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Sample records for bos indicus heifers

  1. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. PMID:24725537

  2. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  3. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Azevedo Mota; Juliana Duarte Messana; Roberta Carrilho Canesin; Giovani Fiorentini; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW) were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four ...

  4. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  5. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  6. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  7. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

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    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  8. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  9. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  10. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

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    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (PBrangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  11. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  12. Produtividade à Desmama de Novilhas Nelore e F1 Bos taurus x Nelore e Bos indicus x Nelore Productivity to Weaning of Nellore and F1 Guzerath x Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore Heifers

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    Daniel Perotto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência produtiva das vacas de corte está relacionada com o tamanho do animal, a fertilidade e a produção de leite. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência à desmama de 289 novilhas sendo 100 Nelore (N, 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN, 67 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN, 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN e 38 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN da Est. Exp. Paranavaí/IAPAR. Foram analisadas a idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPV, e a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso metabólico da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPM. As médias por quadrados mínimos para IPP em dias, PDPV [((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e PDPM [((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] foram: 1416, 1340, 1053, 1187 e 1117; 0,394, 0,414, 0,422, 0,379 e 0,418; e 0,169, 0,179, 0,187, 0,169 e 0,188, respectivamente para os grupos N, GN, RN, MN e SN. Para IPP, foram significativos os contrastes N- RN (362 dias, GN -- RN (287 dias e RN -- MN (-133 dias. Para PDPV, foi significativo o contraste RN - MN [-0,04287((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e para PDPM foram significativos os contrastes N -- RN [-0,01803((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100], RN -- MN [0,01841((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] e MN -- SN [-0,01915((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100]. Conclui-se que novilhas RN e SN foram mais eficientes à primeira desmama que novilhas MN, as quais não diferiram das zebuínas N e GN.Production efficiency of a beef cow-calf herd is determined by the ability of the cows in converting the ingested food into calf weight. This ability is related to cow size, fertility and milk production. The present study evaluated efficiency at weaning after first calving of 100 Nellore (N, 47 F1 Guzerath x Nellore (GN, 67 F1 Red Angus x Nellore (RN, 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nellore (MN and 38 F1 Simental x Nellore (SN heifers at Estação Experimental Paranavaí/IAPAR. The traits analyzed were age at first calving (IPP, the ratio of calf

  13. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

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    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  14. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  15. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  16. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

  17. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Haroldo HR; Carvalheiro, Roberto; O’Brien, Ana M Pérez; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; do Carmo, Adriana S; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sölkner, Johann; McEwan, John C; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos VGB; Queiroz, Sandra A; Tad S. Sonstegard; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcas...

  18. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

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    Fernanda Barros Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L. or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger pasture systems, with mineral or mineral protein supplementation. Animals were slaughtered with an average body weight of 450 kg (Bos indicus or 470 kg (Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbreed. There was no treatments effect on carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of cut without fat thickness. The cuts with fat thickness of steers fed millet presented the highest fat deposition. Bos indicus steers presented higher carcass yield (57.23% and fat thickness (4.88 mm compared with crossbreed (53.40% and 3.05 mm. There was no breed effect on chemical composition of meat. The mean levels of cholesterol concentration were 31.41 mg/100 and 37.55 mg/100g of meat with and without fat thickness.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de carcaça (peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, espessura de gordura de cobertura, área de olho de lombo, marmoreio e coloração e composição química do músculo Longissimus dorsi (umidade, cinzas, proteína bruta, gordura e colesterol de cortes, com ou sem gordura de cobertura, de novilhos Bos indicus e mestiços Bos indicus x Bos taurus terminados em sistemas em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum L. ou grama estrela (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger, com suplementação mineral ou protéica e mineral. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg (Bos indicus ou 470 kg (mestiços. Não houve efeito de tratamento sobre as características de carcaça e composição da carne com ou sem gordura de cobertura. Os cortes com gordura de

  19. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  20. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  1. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  2. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en terneros de cruces Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Córdova, Mary; Córdova, Cristian; Pérez., José

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatro meses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para lo cual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgian blue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descri...

  3. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en becerros de cruzas Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Córdova; Gustavo Rodríguez; Mary Córdova; Cristian Córdova; José Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatromeses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para locual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgianblue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Losresultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiv...

  4. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Marco Antonio; S Azevedo, Ana Luisa; Teodoro, Roberto L; Pires, Maria A; CD Peixoto, Maria Gabriela; de Freitas, Célio; Prata, Márcia Cristina A; Furlong, John; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius GB; Guimarães, Simone EF; Regitano, Luciana CA; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Gasparin, Gustavo; Verneque, Rui S

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resista...

  5. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  6. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  7. Identification of genes involved with tick infestation in Bos taurus and Bos indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsuwan, K; Piper, E K; Bagnall, N H; Ryan, K; Moolhuijzen, P; Bellgard, M; Lew, A; Jackson, L; Jonsson, N N

    2008-01-01

    Tick resistant cattle could provide a potentially sustainable and environmentally sound method of controlling cattle ticks. Advances in genomics and the availability of the bovine genome sequence open up opportunities to identify useful and selectable genes controlling cattle tick resistance. Using quantitative real-time PCR and theAffymetrix bovine array platform, differences in gene expression of skin biopsies from tick resistant Bos indicus (Brahman) and tick susceptible Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle following tick challenge were examined. We identified 138 significant differentially-expressed genes, including several immunologicallhost defence genes, extracellularmatrix proteins, and transcription factors as well as genes involved in lipid metabolism. Three key pathways, represented by genes differentially expressed in resistant Brahmans, were identified; the development of the cell-mediated immune response, structural integrity of the dermis and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Ca2+, which is implicated in host responses to microbial stimuli, may be required for the enhancement or fine-tuning of transcriptional activation of Ca2+ -dependant host defence signalling pathways. PMID:18817288

  8. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  9. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore, these data show the feasibility of the process even when used in a large-scale IVEP program. PMID:24412681

  10. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  11. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  12. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  13. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  14. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus

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    Guimarães Simone EF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus × Holstein (Bos taurus cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle.

  15. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  16. High environmental temperature and humidity decrease oocyte quality in Bos taurus but not in Bos indicus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A; Randel, R D; Broussard, J R; Lim, J M; Blair, R M; Roussel, J D; Godke, R A; Hansel, W

    1998-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental temperature and humidity on the quality and developmental capabilities of bovine oocytes. In Experiment 1, Bos taurus (Holstein and crossbred Angus) cows were subjected to 5 weekly sessions of ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration from February 16 through March 23 (cool season) and 5 sessions from May 22 through June 20 (hot season). In Experiment 2, Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cows were superstimulated (Super-Ov) during the months of August (hot season) or January (cool season), and each cow was subjected to a single oocyte aspiration session. In each experiment, oocytes were classified as normal or abnormal based on ooplasm morphology and cumulus cell layers. In Experiment 1, oocytes classified as normal were in vitro matured and fertilized (IVM/IVF), and the resulting embryos cultured for 8 d. All oocytes recovered from superstimulated cows in Experiment 2 were matured and fertilized in vitro and the subsequent embryos cultured for 8 d, regardless of their morphological appearance. In Experiment 1, Bos taurus cows produced a higher (P = 0.02) percentage of normal oocytes during the cool season (75.9 +/- 8.0) than during the hot season (41.0 +/- 9.5). The percentage of fertilized oocytes developing to the 2-cell (82.4), 8-cell (65.4) and morula (46.6) stages were also greater (P Holstein) had a lower (P = 0.01) percentage of normal oocytes in the hot season (24.5 vs 80.0) and a lower (P or = 0.57) in the percentage of normal oocytes or in embryo development was detected between seasons in Bos indicus (Brahman) cows. In conclusion, high environmental temperature and humidity resulted in a marked decline in the quality of oocytes retrieved from Bos taurus cows and markedly decreased their in vitro developmental capabilities. In contrast, a high percentage of oocytes retrieved from Bos indicus cows exhibited normal morphology and yielded a high proportion of blastocysts

  17. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  18. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  19. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  20. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  1. Gene expression in the skin of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle infested with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bagnall, Neil H; Kongsuwan, Kritaya K; Lew, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2008-11-15

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus) is responsible for severe production losses to the cattle industry worldwide. It has long been known that different breeds of cattle can resist tick infestation to varying degrees; however, the mechanisms by which resistant cattle prevent heavy infestation are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene expression varied significantly between skin sampling sites (neck, chest and tail region), and whether changes in gene expression could be detected in samples taken at tick attachment sites (tick attached to skin sample) compared with samples taken from non-attachment sites (no tick attachment). We present here the results of an experiment examining the expression of a panel of forty-four genes in skin sections taken from Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle of known high resistance, and Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle of known low resistance to the cattle tick. The forty-four genes chosen for this study included genes known to be involved in several immune processes, some structural genes, and some genes previously suggested to be of importance in tick resistance by other researchers. The expression of fifteen gene transcripts increased significantly in Holstein-Friesian skin samples at tick attachment sites. The higher expression of many genes involved in innate inflammatory processes in the Holstein-Friesian animals at tick attachment sites suggests this breed is exhibiting a non-directed pathological response to infestation. Of the forty-four genes analysed, no transcripts were detected in higher abundance at tick attachment sites in the Brahman cattle compared with similar samples from the Holstein-Friesian group, nor difference between attachment site and non-attachment site samples within the Brahman group. The results presented here suggest that the means by which these two cattle breeds respond to tick infestation differ and warrant further investigation. PMID

  2. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  3. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

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    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  4. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle. Serum concentrations of total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA in the calf and efficiency of absorption at 6 and 12 h were not affected by breed type, sex of calf, or any interaction. PMID:8617676

  5. Imputation of Microsatellite Alleles from Dense SNP Genotypes for Parentage Verification Across Multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

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    Matthew Charles Mcclure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N=479 from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8,000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus were used to predict 9,410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles for 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N=2 to 36 breeds. These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had <1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents’ reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.

  6. Tick-susceptible Bos taurus cattle display an increased cellular response at the site of larval Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus attachment, compared with tick-resistant Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2010-03-15

    Cattle demonstrate divergent and heritable phenotypes of resistance and susceptibility to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Bos indicus cattle are generally more resistant to tick infestation than Bos taurus breeds although large variations in resistance can occur within subspecies and within breed. Increased tick resistance has been previously associated with an intense hypersensitivity response in B. taurus breeds; however, the mechanism by which highly resistant B. indicus cattle acquire and sustain high levels of tick resistance remains to be elucidated. Using the commercially available Affymetrix microarray gene expression platform, together with histological examination of the larval attachment site, this study aimed to describe those processes responsible for high levels of tick resistance in Brahman (B. indicus) cattle that differ from those in low-resistance Holstein-Friesian (B. taurus) cattle. We found that genes involved in inflammatory processes and immune responsiveness to infestation by ticks, although up-regulated in tick-infested Holstein-Friesian cattle, were not up-regulated in Brahman cattle. In contrast, genes encoding constituents of the extracellular matrix were up-regulated in Brahmans. Furthermore, the susceptible Holstein-Friesian animals displayed a much greater cellular inflammatory response at the site of larval R. microplus attachment compared with the tick-resistant Brahman cattle. PMID:19852965

  7. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  8. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  9. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  10. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  11. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  12. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds.

  13. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  14. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  15. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  16. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning performance, but the particular cross that produces the calves also should be considered in making breeding decisions. PMID:17235021

  17. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

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    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  18. Clínica e hematologia de Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae

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    Oliveira Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2,0 x 10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. As alterações clínicas surgidas a partir do 3º dia após inoculação (DAI foram: hipertermia, taquicardia, taquipnéia, anorexia, prostração, corrimento nasal e lacrimejamento. Estes sinais foram mais evidentes nos taurinos, espécie que apresentou, ainda, diarréia, fotofobia e conjuntivite. Foi possível isolar T. gondii da corrente sangüínea em todas as espécies. Nos taurinos, a partir do 5º DAI até o final do experimento, o parasito foi isolado de todas as amostras de sangue colhidas semanalmente, com exceção do 14º, 35º e 63º DAI. Os bubalinos apresentaram parasitemia no 7º, 14º, 35º e 70º DAI e os zebuínos apenas no 7º e 28º DAI, correspondendo aos picos de temperatura, em todas as espécies, sendo mais evidente em taurinos. Os parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais demonstraram que os taurinos foram mais sensíveis ao T. gondii do que os zebuínos e estes não diferiram significativamente dos bubalinos, que tiveram aparente normalidade clínico-laboratorial.

  19. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature.

  20. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  1. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  2. Sequenciamento e análise dos genes das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de bovino (Bos taurus indicus Sequencing and analysis of subunits alpha and beta of the follicle stimulating hormone from bovine (Bos taurus indicus

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    Luci Sayori Murata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata uma clonagem e seqüenciamento das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de Bos taurus indicus. Também apresenta os resultados de comparação realizada das seqüências gênicas dessas cadeias com as seqüências das cadeias alfa e beta do FSH de suínos e da cadeia beta de bovinos Bos taurus taurus já presentes no GenBank. Na comparação das seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos predita da cadeia αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com as cadeias αFSH de outras espécies como suínos e búfalo (Bubalis bubalis, observou-se que as seqüências são bastante similares. A comparação da seqüência da subunidade αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com a de suíno demonstrou diferenças em três resíduos de aminoácidos. Na comparação com ßFSH, registrou-se modificação na primeira base do codon que levou à alteração no resíduo do aminóacido 83, que, em Bos taurus indicus, é uma glicina, ao invés da serina presente em Bos taurus taurus. Confirmaram-se essa modificação e todas as outras identificadas na seqüência dos cDNA das cadeias αFSH e βFSH em outra clonagem. A modificação Ser para Gly na posição 83 foi a única que alterou a identidade do resíduo de aminoácido na comparação entre as subunidades beta do FSH de Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus. Contudo, ela não deve alterar significativamente as propriedades fisiológicas do FSH, uma vez que o resíduo de glicina encontrado nessa posição também é encontrado na cadeia βFSH suína. Trata-se, portanto, de uma modificação particular que distingue as cadeias βFSH de B. taurus taurus e B. taurus indicus.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, clonagem, FSH, hormônio.

    The aim this work was to promove the cloning and analysis sequencing

  3. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  4. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  5. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers.

  6. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  7. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf. PMID:17235022

  8. Quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals treated with vitamin D3 Características qualitativas do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus tratados com vitaminaD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Carla de Moura Silveira Pedreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Among several techniques to improve beef tenderness, vitamin D3, important for calcium mobilization, has recently been developed as an alternative. It acts on the intracellular calcium-dependent proteases (mu- and m-calpain. Ten days prior to slaughter, 36 Nelore steers were fed 0, 3, 6 and 9 million IU of supplemental vitamin D3 (D3 per animal per day (an-1 d-1. Animals were slaughtered and tenderness (shear force, cooking losses (1, 8 and 15 days of aging, sensory evaluation, and minerals in blood plasma and muscle (Longissimus dorsi were measured. There were no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments for blood plasma and muscle mineral concentration, evaporation losses, and sensory juiciness. For drip and total loss, the smallest losses were for the 6 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment. The control treatment resulted in lowest shear force and aging also tended to lower resistance to shearing. The 3 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment had a positive effect on tenderness, flavor and overall palatability. High levels of supplemental D3 did not improve the quality characteristicsof Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals.Muitas técnicas são empregadas para melhorar a maciez da carne de bovinos. A mais recente usa a vitamina D3, que tem importância na mobilização do cálcio e na ativação das proteases cálcio-dependentes (mi- e m-calpaína. Neste estudo, 36 machos castrados (Nelore foram suplementados por via oral com quatro níveis de vitamina D3 (0, 3, 6 e 9 milhões de UI de vitamina D3 animal-1 dia-1 durante os 10 dias que antecederam o abate. Após o abate foram medidos a força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (aos dias 1, 8 e 15 de maturação, pH, concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo Longissimus dorsi, além de análise sensorial de amostras. Não houve (P > 0.05 efeito da dose de vitamina D3 na concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo, nas perdas por evaporação, e na sucul

  9. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros; Welder Angelo Baldassini; Victor Augusto Domingos Dias; Josineudson Augusto II Vasconcelos da Silva; Rogério Abdalah Curi; Luiz Artur Loyola Chardulo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT) on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus). Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3) and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6). Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsat...

  10. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  11. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

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    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  12. Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yisehak, K.; Becker, A.; Rothman, J.M.; Dierenfeld, E.S.; Marescau, B.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the southern hemisphere, foraging areas of cattle are affected by overgrazing and soil erosion resulting in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT). This study aimed to identify biomarkers in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) fo

  13. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  14. Nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine lymphotoxin A gene and their distribution among Bos indicus zebu cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Mishra, Priyanka; Verma, N K; Niranjan, S K; Dangi, P S; Sharma, Rekha; Behl, Rahul

    2016-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the genetic variation present in lymphoxin A gene (LTA gene) encoding for the lymphotoxin A protein also known as tumor necrosis factor beta, a cytokine produced by lymphocytes, known to be cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and, which is essential for normal immunological development; in 40 animals of 5 diverse Bos indicus Indian zebu cattle breeds. These breeds survive under the harsh and tough tropical climatic conditions of various parts of the Indian subcontinent. The LTA gene in the present study was observed to contain 33 SNPs and 3 small insertion/deletion polymorphisms. Four SNPs occurred in the coding regions of the gene viz. g.1327A>G and g.1400C>T in exon 2 and g.1840C>T and g.1942C>T in exon 3, of which the SNP g.1327A>G in exon 2 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change G38D. This amino acid change was however predicted not be affecting the protein function in any manner. The gene contained putative transcription factor binding sites for the c-Re1 and for Pax-4 transcription factors. A putative promoter region was also predicted on the reverse DNA strand from position 894 to 644. Several repeat elements and microsatellite repeats were detected to be occurring across the 3.2kb LTA gene sequence. The study showed the occurrence of 40 genotypes and 48 most probable haplotypes. The genotypes at the observed SNP positions in the LTA gene were in near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A negative Tajima's D value that was not significant statistically at P>0.10 indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could not be excluded. The genetic variations observed in the LTA gene in the present study have not been reported earlier and these could possibly be used as molecular markers for further studies involving association of the gene variability with disease resistance/tolerance traits.

  15. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  16. Effects of beta agonists in the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the state of Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently in Mexico about 30 million cattle of which about 15000.000 million are in areas at high risk of infestation and about 5,000,000 million fascioliosis animals are with, if we estimate the economic losses per year gives us an approximate price of 4,500,000,000 pesos are lost annually, on the other hand, the lack of good pasture especially in times of drought in the state are helping farmers are feeding their animals with food additives in this case the betaagonist (clenbuterol and the like ), At present there are several municipal traces at the state level are discarding the livers of cattle producing very large economic losses. been conducted on prevailing level of municipal trail Atlixco (zone endemic to the disease) in the year 2001-02 with a prevalence of 32-33 % While that in 2007 set a precedence of 7% over the same track municipal; this parasitic disease that affects the liver parenchyma and pipelines, affects the metabolic activity of the liver, this organ is one of the most important thing, because it participates in many metabolic pathways, as in the production and secretion of bile, regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins among others. This parasitic disease affects the production of meat and milk in ruminant animals in this very particular case Bos taurus x Bos indicus, the affected animals, these activities are depleted in previous studies have found that animals are fed with food additives such as beta -adrenergic-agonist, whose effect is to produce lipolysis, lipogenesis, are glucoliticos, and glycogen, affecting body composition, favouring neoformation tissue by the redistribution of power, also increasing the release of fatty acids into the blood, facilitating the synthesis of protein and retains the nitrogen fed into skeletal muscle, these components used as food additives are prohibited by federal law nationals (SAGARPA NOM-015-ZOO-2002), as the consumption of meat produced visceral primarily of clinical cases as tachycardia

  17. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (pBrahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  18. Multiple superovulations in N'Dama heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1990-08-01

    Five N'Dama heifers were superovulated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P or Folltropin) a total of six times each. The superovulations were carried out between ongoing experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections. Twenty-four (80%) of the 30 superovulations had a good ovarian response with 21 (70%) producing an average of 2.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- s.e.m.) embryos. The highest embryo production was achieved at the third and fourth superovulation, after which both the number of embryos and their quality declined. The overall pregnancy rate after transfer into Boran (Bos indicus) cow recipients was 50.9%. The uteri of the heifers increased considerably in size throughout the six superovulations which made it difficult to flush some of the animals after the third superovulation. Embryo transfer technology is a useful breeding tool in N'Dama heifers and multiple superovulations can be carried out with success. PMID:2120824

  19. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  20. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

  1. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  2. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  3. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  4. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  5. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisehak, K; De Boever, J L; Janssens, G P J

    2014-06-01

    The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients.

  6. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  7. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  8. Polymorphisms and genes associated with puberty in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Nguyen, Loan To; Porto Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Moore, Stephen S; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Thomas, Milton G

    2016-07-01

    Puberty onset is a multifactorial process influenced by genetic determinants and environmental conditions, especially nutritional status. Genes, genetic variations, and regulatory networks compose the molecular basis of achieving puberty. In this article, we reviewed the discovery of multiple polymorphisms and genes associated with heifer puberty phenotypes and discuss the opportunities to use this evolving knowledge of genetic determinants for breeding early pubertal Bos indicus-influenced cattle. The discovery of polymorphisms and genes was mainly achieved through candidate gene studies, quantitative trait loci analyses, genome-wide association studies, and recently, global gene expression studies (transcriptome). These studies are recapitulated and summarized in the current review. PMID:27238439

  9. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus), INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893) DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Schenki; Cláudio Roberto Madruga; Aguemi Kohayagawa; Carla Lopes de Mendonça; Dirson Vieira; Raul Kessler

    2006-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus) inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, ...

  10. Variations in the Regulatory Region of Alpha S1-Casein Milk Protein Gene among Tropically Adapted Indian Native (Bos Indicus) Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S1-casein (αS1-CN) gene was sequenced, characterized, and analyzed to detect variations among 13 Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. Comparative analysis of 1,587 bp region comprising promoter (1,418 bp), exon-I (53 bp), and partial intron-I (116 bp) revealed 35 nucleotide substitutions (32 within promoter region, 1 in exon-I, and 2 in partial intron-I region) and 4 Indels. Within promoter, 15 variations at positions −1399 (A > G), −1288 (G > A), −1259 (T > C), −1158 (T > C), −1016 (A > T), −941 (T > G), −778 (C > T), −610 (G > A), −536 (A > G), −521 (A > G), −330 (A > C), −214 (A > G), −205 (A > T), −206 (C > A), and −175 (A > G) were located within the potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), namely, NF-κE1/c-Myc, GATA-1, GATA-1/NF-E, Oct-1/POU3F2, MEF-2/YY1, GATA-1, AP-1, POU1F1a/GR, TMF, GAL4, YY1/Oct-1, HNF-1, GRalpha/AR, GRalpha/AR, and AP-1, respectively. Seventy-four percent (26/35) of the observed SNPs were novel to Indian cattle and 11 of these novel SNPs were located within one or more TFBSs. Collectively, these might influence the binding affinity towards their respective nuclear TFs thus modulating the level of transcripts in milk and affecting overall protein composition. The study provides information on several distinct variations across indicine and taurine αS1-CN regulatory domains. PMID:25937984

  11. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

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    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  12. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. PMID:26948295

  13. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

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    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  14. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (Pcows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (Pmilk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at

  15. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

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    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  16. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous cows (n = 18) received the

  17. Parâmetros genéticos entre características de leite, de peso e a idade ao primeiro parto em gado mestiço leiteiro (Bos taurus x Bos indicus Genetic parameters between milk traits, weight traits and age at first calving in crossbreed dairy cattle (Bos taurus x Bos indicus

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    A.E. Vercesi Filho

    2007-08-01

    , fat and protein yield with heifer live weight gain, -0.59±0.35, -0.73±0.44, -0.62±0.37 as well. Genetic correlations between milk yield, cow average weight and heifer live weight gain with age at first calving were, respectively, 0.05±0.18, -0.05±0.18, 0.02±0.20. The high genetic correlation between milk production and lactation length (0.93±0.02 indicated that variation of the lactation length should not be removed when selecting tropical dairy cattle.

  18. Characteristics and functions of a minor FSH surge near the end of an interovulatory interval in Bos taurus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Siddiqui, M A R; Wolf, C A

    2016-07-01

    The apparent function of a minor FSH surge based on temporality with follicular events was studied in 10 heifers with 2 follicular waves per interovulatory interval. Individual follicles were tracked from their emergence at 2 mm until their outcome was known, and a blood sample was collected for FSH and LH assay every 12 h from day -14 (day 0 = ovulation) to day 4. A minor FSH surge occurred in each heifer (peak, day -4.6 ± 0.2). Concentration of LH increased (P heifers. The maximal diameter (mean, 3.4 ± 0.9 mm) of 77% of the minor-wave follicles occurred in synchrony on day -4.4 ± 0.4. Most (59%) of minor-wave follicles regressed before ovulation and 41% decreased and then increased in diameter (recovered) on day -1.9 ± 0.3 to become part of the subsequent wave 1. A mean of 3.7 ± 0.9 regressing subordinate follicles from wave 2 recovered on the day before or at the peak of the minor FSH surge. The growth rate of the preovulatory follicle decreased (P < 0.02) for 3 d before the peak of the minor FSH surge and then increased (P < 0.03). Concentration of LH increased slightly but significantly temporally with the resurgence in growth rate of the preovulatory follicle. A minor LH surge peaked (P < 0.0002) on day 3 at the expected deviation in growth rates between the future dominant and subordinate follicles. Results indicated on a temporal basis that the recovery of some regressing subordinate follicles of wave 2 was attributable to the minor FSH surge. The hypothesis was supported that some regressing follicles from the minor follicular wave recover to become part of wave 1. PMID:27131335

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

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    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  20. Variance component estimates applying random regression models for test-day milk yield in Caracu heifers (Bos taurus Artiodactyla, Bovidae

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    Lenira El Faro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random regression models (RRM were used to estimate covariance functions for 2,155 first-lactation milk yields of native Brazilian Caracu heifers. The models included contemporary group (defined as year-month of test and paddock fixed effects, and quadratic effect of age of cow at calving. Genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted by a random regression model and Legendre polynomials of days in milk (DIM. Schwarz's Bayesian information criteria (BIC indicated that the best RRM assumed a six coefficient function for both random effects and a sixth order variance function for residual structure. Akaike's information criteria suggested a model with the same number of coefficients for both effects and a residual structure fitted by a step function with 15 variances. Phenotypic, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual variances were higher at the beginning and declined during lactation. The RRM heritability estimates were 0.09 to 0.26 and generally higher at the beginning and end of lactation. Some unexpected negative genetic correlations emerged when higher order covariance functions were used. A model with four coefficients for additive genetic covariance function explains more parsimoniously the changes in genetic variation with DIM since the genetic parameter was more acceptable and BIC was close to that for a six coefficient covariance function.

  1. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  2. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis using next generation sequencing technology

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    Shreya M. Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK. Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  4. Estimulação hormonal, punção folicular transvaginal e avaliação ovocitária em bezerras pré-púberes da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus Hormonal stimulation and ultrasound guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and oocyte recovery in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus prepubertal calves

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    Marilia Viviane Snel-Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de bezerras pré-púberes como doadoras de ovócitos oferece um considerável potencial para acelerar o ganho genético através da diminuição do intervalo de gerações, além de incrementar o aproveitamento de fêmeas bovinas de alto valor genético. Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar o efeito da idade e do tratamento estimulatório com gonadotrofinas sobre a resposta folicular, a taxa de recuperação, a produção e a avaliação morfológica de ovócitos colhidos em bezerras da raça nelore (B. t. indicus a partir de 10 meses de idade. As bezerras foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos (n=4 e receberam tratamentos hormonais distintos, repetidos nos mesmos animais nos três períodos, aos 10, 11 e 12 meses de idade. No dia zero (D0, todas as bezerras receberam um implante intravaginal de progesterona e, em D1, 2 mg de benzoato de estradiol intramuscular (im. Em D6, deu-se início à diferenciação dos tratamentos (T: T1- 120 UI de FSH, divididos em quatro aplicações im a cada 12 horas; T2 - 120 UI de FSH, em uma única aplicação subcutânea (sc, mais 300 UI de eCG sc, T3 - sem tratamento estimulatório. No D8, o implante de progesterona foi retirado e a punção folicular transvaginal, guiada por ultra-som (PFTV, foi realizada no D9. Dos 402 ovócitos coletados, 53 foram desnudados e medidos, incluindo a zona pelúcida, encontrando-se um diâmetro médio de 153,38 (8,06 mm. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos e entre as idades para quantidade de folículos > 3 mm, de ovócitos recuperados e de ovócitos viáveis. A média de ovócitos recuperados e ovócitos viáveis para cada tratamento foi: T1- 11,08 (6,20 e 59,58% (25,80, T2- 12,75 (8,04 e 66,02% (36,71, T3 - 9,66 (8,15 e 51,51% (30,69, respectivamente. O valor médio da taxa de recuperação foi de 78,70%. O uso de FSH e FSH + eCG não aumentou significantemente a quantidade de folículos > 3 mm no momento da PFTV, assim como dos ov

  5. Bayesian genome-wide association analysis of growth and yearling ultrasound measures of carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Reecy, J M; Weaber, R L; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2012-10-01

    Data from developing Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman-Bos indicus × 5/8 Angus-Bos taurus; n ≈ 802 from 67 sires) registered with International Brangus Breeders Association were analyzed to detect QTL associated with growth traits and ultrasound measures of carcass traits. Genotypes were from BovineSNP50 (Infinium BeadChip, Illumina, San Diego, CA; 53,692 SNP). Phenotypes included BW collected at birth and ∼205 and 365 d of age, and yearling ultrasound assessment of LM area, percent intramuscular fat, and depth of rib fat. Simultaneous association of SNP windows with phenotype were undertaken with Bayes C analyses, using GenSel software. The SNP windows were ≈ 5 SNP in length. Analyses fitted a mixture model that treated SNP effects as random, with an assumed fraction pi = 0.999 having no effect on phenotype. Bootstrap analyses were used to obtain significance values for the SNP windows with the greatest contribution to observed variation. The SNP windows with P carcass traits in developing Brangus heifers confirmed several published QTL and detected several new QTL.

