FSHR. Significant effect was found between FSHR gene polymorphism with ovulation rate where CC genotype was higher (P<0.05than CG and GG genotypes.

  19. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

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    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.