  6. Bayesian genome-wide association analysis of growth and yearling ultrasound measures of carcass traits in Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Reecy, J M; Weaber, R L; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2012-10-01

    Data from developing Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman-Bos indicus × 5/8 Angus-Bos taurus; n ≈ 802 from 67 sires) registered with International Brangus Breeders Association were analyzed to detect QTL associated with growth traits and ultrasound measures of carcass traits. Genotypes were from BovineSNP50 (Infinium BeadChip, Illumina, San Diego, CA; 53,692 SNP). Phenotypes included BW collected at birth and ∼205 and 365 d of age, and yearling ultrasound assessment of LM area, percent intramuscular fat, and depth of rib fat. Simultaneous association of SNP windows with phenotype were undertaken with Bayes C analyses, using GenSel software. The SNP windows were ≈ 5 SNP in length. Analyses fitted a mixture model that treated SNP effects as random, with an assumed fraction pi = 0.999 having no effect on phenotype. Bootstrap analyses were used to obtain significance values for the SNP windows with the greatest contribution to observed variation. The SNP windows with P Brangus heifers confirmed several published QTL and detected several new QTL. PMID:23038745

  7. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship between response to stress and rectal temperature that helps

  8. Synchronization of ovulation in crossbred dairy heifers using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, prostaglandin F2a and human chorionic gonadotrophin or estradiol benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilho C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Girolando (Gir x Holstein is a very common dairy breed in Brazil because it combines the rusticity of Gir (Bos indicus with the high milk yield of Holstein (Bos taurus. The ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal treatments for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination were studied in Girolando heifers. The injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist was followed 6 or 7 days (d later by prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a. Twenty-four hours after PGF2a injection either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, GPh-d6 and GPh-d7 groups or estradiol benzoate (EB, GPE-d6 and GPE-d7 groups was administered to synchronize ovulation and consequently allow timed artificial insemination (AI 24 and 30 h after hCG and EB injection, respectively. Follicular dynamics in Girolando heifers was characterized by the predominance of three follicular waves (71.4% with sizes of dominant follicles (10-13 mm and corpus luteum (approximately 20 mm similar to those for Bos indicus cattle. In the GnRH-PGF-hCG protocol, hCG administration induced earlier ovulation (67.4 h, P<0.01 compared to the control group (GnRH-PGF and a better synchronization of ovulation, since most of it occurred within a period of 12 to 17 h. Pregnancy rate after timed AI was 42.8 (3/7, GPh-d6 to 50% (7/14, GPh-d7. In contrast, estradiol benzoate (GnRH-PGF-EB protocol synchronized ovulation of only 5 of 11 heifers from the GPE-d7 group and of none (0/7 from the GPE-d6 group, which led to low pregnancy rates after timed AI (27.3 and 0%, respectively. However, since a small number of Girolando heifers was used to determine pregnancy rates in the present study, pregnancy rates should be confirmed with a larger number of animals.

  9. Heritability and Bayesian genome-wide association study of first service conception and pregnancy in Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Reecy, J M; Weaber, R L; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2013-02-01

    Brangus [3/8 Brahman (Bos indicus) × 5/8 Angus (Bos taurus); n ≈ 800] heifers from 67 sires were used to estimate heritability and conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 2 binary fertility traits: first service conception (FSC) and heifer pregnancy (HPG). Genotypes were from 53,692 loci on the BovineSNP50 (Infinium Bead Chips, Illumina, San Diego, CA). Yearling heifers were estrous synchronized, bred by AI, and then exposed to natural service breeding. Reproductive ultrasound and DNA-based parentage testing were used to determine if the heifer conceived by AI or natural service, and code for FSC and HPG traits. Success rates for FSC and HPG were 53.3% and 78.0% ± 0.01%, and corresponding heritability estimates were 0.18 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.06, respectively. The models used in obtaining these heritability estimates and GWAS included fixed effects of year (i.e., 2005 to 2007), birth location, calving season, age of dam, and contemporary group. In GWAS, simultaneous associations of 1 Mb SNP windows with phenotype were undertaken with Bayes C analyses using GenSel software. The 1 Mb windows contained 21.3 ± 1.1 SNP. Analyses fitted a mixture model that treated SNP effects as random, with an assumed fraction pi = 0.9995 having no effect on phenotype. The windows that accounted for 1.0% of genetic variance were considered as QTL associated with FSC or HPG. Eighteen QTL existed on 15 chromosomes for the 2 traits. On average, each QTL accounted for 2.43% ± 0.2% of the genetic variance. Chromosome 8 harbored 2 QTL for FSC and 1 for HPG; however, these regions did not overlap. Chromosomes 3, 15, 16, 19, 24, 26, 27, 29, and X included QTL only for FSC, whereas chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 13, and 20 contained QTL only for HPG. The multitude of QTL detected for FSC and HPG in this GWAS involving Brangus heifers exemplifies the complex regulation of variation in heifer fertility traits of low heritability. PMID:23148252

  10. Characterization and polymorphism screening of IGF-I and prolactin genes in Nelore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Apparecida Desidério Sena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin growth factor I (IGF-I and prolactin (PRL are peptide hormones that exert complementary effects on reproductive traits by acting on folliculogenesis. In view of the lack of information about the IGF-I and PRL genes in Bos indicus, the objective of this study was to partially characterize the promoter regions of these genes and to screen animals of different ages at first pregnancy for the presence of polymorphisms in these regions. In addition, we determined whether polymorphisms influence the regulation of the two hormone genes, evaluating their association with sexual precocity. The animals were divided into three groups according to age at first pregnancy: 1 100 heifers considered to be sexually precocious that became pregnant at 15-16 months of age, 2 100 heifers that became pregnant during the normal breeding season at 24 months of age, and 3 100 heifers that did not become pregnant until 24 months of age. For the IGF-I gene, PCR-RFLP-SnaBI analysis showed the presence of genotypes AB and BB at frequencies of 0.02 and 0.98, respectively. Sequencing of the IGF-I gene fragment revealed a single nitrogen base change from cytosine to thymine, corresponding to the restriction site of SnaBI. The polymorphisms identified in the 5’-flanking region of the IGF-I gene may serve as a basis for future studies of molecular markers in cattle. For the PRL gene, PCR-RFLP-HaeIII analysis showed the presence of only one migration pattern, a finding characterizing the region studied as monomorphic. The study of other regions in the IGF-I and PRL genes might provide molecular data that can be used in the future for the selection of sexually precocious animals.

  11. Alterations in metacarpal characteristics in steers and heifers sequentially implanted with Synovex from 45 days of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, P F; Greene, L W; Lunt, D K

    1995-01-01

    Forty-two heifers and 38 steers sired by either Charolais (n = 47) or Salers (n = 33) from Bos indicus x Hereford dams were used to determine the effects of an anabolic agent on metacarpal characteristics and accompanying weight gain and carcass characteristics. Calves were blocked by sex and sire breed and either not implanted or implanted with Synovex-C within 45 d of birth, and with Synovex-S or -H at weaning and 84 and 169 d postweaning. Calves grazed oat pastures immediately after weaning for 169 d, after which calves received a feedlot diet for 124 d and were slaughtered. Live weight and hip height were recorded at initial implanting, weaning, d 84 and d 169 postweaning, and at approximately 28-d intervals during the feedlot period. Metacarpal and carcass characteristics were determined after slaughter. Metacarpals from implanted calves had greater medio-lateral axis (P grade and tended (P yield grade in heifers, but not in steers. Implanted calves tended (P < .08) to have a lower marbling score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7601754

  12. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  13. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of h

  15. Prediction of intake in growing dairy heifers under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A S; Ferreira, V B

    2016-02-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to develop models of the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) in growing dairy heifers [postweaning to 390 kg of body weight (BW)] under tropical conditions. The adequacy of the models was assessed in a comparison with the 4 US models currently used to predict DMI [Quigley; National Research Council; and 2 Hoffman models]. The data set was created using 95 treatment means from 28 studies published in journals. The data set (studies) was randomly divided into 2 data subsets for the statistical analyses. The first data subset was used to develop the prediction equations for DMI (17 studies; 58 treatment means), and the second data subset was used to assess the adequacy of the predictive models (11 studies; 37 treatment means). The models were developed using nonlinear and linear mixed analyses. Breed (Bos taurus vs. Bos taurus × Bos indicus), BW (240.2±62.2 kg), and average daily gain (ADG, 0.83±0.28 kg/d) were the independent variables. No significant effects of the breed or the interactions between the breed and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or breed and ADG were detected. Thus, nonlinear [DMI=0.1175 × BW(0.75) - 3.4984 × e((-2.4690 × ADG))] and linear models [DMI=8.7147 - 0.2402 × BW(0.75) + 0.0027 × (BW(0.75))(2) + 3.6050 × ADG - 1.4168 × ADG(2)] were proposed for both breeds. The nonlinear model explained 81% of the variation in the DMI, over-predicted the DMI by 0.21 kg/d and predicted the DMI with a higher accuracy and precision than the linear model [root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP)=8.82 vs. 10.71% of the observed DMI, respectively]. The Quigley model explained only 54% of the variation in the DMI and was the fourth most accurate and precise model (RMSEP=11.21% of the observed DMI). The National Research Council model explained 69% of the variation in the DMI but under-predicted the DMI by 0.53 kg/d, with an RMSEP of 12.72% of the observed DMI and presence of systematic constant bias. The Hoffman exponential

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

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    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram colhidas nos dias -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 e, semanalmente, até o 84º dia pós-infecção (DPI. Os bovinos inoculados (GI e GII apresentaram hipertermia do 3º ao 16º DPI. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram detectados (IFI no 5º DPI (1:16, em ambos grupos inoculados (oocistos e taquizoítos, atingindo picos de 1:4096 no 7º DPI. Surtos parasitêmicos ocorreram em todos os bovinos infectados, principalmente do 7º ao 28º DPI, independente da cepa e inóculo utilizados. O bioensaio revelou a presença do parasito em amostras seminais dos bovinos infectados com oocistos (GI e taquizoítos (GII, em diversas datas experimentais, entre o 7º e 84º DPI. Parasitismo tissular por T. gondii foi diagnosticado por meio da bioprova e pela técnica da PCR, em vários fragmentos de tecidos e/ou órgãos. Os achados sugerem a possibilidade da ocorrência da transmissão sexual do T. gondii na espécie bovina.

  17. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  18. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas; Paola Moretti Rueda; Tiago da Silva Valente; Luísa Cunha Carneiro; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  19. Dietary protein during gestation affects maternal insulin-like growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, leptin concentrations, and fetal growth in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T M; Micke, G C; Perkins, N; Martin, G B; Wallace, C R; Gatford, K L; Owens, J A; Perry, V E A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of supplemental protein during gestation on maternal hormones and fetal growth was determined in composite beef heifers. At AI, 118 heifers were stratified by BW within each composite genotype (BeefX = 1/2 Senepol, 1/4 Brahman, 1/8 Charolais, 1/8 Red Angus and CBX = 1/2 Senepol, 1/4 Brahman, 1/4 Charolais) into 4 treatment groups: high high (HH = 1.4 kg CP/d for first and second trimesters of gestation), high low (HL = 1.4 kg of CP/d for first trimester and 0.4 kg of CP/d for second trimester), low high (lowH = 0.4 kg CP/d for first trimester and 1.4 kg of CP/d and for second trimester), or low low (LL = 0.4 kg CP/d for first and second trimesters). Maternal plasma IGF-I and -II, total IGFBP, and leptin concentrations were determined at 14 d before AI and at d 28, 82, 179, and 271 post-AI (mean gestation length 286 d), and leptin concentrations were also determined at calving. Increased dietary protein increased maternal plasma IGF-I (P < 0.001 on d 28, 82, and 179), IGF-II (P = 0.01 on d 82; P = 0.04 on d 271), and total IGFBP (P = 0.002 on d 82; P = 0.005 on d 179; P = 0.03 on d 271). Maternal plasma IGF-I at d 271 was negatively associated with calf crown-rump length at birth (P = 0.003). BeefX had greater birth weight calves (P = 0.01), greater IGF-II (P < 0.001), increased ratios of IGF-I:total IGFBP (P = 0.008) and IGF-II:total IGFBP (P < 0.001), and reduced total IGFBP compared with CBX (P = 0.02). Increased dietary protein during second trimester increased maternal plasma leptin at calving (P = 0.005). Maternal plasma leptin near term was positively associated with heifer BCS (P = 0.02) and with calf birth weight (P = 0.04), and at calving was positively associated with heifer age at AI (P = 0.02). These findings suggest that maternal dietary protein, age, and genotype influence plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and fetal growth in Bos indicus-influenced heifers. PMID:19617516

  20. Comparison of Skin Characterizes Between Pure Breed and Crossbred Azeri Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus

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    Alireza Lotfi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For investigation of crossbreeding efficiency in some skin characterizes in pure and crossbred cattle with Azeri Zebu, 100 head Azeri Zebu and pure breeds were divided into 4 group in 4 treatments, randomly. After cross breeding between zebu and pure cattle breeds, the diameters of skin in different parts of body were significantly increased in hybrids (offspring. Zebu hybrids, because of their strength epidemic layer on slat and legs had deep skin in compare with parents. Skin area were measured at two different parts, that more than 60% of skin were include 5 mm diameter in hybrids. As conclusion; in this investigation it has been cleared that cross-breeding in Azeri zebu (with pure cattle breeds can cause deep diameter of skin that also it can produce high quality skin for leather and shoe Industry.

  1. ECONOMICS OF HEIFER RAISING OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Christopher A.; Harsh, Stephen B.

    2001-01-01

    As dairy farms grow and specialize in milking cows, one enterprise that may be removed from the dairy farm to allow for milk cow herd expansion is heifer raising. Custom heifer raising is increasingly common across the country and purchasing heifers may be preferred to raising heifers. However, these alternatives are not suitable for all dairy farmers. In this article, we examine heifer enterprise costs relative to using a custom raiser or purchasing heifers. We identify factors that should b...

  2. Época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo de terneiros cruzas taurinos e zebuínos sobre o peso ao nascer, à desmama e eficiência individual de primíparas Hereford Calving season, genotype and sex of crossbred taurus and indicus calves on the birth and weaning weight and individual efficiency of primiparous Hereford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Mendonça

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo do terneiro sobre a eficiência individual das vacas à desmama (relação percentual entre o peso do terneiro à desmama e o peso da vaca, peso ao nascer e peso à desmama dos terneiros. Foram utilizadas 48 vacas da raça Hereford (Bos taurus, com idade de três anos, manejadas sobre campo natural, 16 inseminadas com um touro da raça Red Angus (Bos taurus e 32 com Nelore (Bos indicus. Os fatores estudados foram genótipo do terneiro (GENOT - Bos taurus x Bos taurus e Bos taurus x Bos indicus, época de nascimento (EPOCN subdividida em três períodos - 1S (setembro, 2O (outubro e 3N (novembro e sexo do terneiro (SEXO. A produção de leite (PL foi incluída como co-variável. Foram realizadas dez medidas de produção de leite pelo método indireto pesagem - mamada - pesagem e onze medidas de peso para vacas e terneiros, em intervalos de 21 dias. Os fatores que influenciaram significativamente o PN foram GENOT e SEXO (PThe objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of calving season, genotype and calf sex on the cows weaning individual efficiency ( percentual relationship between cow body weight and calf weaning weight, birth and weaning weight of calves. Forty-eight primiparous Hereford cows with approximate average age of 3 years and grazing only native pastures were used. Sixteen inseminated with one Red Angus bull (Bos taurus and 32 with Nelore (Bos indicus. Effects studied were calf genotype (GENOT, Bos taurus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus, calving season (EPOCN concentrated in the Spring and subdivided into three periods: 1S (September, 2O (October and 3N (November and December and calf sex (SEXO. Milk production (PL was included as co-variable. Ten measurements of milk production obtained by the indirect method, weighing the calf before and after suckling, and eleven measurements of cow and calf weights, were made at 21

  3. Heifer Development - Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target weight, and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. However, substantial changes in cattle genetics and...

  4. Juridica; Bos, bouw en gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Bouwen in het bos van de ecologische hoofdstructuur. Geen probleem als niemand bezwaar maakt.... Uiteindelijk is de gemeente vergunningverlener aan zichzelf, is wetgever in eigen zaak en maakt voor zichzelf een lucratief bestemmingsplan. Aldus de analyse van wetskenner Fred Kistenkas

  5. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  6. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  7. Comportamento de vacas da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus em estro Estrus behaviour in Gir cows (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ávila Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de vacas da raça Gir em estro e a concentração plasmática de progesterona foram avaliadas durante um estro induzido e o natural subseqüente, em 35 animais da raça Gir, no inverno e no verão de dois anos consecutivos. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e ano do experimento sobre a duração do ciclo estral. O proestro foi maior no verão (51,82± 4,77h do que no inverno (33,43± 4,82h e no estro natural (64,41± 4,95h do que no induzido (20,85± 4,64h. Observou-se menor duração da atividade sexual total no estro induzido do que no natural (41,62± 4,81 vs 94,83± 4,56h no inverno, e 64,00± 4,14 vs 127,44± 4,04h no verão. A duração do estro foi similar no inverno (12,33± 0,74h e no verão (11,82± 0,74h, e maior nas vacas sincronizadas (13,24± 0,70 vs 10,91± 0,78h. O número de montas recebidas durante o estro foi similar no inverno (28,16± 2,61 e no verão (22,98± 2,58 e maior nos animais sincronizados (29,97± 2,48 vs 21,17± 2,17. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e tipo de luteólise sobre o número de montas recebidas por hora em estro. O inverno não se constituiu em fator limitante à manifestação do estro, cuja duração e intensidade foram suficientes para permitir sua detecção; contudo, a sincronização dos estros interferiu com a manifestação do comportamento sexual.The estrus behaviour and the plasma progesterone concentration were monitored during an induced and a natural subsequent estrus, in 35 Gir cows, during the winter and summer seasons of two consecutives years. The length of estrous cycle was influenced by the interaction between season and experimental year. The proestrus period was longer in the summer (51.82± 4.77h compared to the one in the winter (33.43± 4.82h season as far as in the natural (64.41± 4.95h vs in the induced estrus (20.85± 4.64h. The total sexual activity was shorter in the induced than in the natural estrus (41.62± 4.81 vs 94.83± 4.56h in the winter, and 64.00± 4.14 vs 127.44± 4.04h in the summer. The length of estrus was similar between winter (12.33± 0.74h and summer (11.82± 0.74h, and longer in the synchronized cows (13.24± 0.70 vs 10.91± 0.78h. The number of mounts accepted during the estrus was similar between winter (28.16± 2.61 and summer (22.98± 2.58, and greater in the synchronized animals (29.97± 2.48 vs 21.17± 2.17. It was observed effect of interaction between season of the year and luteolysis type on the total received mountings per hour in estrus. The winter was not a limiting factor to the estrus manifestation, once its length and intensity allowed heat detection, however, heat synchronization meddled the manifestation of sexual behaviour.

  8. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  9. A field investigation of a modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocol designed for fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Satake, N; Chandra, K; McGowan, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy rates (PR) to fixed-time AI (FTAI) in Brahman heifers were compared after treatment with a traditional oestradiol-based protocol (OPO-8) or a modified protocol (OPO-6) where the duration of intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) was reduced from 8 to 6 days, and the interval from IPRD removal to oestradiol benzoate (ODB) was increased from 24 to 36 h. Rising 2 yo heifers on Farm A: (n = 238 and n = 215; two consecutive days AI); B (n = 271); and C (n = 393) were allocated to OPO-8 or OPO-6. An IPRD was inserted and 1mg ODB i.m. on Day 0 for OPO-8 heifers and Day 2 for OPO-6 heifers. On Day 8, the IPRD was removed and 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24h, for OPO-8 heifers, and 36 h, for OPO-6 heifers, post IPRD removal all heifers received 1mg ODB i.m. FTAI was conducted at 54 and 72 h post IPRD removal for OPO-8 and OPO-6 heifers. At Farm A, OPO-6 heifers, AI on the second day, the PR was 52.4% to FTAI (P = 0.024) compared to 36.8% for OPO-8 heifers. However, no differences were found between OPO-8 and OPO-6 protocols at Farm A (first day of AI) (39.9 vs. 35.7%), or Farms B (26.2 vs. 35.4%) and C (43.2% vs. 40.3%). Presence of a corpus luteum at IPRD insertion affected PR to FTAI (43.9% vs. 28.8%; P < 0.001). This study has shown that the modified ovulation synchronisation protocol OPO-6 may be a viable alternative to the OPO-8 protocol for FTAI in B. indicus heifers. PMID:26282523

  10. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  11. Nonpuberal estrus in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, L M; Randel, R D

    1986-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of behavioral estrus without subsequent development of functional luteal tissue (termed nonpuberal estrus, NPE), was determined in 43 Simmental X Hereford-Brahman heifers. Blood samples were collected weekly from the start of the study to first behavioral estrus and then daily from d 1 (d 0 = estrus) through d 14 following first and subsequently observed estrous behaviors. All blood samples were analyzed for serum progesterone (P4) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. More heifers (62.8%) exhibited NPE than had luteal development after their first behavioral estrus (37.2%). There was a tendency for fewer light-weight heifers (less than or equal to 240 kg at the start of the experiment) to exhibit a puberal first estrus compared with the heavy-weight (greater than 240 kg at the start of the experiment) heifers (31.2% vs 68.8%, respectively; P = .12). Heifers that had a puberal first estrus were older (376 +/- 12 d vs 334 +/- 9 d, P less than .05) compared with heifers that had NPE. Weight at first behavioral estrus was similar between heifers that had a puberal first estrus and those that had NPE (298 +/- 8 kg and 289 +/- 6 kg, respectively). More heifers that had a puberal first estrus also had an elevation in serum P4 concentrations before that first estrus (64.3% vs 20.0%, P less than .05), and the serum P4 elevation was greater (2.5 +/- .4 ng vs 1.2 +/- .1 ng, P less than .05) than heifers that had NPE. We have concluded from these results that NPE is a common occurrence in heifers approaching puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3771388

  12. Nonpuberal estrus in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, L M; Randel, R D

    1986-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of behavioral estrus without subsequent development of functional luteal tissue (termed nonpuberal estrus, NPE), was determined in 43 Simmental X Hereford-Brahman heifers. Blood samples were collected weekly from the start of the study to first behavioral estrus and then daily from d 1 (d 0 = estrus) through d 14 following first and subsequently observed estrous behaviors. All blood samples were analyzed for serum progesterone (P4) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. More heifers (62.8%) exhibited NPE than had luteal development after their first behavioral estrus (37.2%). There was a tendency for fewer light-weight heifers (less than or equal to 240 kg at the start of the experiment) to exhibit a puberal first estrus compared with the heavy-weight (greater than 240 kg at the start of the experiment) heifers (31.2% vs 68.8%, respectively; P = .12). Heifers that had a puberal first estrus were older (376 +/- 12 d vs 334 +/- 9 d, P less than .05) compared with heifers that had NPE. Weight at first behavioral estrus was similar between heifers that had a puberal first estrus and those that had NPE (298 +/- 8 kg and 289 +/- 6 kg, respectively). More heifers that had a puberal first estrus also had an elevation in serum P4 concentrations before that first estrus (64.3% vs 20.0%, P less than .05), and the serum P4 elevation was greater (2.5 +/- .4 ng vs 1.2 +/- .1 ng, P less than .05) than heifers that had NPE. We have concluded from these results that NPE is a common occurrence in heifers approaching puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  14. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  15. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  16. Morfometría ovárica de hembras Cebú (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la morfometría ovárica está directamente relacionado con sus aplicaciones para analizar e interpretar los hallazgos, en los exámenes ginecológicos de las vacas. Para este trabajo se recolectaron 114 pares de ovarios en frigorífico, clasificados a partir del ancho, grueso, largo, volumen, diámetro del folículo, diámetro y área del cuerpo lúteo. Fue observada una diferencia significativa en el ancho (1,95cm y 1,83cm y el volumen (7,26 mL y 6,23 mL de los ovarios izquierdos y derechos, respectivamente. En cuanto al tamaño y el volumen de los folículos, el diámetro y el área de los cuerpos lúteos, no hubo diferencia relevante. En los lados hubo correlación positiva (p<0,01 entre el volumen del ovario izquierdo y el área del cuerpo lúteo. La presencia de folículos con diámetro igual o superior a 9mm, el cuerpo lúteo de tipo macizo y protruso presente en 43,39% de los 53 ovarios, predominó con relación al tipo cóncavo. De los 84 ovarios con cuerpos lúteos, el 26,20% eran de tipo extrapolado. Se concluye, que la presencia de cuerpo lúteo incluso, en vacas cebú, puede resultar en fallas diagnósticas durante el examen de palpación rectal para estimar la actividad ovárica.

  17. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  19. Dairy Heifer Development and Nutrition Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Heifer development depends on nutritional management decisions throughout all growing phases. Optimizing costs to raise heifers improves profitability of dairy farms. Feed costs for heifers make up 50% of heifer costs. Required growth rates depend on the desired age at first calving and estimated mature body weight. Intensive milk feeding improves calf growth and subsequent milk production. Prepubertal heifers should be fed for adequate gains to calve between 22 and 24 months of age. Controlling gains in pregnant heifers to limit fat deposition is possible using limit-feeding of a higher concentrate diet or using high-fiber forages to reduce diet energy. PMID:27161393

  20. Expression of genes related to quality of Longissimus dorsi muscle meat in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus × 3/8 Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Juliana; Castan, Eduardo; Dal Pai, Maeli; Arrigoni, Mário De Beni; Rodrigues Baldin, Samira; De Oliveira, Henrique Nunes

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, TG, DGAT1 and LEP gene expressions and correlate them with meat quality traits in two genetic groups (Nellore and Canchim) in order to assess their expression profile and use their expression profile as genetic markers. We analyzed 30 young bulls (1year old), 15 of each genetic group. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected for analysis of: total lipids (TL) and meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) and myofibrillar fragmentation (MFI) at day of slaughter and 7days of aging. Gene expression profiles were obtained via RT-qPCR. TL and MFI showed differences between breeds, higher MFI in Canchim and higher TL in Nellore. Calpains showed no differential expression between groups, as did DGAT1, TG, and LEP. CAST was expressed more in the Nellore cattle. The only significant within-breed correlation (0.79) between gene expression and meat traits was found for DGAT1 and MFI in Canchim breed. Although the number of animals used in this study was small, the results indicate that the increased expression of CAST in Nellore may reflect tougher meat, but the lack of correlations with the meat traits indicates it is not a promising genetic marker.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI MICROBIAL STUDIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of alternative medicines were available for those who cannot be helped by conventional medicine. Ayurvedha and Herbal medicine were two important forms of alternative medicine that was widely available in India. This work was mainly concerned with the identification of the therapeutic properties of Hemidesmus indicus. The ethanolic extract of hemidesmus indicus root was used for its anti oxidant and antimicrobial activity. Hemidesmus indicus root extract has very well anti oxidant and anti microbial activity. The ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus was checked for anti microbial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as staphylococcus aures, pseudomonas aeruginosa andfungi Aspergillus niger.

  2. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of {sup 226}Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; {sup 210}Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and {sup 210}Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg{sup -1} DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of {sup 226}Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), which, in turn, had greater milk concentrations compared with heifers fed CSC (0.22 vs. 0.13 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.05). Heifers fed AR also had greater milk concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), but values of CSR-fed heifers were not different from CSC-fed heifers (0.45 Bq kg{sup -1} DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  4. Heifer stocking density and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although replacement dairy heifers are frequently offered forage-based diets, this management practice may still result in over-conditioning, especially if significant proportions of corn silage are included in the diet. Generally, two approaches are recommended to address this problem: i) precision...

  5. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  6. Desempenho comparativo de seis grupos de cruzamento Holandês/Guzerá: 12. Ganho de peso de bezerras e novilhas Comparative performance of six Holstein-Friesian/Guzera crossbred groups: live weight gains of female calves and heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aurico Flôres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 3.475 pesos de fêmeas de seis grupos genéticos oriundos do acasalamento entre Holandês Vermelho e Branco (HVB x Guzerá (Guz, com frações esperadas de genes de HVB 1/4, ½ (F1, 5/8 (acasalamento inter se, 3/4, 7/8 e >31/32. Os dados foram analisados separadamente para 374 bezerras (até 120 dias de idade e 524 novilhas (dos 121 aos 550 dias de idade, por meio do Proc Mixed do pacote SAS, com modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de grupo genético (G, trimestre de pesagem, e a idade como co-variável dentro de G, e o efeito aleatório do animal. Aos ganhos de peso foi ajustado modelo aditivo dominante incluindo a diferença aditiva entre as raças (gI (HVB-Guz e a heterose (hI. Para as bezerras, o gI estimado foi significativo (P = 0,059, mas a heterose não (P = 0,92. O ganho de peso nesta fase foi de 474 g/d para as ¼, de 510 g/d para as ½ e de 575 a 610 g/d para os outros quatro grupos, com tendência linear na fração de genes de HVB (gI = 0,171 ± 0,065 g/d, atribuída ao fato observado de as bezerras com maior fração de Bos indicus não se adaptarem bem ao aleitamento em balde. Este menor crescimento foi compensado como novilhas, categoria na qual as F1 apresentaram o maior ganho de peso (371 g/d, que diminuía para 309 g/d nas ¼ e 256 g/d nas >31/32 HVB. O modelo aditivo-dominante predizia adequadamente as taxas de ganho para as novilhas F1 e de retrocruzamentos, mas não para as do cruzamento 5/8 inter se, sugerindo a presença de epistasia. Excluindo-se este último grupo, foram estimados valores de gI = -0,006 ± 0,023 e hI = 0,113 ± 0,020 g/d.The data analyzed were live weights of females (3475 of six genetic groups obtained by crossing red and white Holstein-Friesian (HVB x Guzerá (Guz, with expected HVB gene fractions 1/4, ½ (F1 , 5/8 (from inter se mating, 3/4, 7/8 and > 31/32. The data were separately analyzed for 374 calves (up to age 120 d and 524 heifers (121 to 550-d-old, using Proc Mixed of the

  7. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately.......08). It is concluded that the FAT may have potential to reduce CH4 emission from heifers, but further studies are warranted to document this effect....

  8. Among farm variation in heifer BW gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Chapinal, N; Pajor, E A; Weary, D M

    2015-11-01

    BW of replacement heifers is rarely measured on commercial farms, making it difficult to evaluate the success of management practices related to calf growth. Our aims were to describe variability among commercial farms in Holstein heifer BW, determine how BW differences varied with management and propose a method of estimating calf growth based upon single measurement. Heart girth circumference was used to estimate BW of 576 heifers 48 to 70 weeks of age on 33 different farms (on average 11 ± 6 heifers/farm) in British Columbia, Canada. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship of BW with age (BW (kg)=116+5 × age (weeks)). Residuals from this regression were averaged across heifers within each farm to identify farms where heifers were heavier or lighter than would be predicted on the basis of their age; farm average residuals ranged from -54 to 72 kg. Farms with heifers showing the highest residual BW also had the highest rates of gain for pre-weaned calves. These results indicate that farms able to rear faster growing calves before weaning were also rearing faster growing heifers at breeding, and suggest that management of milk-fed calves is a particularly important component of replacement heifer management. PMID:26477529

  9. Multiple tarsal luxations in 2 Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Caroline; Nichols, Sylvain; Marchionatti, Emma; Lardé, Hélène; Olive, Julien; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    Two Holstein heifers were referred for non-weight bearing lameness. The physical examination and radiographic findings were diagnostic of tarsal luxation. Treatment and outcome are reported. A closed reduction was successfully performed in 1 heifer. The second animal was euthanized after attempts to reduce and stabilize the joint. PMID:26538677

  10. Beef Heifer Development Within Three Calving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Heifer calves (n=676) born in late winter (LW; avg birth date = Feb 7 ± 9 d) or early spring (ES; avg birth date Apr 3 ± 10 d) were weaned at 190- or...

  11. Pilot meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, G.M.; Daamen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Alterra en Bosdata voerden in opdracht van het Expertisecentrum LNV een proef uit voor het meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap. Het meetnet schat periodiek met een geografische steekproef de oppervlakte land met een zekere kwaliteit voor recreatie, natuur, milieu en economie. De steek

  12. The performance of heifers reared in a suckling system

    OpenAIRE

    Vertooren, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this study the effects on the performance of heifers reared in a suckling system (suckled heifers) compared to heifers reared in a bucket system (bucket heifers) were investigated. Heifers are young dairy cows that started first lactation. Focus was on the following parameters: age and live weight at first calving, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Also, attention was given to Paratuberculosis since suckling systems might increase the risks on its occurrence.

  13. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  14. Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

    2013-12-01

    The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein.

  15. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  16. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds.

  17. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  18. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  19. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  20. Phosphorus requirements for containerized Pterocarpus indicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng Hai Lok; Bernard Dell

    2015-01-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd is a tropical woody legume that holds promise for plantation forestry. Two glasshouse experiments were undertaken on two soil types to determine the phosphorus (P) concentration ranges in the foliage of P-stressed and healthy plants, and to define cri-tical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency and toxicity. There was a narrow range in rates of P fertilizer, supplied as Ca(H2PO4)2?H20, between deficiency and toxicity compared to other tree species. The relationship between shoot yield and P concentration in the youngest fully expanded leaf enabled critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency (0.17%) and toxicity (0.41%) to be determined at 90% maximum yield from linear re-gressions fitted to the data. The foliar P concentration ranges for deficiency and toxicity were similar to other nitrogen-fixing trees. The defined P concentration ranges and the critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of P deficiency and P toxicity should be useful for monitoring the P status of nursery stock and the health of young seedlings after out-planting.

  1. Lipid Lowering Activity of Anthocephalus indicus Root in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid lowering activity of Anthocephalus indicus (family Rubiaceae; Hindi name Kadamba root extract has been studied in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. In this model, feeding with root extract (500 mg kg−1 b.w. lowered plasma lipids and reactivated post-heparin lipolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50–500 μM inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems, in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated both lipid lowering and antioxidant activities in root extract of A. indicus, which could help prevention of hyperlipidemia and related diseases.

  2. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter. PMID:22061376

  3. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A. P.; Bah, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced in...

  4. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J; Dawaye, S M; Zoli, A P; Bah, G S

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  5. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P P P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  6. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  7. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  8. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  9. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A.P.; Bah, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  10. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon for in vitro embryo production (IVEP. The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9% and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm. Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10 and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI: oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII: oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII: oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV: denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS and pregnancy status of cow on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%. Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%, 2.72±0.15 (24.82%, 2.24±0.15 (20.43% and 2.47±0.20 (22.54% respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05 compared with other animals. Oocytes with quality (grade I and II acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP.

  11. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter.

  12. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    OpenAIRE

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  13. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  14. Efecto de SNPs de genes candidatos asociados a textura de la carne en bovinos Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla López, Yenny Catherine

    2014-01-01

    La terneza de la carne es el principal atributo de aceptación de la carne por parte del consumidor, sin olvidar las características de jugosidad y el sabor; por lo que su impacto en la rentabilidad y la calidad de la carne es de gran importancia. La terneza de la carne de bovinos está influenciada por factores genéticos y ambientales. El evaluar el desempeño de la terneza a través de factores como son el tiempo de maduración y el efecto del cruce de los animales, estos han sido de uso frecuen...

  15. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P Angus were lighter (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  16. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  17. Haematological studies of Gaolao Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Kapale,D.G.Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    Hematological study of 15 healthy Gaolao heifers has been carried out. The mean ±S.E. values of total erythrocyte (10.3 ±0.34 million/cu mm), Hb (11.92 ±0.33 gm%), PCV (34.07±1.11%), MCV (33.14±0.75cuμ), MCH (11.63±0.32 μμgm), MCHC (35.07 ±0.70%),TLC (9.51±0.92 thousand/cmm), Lymphocytes (64.93 ±1.74%),Neutrophil (28.93 ±1.8%), Monocyte (2.2 ±0.34%), Basophil (0.2&...

  18. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    to be the major flora associated with juveniles of P. indicus in the culture environment when they were maintained in hapa. Bacterial flora of the body surface and gills of the prawns in a grow out system were predominantly composed of Pseudomonas, Coryneform...

  19. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any physical abnormalities. Per rectal palpation of the genital organs revealed the normal cervix and uterine horns. It was difficult to palpate the ovaries due to the fat around the organs. Blood samples were taken for cytogenetic and DNA testing. The heifer had normal chromosomal set. The heifer was culled due to its mammary abnormality. This might be the first to report a case of congenital absence of a teat in Japanese Black heifers.

  20. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  1. Economic modelling to optimize dairy heifer management decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of heifer rearing within a dairy farm is to produce high quality dairy replacements at low costs. Heifer management decisions interact with the biological aspects of growth, thereby influencing the future profitability of the heifer. To maximize profitability farmers need to be aware o

  2. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  3. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  4. Van 't bos los?; een verkennende studie naar de interactie tussen recreatieve gebruikers en beheerders van het Nederlandse bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, L.J.; Molenaar, de H.G.; Verbij, E.E.M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 is op een inductieve wijze onderzoek gedaan naar de vervreemding die plaatsvindt tussen bosgebruikers en bosbeheerders. Door allerlei ontwikkelingen in de samenleving is de afhankelijkheid van het bos enorm afgenomen en heeft bos vooral een functie van ontspanning en rust. In dit onderzoek i

  5. Bos in water, water in bos; kansenkaarten voor multifunctionele natte bossen met meerwaarde voor waterbeheer, natuur en recreatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommel, P.W.F.M.; Rooij, van S.A.M.; Waal, de R.W.; Vries, de F.; Goossen, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Uit eerder onderzoek is gebleken dat de combinatie van water en bos gunstig kan zijn voor natuur, waterbeheer en recreatie. Dit vervolg onderzoek heeft tot doel in beeld te brengen wáár in Nederland de meest kansrijke plekken voor deze combinatie liggen. De volgende hoofdtypen 'nat bos' worden onder

  6. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepers, S.; Peeters, K.; Opsomer, G.; Barkema, H.W.; Frankena, K.; Vliegher, de S.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farm

  7. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem; Toshihiko Nakao; Chikako Yoshida

    2011-01-01

    A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia) was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any phys...

  8. Psychotropic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. In Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V J Galani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae is a branched herb with purple color flowers, distributed in wet places. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S. indicus (SIE in rats and mice. Effect of SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. on spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor coordination, exploratory behaviour and apomorphine-induced stereotypy were investigated in mice. SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. induced catalepsy and effect of SIE on haloperidol induced catalepsy were studied in rats. The SIE showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, exploratory behaviour and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in the mice. Neuroleptic potential of SIE was observed by the results in which SIE antagonized apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice, produced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Further, SIE had no effect on motor-coordination as determined by the rota rod test. These results provide evidence that the hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus may contain psychoactive substances that are sedative in nature with possible neuroleptic properties.

  9. Social Licking in Pregnant Dairy Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Grazyne; Weary, Daniel M; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    Housing affects social behaviors, such as competition, but little work has addressed affiliative behaviors. This study compared social licking (SL) in pregnant heifers housed indoors (in a free-stall barn) versus outdoors (on pasture), and relationships with competition, feeding and physical proximity to others. Six heifer groups were observed during two six-hour-periods in both treatments. The total number of social events (SL and agonistic interactions) was four times higher when heifers were housed indoors compared to pasture (546 ± 43 vs. 128 ± 7 events/group; P 0.05). Housing did not affect how the SL bout was initiated and terminated, the duration, the body part licked and behavior preceding licking ( P > 0.05). Animals in close proximity showed higher rates of SL ( P 0.05). A previous agonistic event did not predict occurrence or the role of heifers in the following licking event. The higher stocking density indoors likely resulted in increased social interactions. PMID:26610578

  10. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in Underground Mine Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Edmund Chime

    2011-01-01

    The schlieren technique describes an optical analysis method designed to enhance light distortions caused by air movement. The ability to visualize gas flows has significant implications for analyzing underground mine ventilation systems. Currently, the widely utilized traditional schlieren methods are impractical underground due to complex equipment and design requirements. Background oriented schlieren (BOS) provides a solution to this problem. BOS requires two primary components, a pro...

  11. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  12. Comparison of slaughter value for once-calved heifers and heifers of Polish Holstein-Friesian×Limousine crossbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Purwin, Cezary; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika

    2016-07-01

    The study compared the slaughter value and meat quality of heifers and once-calved heifers slaughtered at the age of 18 and 28months, respectively. The once-calved heifers at the age of 15months, were bred with semen of Limousine bulls and following the calving they fed their offspring and then they were slaughtered. There were no differences in the carcass conformation and fatness between the treatments. Once-calved heifers' carcasses had a higher proportion (Pheifers. Meat of once-calved heifers contained more (Pheifers' meat. In conclusion, due to the possibility for obtaining additional offspring and a heavier pre-slaughter weight without reducing the slaughter value of the carcass and meat quality, it is recommended to use heifers originating from commercial crossbreeding as the once-calved ones. PMID:26928230

  13. Mastitis in dairy heifers: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Steiner, A; Klocke, P

    2014-12-01

    Poor udder health represents a serious problem in dairy production and has been investigated intensively, but heifers generally have not been the main focus of mastitis control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of heifer mastitis in Switzerland. The study included 166,518 heifers of different breeds (Swiss Red Pied, Swiss Brown Cattle and Holstein). Monthly somatic cell counts (SCCs) provided by the main dairy breeding organisations in Switzerland were monitored for 3 years; the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) was determined on the basis of SCCs ≥100,000 cells/mL at the first test date. The probability of having SCM at the first test date during lactation was modelled using logistic regression. Analysed factors included data for the genetic background, morphological traits, geographical region, season of parturition and milk composition. The overall prevalence of SCM in heifers during the period from 2006 to 2010 was 20.6%. Higher frequencies of SCM were present in heifers of the Holstein breed (odds ratio, OR, 1.62), heifers with high fat:protein ratios (OR 1.97) and heifers with low milk urea concentrations combined with high milk protein concentrations (OR 3.97). Traits associated with a low risk of SCM were high set udders, high overall breeding values and low milk breeding values. Heifers with SCM on the first test day had a higher risk of either developing chronic mastitis or leaving the herd prematurely. PMID:25457268

  14. [Diabetes insipidus in a Swiss Braunvieh heifer with internal hydrocephalus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Feller, B; Gerber, A; Ossent, P

    2008-08-01

    This case report describes the findings in a seven-month-old heifer with diabetes insipidus attributable to internal hydrocephalus. The heifer was referred to the clinic because of reduced appetite, polydipsia, decreased faecal output and weight loss. The heifer was examined daily for 8 days. She was thin and weak and had a dull dry hair coat and decreased appetite. The heifer urinated frequently; the urine was clear and yel low, had a specific gravity of 1.015. A complete blood cell count, biochemical profile and blood gas analysis revealed increased serum urea, increased serum creatinine, hypernatraemia, hyperchloraemia, hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. The heifer received 10 litres of water and 3 litres of ruminal fluid from a healthy cow per os daily for 5 days. The heifer had access to fresh water ad libitum. The general condition of the heifer did not improve after this treatment. Although the concentration of serum urea and creatinine decreased, the concentrations of sodium, chloride and calcium remained higher than normal. Based on the findings, a diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was made and the heifer was euthanatized. Postmortem examination revealed severe internal hydrocephalus, and a definitive diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus attributable to internal hydrocephalus was made.

  15. Postweaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    From weaning to breeding, nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. Overfeeding heifers decreases the number of calves weaned, w...

  16. Replacement Heifer Selection in A Beef Cattle Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Pala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a heifer's weaning weight and her fertility and weaning weight of her calves was studied. Also investigated was the effect of dam amount of fat (DAF=dam weaning weight/weaning height on heifers' ability to breed and rebreed. This is similar to Body Mass Index (BMI calculated for humans. The relationship of dam's average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to finishing and DAF to calf weaning weight was studied also. These determine which heifers should be kept as replacements. Data were collected from 816 heifers. Heavier animals had higher conception rates. Average daily gain of the dam from birth to weaning and DAF had adverse effects on calf weaning weight. This suggests that over-conditioned heifers are likely to have lighter calves. In addition, the cubic model of dam weaning weight showed that after a weight of 272 kg, calf weaning weights no longer increased with increasing dam weaning weights.

  17. Onset of puberty in Maremmana heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Carelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maremmana breed is characterised by rusticity, resistance to harsh environments and good growth ability and it could be considered as one of the most suited breeds for extensive rearing in Italy. Moreover, Maremmana presents high fertility and good fostering ability but, on the other hand, the age at first calving appears quite high. This could probably be due to reduced feed availability to which animals are frequently subjected. The aim of this paper was to determine the age at puberty in Maremmana heifers, the repeatability of the reproductive cycles along the seasons and to verify the possibility to anticipate the age at first service. Haematic levels of progesterone and 17-β-estradiol were determined weekly in 6 heifers raised in pens and fed with 0.70 Milk FU/kg DM and 121 g of gross protein/kg d.m, starting from 9 up to 25 months of age. Metabolic profile was determined monthly to highlight possible metabolic unbalances that could affect reproductive activity. Plasma was submitted to RIA analysis in order to measure steroidal hormones. Puberty was considered reached when two subsequent measures of progesterone resulted higher than 1 ng/ml of plasma. This happened in 5 out of 6 heifers at an average age of 17 months. The fluctuation of the hormonal levels throughout the year seems to exclude the seasonality of the oestrous cycle. The results showed that the level of the most important metabolites is within the normal range and it does not seem to interfere with the choice to anticipate the first service by one year. Possible periods of anoestrus noticed in some herds could be linked to the reduced availability of pastures in a few months of the year.

  18. In Memoriam Dr Lute Bos (1928-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday July 6, 2010 we were shocked by the news that that day our former colleague Lute Bos had died unexpectedly at the age of 82. Lute was a world-famous plant virologist. From the start of his career in 1957 until his retirement from the Institute for Plant Protection (IPO-DLO) in Wageningen in

  19. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  20. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  1. Insulin Sensitivity of Heifers on Different Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthman J

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique was used to investigate the effect on insulin sensitivity of 2 different diets used in practical cattle feeding in calves. Ten 4 to 5-month-old heifer calves were allocated to 2 feeding groups, LO or HI, to obtain growth rates of 400 g/day or 900 g/day. The heifers were fed and housed individually for 5 weeks. Growth rates close to calculated rates were obtained with the diets used. Weekly blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for analysis of glucose, insulin, cortisol, total serum protein, urea, cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids. During week 5, insulin sensitivity was estimated using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin sensitivity did not differ between the groups, but the plasma glucose levels were higher during weeks 3 and 4 for the HI group compared to the LO group. It may be concluded that the amount of concentrate in the diet was too low to induce changes in either the basal plasma insulin levels or the insulin sensitivity in the HI group.

  2. Identification of Beef Heifers with Superior Uterine Capacity for Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Thomas W; Burns, Gregory W; Moraes, Joao G N; Moss, James I; Denicol, Anna C; Dobbs, Kyle B; Ortega, M Sofia; Hansen, Peter J; Wehrman, Michael E; Neibergs, Holly; O'Neil, Eleanore; Behura, Susanta; Spencer, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Infertility and subfertility represent major problems in domestic animals and humans, and the majority of embryonic loss occurs during the first month of gestation that involves pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation. The critical genes and physiological pathways in the endometrium that mediate pregnancy establishment and success are not well understood. In study one, predominantly Angus heifers were classified based on fertility using serial embryo transfer to select animals with intrinsic differences in pregnancy loss. In each of the four rounds, a single in vitro-produced, high-quality embryo was transferred into heifers on Day 7 postestrus and pregnancy was determined on Days 28 and 42 by ultrasound and then terminated. Heifers were classified based on pregnancy success as high fertile (HF), subfertile (SF), or infertile (IF). In study two, fertility-classified heifers were resynchronized and bred with semen from a single high-fertility bull. Blood samples were collected every other day from Days 0 to 36 postmating. Pregnancy rate was determined on Day 28 by ultrasound and was higher in HF (70.4%) than in heifers with low fertility (36.8%; SF and IF). Progesterone concentrations in serum during the first 20 days postestrus were not different in nonpregnant heifers and also not different in pregnant heifers among fertility groups. In study three, a single in vivo-produced embryo was transferred into fertility-classified heifers on Day 7 postestrus. The uteri were flushed on Day 14 to recover embryos, and endometrial biopsies were obtained from the ipsilateral uterine horn. Embryo recovery rate and conceptus length and area were not different among the heifer groups. RNA was sequenced from the Day 14 endometrial biopsies of pregnant HF, SF, and IF heifers (n = 5 per group) and analyzed by edgeR-robust analysis. There were 26 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the HF compared to SF endometrium, 12 DEGs for SF compared to IF endometrium, and three

  3. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  4. Effects of Anomalous Tensor Couplings in BOs -(B-)Os Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Qin; HAN Lin; YANG Ya-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed anomalous large dimuon charge asymmetry in neutral B decays,we study the effects of the anomalous tensor couplings to pursue a possible solution.With the constraints from the observables φJ/(φ)(φ,f0)s,aSsl and ΔMs,the new physics parameter spaces are severely restricted.We find that the contributions induced by the color-singlet or the color-octet tensor operators are helpful to moderate the anomaly in BOs - (B-)Osmixing.Numerically,the observable aSsl could be enhanced by about two orders of magnitude by the contributionsof color-singlet or color-octet tensor operators with their respective nontrivial new weak phase φT1 =41° ± 35° orφs =-47° ± 33° and relevant strength parameters |gT1| =(2.89 ± 1.40) × 10-2 or |gT8| =(0.79 ± 0.34) × 10-2.However,due to the fact that the NP contributions are severely suppressed by the recent LHCb measurement for φJ/φ(φ,f0)s,our theoretical result of aSsl is still much smaller than the central value of the experimental data.

  5. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle. PMID:26526735

  6. Clinical diagnosis of uterine didelphia in Ayrshire heifer

    OpenAIRE

    Raggio, Ignacio; Lefebvre, Rejean C.; Poitras, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Denis; Champagne, Jean P.

    2006-01-01

    A 24-month-old Ayrshire heifer was referred because of infertility. A clinical diagnosis of uterus didelphys was established after a complete genital examination before the animal was culled from the herd.

  7. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle.

  8. Estrus and pregnancy in beef heifers following use of the Syncro-Mate-B treatment (SMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M F; Burrell, W C; Broadway, J; Wiltbank, J N

    1979-10-01

    Five studies were conducted in yearling heifers which were either puberal or prepuberal utilizing the Syncro-Mate-B (SMB) treatment (G. D. Searle & Co., Chicago, Ill.). In trial 1 the pregnancy rate in Brahman crossbred heifers after 21 days of breeding was 56% and 28% greater (PSimmental heifers (trial 2) was increased 39% (PBrahman crossbred heifers was not influenced by weight or SMB treatment. Crossbred Santa Gertrudis heifers (trial 5) weighing greater then 250 kg and treated with SMB had improved reproductive performance compared to the control groups. While in treated heifers weighing less than 250 kg reproductive performance was far from optimum. PMID:16725444

  9. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  10. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  11. Pengaruh Anggaran Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) Terhadap Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Siswa SMP Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to find out the correlation and the effectiveness of BOS (School Operation Assistance) fund with the improvement of SMP students' learning achievement in Medan. BOS program has started since July, 2005 which is aimed to ease people's burden in education cost by giving financial aid for supporting qualified nine-year learning compulsory. Although the government has distributed BOS fund to schools, there are still many poor children who drop out of school, and ...

  12. Dairy Heifer Rearing in Hot Arid Zone: An Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Razzaque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Economic losses due to high mortality in young calves born in hot arid zone including Kuwait and a high cost of rearing are the main constraints to this region. Therefore, dairy producers have to depend on importation of pregnant heifers for herd replacement. Research data on cost of heifer rearing from their weaning to first lactation were lacking. The objectives of the present investigation were to compare the costs/benefits of raising heifers born in Kuwait without and with intervention measures and project the future financial benefits. Approach: Present study methods involved using cost-benefit model where without and with intervention scenarios were compared using a total of 58 herd parameters. These variables included in the spreadsheets in the model could be varied during each year of projection period. Production turnoff of 3 herds each of 245 cows in three scenarios namely baseline, improved and future were evaluated. Input costs of imported heifers (baseline, locally raised heifers with interventions (improved and projected 10 year (future and the income generated from these scenarios were analyzed. Results: Total income generated from baseline, improved and the future projection were KD 268,715/-, 281,246/-and 342,251/-respectively (1 KD Kuwaiti Dinar = US $3.45; total operating costs of these scenarios were KD 249,372/-, 242,276/-and 205,929/-respectively. Financial analyses showed that benefits were double when interventions were applied KD 19,343/-Vs KD 38,970/-in baseline and improved operation respectively. Conclusion: Fifty percent of the total heifers needed for herd replacement could be sourced locally showing an increased net income as an outcome of intervention measures. Locally born adapted heifers could be used for dairying in this hot arid zone with a phase-wise increase in their herd size reducing dependence on imported dairy cattle.

  13. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or i

  14. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer and heifer packer processing plant shall report to the Secretary on the first reporting day of each week,...

  15. Genetic aspects of feed intake and efficiency in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Vos, H.; Korver, S.

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, an experiment was initiated to study the relationships between feed intake and feed efficiency of young AI bulls, growing heifers and lactating heifers. This paper focuses on the genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and efficiency of lactating heifers. Measurements of feed intake

  16. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  17. Comparisons among Tuli-, Brahman-, and Angus-sired heifers: intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, T D; Rouquette, F M; Holloway, J W

    1998-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Tuli crossbred cattle, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and grazing behavior were estimated in two Texas environments. In humid east Texas, Tuli x Brahman heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Angus x Brahman heifers. Fecal output, forage intake, compartmental mass, and compartmental residence time did not differ among breeds. Angus and Brahman heifers had different (P x Brahman or Angus x Brahman heifers. Angus heifers had shorter (P x Brahman (552+/-16.8 min/d and 10+/-.4), Angus x Brahman (507+/-18.4 min/d and 9+/-.5), and Brahman (560-/+ 16.8 min/d and 9+/-.4, respectively) heifers. In semiarid southwest Texas, Tuli x Angus heifers were compared with purebred Angus and Brahman and Brahman x Angus heifers. Fecal output and forage intake were similar in Tuli x Angus and Brahman x Angus heifers (14.2+/-.69 and 14.9+/-.91 g fecal DM/ [d.kg BW] and 24.5+/-1.33 and 25.6+/-1.75 g/d of forage DMI, respectively) but higher (P Brahman heifers (12.2+/-.64 and 20.3+/-1.23 g/[d.kg BW] of fecal DM and forage DMI, respectively). Grazing times did not differ among breeds. We conclude that Tuli-sired heifers are likely to be as productive as Brahman crossbred heifers in Texas, based on the similarities in intake, digesta dynamics, and grazing behavior. PMID:9464902

  18. Occurrence of abnormal starfish Astropecten indicus (Doderlein, 1888 (Echinodermata: Astroidea along Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prabhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Starfish Astropecten indicus was collected from bycatch landings at Mudasalodai fishing harbour, Tamil Nadu (India in November 2011. Totally 134 specimens collected among three specimens (2,2% have abnormally developed four and six arms. Normally, A. indicus has five arms and the deviation from pentamerism is a rare phenomenon in starfishes. The present observations suggest that deviations from pentamerism are not a heritable character but are a consequence of environmental perturbations on the metamorphosis of larvae and/or abnormal regeneration of arms.

  19. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  20. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  1. Protocolos de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo en vacas (Bos indicus en el trópico bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Sanabria-V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En una hacienda de clima tropical bajo, se evalula  respuesta  a  tres  programas de  Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF en 30 vacas vacías cebú  comercial, cíclicas,  con buena  condición corporal,  seleccionadas por  palpación  rectal  ydistribuidas al azar en  tres grupos de 10 vacas cada uno. A  éstos  se  les  asignó  un  protocolo  de sincronización de celos y ovulación diferente. En el grupo 1 se utilizó un dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona;  las vacas del grupo 2 recibieron un  implante auricular  impregnado de Norgestomet  y  en  el  grupo  3  se  realizó  el protocolo de Ovsynch. Se diagnosticó la preñez mediante ultrasonografía, 30 días después de la inseminación en  los  tratamientos y  los datos  fueron analizados mediante  estadística descriptiva  con variables  de  tipo  cuantitativo.  Los  resultados obtenidos para el grupo 1, fueron 4 de 10 vacas preñadas, en el grupo 2, 6 de 10 vacas preñadas y en  el  grupo  3, 3  de 10  vacas. Se  encontraron diferencias  significativas  entre  las  vacas  que recibieron  el  implante  auricular,  así  como  a aquellas  vacas que  se  les hizo  el protocolo de Ovsynch,  pero  no  se  encontraron  diferencias significativas  entre  el  dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona,  respecto de  los dos restantes. El valor más económico por preñez se obtuvo  con  la  utilización  del  protocolo  de Ovsynch; sin embargo, en  términos de eficiencia,fue mejor usar el implante auricular impregnado de  Norgestomet;  esto  por  razones  de mejoramiento  genético.  De  esta  forma  se concluyó que el protocolo del implante auricular con Norgestomet  tuvo una superior  tasa de preñez,sin que  esto  sea  una  constante,  debido  a  que  existen diferentes  factores que hacen variar  los resultados de la IATF.

  2. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus) gestantes e não gestantes

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Vargas; P.R. Xavier; C.A. Rezende; M.M. Neves; A.P. Marques Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o tr...

  3. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) and their correlation with climatic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Francisco Carlos Platzeck Estrella Alves; Eunice Oba; Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of t...

  4. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  5. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  6. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus gestantes e não gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o trimestre gestacional: primeiro - gestação de até 90 dias; segundo - de 91 a 180 dias; e terceiro - de 181 a 270 dias. Os corpos lúteos, processados para inclusão em paraplast, foram avaliados em microscópio de luz. Na proporção volumétrica do corpo lúteo, os constituintes avaliados foram citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas, tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos, células endoteliais e pericitos e vasos sanguíneos. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma de células lúteas reduziu de 46,1±2,8% para 37,9±3,5% e a de núcleo de células lúteas reduziu de 9,2±1,0% para 6,2±1,0%, do primeiro para o segundo trimestre. A proporção de tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos aumentou de 20,9±5,4%, no primeiro trimestre, para 34,0±4,2%, no segundo trimestre. Grânulos citoplasmáticos foram evidenciados pelas técnicas histoquímicas xylidine ponceau e azul de bromofenol, que indicam sua provável composição proteica. A quantidade de células maiores com grânulos aumentou significativamente de 2,3±1,9%, no primeiro trimestre, para 25,5±20,3%, no segundo. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas diminuiu ao longo da gestação, e a de tecido conjuntivo aumentou. A quantidade de células lúteas maiores contendo grânulos também aumentou ao longo da gestação.

  7. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano; Usaquén Martínez William

    2006-01-01

    La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es e...

  8. Dinámica folicular y función lútea durante la gestación temprana. Estudio de un caso en Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henao R Guillermo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A una vaca Cebú de seis años, tres partos y 432 Kg de peso, se le practicaron ecografías ováricas transrectales y muestreos sanguíneo tres veces por semana desde el día uno al 74 de gestación. Se contó el número de folículos > 4 mm y se midió el diámetro de los folículos y el diámetro y tiempo de observación ecográfica del cuerpo lúteo. Se determinó la ovulación y se calculó la tasa de crecimiento del folículo dominante y el intervalo interdominancia. Los niveles de progesterona se midieron por radioinmunoanálisis. Durante los primeros 74 días de la gestación se desarrollaron 10 ondas foliculares; la primera fue conformada por seis folículos  4mm, de los cuales se desarrolló uno dominante que alcanzó un diámetro de 11 mm, creció a una tasa de un mm/día y presentó un intervalo interdominancia de 10 días. El folículo subordinado más desarrollado alcanzó un diámetro de 6 mm. Los folículos dominantes alcanzaron 9.11 mm de diámetro, crecieron a una tasa de 1,0  0,19 mm/día y presentaron un intervalo interdominancia de 7,5  1,73 días. El cuerpo lúteo alcanzó un diámetro máximo de 21mm el día 40 de gestación. La progesterona alcanzó niveles >10 ng/100ml a partir del día 11. Durante la gestación temprana de una vaca Cebú se presentó dinámica folicular caracterizada por el desarrollo de ondas foliculares semejantes a las producidas durante el ciclo estral y se formó un cuerpo lúteo activo productor de niveles característicos de progesterona.

  9. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P  0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species. PMID:24570857

  10. Marcadores moleculares asociados a la Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) en carne de Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Gutiérrez, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    La Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) es una de las características de la carne con mayor efecto sobre la rentabilidad del sector, al estar asociada a las mermas y a la jugosidad. Los objetivos principales son: resaltar la importancia de la CRA de la carne de bovino, evaluar el desempeño de estos parámetros según los factores tiempo de maduración y cruce de los animales y establecer polimorfismos en genes candidatos asociados al parámetro evaluado. Varios genes y sus polimorfismos han sido ...

  11. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas europeas a esta raza.

  12. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  13. Allometric comparison of Georgia dairy heifers on farms and at youth shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D S; Duberstein, K J; Fain Bohlen, J L; Bertrand, J K; Nelson, A H; Froetschel, M A; Davidson, B E; Graves, W M

    2015-02-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between allometric measures of growth of Holstein dairy heifers and placing in the show ring, and to compare differences in growth between Holstein heifers that are shown and not shown. In the first study, 494 Holstein show heifers were evaluated at the 2012 and 2013 Georgia Junior National Livestock Shows. Measurements were obtained for weight, head length, withers height, hip height, thurl width, and tail length. Heifer mass index (HMI), average daily gain (ADG), and age were calculated. In total, 72.5% of Holstein show heifers were underweight. Average ADG was 0.63 kg/d, which is below the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Variables were ranked and converted to percentages to account for differences in class size. Withers height, head length, and HMI were most indicative of show placing. In the second study, we compared differences between growth patterns of show heifers and non-show heifers. An additional 293 non-show Holstein heifers were evaluated on 3 Georgia dairy farms during the same period as the show. In total, 43.3% of non-show heifers were underweight. Average ADG for non-show heifers was 0.71 kg/d, which is within the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Show heifers weighed less for their age than non-show heifers and tended to be taller at the withers than non-show heifers. The HMI scores were similar for younger show and non-show heifers, but older show heifers had lower HMI scores than non-show heifers of the same age. Show heifers had HMI scores that were lower than values calculated from standard growth data. As show heifers matured, ADG decreased, whereas as non-show heifers matured, ADG increased. Youth, leaders, and parents need to be aware of the importance of growing replacement heifers correctly so that heifers calve at 22 to 24 mo of age at an acceptable size and scale and become profitable members of the milking herd. PMID:25434340

  14. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  15. Staphylococcus via an interaction with the ELR+ CXC chemokine ENA-78 is associated with BOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, A L; Wang, X; Injean, P; Weigt, S S; Shino, M; Sayah, D; DerHovanessian, A; Lynch, J P; Ross, D J; Saggar, R; Ardehali, A; Li, G; Elashoff, R; Belperio, J A

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated gram-positive bacterium after lung transplantation (LT) and has been associated with poor posttransplant outcomes, but its effect on bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and death in the context of the allograft inflammatory environment has not been studied. A three-state Cox semi-Markovian model was used to determine the influence of allograft S. aureus and the ELR+ CXC chemokines on the survival rates and cause-specific hazards for movement from lung transplant (State 1) to BOS (State 2), from transplant (State 1) to death (State 3), and from BOS (State 2) to death (State 3). Acute rejection, pseudomonas pneumonia, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CXCL5 and its interaction with S. aureus all increased the likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS. Transition to death from transplant was facilitated by pseudomonas infection and single lung transplant. Movement from BOS to death was affected by the interaction between aspergillus, pseudomonas and CXCL5, but not S. aureus. S. aureus isolation had state specific effects after LT and only in concert with elevated BALF CXCL5 concentrations did it augment the risk of BOS. Pseudomonas and elevated BALF concentrations of CXCL5 continued as significant risk factors for BOS and death after BOS in lung transplantation.

  16. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects. PMID:17434541

  17. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  18. [Cystoscopy in a heifer with rupture of a patent urachus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Previtali, M; Fürst, A; Wehrli, M; Muggli, E

    2009-11-01

    This case report describes the clinical, ultrasonographic and cystoscopic findings and treatment in a two-year-old Swiss Braunvieh heifer with rupture of a patent urachus. The lead signs in the seven-month-pregnant heifer were markedly abnormal general condition and demeanour and a pear-shaped abdomen. The heifer had severe azotaemia, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed ascites, which was diagnosed as uroperitoneum based on an elevated creatinine level in the fluid. A patent urachus was identified during cystoscopy; the endoscope could be advanced beyond the apex of the urinary bladder into the urachus. Based on all the findings, a diagnosis of uroperitoneum attributable to rupture of a patent urachus was made. The urachus was ligated twice via a left-flank laparotomy. The general condition normalised within a few days of surgery, and the patient calved normally and was in good health at follow-up evaluation.

  19. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  20. Redescription and new records of Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae

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    Shanshan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 of the tribe Ulomini is recorded for the first time from China (Guangxi and Hainan, Indonesia (Sumatra and Thailand (Chiang Dao. A redescription of the male and the first description of the female are also provided.

  1. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae) from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    OpenAIRE

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam; Bharath Reddy; Venugopal Satla; Imran Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  2. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant holstein heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor–mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial...

  3. Environmental impact of heifer management decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy farming contributes substantially to Dutch environmental problems. A dynamic heifer rearing model was used to determine the extent to which the rearing activity influences nutrient flows on a dairy farm. Based on current rearing conditions, the economic optimal rearing policy resulted in an av

  4. Genetic Parameters for Fertility Measurements in Holstein Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Mark, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    first to last insemination (IFL), age at first insemination (AFI), and age at first calving (AFC) in Danish Holstein heifers. The means of the traits were all significantly different between the two groups of herds. Heritabilities for NINS and IFL were lower than 1%, while heritabilities for AFI and AFC...

  5. CURVILARIA DERMATOMYCOSIS IN A JERSEY HEIFER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. QURESHI, S. A .WANI AND S. BEG

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2 year old Jersey heifer was presented to Veterinary Clinics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, with history of cutaneous dermatomycosis. Mycological screening of skin scrapings led to isolation and identification of Curvilaria spp.

  6. Event-time analysis of reproductive traits in dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Lende, van der T.; Baaijen, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on the reproductive traits of dairy heifers were analyzed using event-time techniques. Traits analyzed were age at first calving (n = 4631), days to first breeding, and days open (n = 1992) during the first lactation. A proportional hazard model was used that included fixed effects of herd-year

  7. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P Brahman-crossbred heifers. PMID:19617508

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 gb|ACX37363.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 7 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37365.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 9 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37367.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 11 [Bos i...ndicus] gb|ACX37383.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 27 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37385.1| toll-like receptor 1 var...iant 29 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37389.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 33 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37397.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 41 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37398.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 42 [Bos indicus] ACX37363.1 0.0 89% ...

  9. Flavoring extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots and Vanilla planifolia pods exhibit in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anish; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are important for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Search for potent and safe AChEIs from plant sources still continues. In the present work, we explored fragrant plant extracts that are traditionally used in flavoring foods, namely, Hemidesmus indicus and Vanilla planifolia, as possible sources for AChEI. Root and pod extracts of H. indicus and V. planifolia, respectively, produce fragrant phenolic compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin). These methoxybenzaldehydes were shown to have inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vanillin (IC50 = 0.037 mM) was detected as more efficient inhibitor than MBALD (IC50 = 0.047 mM). This finding was supported by kinetic analysis. Thus, plant-based food flavoring agents showed capacity in curing Alzheimer's disease and other neurological dysfunctions.

  10. Effect of precalving intramammary treatment with pirlimycin in nulliparous Holstein heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Denis Du; DesCôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Émile

    2007-01-01

    A clinical trial was conducted to determine whether prepartum intramammary pirlimycin reduces the proportion of nulliparous heifers with intramammary infection (IMI) during early lactation and improves milk production. Quarter milk samples were collected from 428 heifers, systematically allocated to treatment and control groups, 6 to 12 d before the expected calving date and 2 to 8 d after calving. At the prepartum visit, heifers in the treatment group (n = 219) received an infusion of pirlim...

  11. STEER AND HEIFER PRICE DIFFERENCES IN THE LIVE CATTLE AND CARCASS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Robert W.; Marsh, John M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic model is used to estimate quarterly price differences between steers and heifers in the feeder, slaughter, and carcass markets. For cattle within the same weight and grade range, their price differences are hypothesized to be influenced by seasonal, economic, and partly reflecting time changes in evaluation of steer and heifer quality in the live cattle and dressed meat trades. Stochastic factors are less prevalent at the feeder level, although risk of placing pregnant heifers in fe...

  12. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J.; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis inc...

  13. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  14. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L) TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    OpenAIRE

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-01-01

    A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L.) to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan...

  15. The evaluation of productive and reproductive indicators by grazing reared heifers

    OpenAIRE

    PALČISKOVÁ, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    On the school farm were selected a total of 33 heifers, 13 heifers, pasture bred heifers and 20 team-bred manner. For these two groups was observed fertility (age at first calving, insemination interval, service period) and milk yield (kg of milk, fat content in%, the amount of fat in kg,% protein content and protein in kg). Age at first calving was bred heifers on pasture lower, because the naturally% higher pregnancy rate than that of insemination. The positive effect of grazing is observed...

  16. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  17. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  18. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus) (Nota Científica) EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo; Gabriella Biondi de Godoy; Andrea Novoa Castillo Oliveira; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2009-01-01

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0) e 120 (D120) por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC) com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT) com onze animais. Os to...

  19. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus (Nota Científica EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0 e 120 (D120 por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT com onze animais. Os touros do GT receberam 4g de probiótico/animal/dia, durante 120 dias. Houve diferença (p<0,01 entre as colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT para o perímetro escrotal (GC – D0: 30,50 cm e D120: 33,55 cm; GT – D0: 29,90 cm e D120: 34,30 cm. Houve diferença (p<0,05 entre colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT, respectivamente, para: defeitos menores (GC – D0: 13,84 % e D120: 21,79%; GT – D0: 14,99% e D120: 20,84% e defeitos totais (GC – D0: 22,29% e D120: 29,24%; GT – D0: 25,14% e D120: 32,81%. Os resultados demonstram que, entre grupos, não houve alteração significativa das características seminais e perímetro escrotal.
       
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aditivo, nutrição, sêmen, touro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Touro, sêmen, nutrição, aditivo.    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Proenzime® on scrotal perimeter and spermiogram in young Tabapua bulls. Two samples of semen from 21 Tabapua bulls, aging 30 months, were collected in day zero (D0 and 120 (D120 by electroejaculation, totalizing 42 samples. The bulls were divided in control group (CG with 10 animals and trated group (TG with 11 animals. The bulls of TG received 4g of probiotic/animal/day, during 120 days. There was difference (p<0.01 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG for scrotal perimeter (CG – D0: 30.50 cm and D120: 33.55 cm; TG – D0: 29.90 cm and D120: 34.30 cm. There was difference (p<0.05 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG, respectively. Minor defects (CG – D0: 13.84% and D120: 21.79%; TG – D0: 14.99% and D120: 20.84% and total defects (CG – D0: 22.29% and D120: 29.24%; TG – D0: 25.14% and D120: 32.81%. The results exposed allow concluding that significant alterations were not observed between groups for the seminal characteristics and scrotal perimeter.   

    KEY WORDS: Aditive, bull, nutrition, semen.

  20. Perfil metabólico de touros da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus confinados e tratados com somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST Metabolic and hormonal profile of feedlot Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Amorim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da administração da somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST sobre os metabólitos sangüíneos de touros da raça Nelore de duas diferentes idades. Foram utilizados 16 touros, distribuídos em um delineamento fatorial 2 x 2 (idades: jovens e adultos; r-bST: 0 e 500mg com quatro animais por tratamento. A idade média dos animais foi de 13,37 e 20,62 meses para jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Quatro animais por tratamento receberam, a cada 14 dias, solução salina ou 500mg de r-bST, totalizando nove aplicações por animal, em um período experimental de 120 dias. Os touros foram alimentados com silagem de milho e ração concentrada à base de farelo de milho e soja, duas vezes por dia, fornecidas em baias individuais. As coletas de sangue foram realizadas a cada três dias, para determinação da concentração dos metabólicos sangüíneos. Para análise estatística, foram compilados dados a intervalo de três aplicações, o que constituiu um período (período 1, 2 e 3. As concentrações de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (NEFA foram analisadas semanalmente. As concentrações séricas de colesterol, proteína total e plasmáticas de glicose diferiram para os períodos e nos grupos de tratamentos (P0,05.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST administration on profiles of blood metabolites of two different ages Nellore bulls. Sixteen bulls were randomly allotted in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (ages: youngs and adults; and r-bST dose: 0 and 500 mg with four animals per treatment. The mean ages of the young and adult animals were 13.37 and 20.62 months, respectively. Four animals per treatment received saline solution or r-bST 500mg, every 14 days, totaling nine applications per animal during 120 days. The Bulls were fed corn silage and concentrated diet based on corn crumb and soybean meal, twice a day, in individual stalls. Blood was collected every three days for metabolic evaluation. The statistical analyses of the data were performed in three applications, considering three periods (1, 2 and 3. Non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were weekly analyzed. Serum cholesterol, total protein and glucose levels were affected either by period or the treatment (P0.05.

  1. [Ceco-cecal intussusception in a Simmental heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, B; Kramer, A; Meylan, M

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in a Simmental heifer with a ceco-cecal intussusception. The general condition of the heifer was moderately reduced and it showed mild colic signs. Physical examination revealed a firm longish mass visible and palpable in the right flank. Findings upon rectal examination, fecal output und defecation were normal. Ultrasound examination of the mass revealed features typical for an intussusception. Based on the slow development of symptoms, normal fecal output and ultrasonography findings, a ceco-cecal intussusception was diagnosed. Right flank laparatomy was performed under general anaesthesia, and an end-to-side anastomosis between the jejunum and the spiral colon was made after resection of the intussuscepted intestines. Recovery was uneventful. PMID:26753359

  2. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-19

    Mycoplasma bovis causing mastitis and arthritis in a dairy heifer. Nutritional myopathy in a three-month-old suckler calf. Acute fasciolosis in ewes in Ayrshire. Cardiomyopathy of unknown aetiology causing death of a three-year-old Suffolk ram. Spinal aspergillosis in a seven-week-old pheasant poult These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26679914

  3. Short communication: Cinnamaldehyde taste preferences of weaned dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Cabral, R G; Aragona, K M; Erickson, P S

    2016-05-01

    Within a dairy enterprise, one major cost is raising young calves. Optimizing the feeding programs of dairy calves is imperative for the sustainability and profitability of dairy operations. Essential oils appear to be natural alternatives to antibiotics and function similarly to ionophores. Supplemental antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in improving feed efficiency and rate of gain in calves, as well as decreasing disease incidences; however, calves may be developing resistance to ionophores and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been a major concern for consumers. No current research has examined the value or palatability of supplementing essential oils to dairy heifers. The purpose of this sequential elimination experiment was to evaluate the taste preferences of 6 weaned dairy heifers [approximately 3mo old; 95±10.8kg of body weight (BW)] provided with 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, or 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde daily. Heifers had 2 d of adaptation to the new feeding regimen before the experiment started and were then offered the 5 experimental diets for 5 d. The most preferred diet was removed and the study continued with the 4 remaining diets. The most preferred diets were again eliminated sequentially, so that only 2 diets remained on d 13 and 14. Each diet was ranked based on the weight of feed refused at the end of each feeding segment. Overall ranking of the 5 treatments were control, 2, 1, 3, and 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde. Results indicated that heifers preferred diets without cinnamaldehyde; however, when only cinnamaldehyde diets remained, dry matter intake was not negatively affected regardless of the concentration of cinnamaldehyde provided. PMID:26995118

  4. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  5. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... in Danish Holsteins. Records of Danish Holstein heifer calves born in the years 1998 to 2007 were extracted from the Danish Cattle database (Danish Cattle, Skejby, Denmark). The following periods (P) were defined for analyses: P1=d 1 to 30, P2=d 31 to 180, P3=d 181 to 365, P4=d 366 until the day before...... periods, whereas their records were kept for preceding periods. After further data editing, more than 840,000 calves and heifers born in the years 1998 to 2007 were investigated. Mortality rates were 3.23, 2.66, 0.97, 1.92, and 9.36% for the defined periods P1 to P5, respectively. For the estimation...

  6. [Conjunctival changes in a Swiss Braunvieh heifer with malignant lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Gerspach, C; Previtali, M; Grest, P; Sydler, T

    2011-04-01

    This report describes a 2.8-year-old Swiss Braunvieh heifer with conjunctival changes as the lead clinical signs of malignant lymphoma. The heifer was referred to our clinic because of conjunctivitis that did not respond to treatment with antibiotics. The patient had bilateral lacrimation, severe swelling of the third eyelids and prolapse of the conjunctivae, which were erythematous and covered with haemorrhagic crusts. A clinical examination revealed enlarged prescapular and prefemoral lymph nodes. Based on cytological examination of a fine needle aspirate from a prescapular lymph node, a tentative diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was made. The heifer was euthanased and a postmortem examination carried out. The conjunctival lesions consisted of diffuse multifocal nodules of varying size. There was generalised lymphadenopathy and beige nodules were seen in several internal organs. Histological and immunohistological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of multicentric leukosis characterised by T-cell lymphoblasts, which had also infiltrated the conjunctivae. Examination of a blood sample for enzootic bovine leukosis virus yielded a negative result.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 gb|ACX37386.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 30 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37387.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 31 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37395.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 39 [Bos indicus] ACX37386.1 0.0 89% ...

  8. Influence of ambient temperature on prolactin concentrations in serum of Holstein and Brahman x Hereford heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettermann, R P; Tucker, H A; Beck, T W; Meyerhoeffer, D C

    1982-08-01

    Four Holstein and four Brahman x Hereford heifers about 8 mo of age were used in a study to determine whether breed influences the effects of ambient temperature on concentrations' of prolactin in serum. Two heifers of each breed were stanchioned in each of two environmental chambers at 21 C for 7 d, after which chamber temperatures were changed to 7 or 31 C during 6 h. After 5 d at 7, 21 or 31 C, heifers were injected with 60 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). A switch-back design was used and each heifer was exposed to all treatments. Concentrations of prolactin in serum of heifers during exposure to 7, 21 or 31 C for 5 d were related to ambient temperature (9.0, 20.9 and 29.5 ng/ml, respectively; P less than .001), but the response was not influenced by breed. Heifers of both breeds responded similarly to treatment with TRH, and prolactin in serum increased (P less than .001) within 5 min from 7.0 +/- 3.2 to 45.7 +/- 8.2 ng/ml in heifers at 7 C, from 13.1 +/- 1.6 to 97.2 +/- 9.6 ng/ml in heifers at 21 C and from 18.2 +/- 3.5 to 96.2 +/- 11.3 ng/ml in heifers at 31 C. We conclude that concentrations of prolactin in serum of heifers are positively associated with ambient temperature and that the effects of temperature on basal and TRH-stimulated concentrations of prolactin do not differ significantly between Holstein and Brahman x Hereford heifers. Thus, differences in tolerance to heat were not related to differences in prolactin secretion. PMID:6815150

  9. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  10. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  11. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit-feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± ...

  12. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n...

  13. Cost estimation of heifer mastitis in early lactation by stochastic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Vliegher, de S.; Lam, C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Heifer mastitis, reflected by an elevated somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation (SCCel), results in a decreased milk production, a higher risk for subclinical and clinical mastitis during lactation, and an elevated culling hazard. The aims of this study were to calculate the costs of heifer ma

  14. Where we've been and where we're going on heifer selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selecting highly productive replacement heifers is an important component of economic efficiency for a cow-calf producer. If we can select replacement heifers early, we can implement development strategies to improve their reproductive efficiency. Genomics becomes a powerful tool both for selecting...

  15. Influence of ovarian reserves in beef heifers on uterine morphometry and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size of the reproductive tract and the number of follicles in the ovaries are positively associated with fertility and early conception in beef heifers. Heifers with greater numbers of ovarian follicles have larger uteri that secrete a greater amount of protein on day 16 after estrus. Therefor...

  16. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  17. Comparisons between nulliparous heifers and cows as oocyte donors for embryo production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Dimitrios; Burke, Lisa; Duffy, Patrick; Wade, Mary; Mee, John F; O'Farrell, Kevin J; Macsiurtain, Mairtin; Boland, Maurice P; Lonergan, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare (1) Holstein-Friesian heifers versus early postpartum lactating cows, and (2) different age categories of crossbred beef heifers versus cows, in terms of oocyte yield, morphological quality and developmental competence. Four experiments were designed to test the associated hypotheses. In Experiment 1, ovum pick up was carried out twice weekly for a period of 5 weeks on Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) and early postpartum cows (n = 8). Oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization and culture. Significantly more follicles were punctured on the ovaries of heifers than cows (10.4 versus 7.8, P ovaries of slaughtered crossbred beef heifers (under 30 months, n = 1241) and cows (over 4 years old, n = 1125), and processed in vitro as above. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the number of aspirated follicles or oocytes recovered. A significantly higher proportion (P ovaries were separated according to age of heifer into three groups: (1) 12-18 months, (2) 19-24 months and (3) 25-30 months, and compared with cow oocytes. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst yield between the different age groups of heifers. Irrespective of heifer age, the blastocyst yield on Day 8 was significantly lower than that from cow oocytes (35.0, 35.2, 36.5 and 48.3%, respectively, P development. PMID:15629810

  18. Hair coat characteristics in Friesian heifers in the Netherlands and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The export of about 2600 Friesian heifers to Kenya between 1971-1973 provided an opportunity of studying the adaptation problems experienced by these heifers. Within the framework of the NUFFIC (Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation) a research project entitled 'Adaptatio

  19. Behavioural reactivity of heifer calves in potentially alarming test situations: a multivariate and correlational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Engel, B.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of consistency of individual differences in behavioural responses of heifer calves over time and across different situations. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian heifer calves were individually subjected to the same set of four behavioural tests at

  20. Post-weaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    From weaning to breeding, the nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. However, overfeeding heifers decreased number of calves ...

  1. Fatal Trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, Greg N.

    2004-01-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs.

  2. Effect of monensin on the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rutter, L M; Rhodes, R D

    1982-04-01

    The effect of dietary monensin on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge following estradiol-17 beta (E2) injection was investigated in prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers. Ten heifers, weighing approximately 260 kg and approximately 10 mo of age, were equally divided by age and weight into two groups: control (C) heifers each received 1.8 kg/d of a concentrate diet plus Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum; monensin (M) heifers each received the same diet plus 200 mg monensin/d. All heifers were maintained in dry lots on their respective diets for 14 d before the E2 challenge. On d 15, all heifers were injected in with 5 mg of E2 in corn oil. Blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture immediately before E2 injection and at 2-h intervals until 48 h after the E2 injection. The samples were processed for serum and stored at -20 degrees C until LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentrations of LH in serum differed (P less than .005) between C and M heifers and with time after E2 injection. A treatment X sampling period interaction (P less than .10) indicated that maximum serum concentrations of LH (LH surge) were detected earlier (P less than .001) for M (17.2 +/- 1.8 h) than C (27.0 +/- 6.0 h) heifers after the E2 injection. When the data were arrayed relative to the time of the LH surge, treatment (P less than .05) and sampling period (P less than .001) effects were significant, but a treatment X sampling period interaction was not detected. Peak LH concentration was 23.1 +/- 3.0 ng/ml for M heifers and 21.6+/- 4.2 ng/ml for controls (P greater than .10). Duration of the LH surge was 8.0 +/- .9 h in M heifers and 4.8 +/- 1.6 h in C heifers (P less than .001). Area under the LH surge was greater (P less than .001) in M heifers than in control heifers. We conclude that dietary monensin altered the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers. PMID:7085526

  3. Effect of monensin on the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rutter, L M; Rhodes, R D

    1982-04-01

    The effect of dietary monensin on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge following estradiol-17 beta (E2) injection was investigated in prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers. Ten heifers, weighing approximately 260 kg and approximately 10 mo of age, were equally divided by age and weight into two groups: control (C) heifers each received 1.8 kg/d of a concentrate diet plus Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum; monensin (M) heifers each received the same diet plus 200 mg monensin/d. All heifers were maintained in dry lots on their respective diets for 14 d before the E2 challenge. On d 15, all heifers were injected in with 5 mg of E2 in corn oil. Blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture immediately before E2 injection and at 2-h intervals until 48 h after the E2 injection. The samples were processed for serum and stored at -20 degrees C until LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentrations of LH in serum differed (P less than .005) between C and M heifers and with time after E2 injection. A treatment X sampling period interaction (P less than .10) indicated that maximum serum concentrations of LH (LH surge) were detected earlier (P less than .001) for M (17.2 +/- 1.8 h) than C (27.0 +/- 6.0 h) heifers after the E2 injection. When the data were arrayed relative to the time of the LH surge, treatment (P less than .05) and sampling period (P less than .001) effects were significant, but a treatment X sampling period interaction was not detected. Peak LH concentration was 23.1 +/- 3.0 ng/ml for M heifers and 21.6+/- 4.2 ng/ml for controls (P greater than .10). Duration of the LH surge was 8.0 +/- .9 h in M heifers and 4.8 +/- 1.6 h in C heifers (P less than .001). Area under the LH surge was greater (P less than .001) in M heifers than in control heifers. We conclude that dietary monensin altered the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

  4. Effect of horn fly and internal parasite control on growth of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, D W; DeRosa, A A; Oremus, G R; Foil, L D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal nematode control on body weight gain of yearling Angus-Brangus cross heifers were evaluated in three separate studies during the years 1999, 2000 and 2002. In each year, the studies started in late May and lasted for 150, 148 and 123 days, respectively. In all three studies, the tag treatment (10% lambdacyhalothrin+13% piperonyl butoxide impregnated ear tags) provided excellent horn fly control. In the three studies, the average weekly horn fly counts for tagged heifers were 1, 3, and 0 flies per side while the average on untreated heifers was 52, 163 and 90 flies per side. In studies 1 and 2, there was no difference (P>0.1) in weight gain between tagged and untreated heifers, but in study 3, tagged heifers gained 50% more weight (P0.1) between the main treatment effects of fly control and gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:14637031

  5. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S. H.; Li, L.; Hegarty, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  6. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  7. An evaluation of two indirect methods of estimating body weight in Holstein calves and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwell, R T; Wallace, M M; McLaren, C J; Leslie, C F; Leslie, K E

    2006-10-01

    Monitoring the growth of replacement heifers is a useful management tool to assist producers in achieving a reasonable goal for age at first calving. Standard growth curves have been established, and heart girth tapes are widely available to estimate body weight (BW). Probably the easiest, and undoubtedly the most accurate, means of determining the actual BW of heifers is by using a calibrated electronic scale. However, if an electronic scale is not available, indirect methods of BW estimation are required. The hipometer is a new indirect tool that uses the external width between the greater trochanters of the left and right femurs to estimate BW. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the hipometer and the heart girth tape to estimate the BW of Holstein heifers, as compared with their actual weight recorded by an electronic scale. A total of 311 Holstein heifers in 4 research herds, ranging in age from 1 wk old to immediately prior to calving (24 mo), were used in this comparison. The mean BW of all heifers was 261 +/- 124 kg. The Pearson values of the correlation between the scale and hipometer weights, and the scale and tape weights were 0.92 and 0.94, respectively. The concordance correlations of scale weight with hipometer and tape weights were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. The agreement among the 3 methods, as assessed by the kappa statistic, was substantial for heifers aged 3 to 15 mo. However, poor to no agreement was observed in heifers younger than 3 mo, as well as at 15 mo of age or greater (kappa 0 to 0.18). This is of particular concern because these groups represent the age when dairy heifers would be weaned (commence (> 15 mo). We concluded that the hipometer is an easy and useful alternative method of estimating the BW of Holstein heifers, particularly in heifers aged 3 to 15 mo. PMID:16960075

  8. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  9. An experimental study of aero-optical aberration and dithering of supersonic mixing layer via BOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The optical performance of supersonic mixing layer is heavily deteriorated by the aero-optical aberration and dithering of coherent structures, but current measuring methods limit the spatiotemporal resolution in relevant studies. A high resolution whole-field aero-optical aberration and dithering measuring method based on the Background Orient Schlieren (BOS) technique was studied. The systematic structure, sensitivity and resolution of BOS are analyzed in this paper. The aero-optical aberration and dithering of streamwise structures in supersonic mixing layers were quantificationally studied with BOS. The aberration field of spanwise structures revealed the ribbon-like aberration structures, which heavily restrict the optical performance of a mixing layer. The quantifications of aero-optical aberration and dithering are very important in studying aero-optical performance of supersonic mixing layer.

  10. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  11. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Safaei; Keikhosro Karimi; Poorandokht Golkar; Akram Zamani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the ...

  12. Utilization of macrominerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct feed efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R S; Montanholi, Y R; Lopez, S; Smith, B; Miller, S P; France, J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate utilization of dietary minerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct residual feed intakes (RFI). Feed intake, body weight (BW), and body composition traits were recorded in 36 crossbred heifers over a period of 37 wk, starting shortly after weaning at 8.3 (0.10; standard deviation) mo of age with an average BW of 276 (7.8) kg. Both BW and body composition were monitored regularly throughout the study, whereas individual feed intake was assessed during the last 84 d of the trial. Data recorded were used to calculate RFI for each heifer. Heifers were ranked based on RFI and assigned to high (n=14) or low (n=10) RFI groups. After the RFI study, 24 selected heifers [age 18.2 (0.14) mo; 87.5 (4.74) d in gestation; 497 (8.5) kg of BW] were used in an indirect digestibility trial (lignin as internal marker). Heifers were fed a ration containing corn silage, haylage, and a mineral premix in which Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn, and Co were provided in the diet according to National Research Council requirements of pregnant replacement heifers. The digestibility trial lasted 1 wk, during which samples of feces were gathered twice daily, and blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on the last day. We noted no significant differences between low- and high-RFI heifers in dry matter digestibility. Apparent absorption of Cu, Zn, and Mn was increased in heifers with low RFI, and apparent absorption of Co tended to be greater for these animals. Concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in serum of pregnant heifers were similar for both groups except for Se, which was increased in the serum of low-RFI heifers. Liver concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn did not differ between low- and high-RFI heifers. In conclusion, whereas improved absorption of some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and increased Se serum concentration appear to be associated with superior feed efficiency in pregnant

  13. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  14. [A case of acute disseminated Mucor encephalitis in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönmann, M; Thoma, R; Braun, U

    1997-01-01

    The case of a 2 1/2 year old Swiss Braunvieh heifer suffering from an acute disseminated mycotic encephalitis caused by a Mucorales spp. infection is presented. Clinical signs and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (increased protein concentration and pleocytosis) were typical for an acute encephalitis, probably due to a listeriosis. The histological examination of the brain revealed an acute disseminated thrombo-embolic encephalomyelitis due to a fungi infection, morphologically consistent with Mucorales spp. The occurrence of bovine cerebral mucormycosis is rare and therefore the veterinarian should become aware of a case which was clinically not distinguishable from a listeriosis.

  15. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  16. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  17. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fusion protein vaccines block estrous cycle activity in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J D; Sosa, J M; deAvila, D M; Oatley, J M; Bertrand, K P; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-01-01

    Two LHRH fusion proteins, thioredoxin and ovalbumin, each containing seven LHRH inserts were tested for their ability to inhibit estrous cycle activity. The objective was to evaluate immune and biological responses from alternating the two fusion proteins in an immunization schedule. One hundred ten heifers were divided equally into 11 groups. Two control groups consisted of either spayed or intact, untreated heifers. Heifers in the other nine groups were immunized on wk 0, 4, and 9. Treatments were immunizations of the same protein throughout or alternating the proteins in different booster sequences. Blood was collected weekly for 22 wk, and serum was assayed for concentrations of progesterone and titers of anti-LHRH. At slaughter, reproductive tracts were removed from each heifer and weighed. Heifers with >or=1 ng/mL of progesterone were considered to have a functional corpus luteum and thus to have estrous cycle activity. All LHRH-immunized groups of heifers had a smaller (P spayed heifers during wk 9 to 22. Anti-LHRH did not differ among immunized groups during wk 1 to 9. Starting at wk 10 and continuing through the conclusion of the study, there was an overall difference among treatment groups for anti-LHRH (P spaying in suppression of estrous cycle activity, but alternating the two proteins in an immunization schedule did not enhance the immunological or biological effectiveness of the vaccine. PMID:15583055

  18. Increased postweaning gain of beef heifers enhances fertility and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, D D; Faulkner, D B; Ireland, F A

    1995-04-01

    Four hundred fifty-two (452) weanling heifer calves (192 +/- 23 kg) were used to determine the effect of postweaning weight gain on subsequent reproductive performance and lactation. Heifers grazed stockpiled tall fescue pastures and were fed a high (H) or low (L) amount of ground corn supplement (3.68 and 2.99 kg/[animal.d], respectively) during a postweaning treatment period of 136 d. Postweaning gain of heifers receiving L and H was .43 and .62 kg/d, respectively. These treatments resulted in a range of postweaning gain from .07 to 1.17 kg/d. Heifers receiving H were 26 kg heavier (P < .01), had .15 cm more fat thickness (P < .01), 5% greater pelvic area (P < .01), and tended (P = .08) to have greater hip height than heifers receiving L at yearling. More heifers in the H group were pubertal before the start of the breeding season (70.9 vs 61.3%) (P < .05). No significant differences were found in pregnancy rate or first-service calving rate between treatment groups. Mean milk production was 10% greater for H- than for L-fed heifers (P < .01) and resulted in heavier calves at 54, 104, and 153 d of age (P < .05). Regression analysis revealed that as weaning weight and postweaning gain increased, so did the probability for reaching puberty before the breeding season. Increasing weaning weight also increased the probability of calving to the first AI service. As heifer weaning weight and postweaning gain increased, subsequent milk production also increased. Increasing postweaning weight gain of lightweight heifers from .07 to 1.17 kg/d increased both reproductive and lactation performance. PMID:7628970

  19. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM XYLOSE AND WOOD HYDROLYZATE BY MUCOR INDICUS AT DIFFERENT AERATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Millati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Mucor indicus is able to produce ethanol from xylose as well as dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The fungus completely assimilated 10 g/L xylose as the sole carbon and energy source within 32 to 65 h at an aeration rate of 0.1 to 1.0 vvm. The highest ethanol yield was 0.16 g/g at 0.1 vvm. Xylitol was formed intermediately with a maximum yield of 0.22 g/g at 0.5 vvm, but disappeared towards the end of experiments. During cultivation in a mixture of xylose and glucose, the fungus did not assimilate xylose as long as glucose was present in the medium. The anaerobic cultivation of the fungus in the hydrolyzate containing 20% xylose and 80% hexoses resulted in no assimilation of xylose but complete consumption of the hexoses in less than 15 h. The ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g. However, the xylose in the hydrolyzate was consumed when the media was aerated at 0.067 to 0.333 vvm. The best ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g at 0.067 vvm. The results of this study suggest that M. indicus hydrolyzate can be first fermented anaerobically for hexose assimilation and subsequently continued under oxygen-limited conditions for xylose fermentation.

  20. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  1. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    was very small and not significant. The mortality rate was highest in the first month after birth (7.8%). Total mortality in the first 180d was 12.5%. Direct heritabilities of mortality were quite low, ranging from 0.002 to 0.03 on the observable scale and 0.025 to 0.076 on the underlying scale. Maternal......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study....... The mortality traits included in the analysis were defined as mortality in 8 different periods from 24h after birth to age 180d (d 1–14, d 15–30, d 31–60, d 61–90, d 91–120, d 121–150, and d 151–180) and mortality over the entire period. A linear model was used for estimation of genetic parameters, breeding...

  2. Physiological adaptations in adipose tissue of Brahman vs Angus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Hansard, H S; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Wu, G; Smith, S B

    1998-03-01

    Nonpregnant yearling Brahman (n = 12) and Angus (n = 12) heifers were equally allocated to two dietary treatments in a replicated study to examine responses in lipid metabolism to nutritional treatments consisting of a moderate energy diet (2.0 Mcal ME/kg) fed at maintenance and a 2.5 x maintenance high-energy diet (2.4 Mcal ME/kg) fed for 30 d. In vitro lipogenesis and the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were determined in perianal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at the start and end of the trial. At the start of the trial, breeds had similar (P > .10) rates of lipogenesis and LPL activity. Brahman had greater (P Angus at the start of the trial and tended (P .10) HSL activity. Heifers on the high-energy, higher-intake diet had greater lipogenesis (P .10) rates of lipogenesis at the end of the trial. When adjusted for BCS nested within breed, Brahman had greater (P Angus. PMID:9535333

  3. The cost of feeding bred dairy heifers on native warm-season grasses and harvested feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J K; Boyer, C N; Griffith, A P; Waller, J C; Bates, G E; Keyser, P D; Larson, J A; Holcomb, E

    2016-01-01

    Heifer rearing is one of the largest production expenses for dairy cattle operations, which is one reason milking operations outsource heifer rearing to custom developers. The cost of harvested feedstuffs is a major expense in heifer rearing. A possible way to lower feed costs is to graze dairy heifers, but little research exists on this topic in the mid-south United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the cost of feeding bred dairy heifers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG), with and without legumes, and compare the cost of grazing with the cost of rearing heifers using 3 traditional rations. The 3 rations were corn silage with soybean meal, corn silage with dry distillers grain, and a wet distillers grain-based ration. Bred Holstein heifers between 15- and 20-mo-old continuously grazed switchgrass (SG), SG with red clover (SG+RC), a big bluestem and Indiangrass mixture (BBIG), and BBIG with red clover (BBIG+RC) in Tennessee during the summer months. Total grazing days were calculated for each NWSG to determine the average cost/animal per grazing day. The average daily gain (ADG) was calculated for each NWSG to develop 3 harvested feed rations that would result in the same ADG over the same number of grazing day as each NWSG treatment. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lowest for SG ($0.48/animal/grazing d) and highest for BBIG+RC ($1.10/animal/grazing d). For both BBIG and SG, legumes increased the average cost/animal per grazing day because grazing days did not increase enough to account for the additional cost of the legumes. No difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing BBIG (0.85 kg/d) and BBIG+RC (0.94 kg/d), and no difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing SG (0.71 kg/d) and SG+RC (0.70 kg/d). However, the ADG for heifers grazing SG and SG+RC was lower than the ADG for heifers grazing either BBIG or BBIG+RC. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lower for all NWSG treatments than the average cost

  4. Ability of heifers to discriminate between familiar herdmates and members of an unfamiliar group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koba, Yuki; Munksgaard, Lene; Tanida, Hajime;

    2009-01-01

    Using a preference test and operant conditioning in a Y-maze, this experiment examined the ability of heifers to discriminate between their own familiar herdmates and member(s) of an unfamiliar group. Sixteen Danish Friesian heifers, eight older animals (360.6 ± 24.2 days of age) and eight younger...... individual in the Y-maze. The test was repeated 12 times, with a different unfamiliar subject for each test. In experiment 2, eight heifers were individually tested in a conditioning experiment to examine whether they could learn to discriminate between a group of their three herdmates and a group of three...

  5. Production performance of beef cows raised on three different nutritionally controlled heifer development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine primiparous heifer performance following three different heifer development strategies that were the result of timed nutrient limitation. Two hundred eighty-two spring-born MARC III heifers were weaned at 203+/-1 d of age and 205+/-1 kg BW. The experiment was conducted on two calf crops with 120 heifers born in 1996 and 162 heifers born in 1997. Treatments consisted of different quantities of the same diet being offered for a 205-d period. Heifers in the HIGH treatment were offered 263 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the MEDIUM treatment were offered 238 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the LOW-HIGH treatment were offered 157 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily the first 83 d and 277 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily for the remainder of the 205 d. Treatments differed in total ME intake (P calved expressed as a fraction of the cows exposed did not differ among treatments (89.7%; P = 0.83). The age of heifer at parturition (P = 0.74) and the time from first bull exposure to calving (P = 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Birth weight of calves (P = 0.80) and the calves' weaning weight (P = 0.60) did not differ among the treatments. Calf survival rate on the LOW-HIGH treatment (73%) was lower than that on the moderate treatment (89%; P = 0.007) but did not differ from that on the HIGH treatment (81%; P = 0.26). The second-calf pregnancy rate (92.8%) for cows with a nursing calf at the start of breeding did not differ between treatments (P = 0.83). These findings suggest that as long as heifers are growing and meet a minimal BW before mating, patterns of growth may be altered in the post-weaning period without a decrease in the ability of the heifer to conceive or a decrease in calf growth potential. However, limit-feeding heifers may decrease first-calf survival. These alterations in postweaning gain through monitoring the amount of feed offered can be used to optimize feed resources.

  6. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  7. ‘Lute Bos draagt nog altijd bij aan de virologie’ : fonds laat ecologische virologie herrijzen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Branderhorst, A.

    2014-01-01

    Met ecologische kennis van plantenvirussen in de tuin- en akkerbouw zijn opbrengstverliezen te voorkomen. René van der Vlugt gaat het onderzoek en onderwijs in dit vakgebied nieuw leven inblazen. Dat is mogelijk dankzij een legaat van de Wageningse plantenviroloog Lute Bos.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  9. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  10. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  11. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  12. Determination of Chromium in Beef Heifers Nellore Supplemented with Chelate Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A Moreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the amount of total chromium in beef heifers supplemented with chelated chromium in the rearing and finishing. We used 80 Nelore heifers at 12 months of age with mineral supplementation associated or not to chelate chromium, with average live weight of 220 kg. Were selected 36 heifer seach experimental group for analysis of meat samples. For the determination of chromium residue in the muscle tissue of the sample was1.5 g digested in a mixture of 5 ml 65% nitric acid and 1 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide at 120° C for 12 hours block microdigestor. The total content of chromium was determined by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption flame. The experimental design was completely randomized and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% significance. It is concluded that the inclusion of chromium in the chelate heifers mineral supplementation increased the chromium content in the meat

  13. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  14. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, G M; Friend, T H; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between RFI, feeding behavior, and other performance traits in growing heifers. Individual DMI was measured in Brangus heifers (n = 115) fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg) for 70 d using Calan-gate feeders. Residual feed intake was computed as the residuals from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. Heifers with the greatest (least efficient, n = 18) and least (most efficient, n = 18) RFI were identified for quantification of feeding behavior traits. Continuous video recordings were obtained for all heifers during d 28 through d 56 of the 70-d feeding trial. Video data of 2 replications of four 24-h periods, 2 wk apart, were analyzed for the focal heifers. A head-down feeding event was defined as a heifer positioned in the feeder with her head lowered. A meal included all head-down feeding events that were separated by less than 300 s. The mean RFI for the high- and low-RFI heifers were 1.00 and -1.03 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 21.9% more (P < 0.0001) DM but had similar BW and ADG compared with low-RFI heifers. The high-RFI heifers spent less time in head-down feeding events per day (P < 0.0001; 124 vs. 152 +/- 4.3 min/d), consumed DM at a faster rate (99.6 vs. 62.8 +/- 3.3 g/min), and ate more often per day (119.1 vs. 90.5 +/- 3.9 head-down feeding events/d) compared with the low-RFI heifers; however, meal duration and frequency were not related to RFI. We conclude that feeding behavior related to head-down feeding events may be more useful as an indicator of RFI than the number of meal events. PMID:19395511

  15. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Gonzalez; Rodrigo Muiño; Víctor Pereira; Diego Martinez; Cristina Castillo; Joaquín Hernández; José Luis Benedito

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception ra...

  16. Precocious mammary development in an 8-month-old Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Emmanuel, Daya G V

    2008-08-01

    An 8-month-old, virgin Holstein heifer with precocious mammary development was presented for examination. Protein, fat, and lactose in the mammary secretion were 14.90%, 0.12%, and 0.20%, respectively; somatic cell count was 3.9 x 10(6)/mL, with no bacterial infection. The heifer was inseminated at 15 months of age, confirmed pregnant, and subsequently slaughtered. PMID:18978977

  17. The treatment of congenitally developed fused vulva labia in a Brown-Swiss heifer

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Oktay; YAZICI, Ebubekir; Mehmet UÇAR; BİRDANE, Muhammed Kürşad

    2014-01-01

    A case of congenitally developed fused labia in a 13-month-old Brown-Swiss heifer, an uncommon entity, is described. On gross appearance of vulva, it was observed that there were only 2 small openings in the dorsal and ventral vulvar commissures. Ultrasonography of the genital tract revealed the presence of left and right ovaries, uterine horns, and cervix uteri. The abnormality of the vulva was surgically corrected. The heifer was synchronized and artificially inseminated postsurgically. Dur...

  18. Efficacy of actaplanin fed on a twice-weekly basis to grazing stocker heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Randel, R D; Carroll, L H

    1987-02-01

    Brahman (16), Brangus (32) and Simmental X Brahman (16) open heifers were assigned to four treatment levels and two body weight categories. The weight categories were light (250 kg) and heavy (306 kg). Treatment groups were 0, 600, 900 and 1,200 mg actaplanin.head-1.feeding-1 with feeding only on Monday and Friday. Heifers were group-fed .91 kg/head of supplement (95% soybean meal: 5% molasses) containing actaplanin. Heifers grazed eight Coastal bermudagrass pastures throughout the experiment (July 29 to November 15, 1982). After 75 d on experiment, an additional 1.36 kg of a commercial 14% crude protein supplement was fed on the days that actaplanin was not fed. All heifers were weighted and rotated among pastures at 14-d intervals (last weight period was 11 d) as an attempt to equalize forage availability among groups. Over the entire experiment (109 d), light-weight heifers that were fed actaplanin responded (P less than .01) with greater average daily gain (ADG; .37, .35, .21 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200) compared with controls (0 mg; .18 kg/d). A trend in response (P less than .10) to actaplanin feeding occurred for heavy-weight heifers (.23, .38, .34 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200 mg vs controls (.22 kg/d). For light-weight heifers, ADG decreased lineraly (P less than .01) as actaplanin increased from 600 to 1,200 mg, while ADG for heavy-weight heifers increased linearly (P less than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3558156

  19. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel. III. Puberty in bulls and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T S; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1980-05-01

    Pubertal characters of bulls and heifers produced in a diallel mating of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey cattle were analyzed. Ninety-one heifers and 138 bulls in individual pens adn 286 bulls in drylots were fed a 72% TDN diet ad libitum; another 384 heifers were placed on pasture with supplemental feed. Puberty in heifers was defined as time of first ovulatory estrus; in bulls, as first detection of sperm cells in an electroejaculate. Breed type least-squares means, adjusted for birth month, were estimated within sex-nutrition-management groups and then decomposed into breed effects, average heterosis (h), general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) by diallel analysis techniques. Breed effects were a significant source of variation for all characters studied. Heterosis (h, GCA, SCA) was not significant for pubertal age of bulls or heifers receiving complete diets in pens, a rather high nutritional plane. However, on pasture, crossbred heifers reached puberty at a younger age (P less than .05) than straightbreds. Average heterosis was significant (P less than .05) for increased weight and hip height at puberty and ratios involving these characters for both sexes. Specific combining abilities were not statistically significant for the majority of the pubertal characters, yet large differences among estimates of combining abilities were expressed. Ad libitum feeding of the penned heifers tended to decrease pubertal age and increase pubertal size as compared to pubertal age and size of pastured heifers. The breed type x management interactions within both sexes indicated a different ranking of the breed types for each management regimen. PMID:7390940

  20. Efficacy of actaplanin fed on a twice-weekly basis to grazing stocker heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Randel, R D; Carroll, L H

    1987-02-01

    Brahman (16), Brangus (32) and Simmental X Brahman (16) open heifers were assigned to four treatment levels and two body weight categories. The weight categories were light (250 kg) and heavy (306 kg). Treatment groups were 0, 600, 900 and 1,200 mg actaplanin.head-1.feeding-1 with feeding only on Monday and Friday. Heifers were group-fed .91 kg/head of supplement (95% soybean meal: 5% molasses) containing actaplanin. Heifers grazed eight Coastal bermudagrass pastures throughout the experiment (July 29 to November 15, 1982). After 75 d on experiment, an additional 1.36 kg of a commercial 14% crude protein supplement was fed on the days that actaplanin was not fed. All heifers were weighted and rotated among pastures at 14-d intervals (last weight period was 11 d) as an attempt to equalize forage availability among groups. Over the entire experiment (109 d), light-weight heifers that were fed actaplanin responded (P less than .01) with greater average daily gain (ADG; .37, .35, .21 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200) compared with controls (0 mg; .18 kg/d). A trend in response (P less than .10) to actaplanin feeding occurred for heavy-weight heifers (.23, .38, .34 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200 mg vs controls (.22 kg/d). For light-weight heifers, ADG decreased lineraly (P less than .01) as actaplanin increased from 600 to 1,200 mg, while ADG for heavy-weight heifers increased linearly (P less than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R.; Maha I. Hamed; Derar R. Ibrahim; Hassan Z. Rateb

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old) were included in ...

  2. Methane emissions, body composition, and rumen fermentation traits of beef heifers differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Deighton, M H; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestion in beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth performance were measured for 22 Simmental heifers (mean initial BW 449 kg, SD = 46.2 kg) offered grass silage ad libitum for 120 d. Ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, BCS, muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood variables, rumen fermentation (via stomach tube), and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were measured. Methane production was estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique over two 5-d periods beginning on d 20 and 75 of the RFI measurement period. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. The residuals of the regression of DMI on ADG and midtest metabolic body weight, using all heifers, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Heifers were ranked by RFI and assigned to low (efficient), medium, or high (inefficient) groupings. Overall ADG and DMI were 0.58 kg (SD = 0.18) and 7.40 kg (SD = 0.72), respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 9 and 15% more (P 0.05) between low- and high-RFI groups. High-RFI heifers had higher concentrations of plasma glucose (6%) and urea (13%) and lower concentrations of plasma creatinine (9%) than low-RFI heifers (P 0.05) between RFI groups, although acetate:propionate ratio was lowest (P = 0.07) for low-RFI (3.5) and highest for high-RFI (4.6) heifers. Methane production expressed as grams per day or grams per kilogram metabolic body weight was greater (P methane emissions. Results suggest that improved RFI will reduce methane emissions without affecting productivity of growing beef cattle. PMID:24146149

  3. Safety of the novel influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine in pregnant heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaissar Tabynov; Sholpan Ryskeldinova; Zhailaubay Kydyrbayev; Abylai Sansyzbay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study provides the first information about the safety of a new influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=10) route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vac...

  4. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-07-01

    Brahman × British crossbred heifers (n = 40 and 38 heifers in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance. On d 0, heifers were ranked by BW (89 ± 16 kg) and age (72 ± 13 d) and randomly assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned on d 180 (NW; n = 10 heifers annually) or early weaned (EW) on d 0 and 1) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 heifers annually), 2) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 90, then grazed on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 heifers annually), or 3) grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 heifers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 heifers), then on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). On d 180, all heifers were grouped by treatment and rotated on Bahiagrass pastures until d 390. Grazing heifers were supplemented at 1.0% BW until d 180 and at 1.5% BW from d 180 to 390. From d 0 to 90, EW180 and EW90 heifers were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than NW and EWRG heifers, whereas NW heifers tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier on d 90 than EWRG heifers. In yr 1 and 2, EW180 heifers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. In yr 1, EWRG heifers were lightest (P < 0.0001), whereas EW90 and NW heifers had similar BW (P = 0.58). Conversely, EW90, EWRG, and NW heifers achieved similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.18). Positive correlations were detected (P ≤ 0.05) between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 90 and ADG from d 0 to 90 and between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 180 and ADG from d 90 to 180. The EW180 heifers were youngest (P ≤ 0.01) at puberty. From d 260 to 340, the percentage of pubertal heifers was greater (P ≤ 0.03) for EW90 vs. NW heifers but did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) between EWRG and NW heifers. The ADG from d 0 to 90 and the plasma IGF-1 on d 90 and 180 explained approximately 34% of the

  5. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY OF SLOVAK PIED HEIFERS AND THEIR CROSSES BY LIMOUSINE BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed heifer carcass and meat quality of Slovak pied breed and their crosses by limousine breed. The heifers were fattened by the same feed ration to the 450 days of age. There was a significant difference between the groups of the heifers (P ≤0.01 in the dressing percentage and muscle ratio (P ≤0.05. The Longissimus muscle chemical quality of fattening heifer were evaluate. Content of protein was similar in the Slovak pied heifers and in the crosses by limousine was insignificantly lower. Intramuscular fat content was significantly differed (P≤0.05, in the Slovak pied heifers was 2.95 % and the crosses by Limousine 3.52 %.Water holding capacity was insignificantly higher in the Slovak pied cattle as in the crosses by Limousine breed. Shear force was significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher in the Longissimus muscle of Slovak pied cattle (7.1 WB as in the crosses by Limousine breed (6.42 WB.

  6. Measuring the growth rate of UK dairy heifers to improve future productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeley, Katrine J; Barrett, David C; Williams, Paul D; Reyher, Kristen K

    2016-06-01

    Sub-optimal heifer growth is associated with higher disease rates and reduced future performance and longevity in the dairy herd. This report describes a system for measuring heifer growth from birth to first calving that was used on commercial dairy farms in South West England, in order to gather benchmarking data to feed back to farmers. Weights (n = 8443) were collected from 20 farms. There was a marked variation in individual and herd mean growth rates. Overall, calves gained no weight in the first 8 days after birth and had a very low growth rate (median 0.12 kg/day) up to 30 days, a period when feed conversion efficiency is high and calves are vulnerable to disease. Heifers whose growth rate up to 180 days was low were significantly less likely to achieve target service weight (374 kg) by 420 days. Monitoring heifer growth during the rearing period enables farmers to improve heifer growth rates and so impact both the efficiency of heifer rearing and, potentially, the productivity and performance of the adult herd. PMID:27256019

  7. Use of recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone antigens for immunosterilization of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; de Avila, D M; Reeves, J J

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of immunization against recombinant GnRH fusion proteins and growth promotants on onset of puberty, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers. Heifers were immunized against an ovalbumin fusion protein containing 7 GnRH peptides (oGnRH, n = 12), a thioredoxin fusion protein containing 7 GnRH peptides (tGnRH, n = 12), a combination of oGnRH plus tGnRH (otGnRH, n = 12), or a combination of ovalbumin and thioredoxin (control, n = 11). Each heifer received a primary immunization containing 1 mg of protein in 1 mL of adjuvant injected into the mammary gland at wk 0 (mean age = 38 wk) and booster immunizations at wk 6 and 12. Six heifers within each treatment received Synovex H implants at wk -2. Weekly blood samples were collected from wk -2 to 26 for determination of serum progesterone concentrations and GnRH antibody titers. In GnRH-immunized heifers, GnRH antibody titers increased after the first booster injection, peaked after the second booster injection, and remained elevated through the end of the study (P spaying of heifers. PMID:16424262

  8. Urethral duplication and chromosomal translocation in a Swiss braunvieh heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Gansohr, B; Feige, K; Gardelle, O; Suwattana, D; Stranzinger, G

    2000-01-01

    As it was urinating, a six-month-old Swiss braunvieh heifer produced a second stream of urine from a fistula that opened on the ventrolateral margin of the left vulval lip. A catheter was introduced into this opening and passed easily into the bladder. Urethrography showed that the fistula joined the urethra in the mid-pelvic region and that a single canal originated from the bladder. Endoscopy confirmed this finding and also revealed a duplication of the vaginal portion of the cervix, a division of the cranial vagina by a septum and a fibrous band in the region of the hymenal ring. Cytogenetic examination revealed reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 20q23 and 22q23. A diagnosis of urethra duplex, duplication of the vaginal portion of the cervix and reciprocal autosomal translocation between chromosomes 20 and 22 was made on the basis of these findings.

  9. Effect of stocking density at the feeding rack and social rank on the behaviour of Icelandic heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Rüggeberg 1977

    2007-01-01

    Overstocking of Icelandic dairy heifers with regard to the animal feeding place ratio has become more common during the last years. Rather little is known about the behavioural consequences for heifers of this management procedure, which imposes a competitive situation on the animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stocking density at the feeding rack on both the social and maintenance behaviour of heifers. Furthermore, it was the aim to study possible interacti...

  10. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  11. Effects of prolonged nutrient restriction on baseline and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M E; Deaver, S E; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Rhoads, M L

    2013-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to measure both daily and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers during prolonged undernutrition. Following an acclimation period, Holstein heifers [n=10; 339.5 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW)] were fed ad libitum [well fed (WF); n=5] or restricted to 50% of ad libitum intake [underfed (UF); n=5) for 8 wk. Body condition scores (BCS) were recorded at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and weekly measurements of BW, plasma ghrelin, progesterone, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were obtained. Ovarian follicular and luteal structures were measured twice weekly via transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also measured during a periprandial window bleed conducted at the end of the experiment. During the window bleed, samples were collected every 15 min between 0500 and 0900 h, with feed offered at 0700 h. Underfed heifers lost BW and BCS, whereas WF heifers gained weight and either increased or maintained BCS. Chronic underfeeding increased circulating ghrelin and NEFA concentrations. By wk 4 of the treatment period, circulating ghrelin concentrations of the UF heifers reached a plateau. Periprandial fluctuations in ghrelin concentrations were apparent as plasma ghrelin concentrations changed over time. Overall differences in periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations were primarily due to prefeeding effects of plane of nutrition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations and change in BCS were negatively correlated such that heifers that lost the most BCS had the highest concentrations of circulating ghrelin. Two of the 5 UF heifers became anestrus by wk 3 of the treatment period. Despite being of similar age, the heifers that became anestrus had lower BW and plasma ghrelin concentrations than the UF heifers that continued to ovulate. In the current experiment, long-term undernutrition elicited ghrelin responses similar to those reported for shorter durations of

  12. Evaluation of the California Mastitis Test as a precalving treatment selection tool for Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Du Tremblay, Denis; Descôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Emile

    2009-02-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a portable electrical conductivity meter for diagnosing precalving intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein heifers. A total of 428 dairy heifers from 23 dairy herds were enrolled between 6 and 12 days before the expected calving date from June 2002 to June 2003. Mammary secretions were tested by both diagnostic methods and by bacterial culture for evidence of IMI. California Mastitis Test was considered negative if the score was negative, trace or 1 and was considered positive otherwise. Two cut-off points were evaluated for milk electrical conductivity (>5 and >6.5 mS/cm). From this study, an overall proportion of 69% of heifers had precalving IMI and the overall heifer prevalence of major pathogen IMI was 16.8%. At the quarter level, sensitivity and specificity of CMT (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) and milk conductivity >5 mS/cm (41.0% and 65.2%, respectively) or >6.5 mS/cm (25.2% and 83.3%, respectively) to identify all IMI were low. However, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity of CMT for major pathogens were 91.0% (81.5-96.6) and 27.5% (22.8-32.6), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 5 mS/cm, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity for major pathogens was 68.7% (56.2-79.4) and 44.1% (38.7-49.6), respectively. A conductivity cut-off value of 6.5 mS/cm decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity to 53.7% (41.1-66.0) and 59.5% (54.0-64.8), respectively. California Mastitis Test and milk electrical conductivity are not good predictors of major pathogen IMI in heifers during the last 2 weeks before calving. However, the negative predictive values at quarter or heifer level were high and the heifer false negative rate was 6-14% using CMT or conductivity, respectively. Therefore, these measures could be useful for screening out heifers or quarters that are unlikely to have a major pathogen IMI. PMID:18930609

  13. History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Schibler, J.; Schlumbaum, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (similar to 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic unt...

  14. Effects of diet type on establishment of pregnancy and embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, V P; Crowe, M A; O'Callaghan, D; Boland, M P; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of elevated blood urea concentrations on: (i) the response to superovulation, fertilisation rate, and early embryonic development in beef heifers, and (ii) embryo survival from days 7 to 35 of gestation. In Experiment 1, heifers (18-24 months) were allocated at random (n=20 per treatment) to one of the following diets: (i) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg commercial beef concentrates per day (controls); (ii) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg concentrates and 250 g feed grade urea per day (HE/HU); or (iii) ad libitum wheaten straw plus 250 g feed grade urea and 50 g vitamin/mineral mix per day (LE/HU). Serum urea concentrations were monitored throughout the experiment. Oestrus in heifers was synchronised using an intravaginal releasing device (CIDR(®), InterAg, New Zealand). Oestrus was detected and in vitro produced blastocysts (day 7, morphological grades 1 and 2) were transferred to the heifers 7 days later (19 days after start of treatment diets). The heifers were maintained on the dietary treatments for a further 28 days, when pregnancy status was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Detected pregnancies were terminated using 15 mg luprostiol and recycled for Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, following a 14-day dietary rest period, the heifers were re-allocated at random to the three dietary treatments above. Heifers were treated with a CIDR for 8 days and 15 mg luprostiol was given 12h before pessary withdrawal. They received 144 mg pFSH (Folltropin(®)-V, Vetrepharm, Canada) given as 8 injections over 4 days commencing on day 6 of CIDR/dietary treatment. Heifers were artificially inseminated 48 h after progesterone pessary withdrawal using commercial semen of proven fertility by a competent inseminator. The heifers were maintained on their diets until slaughter, 3 days post insemination when corpora lutea numbers were determined and embryos were recovered and cell numbers determined visually. Serum urea

  15. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  16. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  17. Length and Straightness of the Tubes for the BOS Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured length and straightness of 50 tubes of 3.8~m length, after cleaning, wiring and testing from a batch that was used in the construction of the BOS prototype chamber. The specifi ed length (aluminum tube only, without endplug) was 3800~mm with a tolerance of $\\pm$1~mm. We found a mean value of (3805$\\pm$2)~mm with a standard deviation of (0.3$\\pm$0.1)~mm. The measureme nts of the straightness of the 50 BOS MDT tubes gave a mean of the maximum deviation of 150~$\\mu$m for 10 measured points along the tubes at 0$^{\\circ}$, 90$^{\\circ}$, 180$^{\\circ}$ and 270$^{\\circ }$ around the tube diameter and a mean value of all deviations of 20~$\\mu$m with a measuring accuracy of 10~$\\mu$m.

  18. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (pBrangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  19. The Use of Eugenol as an Anesthetic in Transportation of With Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) Post Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Sohrab; Khoshnod, Mohammad J.; Rajaian, Hamid; Afsharnasab, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The safe margin of eugenol for sedation of the healthy post larvae (PL) of white Indian shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) was determined by estimating the median lethal concentration of eugenol during 24 hours (24hLC50). Sedation concentration of eugenol was obtained experimentally by considering behavioral factors of PLs such as response to indirect stimuli and changes in water quality parameters. Applying the estimated concentrations of eugenol for 12 hours transportation of PLs, biometric pa...

  20. Pharmacological and biomedical properties of sea anemones Paracondactylis indicus, Paracondactylis sinensis, Heteractis magnificaand Stichodactyla haddonifrom East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bragadeeswaran Subramanian; Thangaraj Sangappellai; Rajiv Chandra Rajak; Balaji Diraviam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the biomedical and pharmacological activity ofParacondactylis indicus (P. indicus),Paracondactylis sinensis(P. sinensis),Heteractis magnifica (H. magnifica) and Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni).Methods: The live sea anemones were kept inside the glass bowl along with some amount of distilled water in an ice container for15 min. During stress condition, nematocysts released from the tentacles were collected and centrifuged at5 000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were collected in separate cleaned beakers for lyophilisation.Results:The protein content of crude extracts was15.2, 28.7, 18.2 and35.4μg/mL. In hemolytic assay, the P. indicus was sensitive (16.842 HT/mg) on chicken blood butP. sinensis was less sensitive (1.114 HT/mg) on chicken and goat blood. WhereasH. magnificaandS. haddoni showed hemolysis (0.879, 0.903 HT/mg and 56.263, 0.451 HT/mg) in chicken and goat blood. In antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract ofP. indicus showed maximum inhibition zone of9.7mm againstS. typhii andP. sinensisshowed9.8 mm againstK. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts. Whereas theH. magnifica andS. haddoni showed maximum of10 mm againstS. typhii, K. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts.Conclusions: The high toxic sea anemones may also contain some biologically active agents which has haemolytic, analgesic and anti-infilamatory activity.

  1. Bosreservaat Bos Ter Rijst (Heikruis): basisrapport:situering, standplaats, historiek en onderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Baeté, Hans; Christiaens, Bart; De Keersmaeker, Luc; Esprit, Marc; Van de Kerckhove, Peter; Vandekerkhove, Kris; Walleyn, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This report is a reference report linked to the monitoring of forest reserve Bos Ter Rijst in Heikruis/Hautecroix near Edingen/Enghien in central Belgium (bilingual region across a linguistic, regional and provincial frontier). It covers various topics:administrative situation and protective status of the reserveits location, soil characteristics and habitatshistorical ecology of the seignory Ter Rijst/Risoir, Ter Rijst/Risoir Wood and the Strijdhout/Strihoux Forestthe reserve's management hi...

  2. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Khairiah; I. Zawawi; H. Wahid; Hajarian, H.; Fahrul, F.J.; M.D. Hafiz; Hafiz, M.M.; Z.F. Ann; M.I. Iswadi; O.A. Mazni

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen w...

  3. Genome-Wide Detection and Characterization of Endogenous Retroviruses in Bos taurus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis): An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Samy Sherif; Mohammed Attia; Hatem Bahgaat; Ahmed Kassab

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints) were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then ...

  5. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Ö. Karatekin; J.-P. Noël; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2014-01-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radi...

  6. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument : the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present ar...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  8. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  9. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  10. Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage / Desempenho de novilhas mestiças em diferentes estádios reprodutivos Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zawadzki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one crossbreeding heifers (½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus with about 307.90 kg of live weight and eighteen months of age were used in a complete randomized design with three treatments and seven repetitions. The treatments were: control heifers, ovariectomized animals and with fifty gunshot spheres in uterine corn. The heifers were fed with 50% of corn silage and 50% concentrated. The feed intake was about 2,5% weight live in dry matter. The heifers gunshot treatments showed was bigger weight gain than the heifers ovariectomized treatments and this more weight gains what control heifers treatments. There was not difference in carcass yield and fat covering amongst treatments. The hematocrito increased in three heifers groups in the first collection (before for the second collection (after treatments. However, the increase was superior (P Foram utilizadas vinte e uma novilhas mestiças ½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus, com idade aproximada de dezoito meses e peso médio de 307,90 kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: novilhas vazias, novilhas ovariectomizadas e novilhas com implante de cinqüenta esferas de chumbo esterilizadas no interior do corno uterino. As novilhas foram alimentadas com ração composta de 50% silagem de milho (MS e 50% concentrado (MS, fornecida na base de 2,5% (MS do peso vivo dos animais. As novilhas com implante de chumbo apresentaram ganho médio diário superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas ovariectomizadas e das vazias. Ainda, as novilhas ovariectomizadas apresentam ganho superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas vazias. Todavia, não houve diferença no que se refere ao rendimento de carcaça e cobertura de gordura. O valor do hematócrito aumentou nos três grupos de animais da primeira coleta (antes para a segunda coleta (depois dos tratamentos. Todavia, este aumento foi maior (P < 0,05 nas novilhas

  11. Timed insemination of beef heifers using the 7-11 Synch protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eborn, D R; Grieger, D M

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted over 3 yr to determine pregnancy rates in beef heifers after a timed AI in response to the 7-11 Synch protocol. In Exp. 1, 179 heifers were either fed melengestrol acetate (MGA; 7-11 Synch) or given an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing insert [controlled intravaginal drug releasing device (CIDR); 7-11 CIDR] for 7 d. Prostaglandin F2αwas administered on the last day of MGA feeding or at CIDR removal followed by the CO-Synch protocol (GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH) beginning 4 d after MGA withdrawal or 2 d after CIDR removal. Heifers received a timed AI with GnRH beginning 48 h after the second PGF2α. Blood samples were collected at d -10, 0 (start of MGA feeding), and 18 (second PGF2α injection). In Exp. 2, 298 beef heifers were treated with the 7-11 Synch protocol with (7-11 Synch) or without (7 Synch) the first GnRH injection. Fixed time AI and GnRH was given 54 h after PGF2α. Blood samples were collected at d -10 and 0 in yr 1 and d -10, 0, 18 and at AI in yr 2. In Exp. 1, no differences were detected between 7 and 11 Synch and 7-11 CIDR for attainment of puberty in noncyclic heifers (94 vs. 78%; P = 0.21), the proportion of heifers that had luteal tissue on d 18 (87 vs. 83%; P = 0.41), or pregnancy rates after timed AI (47 vs. 46%; P = 0.99). In Exp. 2, administration of GnRH 4 d after the last MGA (7-11 Synch) feeding tended (P = 0.07) to induce more prepubertal heifers to cycle (88 vs. 61%) and increased (P MGA for 7 d or applying a CIDR insert for 7 d before a CO-Synch protocol. In contrast, use of GnRH at the beginning of the CO-Synch protocol improved pregnancy rates after a timed AI by inducing more prepubertal heifers to ovulate and increasing the proportion of heifers with luteal tissue at the PGF2α injection. PMID:23230105

  12. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  13. Hemodynamics are altered in the caudal artery of beef heifers fed different ergot alkaloid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N

    2009-06-01

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) noninfected (E-, 0 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), a 1:1 mixture of endophyte-infected and E- (E+E-; 0.39 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), or endophyte-infected (E+, 0.79 microg of ergovaline/g of DM) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers [345 +/- 19 kg (SD)] were assigned to individual pens and fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E- tall fescue seed for 7 d during an adjustment period. A 9-d experimental period followed with feeding treatments of chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+, E-, or E+E- seed being assigned randomly to pens. Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery luminal area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (3 baseline measures) and during the experimental period (7 measures). Statistical analyses compared proportionate differences between baseline and responses at 3, 27, 51, 75, 171, and 195 h from initial feeding of the experimental diets. Serum prolactin concentrations for E+ and E+E- diets were less (P < 0.001) than baseline concentrations beginning at 27 and 51 h, respectively, from initial feeding of the diets. Although baseline measures were taken when ambient temperatures were likely below thermoneutrality, caudal artery luminal cross-sectional area in E+ heifers had declined (P = 0.004) from baseline by 27 h and remained less (P < 0.02) until 195 h, and caudal artery luminal area declined (P = 0.004) in E+E- heifers from baseline by 51 h and remained less (P < 0.07) until 171 h. Blood flow rate was slower than the baseline rate at 51 h for E+ (P = 0.058) and E+E- (P = 0.02 heifers, but blood flow remained slower in E+E- heifers for 48 h, whereas it remained slower in E+ heifers for 96 h

  14. Molecular Typing of Mastitis-Causing Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Heifers and Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is among the main etiologic agents of bovine mastitis. A total of 83 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands of primiparous heifers were collected in the prepartum, calving and during lactation. For lactating cows, a total of 27 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands were collected during lactation. The samples were taken in two dairy farms located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The highest frequency of S. aureus isolation in heifers was at the end of lactation. Strains were typified through Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and grouped according to patterns of restriction enzyme SmaI. PFGE generated seven clonal profiles that were grouped into three different lineages, with the LA lineage being predominant and identified in heifers, as well as in the cows from the two regions studied. It was concluded that the cows showed a significant source of dispersion of S. aureus. At the first lactation the heifers were infected by the same clonal profiles of S. aureus which were isolated from multiparous lactating cows. The heifers were infected during milking over the months of lactation.

  15. Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Mahendra; Kumar, Parveen; Kumar, B. S. Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of extended photoperiod on growth rate, hormonal levels, and puberty in Murrah heifers. Materials and Methods: About 14 Murrah buffalo heifers were divided into normal day photoperiod (NDP; n=7) and extended NDP (ENDP; n=7) groups. The ENDP group was exposed to 4 h of extended photoperiod with artificial light (160 lux) after sunset for 3 months during winter. Results: Group, age and group-by-age interaction effects on plasma glucose concentrations were non-significant (p>0.05). A significant effect of age on non-esterified fatty acids (p0.05) while significant (p0.05). Average daily gain and dry matter intake of heifers were non-significant between the NDP and ENDP groups but were comparatively higher in ENDP group. By the end of the experiment, 6 out of 7 heifers attained puberty in ENDP group in comparison to 4 out of 7 in NDP group. Conclusion: Extending the photoperiod by artificial light for 4 h during winter season resulted in better growth rate and early onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers. PMID:27051212

  16. Effect of diet with different energy content in growing Murrah buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between variations of weight and BCS was evaluated using growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy level. 12 Murrah bred heifers (age: 790 days, LW: 400 kg, raised in Saint Paul (Brazil were equally divided in group H and L fed diets with 5.8 UFL/day and 3.6 UFL/day, respectively. At the end of treatment, groups showed significant differences in weight and values of BCS. In this trial each point of BCS, in Murrah heifers, seems to be equivalent to an increase and/or a loss of about 50 kg of live weight. During this trial the mean value of daily weight gain (DWG was significantly higher in group H (310 g. vs 0 g.; P<0.01. The heifers of group H required 5.4 UFL to increase the live weight, while group L showed a constant live weight in spite of the assumption of energy level of diet not sufficient to satisfy the requirements of weight maintenance. As it is known, buffalo heifers improves the efficiency of the diet utilization in case of deficiency and wastes energy when receiving diet with high energy content.

  17. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  18. The effects of two Ureaplasma diversum strains on early pregnancy in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, S P

    1987-01-01

    Two field isolates of Ureaplasma diversum spp. were used to infect heifers at the time of insemination in a preliminary study to observe the effect of infection on early pregnancy. M84-14c-1 was a field isolate from a bull's prepuce typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-44 (Group C). M84-477c-4 was a field isolate from bovine semen typed by immunofluorescence to be similar to U. diversum strain T-288 (Group A). All three heifers infected with M84-477c-4 had a mild granular vulvitis at some time during the trial. None was pregnant when slaughtered 27 days after infection. The result of infection with M84-14c-1, a preputial isolate, was not consistent. One heifer had no infection and a normal pregnancy, one heifer was infected with an abnormal pregnancy, and one heifer was open but ureaplasmas were not detected until day 17 of the trial. PMID:3453276

  19. Impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development in the Western province of Sri Lanka.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nettisinghe, A.M.P.; Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an AI heifer calf rearing scheme on dairy stock development, in a coconut grazing and a peri-urban smallholder dairy production system in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. The heifer rearing scheme included free advice on calf rearing, drugs, acaricides, minerals

  20. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso Lopez, J.; Distefano, C.; Laar, van H.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice

  1. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  2. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  3. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  4. Assessment of insulin-like growth factor-1 as an indicator of competence for rebreeding in first calf heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective of this research was to evaluate whether concentrations of IGF-1 in circulation, BW and BCS measured before calving, after calving and immediately before breeding could be used as indicators of nutritional competency for time of rebreeding in first calf heifers. Heifers were artificially ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 0.0 78% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 9e-85 39% ...

  7. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  8. DAILY GAIN IN PREPUBERTAL DAIRY HEIFERS AND ITS EFFECT ON BODY SIZE AT FIRST CALVING, METABOLIC PROFILE AND FIRST LACTATION MILK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of moderate (660 g/d and high (880g/d before puberty on body size, metabolic profile and first lactation milkproduction of Holstein - Friesian heifers. There were 18 heifers raised on fourperiod feeding regimen. Half the heifers were artificially inseminated at 370 kg, andthe other half after 420 kg of body weight to obtain early age at first calving andlate age at first calving respectively. Age at first calving significantly influenced milkproduction. Late calving heifers had higher milk production and a lower fat milkprocentage than early calving heifers.

  9. Estrous synchronization strategies to optimize beef heifer reproductive performance after reproductive tract scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Whittier, William D; Hall, John B; Kastelic, John P

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments comparing four estrous synchronization protocols were conducted to determine estrous expression rate and artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) in heifers with a range (1-5) of reproductive tract scores (RTSs). At enrollment (Day 0), 1783 Angus cross beef heifers from six locations were given body condition score and RTS. The four protocols were: (1) HRTS-DPGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received prostaglandin F2α (PGF; Dinoprost 25 mg; im) on Days 0 and 14; (2) HRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received a CIDR (1.3-g progesterone) insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; (3) LRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 4 or less received a CIDR insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; and (4) HRTS-Select-Synch group-heifers with RTS 5 received 100 μg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (gonadotropin releasing homone; im) on Day 7 and PGF on Day 14. In all groups, heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated (within 120 hours after PGF) using the AM-PM rule. In Experiment 1, estrus expression rates were 82.2% (282/343) and 88.5% (184/208) for HRTS-DPGF and LRTS-CIDR-PGF, respectively (P  0.1) and AI-PR were 52.1 (110/211), 60.3 (129/214), and 58.4% (122/209; P > 0.05). In Experiment 3, estrus expression rates were 77.5 (131/169), 85.5 (142/166), and 83.3% (219/263) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch and LRTS-CIDR-PGF (P > 0.05) and AI-PR were 53.3 (90/169), 60.2 (100/166), and 58.6% (154/263; P > 0.1). Overall, estrus expression rates for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch, LRTS-CIDR-PGF, and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups were 80.4 (581/723), 85.5 (142/166), 85.1 (579/680), and 86.9% (186/214), respectively; higher for heifers in LRTS-CIDR-PGF and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups compared to heifers in HRTS-DPGF group (P heifers in HRTS-DPGF was lower (52.0 [376/723]) compared with HRTS-Select-Synch (60.2 [100/166]), LRTS-CIDR-PGF (58.7 [399/680]), and HRTS-CIDR-PGF (60.3 [129/214]); P heifers achieved

  10. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Beef heifer development and lifetime productivity in rangeland-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A J; Funston, R N; Grings, E E; Petersen, M K

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional and environmental factors have been shown to cause epigenetic changes that influence characteristics of the offspring throughout life. In livestock, small differences in nutrition during gestation may alter lifetime production efficiency of offspring. Therefore, the potential for fetal programing should be considered when determining supplemental feeding strategies during gestation. For example, female offspring born to cows grazing dormant winter pasture supplemented with 1.1 kg/d of alfalfa hay during the last third of gestation were 10 kg heavier and had greater BCS at 5 yr of age than those from dams supplemented with 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay. These differences were beneficial for maintaining reproductive performance in offspring managed with fewer harvested feed inputs. Evaluation of female offspring from cows wintered on either low-quality or high-quality pasture for 30 to 45 d during the fifth to sixth month of gestation indicated a trend for longer duration of productivity in daughters from cows wintered on improved pasture. In recent studies comparing offspring from cows with or without protein supplementation while grazing dormant winter range during late gestation, heifers from protein-supplemented dams had greater BW at weaning. This BW increase persisted throughout pregnancy and to subsequent calving, and pregnancy rates were greater in heifers from protein-supplemented dams. Heifers from protein-supplemented dams had lower G:F compared with heifers from unsupplemented dams. Therefore, in utero exposure to nutritionally limited environments (nonsupplemented dams) may promote greater feed efficiency in the heifer offspring later in life. Nutrition during postweaning development may also affect lifetime productivity. Heifers developed on low-quality native range with RUP supplementation had greater retention beyond 3 yr of age than cohorts developed in a feedlot with higher quality feed and greater ADG. Collectively, these examples show

  11. Characteristics of forage and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Luis Missio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of the forage and ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane in different periods of storage. Twenty-four heifers with initial body weight of 119.6±8.1 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized, in which the treatments were diets with fresh sugarcane and hydrolyzed sugarcane (5 g of lime kg-1 of chopped sugarcane stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours as the only roughage. The addition of lime to sugarcane associated with its storage up to 72 hours provided an increase of 20% of the potentially degradable cell wall of carbohydrates, from 382.4 to 458.8 g kg-1 of total carbohydrates. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter was altered by the storage of hydrolyzed sugarcane, increasing 7.08% when the storage time was increased from 24 to 72 hours. Heifers fed fresh sugarcane remained more time consuming compared with heifers fed other diets. The time used for water intake was not influenced by the diet. The rumination time presented a quadratic variation in relation to storage time of the hydrolyzed sugarcane, with higher values for the of hydrolyzed sugarcane diets stored for 48 hours. Heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane spent more time on other activities than those fed fresh sugarcane. The supply of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored up to 72 hours in the proportion of 600 g kg-1 of dry matter in the diet, alters the intake patterns, reducing the feed intake in Nellore heifers.

  12. Characteristics of forage and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Regis Luis Missio; Mauro Dal Secco de Oliveira; Mariana Paula Rossi Sforcini; Guilherme de Carvalho Abud; Viviane Borba Ferrari; Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde; Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of the forage and ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane in different periods of storage. Twenty-four heifers with initial body weight of 119.6±8.1 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized, in which the treatments were diets with fresh sugarcane and hydrolyzed sugarcane (5 g of lime kg-1 of chopped sugarcane) stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours as the only roughage. The additi...

  13. Massive gene acquisitions in Mycobacterium indicus pranii provide a perspective on mycobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vikram; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Khurana, Jitendra P; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria. PMID:22965120

  14. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  15. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanathan Karthik; Thomas Ancy; Dharmaraj Ramkumar; Narayanasamy Mathivanan; Rangarajan Badri Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme fromFenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz) in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL).Methods:Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar.Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria testedKlebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay.Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  16. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  17. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

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    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  18. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus durante o anestro pós-parto

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    R.S. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12. Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica. Altas contagens relativas e alta intensidade de marcação para receptor de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma foram observadas nos dois grupos. No entanto, a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular foi mais alta no grupo 2 comparado ao grupo 1. Quando o epitélio glandular e o estroma foram comparados, o número relativo de receptor de estrógeno no grupo 1 foi mais alto no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma, e a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no grupo 2 foi mais alta no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma. Os resultados sugerem que os mecanismos que controlam a expressão de receptores no anestro são semelhantes aos observados durante o ciclo estral.

  19. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) durante o anestro pós-parto

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, R S; I. Martin; W.C. Marques Filho; M.M.P. Rodrigues; R Laufer-Amorim; Ferreira, J.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12). Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica d...

  20. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12 months; group IV-12 to 24 months; group V-24 to 48 months; group VI-48 to 72 months and group VII-older than 72 months were studied. The highest and lowest mean values observed were total white blood cell/mm³-16992±4104 (group III and 10353±2397 (group VI; neutrophils/mm³-3931±1578 (group I and 2416 ±1118 (group III; eosinophils/ mm³-999±499 (group V and 265±276 (group II; basophils/mm³-67±88 (group VII and 39±78 (group III; typical lymphocytes/ mm³-12758±3608 (group III and 5906±1883 (group VI; atypical lymphocytes/ mm³-1310±603 (group II and 760±419 (group VI ; lymphocytes total/ mm³-14079±4027 (group III and 6666±2059 (group VI; monocytes/mm³-27±62 (group I and 0 (group III. The differences (p>0.05 observed among the groups in relation to total white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils can be related to the influence of the age on leukogram of Nelore (Zebu cattle raised in São Paulo- Brazil.

  1. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm, índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 hubo diferencia (p<0,05 entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto al peso corpóreo (627,70±11,37 e 611,58±8,66Kg; la altura (1,44±0,01e 1,47±0,01m; el volumen del eyaculado (5,82±0,48 e 5,17±0,29 mL, la motilidad espermática progresiva (73,50±2,81% e75,62±0,97%, el vigor espermático (4,30±0,19 e4,27±0,11 y motilidad en masa (4,27±0,11 e3,33±0,23 no se presentó diferencia (p>0,05. En morfología espermática, tampoco hubo desigualdad entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente con 5,06 ± 8,20% e 5,32 ± 6,40% de defectos mayores; 9,91±6,74% e 8,36±6,06% para los defectos menores; e 14,76±13,20% e 13,82±12,61% para los defectos totales. La electroforesis del plasma seminal reveló bandas proteicas con pesos entre 5 a 105 KDa. En el 100% de toros aptos para la reproducción, la proteína con pesos de 13 Kda estuvo presente. De la misma forma ocurrió con las bandas de 20 KDa. El resto de las bandas proteicas mostraron presencia con diferentes porcentajes de incidencia en toros aptos o parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Las dos variedades estudiadas hicieron evidente la adaptación reproductiva eficaz en condiciones de clima semejantes.

  2. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

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    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  3. 转基因奶牛与普通奶牛超数排卵效果的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Superovulation Responses in Transgenic Dairy Heifers and Ordinary Dairy Heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉林; 薛建华; 吕小青; 李艳华; 孙凤俊; 杨超; 戴蕴平; 王彦平; 赵凤茹; 丁方荣

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the superovulation responses between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers. Of the transgenic dairy heifers, 16 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 6.15±4.43(mean±SEM) and 3.94±2.62, 1.50±2.19, 0.69±0.78, respectively. Of the ordinary dairy heifers, 17 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 8.65±5.70 and 4.18±3.11, 1.47±1.12, 3.00±4.24, respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers in the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova(P>0.05).There was a decrease in the number of degenerated embryos in transgenic dairy heifers(P0.05),转基因奶牛的退化胚胎数显著低于普通奶牛(P<0.05)。本试验结果说明转入改变乳成分的外源基因不影响奶牛的超数排卵效果。

  4. Digestibility of diets with glycerin for Nellore heifers in feedlot

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    Marisa Xavier Manço

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research for not pollutants and renewable sources of energy, made the biodiesel is reused. But, its production generates the “Glycerin” (10% of biodiesel volume. This production is increasing and accumulating year by year, like other industrious by-products. With no law about discarding, scientists started to feed animals in different species with it. Rich in glycerol, it gives energy for animals and doesn't have other nutrients. It improves the alimentary conversion and does not change ruminal ambient or carcass production. For ruminants is used glycerin originated just from vegetables. This experiment aimed to discover what glycerin’s level can be used on diet. Made at the Unesp University of Campus of Jaboticabal, were used 24 heifers of Nellore in feedlot, weight of ± 265 kg in individuals stalls for 112 days. Were used three crossbreed cattle (Angus x Nellore castrated and cannulated, with ± 400 kg of weight for incubation. The “blond glycerin” used has 83% of glycerol. The proportion of Forage: Concentrate was 30:70. Corn silage was the forage. The concentrate was composed of: soy hulls, sunflower meal, urea and corn or corn more glycerin. All treatments had same percentages of protein and energy and were identified as “without glycerin” (G0, “with 10% of glycerin” (G10 and “20% of glycerin inclusion” (G20 in the dry matter of diet. Samples of food, leavings and excrements were collected. The collections of excrements were made at the superior part of them, without contact with the floor, at the moment of defecation for three consecutive days. Leavings and food were collected just before feeding. Bromatologics analyses were made according AOAC (1995, VAN SOEST and WINE (1967, HENDRIX (1993 and the digestion was made in autoclave (0,5 Kgf/cm2, 111ºC for 50 minutes, proceeding adapted of PELL and SCHOFIELD (1992. ADFi was used as indicator. Incubation was made according to CASALI et al. (2008 for 240 hours and

  5. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

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    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  6. Study on the effect of feed space allowance on feeding behaviour in eighteen months of age heifers

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    Iulian Tripon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feeding behaviour of eighteen months old heifers using three different feeding space allowances (0.4, 0.6 and 0.84 m feeding space per heifer. During the experiments the following feeding behaviour aspects were determined: number of feeding periods, the length of one feeding period and the total length of feeding periods. When a feeding space of 0.6 m per heifer was used the total length of feeding periods in 24 hours had a value of 641 minutes, significantly bigger (p<0.05 than when feeding space was 0.4 or 0.84 m per heifer (543 and 453 minutes. There were significant differences (p<0.05 for total time spent feeding by calves between the second experimental variant (0.6 m feeding space per heifer and the first (0.4 m feeding space per heifer and the third experimental variant (0.84 m feeding space per heifer during the afternoon and during the night.

  7. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P heifers (P > 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement. PMID:26888207

  8. Feeding strategies for rearing replacement heifers in small-scale dairy production systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; García-Martínez, A; Albarrán-Portillo, B; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Castelán-Ortega, O A

    2003-06-01

    The growth of Holstein heifers in the campesino dairy systems in the highlands of Mexico was evaluated in three feeding strategies. Thirty-three heifers from 11 farmers, grouped according to strategy, were weighed every 14 days for 28 weeks. The live weight change over each 14-day period was estimated by individually regressing live weight over period, taking the regression coefficient as an unbiased estimate of live weight change. Regression coefficients were analysed as a randomized design with feeding strategies as treatments. Strategies were as follows: S1: grazed or cut pasture all year, maize silage and maize straw in the dry season, and 1.0-1.5 kg concentrate/heifer per day. S2: maize straw in the dry season, cut pasture forage, grazing of native grass, weeds from maize fields, and 1.0-1.5 kg concentrate/heifer per day. S3: maize straw in the dry season, grazed native grasses and weeds in the rainy season. Live weight gains were: S1, 0.511 kg/heifer per day; S2, 0.271 kg/heifer per day; and S3, 0.252 kg/heifer per day. Despite the better gains in S1, they are 24% below recommendations, arriving to service at 20 months of age. Not rearing their replacements may be a better alternative for campesino farmers under current economic conditions. PMID:12797415

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyun; Ma, Yanbin; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Du, Junzheng; Ma, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-EL...

  10. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; heifer·d for FM, FT, EM, and ET, respectively). There was an interaction effect of the 2 treatments on change in BCS ( 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization

  11. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélder Silva e Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica clássica. Os folículos primordiais expostos à concentração de 40% apresentaram redução do diâmetro folicular e ovocitário quando comparados ao grupo controle (sem exposição, 10% e 20% (P0,05. Esses resultados sugerem que folículos primários são mais resistentes aos efeitos do etileno glicol quando comparados aos primordiais.The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different concentrations of ethylene glycol on the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of the preantral ovarian follicles. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%. Tissue analysis was done using classical histology techniques. The primordial follicles expose at a concentration of 40% showed reduction of the follicular diameter and oocyte when compared to the control (non exposing, 10 and 20% groups (P0.05. These results suggest that primary follicles are more resistant to the effect of ethylene glycol when compared to primordial ones.

  12. Host adapted intramammary infections in pregnant heifers which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves

    OpenAIRE

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Lesosky, Maia; Watermeyer, Johanna C; Badenhorst, Renette

    2013-01-01

    Background Heifers can calve down with intramammary infections (IMI) and udder damage. This will have a negative impact on their longevity, future milk yield and financial return. Co-housed pre-weaned calves that are fed fresh milk have the opportunity to suckle each other’s teats and may infect udders of fellow heifer calves with pathogens present in milk. The prevalence of IMI in pregnant heifers in South Africa (SA) which were co-housed and reared on fresh milk as calves, is not known. Qua...

  13. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Waruiru; C.O. Onyando; R.O. Machuka

    2003-01-01

    Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight) and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbe...

  14. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  15. Qualitative characteristics of meat from confined crossbred heifers fed with lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Fiorentini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been used in ruminant feed to replace high amounts of grain for increasing the diet energy density, performance and meat quality. This study evaluated the qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot heifers fed with sources of lipid supplements. Twenty-one crossbred heifers (1/4Nelore × 1/4Santa Gertrudis × 1/2Braunvieh were used. Each heifer received 60 % forage with a base of corn silage and 40 % concentrate, resulting in 5.8 % lipid content in the total diet. The following sources of lipids were used: soybeans, protected fat and soybean oil. There were no differences on physical characteristics of meat samples from heifers fed with the lipid sources. Soybeans increased the concentration of linoleic acid, content of polyunsaturated fatty acid and activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the Longissimus muscle. The use of soybean oil in the diet increased the oleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, total cis- and trans-fatty acids (C18:0 and the activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the subcutaneous fat. Diets with soybean grain had greater deposition of linoleic and linolenic acids than diets with fat protected and greater presence of these essential fatty acids are associated to a better composition and meat quality.

  16. Optimization of dairy heifer management decisions based on production conditions of Pennsylvania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Galligan, D.T.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We used a dynamic programming model to determine optimum rearing decisions of dairy replacements. Heifers were described in the model by age, season, body weight, pregnancy state, and prepubertal growth rate. Prices and parameters were chosen to represent the dairy population of Pennsylvania. We cal

  17. Feed intake, body weight and milk production: genetic analysis of different measurements in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker, van P.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic correlations between measurements of feed intake, body weight and production within and between 4 periods in the first 15 weeks of lactation have been estimated. Measurements were available on 358 dairy heifers during 2 week periods starting at 2, 5, 9 and 13 weeks after calvi

  18. Effects of bovine respiratory disease on the productivity of dairy heifers quantified by experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Verhoeff, J.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to obtain expert data on the effects on productivity (EPs) associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy heifers. Expert knowledge on the EPs of BRD was elicited because a complete insight into these effects was not available from the literature. The expe

  19. Genetic analysis of body condition score of lactating Dutch Holstein and Red-and-White heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dobbelaar, P.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for body condition scores (BCS) from the Dutch type classification system. Data included 108,809 Holstein (H) and 26,208 Red-and-White (R) heifers from 9701 herds that were scored once during lactation on a 1 to 9 scale (1 = ema

  20. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  1. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction.

  2. 7 CFR 59.101 - Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle delivered to the packer (quoted in numbers of head) on that day, categorized by: (i) The type of... heifer packer processing plant shall report to the Secretary at least two times each reporting day not... as described in § 59.10(b). (1) The prices for cattle (per hundredweight) established on that...

  3. Digestion of feed fractions and intake of heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Luis Missio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, in Nellore heifers, intake and digestibility of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, four diets, four Nellore heifers with ruminal cannulas (initial body weight 285.4±23.08 kg and average initial age 14 months and four periods of 21 days. The diets were composed by fresh sugarcane (time zero or hydrolyzed sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime, stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours, as the unique forage. Intake and digestibility of feed fractions, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis efficiency, total number of ruminal protozoans and ammoniacal nitrogen did not significantly change by storing sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime. Sugarcane pH varied quadratically for storage time, with maximum pH of 7.02 after 24 hours from lime addition. Ruminal liquid pH values were higher for heifers fed fresh sugarcane, in comparison with those fed hydrolyzed sugarcane. Sugarcane treated with 0.5% of hydrated lime stored for up to 72 hours does not change ruminal digestion to alter the amount of feed consumed by pubescent Nellore heifers. Thus, lime is a viable technology, once it allows long-duration storage and bee control on treated forage, which contributes to animal feeding logistics.

  4. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction. PMID:27609357

  5. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing

  6. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  7. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves feed efficiency and changes body composition in nonimplanted Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Rodriguez, F D; Goulart, R S; Frasseto, M O; Ferrari, V B; Silva, L F P

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; MSD Animal Health, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) on the performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites, body composition, and gain composition of nonimplanted Nellore heifers. Nellore heifers ( = 72; average BW = 267 ± 16 kg; average 18 mo of age) were maintained in a feedlot system for 118 d. Heifers were separated into 2 groups: Control and ZH. The ZH group received ZH (8.3 mg/kg diet DM) for 30 d with 3 d of withdrawal before slaughter. Heifers were allotted to 18 pens, 9 pens per treatment, and assigned to a randomized block design. The animals were weighed, blood samples were collected, and subgroups of heifers were slaughtered at the beginning of supplementation and after 20 and 33 d to evaluate performance, blood metabolites, empty BW (EBW), and EBW composition. Hot carcass and kidney-pelvic fat weights were recorded at slaughter. At 24 h postmortem, carcasses were fabricated and the 9-10-11th rib (HH) section was removed from the primal rib to analyze moisture, protein, ash, and ether extract (EE) content in empty body (EB) and gain composition. Heifers fed ZH had gains in HCW that were 19.7 kg greater than controls, reflecting the 30% increase ( < 0.01) in ADG. There was no change in DMI, resulting in a 20% greater G:F ratio ( < 0.01) for heifers fed ZH. Heifers supplemented with ZH had carcass dressing percentages that were 3% greater than controls ( < 0.01), and there was also a 19% reduction in kidney-pelvic fat ( = 0.05) in ZH-treated heifers. Zilpaterol increased serum creatinine ( < 0.01), tended to increase ( = 0.06) serum triacylglycerol, decreased serum NEFA ( = 0.04), and tended to decrease ( = 0.06) serum glucose. The EBW composition was changed after 20 d of ZH supplementation ( = 0.02), with ZH increasing the moisture, ash, and protein contents, whereas carcass fat was decreased by ZH by 14%. Consequently, the carcass CP:EE ratio after 20 d was increased ( = 0.03) by 24

  8. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  9. Mitochondrial pathway mediates the antileukemic effects of Hemidesmus indicus, a promising botanical drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Fimognari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cancers are characterized by the deregulation of multiple signalling pathways, most current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. Because of the enormous biological diversity of cancer, strategic combination of agents targeted against the most critical of those alterations is needed. Due to their complex nature, plant products interact with numerous targets and influence several biochemical and molecular cascades. The interest in further development of botanical drugs has been increasing steadily and the FDA recently approved the first new botanical prescription drug. The present study is designed to explore the potential antileukemic properties of Hemidesmus indicus with a view to contributing to further development of botanical drugs. Hemidesmus was submitted to an extensive in vitro preclinical evaluation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variety of cellular assays and flow cytometry, as well as a phytochemical screening, were performed on different leukemic cell lines. We have demonstrated that Hemidesmus modulated many components of intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell viability and proliferation and altered the protein expression, eventually leading to tumor cell death, mediated by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. ADP, adenine nucleotide translocator and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors did not reverse Hemidesmus-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Hemidesmus induced a significant [Ca(2+](i raise through the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Moreover, Hemidesmus significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs (methotrexate, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine. A clinically relevant observation is that its cytotoxic activity was also recorded in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemic patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate the molecular basis of

  10. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  11. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L. to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan inhibited the growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus on Muller- Hinton medium, indicated by the formation of inhibition zone around the disc loaded with plant extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm, with diamtre of 10mm, llmm, 12mm, 13mm and 16 mm respectively to S. aureus, forE. coli crude extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm using diametre each of 12 mm, 13 mm, 15 mm, 17 mm and 19 mm respectively . From 17 fractions obtained from fractionation, fraction No. Vm (eluted with ethyl acetate:hexan with Rf value of 0,9 ; 0,8 ; 0,7 ; 0,68 ; and 0,62, fraction No. DC (eluted with etihil acetate : hexan with Rf value of : 0,98, ; 0,94 ; and 0,82, fraction No. XV (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% Rf value of : 0.03; 0.23; 0.35 and fraction No. XVI (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% with Rf value of: 0.03; 0.14; 0.17; 0.21, effectivity inhibited the growth of test bacterial.

  12. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  13. Influence of carcass suspension on meat quality of Charolais heifers from two sustainable feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnström, M L; Hessle, A; Johansson, L; Hunt, M C; Lundström, K

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of pelvic suspension on the meat quality of M. longissimus dorsi, M. semimembranosus and M. adductor from 35 heifers with at least 75% Charolais breeding. Two-thirds of the heifers were slaughtered directly from pasture at 18 months of age and one-third was finished indoors and slaughtered at 22 months. After slaughter and electrical stimulation one side of each carcass was re-suspended by either the achilles tendon or the pelvic bone. Longissimus muscles were aged 7 or 14 days and were then evaluated for drip loss, colour, shear force and sensory analysis. As compared to 18-month-old heifers, 22-month-old heifers were heavier, more muscular and fatter (P < 0.05). Intramuscular fat content increased with slaughter age (P < 0.003). Pelvic suspension reduced longissimus peak force values, total energy, pH and thawing losses (P < 0.05) in heifers slaughtered at 18 months. Semimembranosus showed the largest response to pelvic suspension with significantly lower peak force and total energy values. Finishing for 4 months did not affect longissimus shear forces. Achilles-suspended samples had lower shear force values after 14 v. 7 days of ageing. Pelvic-suspended samples aged 7 days were, however, just as tender as those aged 14 days. Sensory analysis of longissimus samples aged 14 days showed that samples from pelvic-suspended sides had higher tenderness, lower bite resistance, more meaty taste and less visible marbling compared with samples from achilles-suspended carcasses. PMID:22444777

  14. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  15. Improving Performance of Replacement Heifers in Hot Arid Environment Under Intensive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Razzaque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Imported Holstein Friesian dairy cattle are exposed to hot arid climate in feedlot management in Kuwait. Desert climate is extreme reaching high 45-50°C in summer and low -4°C in winter at day and night respectively. High calf mortality, poor reproduction and milk yields were main constraints to viable dairying. The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of calf mortality, its causes; implement strategic intervention measures for improving calf survival rates and evaluate dairy herd performance. Approach: Two scenarios were used: (1 studying dairy herd performance without applying intervention measures and (2 introducing improved management with interventions. Performance of the herds of situations 1 and 2 were compared. Three classes of dairy herds, pre-weaned calves, heifers and first lactation cows born in Kuwait were used. Results: Implementing intervention measures resulted in significant (p = 0.001 reduction of crude calf mortality rates from a mean of 43.6% to a low 4.67%. Growth rates of calves and heifers increased significantly, resulting in breeding of locally raised heifers at 15 mo age instead of usual practice of breeding at 18-22 mo. Feed cost was significantly reduced by 14-25% by early breeding of heifers. Herd culling rate was reduced from 62-33% and conception rates increased by 41%. The milk yield was increased by 1.25-1.50 fold through replacing the imported cows by locally born heifers. Adult cattle mortality rates reduced from high 9 to a low 1%. Case study showed that locally born and reared dairy herd formed a mean of 65.8% of total dairy cattle in cooperating farms. Conclusion: A systematic applied research studies in the commercial dairy farms had resulted in a visible improvement in the performance of all categories of locally born dairy herds and they were better adapted to the local hostile climate.

  16. The effect of feed supplementation on the onset of puberty in Brazilian dairy heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Brazilian dairy production is conducted by small holders whose general management skills and feeding programmes are often deficient. One common problem directly attributed to underfeeding is that heifers rarely reach sexual maturity before 15 months of age. Two experiments were carried out using growing heifers to determine the effect of protein supplementation (0.3 kg/heifer/day of a mixture of commercial concentrate with 18.59% crude protein (CP) and cottonseed meal with 28.43% CP) on sexual maturity (Experiment 1); and protein supplementation plus anthelmintic treatment (benzimidazole, 10 mg/kg body weight) on sexual maturity (Experiment 2). All but one of the 23 females in the supplemented group (96%), and only 12 of the 23 heifers in the control group (52%) reached sexual maturity before 18 months of age (P<0.01) in Experiment 1. The first ovulation occurred at 513 ± 44 and 573 ± 36 days (x-bar ± SE, P<0.01) in supplemented and control groups, respectively. Daily body weight gains from beginning of the trial to the first ovulation were 378 ± 0.02 and 331 ± 0.04 g for supplemented and control groups. Height at withers and body condition score did not differ between the two groups. In Experiment 2, only 52.2% of the heifers in the not-supplemented groups (11 of 23), but 95.7% in supplemented groups (22 of 23), reached sexual maturity before the age of 18 months (P<0.01). Groups that had received supplementation presented higher concentrations of haemoglobin and elevated hematocrit throughout the year than the controls (P<0.01). Animals with anthelmintic treatment had better growth performance than the controls (P<0.01). (author) 19 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Effects of creep feeding and monensin on reproductive performance and lactation of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, D L; Fahey, G C; Kesler, D J; Neumann, A L

    1982-09-01

    A 23 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized to determine the effect of breed, creep feeding and monensin on subsequent reproductive performance and lactation of 32 primiparous heifers. One-half of each breed (Angus and Hereford) group had access to creep feed (2.67 Mcal metabolizable energy/kg) while nursing their dams. Approximately 40 d before breeding through 120 d of lactation, all heifers were fed a suboptimal energy diet and 50% of each breed and creep group received 200 mg monensin/head daily. Estrus was synchronized with a progestogen. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were determined periodically throughout the monensin-feeding portion of the experiment. Twenty-four hour milk production, percentage butterfat and percentage solids-not-fat were determined at 60 and 120 d postpartum. Weaning weights (adjusted to 205 d and for age of dam) of the original heifers were heavier (P less than .05) for those that were creep fed compared with those not creep fed (219 vs 202 kg). Monensin-supplemented females gained significantly more weight from the initiation of treatment to immediately postcalving and gave birth to heavier calves (P less than .05) even though they received comparable amounts of dietary energy as those that did not receive monensin. The energy stressed, monensin-supplemented first-calf heifers exhibited a shorter postpartum interval (P less than .05) to first estrus than did those that did not receive monensin (55.7 vs 69.1 d, respectively). First-calf heifers that had been creep fed while nursing their dams had a lower (P less than .05) daily milk yield at 120 d post-partum than those that did not have access to creep feed. No detrimental effects were observed due to long-term monensin supplementation.

  18. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  19. Inhibition Effect of Antagonistic Fungal Strain BOS-013 against the Pathogen of Rice Blast ( Pyricularia oryzae)%拮抗真菌菌株BOS-013对稻瘟病菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕跃东; 王勇; 张文革; 谢程程; 宫立晶; 王雪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为寻找对水稻稻瘟病的有防治作用的有益微生物及其代谢产物,研究放线菌BOS-013菌株发酵液对水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制作用.[方法]以水稻稻瘟病菌作为目标指示菌,采用杯碟法和滤纸片法测定BOS-13菌株发酵液及其不同溶剂提取物的抑菌活性.[结果]研究结果表明,含菌量为4×10cfu/ml的BOS-13菌株发酵液对水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制率为92.O%±0.5%;该发酵液经高温、高压灭活后对水稻稻瘟病菌仍有抑制作用,抑制率为60.0%±0.5%.发酵液经非极性CAD-5型大孔吸附树脂吸附、60%乙醇溶液洗脱后,其抑菌活性很高,抑菌圈直径达33.0 mm.[结论]BOS-13菌株发酵液水稻稻瘟病菌有显著的抑制作用;该研究结果为进一步明确BOS-13菌株发酵液时水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制作用机理及其实际应用奠定了基础.%[ Objective ] To search for the beneficial microorganisms and their metabolic products with control effect against rice blast, the paper studied the inhibition effect of the fermentation broth of actinomycetes BOS-013 strain against the pathogen of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae). [ Method] With the pathogen of rice blast as the target indicator fungus, the inhibition effect of the fermentation broth of BOS-013 strain and its extracts from different solvents against the pathogen were determined using cylinder plate method and filter paper method. [ Resuit] The results showed that the inhibition rate of the fermentation broth of BOS-013 strain with fungus amount of 4 × l08 cfu/ml against the pathogen of rice blast was 92.0% ± 0.5%; the fermentation broth still had inhibition effect against the pathogen of rice blast after inactivation under high temperature and high pressure, and the inhibition rate was 60.0% ± 0.5%. After absorbed by non-polar CAD-45 type macroporous adsorption resin and eluted by 60% ethanol, the antifungal activity of the fermentation broth was still high, and the diameter of

  20. The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Roth-Walter

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive.

  1. Effects of supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and hormonal parameters of embryo recipient heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Camilo Angel Cardona; Harold Ospina Patino; Mônica Marcela Ramirez Hernandez; Carolina Heller Pereira; Kendall Swanson

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA) has positive effects on cow reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding a source of PPUFA to energy supplements for embryo recipient heifers on productive performance and plasma concentrations of progesterone, cholesterol and insulin. For this purpose, 44 Angus x Hereford embryo recipient heifers (average body weight = 385 kg) raised on pasture were studied in a completely randomized de...

  2. Genome-wide association for the outcome of fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, L R; Edwards, S; Fortes, M R S; Lehnert, S A; Reverter, A; McGowan, M

    2015-11-01

    Fixed-time AI (FTAI) is a powerful tool for genetic improvement of extensively managed beef cattle. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was conducted to investigate genes and genetic markers associated with the outcome (pregnant or not pregnant) of FTAI in 614 commercial Brahman heifers genotyped for 18,895 SNP and imputed to 51,588 SNP. The likelihood of Brahman heifers becoming pregnant after hormonal treatment to synchronize ovulation followed by FTAI was influenced by the content of their genomes, as determined by a principal component analysis. The principal component analysis involved comparisons between the studied heifers and populations of known and ancestry. The heritability of FTAI outcome was = 0.18, which is higher than for most other reproductive outcome traits. The number of SNP associated with FTAI outcome was 101 ( heifer puberty and postpartum anestrus interval, 3 genomic regions emerge as important for overall Brahman heifer fertility, which mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, and 9. Further analyses, including improved genome annotation, are required to elucidate the link between these regions and heifer fertility. Additional studies are needed to confirm SNP and gene associations reported herein and further elucidate the genetics of FTAI outcome. Future GWAS should target other Braham populations and additional cattle breeds with FTAI records, including breeds with higher ancestry. PMID:26641032

  3. Effects of prenatal androgenization, melengestrol acetate, and Synovex-H on feedlot performance, carcass, and sensory traits of once-calved heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiling, B A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; McKeith, F K; Nash, T G; Ireland, F A

    1996-09-01

    Three studies were designed using a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments within each experiment to evaluate the effects of various management techniques on growth and carcass traits of once-calved heifers. In Exp. 1, 33 yearling (16 control [C] and 17 prenatally androgenized [PA]) and 39 once-calved (20 C and 19 PA) nonpregnant heifers were used to evaluate the effects of age and PA. Once-calved heifers were approximately 31 kg heavier (P carcasses (P = .27) were similar. However, on the basis of newly accepted grading changes, percentage of once-calved heifer carcasses grading choice decreased from 57.3 to 34.4%. Organoleptic properties did not differ. Experiments 2 and 3 were then conducted to evaluate effects of commercially available products (melengestrol acetate [MGA] and Synovex-H) on feedlot characteristics of heifers following weaning of their first calf. In Exp. 2, 48 once-calved Simmental-based heifers were fed during the summer to a constant compositional fat thickness of .8 cm. Experiment 3 was conducted in the late fall and early winter, during which 52 moderately sized heifers were fed for 116 d postweaning and slaughtered. Performance of heifers in Exp. 2 was not affected by MGA. However, heifers fed MGA in Exp. 3 gained 9% faster (P carcass traits were not affected by either treatment. Nonpregnant, once-calved heifers seem to have a large capacity for efficient weight gain as compared with yearling heifers. However, hormonal compounds, such as testosterone propionate provided pre- or postnatally (Synovex-H), and MGA do not appear to provide the consistent, positive responses often seen with younger, more typical feedlot heifers. PMID:8880404

  4. Antral follicles population in heifers and cows of Nelore and Girolando breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sábio de Oliveira Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian antral follicle populations (OAFP of Nelore and Girolando breed heifers (12–18 months old and cows (24–60 months old. Animals were assigned to four groups: (1 Nelore cows (n = 18, (2 Girolando cows (n = 20, (3 Nelore heifers (n = 7, and (4 Girolando heifers (n = 7. Cows were treated to synchronize follicular wave emergence by implantation of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone, as well as intramuscular administration of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 25 mg of dinoprost. This synchronization treatment was administered at a random day of the estrous cycle of each cow, designated D0. Intravaginal devices were removed on D7, and on D11, OAFP counts were performed by transvaginal ovarian ultrasound. For each cow, all follicles ?3 mm in diameter were counted in both ovaries and counts were performed three times at 35-day intervals. Counts were also obtained from heifers, but these animals were not treated for synchronization of follicular wave emergence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test were used to compare mean OAFPs between counts as well as mean OAFPs between breed and age groups. No differences were observed in mean OAFPs between Nelore and Girolando cows (30.9 vs. 26.7, respectively; P > 0.05 or heifers (16.2 vs. 18.1, respectively; P > 0.05. However, within each breed, there were differences in mean OAFPs between heifers and cows (for Nelore cattle: 16.2 and 30.9, respectively; for Girolando cattle: 18.1 and 26.7, respectively; both P < 0.05. In conclusion, OAFPs were similar between Nelore and Girolando breeds and were influenced by age. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation for individual animals between the mean numbers of follicles counted in both ovaries and total number of follicles counted in either the right or left ovary, indicating that the evaluation of a single ovary is sufficient to estimate the OAFP of an

  5. Modelos de regresión aleatoria para la estimación de funciones de covarianza, parámetros genéticos y predicción de valores genéticos en una población bovina multirracial bos indicus-bos taurus en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Elzo, Mauricio; Manrique, Carlos; Grajales, Luis Fernando; Jiménez, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos una aplicación de modelos de regresión aleatoria (RRM) para obtener estimadores de máxima verosimilitud restringida de funciones de covarianza y predicciones del valor genético para datos longitudinales de área de ojo del lomo medidos por ultrasonido (REA) en una población bovina multirracial en Colombia. El conjunto de datos contenía 708 registros de 340 animales descendientes de 37 toros de 9 razas apareados con hembras Brahman Gris. Los modelos mixtos empleados ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 88% ...

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  10. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  11. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M L

    2004-07-01

    A significant proportion of postpartum beef cows are anestrus at the onset of the breeding season. Much progress has been made in understanding anestrus and the changes that lead to spontaneous resumption of reproductive function. Likewise, knowledge regarding the impact of hormonal interventions on the endocrine and ovarian changes normally associated with spontaneous resumption of estrous cycles continue to accumulate. A wide range of hormonal treatment programs designed to induce estrous cycles in anestrous cows to coincide with the start of the breeding season have been developed. Programs structured to provide for increased progesterone, estradiol and LH concentrations at the appropriate times during the period leading to the first ovulation, and an induced preovulatory gonadotropin surge when the dominant ovarian follicle is of appropriate maturity have been demonstrated to induce estrous cycles of normal duration and acceptable fertility in a majority of anestrous, Bos taurus beef cows.

  12. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  13. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joints of a hindlimb in a heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, E; Weidmann, E; Bruderer, A; Nuss, K

    2015-01-01

    A two-year-old Braunvieh heifer was presented with a traumatic luxation of the second phalanx of the medial digit and concurrent subluxation of the second phalanx of the lateral digit of the right hindlimb. Closed reduction of both luxations was possible. Surgical arthrodesis was achieved using one narrow 4.5 mm three-hole equine locking compression plate for each joint. Placement of the bone plates resulted in stable arthrodesis of both proximal interphalangeal joints of the right hindlimb but there was persistent residual lameness. The heifer delivered a healthy calf but was slaughtered eight months after surgery because of varus deformity of the contralateral limb. Radiographs taken post-mortem revealed pronounced periosteal reactions involving both proximal interphalangeal joints and only partial bony bridging of the joint spaces.

  14. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pslaughter (Pslaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg. PMID:27376250

  15. The Effects of Dietary Phosphorus on the Growth Performance and Phosphorus Excretion of Dairy Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Wang, C; Wei, Z H; Sun, H Z; Xu, G Z; Liu, J X; Liu, H Y

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary phosphorus (P) on the frame size, udder traits, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility coefficient in 8- to 10-month-old Holstein heifers. Forty-five heifers were divided into 15 blocks according to the mo of age and were randomly assigned one of three dietary treatments: 0.26% (low P [LP]), 0.36% (medium P [MP]), or 0.42% (high P [HP]) (dry matter basis). Samples were collected at the wk 1, 4, 8. The results show that low dietary P had no effect on body measurement. The blood P concentration decreased with decreasing dietary P (penvironment. PMID:26954160

  16. The effect of rearing system on behavioural and immune responses of buffalo heifers

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    A. Bordi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available From November 2005 to October 2006 thirty-two buffalo heifers from the same commercial farm were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system on a range of behavioural and immune variables. Sixteen heifers were group-housed in indoor slatted floor pen (3.0 m2/animal with an outdoor paddock (3.0 m2/animal at ~5m above sea level (group IR. Sixteen others were kept at ~600m above sea level. They grazed a fenced Mediterranean maquis of ~40ha (group ER. At the end of the experimental period the animals were subjected to a novel object test. Each animal was exposed to a novel environment (a 6x6-m paddock, where in the middle a traffic cone was present. Avoidance distance at manger was evaluated by an assessor who walked slowly (1 step per second toward each animal with one hand slightly forward until signs of withdrawal. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, 1mg/animal was used to perform a skin test based on specific delayed type hypersensitivity. During the novel object test, IR animals touched more and devoted more time to the traffic cone than ER animals (P =0.003 and P=0.008, respectively. Avoidance distance at manger was lower in ER animals than IR (P=0.004. Skin thickness after PHA injection was higher in ER heifers than in IR (P=0.003. The results indicated that an extensive rearing system based on pasture seems to be a valid method to promote welfare and sustainability of buffalo heifer.

  17. Successful management of mummified fetus in a heifer by prostaglandin therapy and episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal mummification is one of the gestation- al accidents that occur due to intra-uterine death of fetus commonly at fourth, fifth and six months of gestation. This report describes the successful management of the mummified fetus in a five year old graded Holstein Friesian heifer cow using single dose of prostaglandin F2α analogue and by performing episiotomy. Antibiotic therapy was given to avoid any uterine infection.

  18. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  19. Follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth and regression in multiparous buffalo cows and buffalo heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Ojeda R.; Ricardo Londoño O.; Carlos Gutierrez R.; Angela Gonella-Diaza

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB) and heifer (BH) Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in...

  20. Estrus induction and fertility response in delayed pubertal Kankrej heifers treated with norgestomet ear implant

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    C. F. Chaudhari

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the estrus induction and fertility response in delayed pubertal Kankrej heifers treated with norgestomet ear implant. Materials and methods: Total eighteen anoestrus Kankrej heifers of delayed puberty weighed above 250 kg and attained between 30 to 36 months of age were selected and divided in to three groups of six animals each at random to conduct the experiment. Animals in group 1 were implanted Crestar ear implant for 9 days. In addition to this, group 2 received 500 IU of PMSG on the day of implant removal. In group 3, treatment protocol remained same as in group 2, but Inj. Receptal @ 2 ml was given additionally at the time of breeding. Results: All the animals exhibited estrus with average duration of 25.41+ 0.94, 21.95+ 0.20 and 22.68 + 1.46 hours between implant withdrawal and estrus induction in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The duration of estrus was significantly (P<0.05 longer (25.61+ 2.95 hours in group 2, followed by group 1 (18.88 + 1.45 hours and group 3 (13.48 + 1.92 hours. The pregnancy rate at induced estrus was 33.33 percent in group 2. In group 1 and group 3 none of the heifers found pregnant at induced estrus. The overall conception rate was maximum in group 2 (66.67 percent followed by group 3 (50 percent and group 1 (33.33 percent after the 3rd service. Conclusion: Although the conception rate at induced estrus was lower, norgestomet ear implant could be utilized to induced estrus in delayed pubertal cow heifers. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 453-458

  1. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  2. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  3. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, S.H.; Li, L.; Hegarty, R S

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunatio...

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  5. Ingestive behavior of Nellore heifers grazing receiving the supplement based on propolis or monensin

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    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of additives the basis of propolis and monensin on ingestive behavior (grazing – GRA, rumination lying – RLY, rumination in foot – RFO, rumination – RUM; idleness lying – ILY, idleness in standing – IDS, idleness – IDL, walking – WAL, posture standing – POS, posture lying – PLY, intake of supplement and water – ISW of heifers in Tifton 85 grazing. The treatments were: no additive (NAD; propolis – PRO (33.24 mg animal-1 of total flavonoid in apigenin, and monensin – MON (100 mg animal-1. Were used five heifers treatment-1 for evaluation of ingestive behavior during 12 hours of total valuation, which was divided into three periods. Used a factorial design into 3 x 3 for evaluation of ingestive behavior as a function of the evaluation periods. Were utilized three paddocks of 2.9 acres of grass Tifton 85. The additives and mineral supplement (50 g animal-1 were provided with 200 g of corn meal to 17 hours. For all activities of the ingestive behaviors observed the effect of period on the time spent on of different activities. The activities of GRA and ISW were higher in the third period (15hours to 19hours compared to the first period (7hours at 11hours. For IDL and PLY, there was a higher time in minutes for heifers treatment with PRO in the period of 7hours at 11hours, compared to other treatments (NAD and MON. Thus, it is concluded that the use of the additive based on propolis enables sodium monensin replacement, to heifers maintained on pasture without changing eating behavior as well as providing greater idleness during the day the without affecting animal performance.

  6. Protection levels in vaccinated heifers with experimental vaccines Brucella abortus M1-luc and INTA 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, M A; Campos, E; Cravero, S; Arese, A; Paolicchi, F; Campero, C; Rossetti, O

    2008-12-10

    Brucella abortus M1-luc is a mutant strain derived from S19 vaccine strain in which most of bp26 sequence has been replaced by the luciferase coding gene. Strain I2 is a double mutant derived from M1-luc in which most of omp19 has been deleted without introduction of any genetic markers. In BALB/c mice, M1-luc presented equivalent performance to S19 regarding persistence, splenomegaly and protection against challenge. Interestingly, I2 was more attenuated than S19, with no reduction of protection against challenge. In order to evaluate the potential for vaccine use of these strains in the natural host, four groups of 15 heifers, 6-month old, were either non-vaccinated or vaccinated with S19, M1-luc or I2. To at reached 17-month old, heifers were synchronized with two doses of PGF2alpha and received natural service during 60 days with two bulls. Pregnant heifers were challenged at approximately six gestation months with virulent B. abortus S2308. Blood samples post-challenge of heifers were collected for serologic test as well as specimens of aborted fetuses and premature calves for bacterial isolation and histopathological analyses. Protection levels against abortion were 78.6% for S19, 81.8% for M1-luc and 45.5% for I2, compared to the 25% that did not abort from the non-vaccinated group. These results indicate that in bovines BP26 had no influence in protective capacity of S19, correlating with the results obtained in mice. However, contrarily to what was previously observed in mice, lack of expression of Omp19 rendered in less protection capacity of S19 in the natural host. PMID:18565697

  7. The effect of space allowance on resting behaviour in eighteen months of age heifers

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    Stelian Acatincăi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the resting behavior of eighteen months old heifers using two different resting space allowances. During the experiments the following resting behaviour aspects were determined: number of resting periods, the length of one resting period and the total length of resting periods. Results showed that when a resting space of 4.5 m2 per heifer was used the total length of laying down periods was 262.8 minutes in the morning, 159.5 minutes in the afternoon and 450.5 minutes during the night. When the size of the resting space was increased to 5.0 m2 per heifer, the total length of resting periods decreased to 137.2 minutes during the morning, 142.7 minutes in the afternoon and 396.8 minutes in the night. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the two resting spaces for the total length of resting periods during the morning, afternoon and for 24 hours.

  8. Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds

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    Liberg P

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage.

  9. Lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress as metabolic adaptation processes in dairy heifers during transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Kosec, M; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Starič, J; Robić, M; Belić, M; Zrimšek, P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metabolic disorders and oxidative stress in dairy heifers during the transition period. Possible relationships between lipid mobilisation indicators and oxidative stress markers were investigated as well. Nineteen dairy heifers were included in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of estrus synchronisation in heifers, at insemination, three weeks after insemination, one week before calving, at calving and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Common metabolic parameters, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidative status (TAS) were analysed. Around insemination, no significant difference was observed in the majority of tested parameters (P>0.05). However, the transition period markedly affected the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, BHB, FFA, TAS and PON1activity. Positive correlations between PON1 activity and total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides were noted but inverse correlations with FFA, BHB and bilirubin were found indicating that PON1 activity changed with lipid metabolism and was influenced by negative energy balance. These findings suggest that lipid mobilisation and oxidative stress are part of a complex metabolic adaptation to low energy balance which reaches equilibrium later in advanced lactation.

  10. Carcass characteristics, meat quality, feeding behavior of Nelore heifers fed diets containing sunflower pie

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    Karine Regina Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the feeding behavior, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers fed sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal. They were used 30 heifers with average initial weight of 274 kg ± 28 kg and average age of 24 months, confined for 76 days. The design was completely randomized with five treatments (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g kg-1 DM and six replicates per treatment. By completing 24 hours after slaughter, it evaluated muscle conformation and degree of finish made the longissimus dorsi at the 13th rib. A representative sample between the 10th and 12th ribs was collected for evaluation of the physical components of carcasses. As well as the other variables, the hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass length and rib eye area were not influenced by different pie levels in feed. The mean percentage of muscle, bone and fat from the carcass were 53.45; 16.14 and 29.46%, respectively, similar among treatments. Therefore, the use of up to 600 g kg-1 of sunflower pie replacing cottonseed meal as the main protein source, did not affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nelore heifers.

  11. Beef heifers performance in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing in the autumn-winter

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    Émerson Mendes Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of beef heifers in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design and conducted using the forage mass above eight cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks. The animals were Brangus beef heifers with initial body weight of 258kg. The variables evaluated were available forage mass (FMa, leaf blades mass of tussocks (LBMt, real forage allowance (FAr, sward height of the lower stratum (HLS, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, organic matter digestibility (OMD, total digestible nutrients (TDN, average daily gain (ADG, body condition score (BCS, reproductive tract score (RTS and stocking rate (SR. FMa, HLS, OMD and TDN decreased while FAr, CP and NDF were similar during the experimental period. The ADG was positive only at third experimental period while BCS, RTS and SR decreased over time. The natural grassland management under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period, using the forage mass above 8cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks, does not allow the adequate corporal development for breeding the beef heifers at 24 months old.

  12. Safety of the novel influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine in pregnant heifers

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    Kaissar Tabynov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study provides the first information about the safety of a new influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10 or subcutaneous (n=10 route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (n=10 or B. abortus RB51 (n=10 and a negative (PBS+Montanide Gel01; n=10 control group. Clinical studies, thermometry, assessment of local reactogenicity and observation of abortion showed that the vector vaccine via the conjunctival or subcutaneous route was completely safe for pregnant heifers compared to the commercial vaccines B. abortus S19 or B. abortus RB51. The only single adverse event was the formation of infiltration at the site of subcutaneous injection; this reaction was not observed for the conjunctival route.

  13. Failure to Use Cubicles and Concentrate Dispenser by Heifers after Transfer from Rearing Accommodation to Milking Herd

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    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-three dairy farms in the Norwegian counties of Østfold and Akershus in which cubicle sheds had been in use for at least one year and with a herd size of less than 60 cows, were contacted and asked to participate in a study. The study focused on heifers' use of cubicles and concentrate dispenser just after being transferred from rearing accommodation to the milking herd. For each heifer, the farmer recorded cubicle use once nightly between 9 and 11 pm. The daily amount of concentrate released in the dispenser and the allotted daily ration were also recorded. The recording period was 15 consecutive days for cubicle use and 7 days for concentrate dispenser use. Cubicle refusal behaviour, i.e. lying outside the cubicles, was analysed by logistic regression using rearing accommodation of heifers, herd size, heifer age, and housing layout as independent variables, and herd as a clustering variable. On Day 2 after transfer, 34% of the heifers were showing cubicle refusal behaviour (N = 340. By Day 15 this percentage had dropped to 23. Cubicle refusal was lower throughout the whole period among heifers which used the cubicles on the 3 first days after transfer compared to those which did not. This tendency could also be detected several months later. The analysis showed cubicle refusal to be significantly associated with rearing accommodation (OR = 6.1, c.i.95%OR = 1.5–24.3, P = 0.01 and cubicle layout in the shed (OR = 0.2, c.i.95%OR = 0.0–0.7, P = 0.01. None of the tested variables were found to be significant for failure to use the concentrate dispenser, a behaviour which was less frequent than cubicle refusal. However, 8 percent of the heifers did not visit the dispenser at all throughout the 7 days of observation.

  14. Effect of Exposure to Various Durations of Light on Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Prepubertal Holstein Heifers

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    L. J. Spicer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if prolonged exposure to various durations of light (i.e., photoperiod would affect serum IGF-I concentrations in heifers. Thus, 16 Holstein heifers, 2 to 4 mo of age, were exposed during a 5-wk pretreatment period to 12 h of cool-white fluorescent light (L at an intensity of 1200 lux and 12 h of dark (D. At 5 wk, photoperiods were adjusted to 24 L: 0 D (24 L, 20 L: 4 d (20 L, 16 L: 8 D (16 L or 8 L: 16 D (8 L per 24 h (n=4 heifers per photoperiod treatment. Blood was sampled at 5 wk and monthly for 4 mo. During each sampling period, blood was collected at 16-h intervals for 48 h and serum IGF-I was determined by RIA. Photoperiod treatment, month of experiment and their interactions affected serum IGF-I concentrations. Averaged over months, concentrations of serum IGF-I was greatest in heifers on 16 L; heifers on 20 L had IGF-I concentrations similar to 8 L, 16 L and 24 L and heifers on 24 L had concentrations similar to that of heifers on 8 L. Heifers in all treatment groups exhibited an increase in serum IGF-I concentration during the 4 mo of treatment. Heifers on 16 L and 20 L exhibited the greatest difference in serum IGF-I concentrations compared with 8L heifers after 3 mo of treatment. In conclusion, 16 L increases concentrations of serum IGF-I above that seen for heifers treated with

  15. Complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of Hemidesmus indicus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Sreekanth; Kanakala, S; Srinivas, K P; Hema, M; Malathi, V G; Sreenivasulu, P

    2014-05-01

    The complete DNA A genome of a virus isolate associated with yellow mosaic disease of a medicinal plant, Hemidesmus indicus, from India was cloned and sequenced. The length of DNA A was 2825 nucleotides, 35 nucleotides longer than the unit genome of monopartite begomoviruses. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of DNA A of the virus isolate with those of other begomoviruses showed maximum sequence identity of 69 % to DNA A of ageratum yellow vein China virus (AYVCNV; AJ558120) and 68 % with tomato yellow leaf curl virus- LBa4 (TYLCV; EF185318), and it formed a distinct clade in phylogenetic analysis. The genome organization of the present virus isolate was found to be similar to that of Old World monopartite begomoviruses. The genome was considered to be monopartite, because association of DNA B and β satellite DNA components was not detected. Based on its sequence identity (yellow mosaic virus" (HeYMV) is proposed.

  16. Periparturient endocrine changes of conceptus and maternal units in Holstein heifers bearing genetically different conceptuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, L A; Thatcher, W W; Collier, R J; Wilcox, C J

    1985-12-01

    Holstein heifers (n = 21) were balanced across sires and assigned to three service-sire-breed groups in which heifers were inseminated artificially to either purebred Angus (n = 7), Holstein (n = 7) or Brahman (n = 7) bulls. Semen from four bulls was used for each service sire-breed group. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein thrice weekly from d 160 to 265 of pregnancy, daily thereafter until 15 d postpartum, and then thrice weekly until d 60 postpartum. Concentrations of progesterone, estrone, estradiol, and estrone sulfate from 23 d prepartum to parturition, and of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) from 2 d prepartum to d 15 postpartum were measured by radioimmunoassay. Heifers within the Brahman-service-sire group had longer gestations (P less than .05) than those of Holstein- or Angus-service-sire groups (285.0 vs 278.7), 279.0 d). Calf birth weight was lower (P less than .05) in Angus- than Holstein- and Brahman-service-sire groups (30.6 vs 36.1, 43.4 kg). Daily trends of prepartum maternal progesterone concentrations were approximately 1 ng/ml lower (P less than .01) in Angus- than Holstein- or Brahman-service-sire groups until luteolysis occurred. Heifers bearing crossbred Angus conceptuses had lower daily trends of prepartum estrogens concentrations (P less than .01), whereas heifers of the Holstein- and, even more dramatically, of the Brahman-service-sire groups had a higher magnitude and greater rise of plasma estrogens concentrations between d -10 and -1 prepartum (less than .01). Postpartum mean concentrations (P less than .05) and response curves of PGFM were lower (P less than .01) in the Angus- than in the Holstein- or Brahman-service-sire groups. Calf birth weights were correlated with least-squares means for maternal concentrations of prepartum estrone (r = .57), estradiol (r = .59) and estrone sulfate (r = .64) and postpartum maternal concentrations of PGFM (r = .56). Functional responses of the conceptus (e

  17. Evaluation of camelina meal as a feedstuff for growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R D; Anderson, J L; Clapper, J A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the growth performance, metabolic profile, and nutrient utilization of dairy heifers fed camelina meal (CAM), linseed meal (LIN), or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A 12-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 33 Holstein and 9 Brown Swiss heifers (144.8±22d of age) with 3 treatments. Treatments were 10% of the diet as CAM, LIN, or DDGS (dry matter basis). All diets contained 60% grass hay and 40% concentrate mix. Diets were balanced with corn and soybean meal to be isonitrogenous and comparable in energy content. Diets were individually limit-fed to 2.65% of body weight using a Calan gate feeding system. Frame sizes, body weights, and body condition scores were measured on 2 consecutive days during wk 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and then every 4wk throughout at 3.5h postfeeding for analysis of blood metabolites and metabolic hormones. Rumen fluid samples were taken at the same time as blood sampling via an esophageal tube during wk 8 and 12. Over the duration of the study, dry matter intake and average daily gain were similar among treatments. Body weights tended to be less for heifers fed CAM and greatest for LIN. Gain to feed was similar for the CAM and DDGS and greatest for the LIN. Overall, most frame measurements were similar among treatments. Body length had a tendency to be greater for CAM compared with LIN with DDGS similar to both. Body condition scores were greater for CAM and DDGS compared with LIN. Rumen total volatile fatty acids, acetate:propionate, and pH were similar among treatments. Butyrate was less in the CAM treatment, intermediate for LIN, and greatest for DDGS. Rumen ammonia was less in DDGS compared with CAM and LIN, which were similar. Blood concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, plasma urea N, and cholesterol were similar among treatments. Metabolic hormones, including insulin-like growth

  18. Superovulation in heifers given FSH initiated either at day 2 or day 10 of the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, D; Williams, D H; Duffy, P; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if initiation of superovulation in heifers during the time of development of the first dominant follicle (Days 2 to 6) would give equivalent ovulation and embryo production rates as treatment initiated at mid-cycle. Estrus was synchronized in 60 beef heifers using luprostiol (PG) and they were randomly allocated to treatment with 4.5, 3.5, 2.5 and 1.5 mg of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) administered twice daily, either on Days 2, 4, 5 and 6 (Day-2 group), respectively, or with similar doses at four consecutive days during mid-cycle (Day-10 group, initiation on Day 9 to 11). All heifers received 500 mug cloprostenol at the fifth FSH injection and 250 mug at the sixth injection. Blood samples for progesterone determination were collected at the time of FSH injections. Heifers were slaughtered 7 d post estrus, and the number of ovulations and large follicles (>/=10mm) were determined on visual inspection of the ovary. Following flushing of the uterine horns the quality of embryos and the fertilization rate were determined. Significant differences between treatments were determined using a two-sided t-test, and frequency distributions were compared using Chi-square tests. The mean number (+/-SEM) of ovulations for heifers in the Day-10 group was 12.9+/-1.0, and 8.5+/-0.9 embryos were recovered. Both the number of ovulations (6.7+/-0.8) and embryos recovered (4.1+/-0.6) were lower (P=0.0001) in heifers in the Day-2 group. Following grading based on a morphological basis, a higher number (P=0.002) of embryos was categorized as Grades 1 and 2 (4.1+/-0.6) and Grade 3 (2.1+/-0.4) in Day-10 heifers than in the Day-2 group (Grade 1 and 2, 1.9+/-0.3; Grade 3, 0.7+/-0.2). The number of Grade 4 and 5 embryos (Day 10, 1.6+/-0.2; Day 2, 1.4+/-0.2) and the number of unfertilized ova (Day 10, 0.7+/-0.4; Day 2, 0.2+/-0.1) did not differ between treatments. Progesterone concentrations were lower (P=0.0001) in Day-2 heifers at FSH

  19. Evaluation of steroidogenic capacity after follicle stimulating hormone stimulation in bovine granulosa cells of Revalor 200® implanted heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea DStapp; Craig AGifford; Dennis MHallford; Jennifer AHernandez Gifford

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heifers not used as breeding stock are often implanted with steroids to increase growth efficiency thereby altering hormone profiles and potentially changing the environment in which ovarian follicles develop. Because bovine granulosa cell culture is a commonly used technique and often bovine ovaries are collected from abattoirs with no record of implant status, the objective of this study was to determine if the presence of an implant during bovine granulosa cell development impacts follicle stimulating hormone-regulated steroidogenic enzyme expression. Paired ovaries were collected from 16 feedlot heifers subjected to 1 of 3 treatments:non-implanted (n=5), Revalor 200 for 28 d (n=5), or Revalor 200 for 84 d (n=6). Small follicle (1 to 5 mm) granulosa cells were isolated from each pair and incubated with phosphate buffered saline (n=16) or 100 ng/mL follicle stimulating hormone (n=16) for 24 h. Results:Granulosa cells of implanted heifers treated with follicle stimulating hormone produced medium concentrations of progesterone similar (P=0.22) to non-implanted heifers, while medium estradiol concentrations were increased (P<0.10) at 28 and 84 d compared to non-implanted heifers indicating efficacy of treatment. Additionally, real-time PCR analysis in response to follicle stimulating hormone treatment demonstrated a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (P=0.05) mRNA expression in heifers implanted for 84 d and an increase in P450 side chain cleavage mRNA in granulosa cells of heifers implanted for 28 (P<0.10) or 84 d (P<0.05) compared to non-implanted females. However, no difference in expression of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P=0.57) and aromatase (P=0.23) were demonstrated in implanted or non-implanted heifers. Conclusions:These results indicate follicles which develop in the presence of high concentrations of androgenic and estrogenic steroids via an implant tend to demonstrate an altered capacity to respond to follicle

  20. Effect of early lactation foot trimming in lame and non-lame dairy heifers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, O J R; Hudson, C D; Huxley, J N

    2015-07-25

    Foot trimming is a common management intervention in prevention of lameness in dairy cattle. Despite this, there is surprisingly limited experimental evidence on its efficacy, especially in regard to primiparous heifers. A randomised, negatively controlled trial was conducted to investigate the association between an early lactation foot trim on primiparous animals and production outcomes. 282 heifers were enrolled from eight farms in the UK, and randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Milk yield (305-day-adjusted whole-milk yield) was not significantly different between groups (trimmed 7727 litres, untrimmed 7646 litres). However, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that this relationship was confounded by lameness state. Animals that were lame at the time of trimming gave significantly more milk (734 litres, P=0.02) than those that were non-lame and untrimmed. The present results suggest that, based on milk production alone, it would not have been cost beneficial to trim all heifers; however, a targeted intervention aimed at lame animals would have delivered a substantial return on investment. As a very minimum, the authors recommend heifers should be regularly assessed in early lactation, and treated as soon as they are identifiably lame. The high prevalence of lesions identified suggests routine trimming for all heifers may be justifiable on welfare grounds even if the milk-yield benefits are marginal. PMID:26116268

  1. Evaluation of the innate immune response of Angus heifers with genetic marker variation for intramuscular fat deposition following a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of genetic selection for markers related to marbling deposition in Angus heifers on the immune response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fall-born heifers (n = 19; ~7 months of age, 274 +/- 24 kg) with genetic variation for marbling were utilized inclu...

  2. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  3. Somatic cell count and milk neutrophil viability of dairy heifers with specific CXCR1 genotypes following experimental intramammary infection with Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piccart, Kristine; Piepers, Sofie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; De Visscher, Anneleen; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-06-01

    Previous observational studies suggest an association between polymorphism c.980A>G in the CXCR1 gene, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and the innate immunity and infection status of the mammary gland. Mammary glands of eight Holstein heifers were experimentally infected with a Staphylococcus chromogenes isolate originating from a chronic intramammary infection (IMI) to study differences between CXCR1 genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG. Quarters from heifers with genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG developed subclinical mastitis but showed differences in the early response at 6-18 h post challenge. Bacterial count at 18 h post challenge tended to be higher in quarters from c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Somatic cell count (SCC) was higher at 6 h post challenge and tended to be higher at 9 h post challenge in c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Milk production decreased similarly. Milk neutrophils of c.980AG heifers showed more apoptosis at 9 h post challenge and tended to show more necrosis at 6, 9 and 12 h post challenge than c.980GG heifers. Differences were less pronounced in the later stage (>18 h) of infection. The results demonstrate that CXCR1 polymorphism can influence SCC and milk neutrophil viability following experimental IMI. PMID:25933826

  4. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  5. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  6. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  7. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  8. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  9. Managing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in children: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Gregory I; Paraskeva, Miranda; Westall, Glen P

    2013-08-01

    The success of pediatric lung transplantation continues to be limited by long-term graft dysfunction. Historically this has been characterized as an obstructive spirometric defect in the form of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It is recognized, however, that this does not reflect many of the other acknowledged etiologies of chronic lung dysfunction-noting it is the sum of the parts that contribute to respiratory morbidity and mortality after transplant. The term chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) has been coined to reflect these other entities and, in particular, a group of relatively recently described lung disorders called the restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). RAS is characterized by a restrictive spirometric defect. Although these entities have not yet been studied in a pediatric setting their association with poor compliance, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and post-infectious lung damage (particularly viral) warrants attention by pediatric lung transplant teams. Current therapy for the BOS subset of CLAD is otherwise limited to changing immunosuppressants and avoiding excessive infectious risk by avoiding over-immunosuppression. Long-term macrolide therapy in lung transplantation is not of proven efficacy. Reviewing previous BOS studies to explore restrictive spirometric cases and joint projects via groups like the International Pediatric Lung Transplant Collaborative will be the way forward to solve this pressing problem.

  10. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India.

  11. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India. PMID:26373618

  12. Influence of genetic type and level of concentrate in the finishing diet on carcass and meat quality traits in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Filho, S C Valadares; Souza, E J O; Duarte, M S; Benedeti, P D B; Souza, N K P; Cox, R B

    2012-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of thirty-six feedlot beef heifers from different genetic groups (GG) fed at two concentrate levels (CL) were evaluated using 12 - Nellore (NE), 12 - ½Angus x ½Nellore (AN) and 12 - ½Simmental x ½Nellore (SN) animals. Six heifers of each GG were randomly assigned into one of two treatments: concentrate at 0.8% or 1.2% of body weight (BW). Heifers fed concentrate at 0.8% of BW had greater (P0.05) by either CL or GG. Heifers from the AN group had higher (Pcarcass weights, 12th rib fat thickness and lower dressing percentage (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. NE heifers had greater WBSF values (P<0.05) than the other genetic groups. Data suggest that the concentrate level can be reduced without compromising meat quality traits. PMID:22127147

  13. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  14. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    with antioxidant and innate immune responses, the increased expression of TCTP signifies it importance as an integral part of host response against bacterial challenges in cell death/apoptosis mechanisms. From the complete nucleotide sequence of the F. indicus...) The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 36, 379-385. Chen H., Muramoto K.,Yamauchi F., Fujimoto K. & Nokihara K. (1998) Antioxidative properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from...

  15. Tamaño y forma de los ovarios y del cérvix en novillas y vacas del cruzamiento absorbente holstein x cebú (Size and shape of the ovaries and cervix in heifers and cows of the absorbent crossbred holstein x zebu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís O. Alba Gómez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Por biometría directa se determinó el tamaño y la forma ovárica y cervical de novillas y vacas Holstein x Cebú (F1 sacrificadas en matadero e indirectamente por estimación táctil a través del recto de vacas F2, F3 y F4. De acuerdo al tamaño, los ovarios se clasificaron en pequeños (1,0-2,4 cm; medianos (2,5-3,5 cm y grandes (3,6-5,0 cm. El 59 y el 51% de las novillas F1 mostraron ovarios pequeños y medianos respectivamente. El 34, 53 y 13% de las vacas F1 presentaron gónadas pequeñas, medianas y grandes respectivamente. El 88 y el 12% de las vacas F2; el 87 y el 13% de las F3 y el 80 y el 20% de las F4 tuvieron ovarios pequeños y medianos respectivamente. El tipo de ovario grande y aplanado no se encontró en estas vacas. La cérvix de tamaño grande, típica del ganado Cebú, se observó en el 10% de las vacas F1, en el 4% de las F2, en el 6% de las F3 y en el 10% de las F4. A medida que el cruzamiento absorbente tendió hacia el Bos taurus, la frecuencia de aparición de los tres tipos de ovarios, principalmente el grande y abollonado, disminuyó hasta casi desaparecer ya en el cruce F2, pero el tipo de ovario pequeño se mantuvo con una frecuencia alta. En cambio, la cérvix del tipo grande y encorvada tendió a disminuir con el incremento de genes Bos taurus. Abstract For this work was carried out the direct biometry of ovaries and cervix of 80 heifers and 80 cows crossbred Holstein x Zebu (F1 slaughtered. In the crossbred cows F2, F3 and F4 the measures of those organs were estimated clinically. According to their size, the ovaries were classified in small (1.0-2.4 cm, medium (2.5-3.5 cm and big (3.6-5.0 cm. The 59 and 51% of the heifers F1 showed small and medium ovaries respectively. The 34, 53 and 13% of the cows F1 had small, medium and big gonads respectively. The 88 and 12% of the cows F2; 87 and 13% of F3 and 80 and 20% of F4 had small and medium ovaries respectively. The ovaries of big size were not found in

  16. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  17. Influence of Growth and Maintenance Regime of Romanian Black and White Heifers on the Milk Yield at their First Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voiculescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to estimate if the growth regime, expressed by the daily gain of dairy heifers from the birth to their first pregnancy, has any effect on the milk yield in the first 305 days of their first lactation. The daily gain of the heifers was put in relation with the birth year of heifers and with the month of birth, doesn’t matter the year. Significance of differences of indices both for years and months were considered. Farther the effect of differences concerning the heifers’ daily gain upon the body weight and the age at the first successful insemination was discussed as possible factors correcting the influence of growth regime upon the milk yield in the first 305 days of the first heifers’ first lactation.

  18. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Ferrari, Viviane Borba; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Goulart, Rodrigo Silva; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada E

    2016-11-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the beta-agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass traits, subprimal yield, meat quality, palatability traits, and gene expression in Nellore heifers. Zilpaterol increased Longissimus lumborum area and did not change back fat thickness, meat color, and cooking loss. Heifers fed ZH had greater hindquarter weight and carcass percentage. Muscles from hindquarter were heavier for animals fed ZH. Forequarter (% of carcass) decreased and brisket did not change with ZH supplementation. There were no differences between treatments for steak aroma, beef flavor, and off-flavor. However, tenderness and juiciness were reduced by ZH, depending on postmortem aging. Zilpaterol increased Calpain-1, Calpain-2, and calpastatin mRNA expression, with no effect of day of slaughter or ZH×Day interaction. In conclusion, ZH supplementation improved hypertrophy, meat production, and debone yield in Nellore heifers, which led to decreased tenderness and to increased mRNA expression in the calpain-calpastatin system. PMID:27427783

  19. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Waruiru

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB, group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB and group III heifers (control received no block supplementation (NBS. Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P < 0.05. However, at the end of the experimental period, the mean weight gain of the MUMB group did not differ from that of the UMB group (P >0.05. The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P <0.05. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  20. Short communication: Genetic analysis for fertility traits of heifers and cows from smallholder dairy farms in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaban, S; Duangjinda, M; Suzuki, M; Masuda, Y; Sanpote, J; Kuchida, K

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for various fertility traits on Holstein upgraded dairy heifers and cows in a smallholder system under tropical conditions using data sets from the Thailand national recording scheme. The investigated traits were age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), days from calving to first service (DTFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), days open (DO), calving interval (CI), number of services per conception (NSPC), and conception at first service (FSC). The data consisted of 68,555, 34,401, and 54,004 records on heifers, primiparous, and multiparous cows, respectively, calving between 1996 and 2011. Gibbs sampling was employed to obtain (co)variance components using both univariate and bivariate analyses with linear and threshold animal models. Virgin heifers had better fertility performance than primiparous and multiparous cows. The reproductive performance in primiparous cows was inferior compared with multiparous cows. Cows with higher Holstein-Friesian blood showed lower reproductive efficiency. Estimated heritabilities for most of the fertility traits were 0.04 or less except for AFS (0.26) and AFC (0.25). The estimated genetic correlations among fertility traits within parity indicated that selection for cows with high conception rate could lead to shortened DO and CI, as well as DTFS. The FSC and NSPC could be used as the best indicators for heifer and cow fertility and could be complemented by other traits, which were genetically considered as different traits such as DTFS and DFLS in terms of a fertility index. This would enable efficient selection for better fertility. Genetic correlations for fertility traits in primiparous and multiparous cows were very high (>0.90), but those between heifers and cows were lower (0.03 to 0.83). The latter results indicated that fertility traits of heifers and cows should be considered as different traits. PMID:25981071

  1. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  2. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  3. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

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    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  5. Hábitos de amamantamiento del ganado bovino Chinampo (Bos taurus de México

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    José Espinoza V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer los hábitos de amamantamiento de becerros Chinampos (Bos taurusen diferentes etapas de su lactancia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 20 vacas con su cría. A partir de los 30 hasta los 180 días de la lactancia los animales fueron observados durante 24 horas continuas cada mes registrando la frecuencia con la que los becerros mamaron y la duración de cada amamantamiento. Resultados. Los becerros mamaron con mayor frecuencia entre las 06:00 y las 07:00 hr, se observaron otros picos a las 10:00 y a las 19:00 hr. La frecuencia promedio de amamantamiento en 24 horas fue de 4.9±0.21utilizando un total de 66.9 ± 3.1 minutos. Los becerros de 180 días de edad mamaron menos veces comparados con los de edades inferiores a los 150 días; la duración del amamantamiento disminuyó a los 180 días de edad (p0.05. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de amamantamientos es mayor durante las primeras horas de la mañana y al final de la tarde. Hasta los 5 meses de edad la frecuencia y el tiempo de amamantamiento no variaron pero se redujeron a los180 días y las hembras mamaron con más periodicidad que los machos.

  6. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  7. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  8. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  9. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  10. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  11. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  12. The effect of road and sea transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Margaret; Earley Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to investigate the effect of transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers transported from Ireland to Spain. Background At the end of the grazing season, 60 Charolais × beef heifers (mean live weight 245, s.e. 4.3 kg and mean weaning age 219, s.e. 4.9 days) were abruptly weaned from their dams on day 0. The animals were assigned by live weight to two treatments, transport (T) (n = 40) (mean 246, s.e. 5.4 kg) and ...

  13. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers

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    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1–2 years old were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers.

  14. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

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    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  15. Hemodynamic responses of the caudal artery to toxic tall fescue in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Kirch, B H; Strickland, J R; Bush, L P; Looper, M L; Schrick, F N

    2007-09-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to 6 pens and were fed chopped alfalfa hay for 5 d and chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E-tall fescue seed for 9 d during an adjustment period. An 11-d experimental period followed, with animals in 3 pens fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+ seed and those in the other 3 pens fed chopped hay plus concentrate with E E- seed. Color Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, stroke volume, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (baseline measures) and during the experimental period. Three baseline measures were collected on d 3, 5, and 6 during the adjustment period for comparison to post E+ seed exposure. Statistical analyses compared the proportionate differences between baseline and response at 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 172, and 268 h from initial feeding of E+ seed. Serum prolactin concentrations on both diets were lower (P 0.10) to the baseline for 172 and 268 h measures. Blood flow in E+ heifers was consistently lower than the baseline from 4 (P 0.10) from baseline measures during the experimental period. Results indicated that onset of toxicosis was within 4 h of cattle exposure to E+ tall fescue and is related to vasoconstriction and reduction in heart rate. PMID:17526671

  16. Comparative sequence analysis in the exon 5 of growth hormone gene in the various livestock species of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Sharma, Anurodh; Kumari, Namita; Kaur, Navneet; Jayakumar, S; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) gene locus of six different livestock species using PCR-Direct DNA sequencing method. In exon 5 of GH gene, 10 SNPs variants were identified in all livestock species studied, namely Bubalus bubalis, Bos indicus, Bos frontalis, Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, and Capra hircus. Four SNPs were observed in Bubalus bubalis, two SNPs in Bos indicus, one SNP in Ovis aries, and three SNPs in Capra hircus. No changes were observed in Bos grunniens and Bos frontalis when compared with the template sequence and the SNPs observed in the present investigation may be useful in the marker assisted selection.

  17. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  18. Fixation of metatarsal fracture with bone plate in a dromedary heifer

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    S. Hashmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An oblique fracture of the distal third of the right metatarsus in a three-year-old dromedary heifer weighing about 300 kilograms was immobilized with a 4.5 mm broad-webbed 12-hole dynamic compression bone plate and two interfragmental compression screws. The animal showed slight lameness after 16 weeks of surgery that disappeared after removal of the plate. The result was quite encouraging and the fracture healed in 16 weeks without major complications. It is concluded that the fracture of this bone can be successfully handled with bone plating at least in young, light weight animals.

  19. Effect of trace minerals and starch on digestibility and rumen fermentation in diets for dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forms of trace minerals (TM) and the use of different starch levels in dairy heifer diets on rumen fermentation and digestibility. Eight rumen cannulated dairy heifers (15.4 ± 0.8 mo of age and 438.31 ± 18.08 kg of body weight) were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-d periods: 15d of adaptation and 4d of sampling. The whole-plot factor was type of TM; organic as proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM), and the subplot was starch level (3.54, 12.95, 22.25, and 31.73%). Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine digestibility and TM excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 18 to 19 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 22 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate TM concentrations and enzymatic activity for ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Starch level affected pH, individual VFA concentrations, and nutrient excretion. Trace mineral intake was lower for OTM compared with ITM. No effect of TM form on dry matter digestibility was detected, but as level of starch increased, diet dry matter digestibility increased. Rumen pH was lower for diets with OTM, which is consistent with higher total VFA production and butyrate proportion observed for heifers fed OTM diets. These variables may be explained by the higher bioavailability of OTM and faster utilization and fermentation by rumen microorganisms. Heifers that consumed ITM had higher moisture in feces and higher urine excretion, which increased total manure production. Total excretion of TM was not different by treatment. Blood plasma mineral concentration was not different between treatments except for Mn, which was higher for OTM. Enzymatic activity was not affected by treatments. Mineral intake was reduced and blood mineral levels were not different, suggesting enhanced

  20. Bovine congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria in a crossbred limousin heifer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; O'Neill, Henry; Badminton, Michael; Ryan, Eoin G

    2015-01-01

    An unusual case of an 11-month-old, black Limousin-cross heifer, with an 8-month history of episodic seizures and photosensitisation, was referred by a veterinary practitioner to the Farm Animal Section of the UCD Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland, in August 2014. Following an investigation, a diagnosis of Bovine Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (BCEPP) was made. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of such a case in Ireland. BCEPP should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young animals displaying periodic seizures and/or photosensitisation. PMID:26140209