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Sample records for bos indicus cattle

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

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    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Haroldo HR; Carvalheiro, Roberto; O’Brien, Ana M Pérez; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; do Carmo, Adriana S; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sölkner, Johann; McEwan, John C; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos VGB; Queiroz, Sandra A; Tad S. Sonstegard; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcas...

  3. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

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    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  4. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  5. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  6. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

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    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  7. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

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    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  8. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  9. Transcriptome analysis and SNP identification in SCC of horn in (Bos indicus) Indian cattle.

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    Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Anand B; Dash, Debabrata; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-11-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genome wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of disease, production and performance traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. The main objective of present work was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput sequencing in squamous cell carcinoma of horn. RNA-seq analysis was conducted on 2 tissues viz. Horn Cancer (HC) and Horn Normal (HN) in Kankrej breed of cattle. A total of 909,362 reads with average read length of 405 bp for HC and 583,491 reads with average read length of 411 bp for HN were obtained. We found 9532 and 7065 SNPs as well as 1771 and 1172 Indels in HC and HN, respectively, from which, 7889 SNPs and 1736 Indels were uniquely present in HC, 5886 SNPs and 1146 Indels were uniquely present in HN and reported first time in Bos indicus, whereas the rest are already reported in Bos taurus dbSNP database. The gene-associated SNPs and Indels were high in upregulated genes of HC as compared to HN. Analysis of differentially expressed genes was identified, these genes are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, gene transcription, cell survival and metabolism through various metabolic pathways. The result of transcriptome expression profiling was validated using Real Time quantitative PCR in nine randomly selected genes. We identified numbers aberrant signaling pathways responsible for carcinogenesis in HC which are also commonly altered in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung in human being. We conclude that a large number of altered genes and dysfunction of multiple pathways are involved in the development of Horn Cancer. The present findings contribute to theoretical information for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis of HC as well as SNPs identified in this report provide a much needed resource for genetic

  10. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

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    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  11. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  12. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

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    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  13. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  14. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

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    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  15. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

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    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  16. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

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    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  17. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

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    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  18. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

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    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  19. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

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    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  20. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  1. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  2. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  3. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  4. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  5. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  6. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros; Welder Angelo Baldassini; Victor Augusto Domingos Dias; Josineudson Augusto II Vasconcelos da Silva; Rogério Abdalah Curi; Luiz Artur Loyola Chardulo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT) on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus). Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3) and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6). Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsat...

  7. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  8. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P differences ( P different zones, i.e. arid and semi-arid, whereas no significant difference ( P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  9. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P P P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  10. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25

  11. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  12. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  13. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L. or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger pasture systems, with mineral or mineral protein supplementation. Animals were slaughtered with an average body weight of 450 kg (Bos indicus or 470 kg (Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbreed. There was no treatments effect on carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of cut without fat thickness. The cuts with fat thickness of steers fed millet presented the highest fat deposition. Bos indicus steers presented higher carcass yield (57.23% and fat thickness (4.88 mm compared with crossbreed (53.40% and 3.05 mm. There was no breed effect on chemical composition of meat. The mean levels of cholesterol concentration were 31.41 mg/100 and 37.55 mg/100g of meat with and without fat thickness.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de carcaça (peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, espessura de gordura de cobertura, área de olho de lombo, marmoreio e coloração e composição química do músculo Longissimus dorsi (umidade, cinzas, proteína bruta, gordura e colesterol de cortes, com ou sem gordura de cobertura, de novilhos Bos indicus e mestiços Bos indicus x Bos taurus terminados em sistemas em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum L. ou grama estrela (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger, com suplementação mineral ou protéica e mineral. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg (Bos indicus ou 470 kg (mestiços. Não houve efeito de tratamento sobre as características de carcaça e composição da carne com ou sem gordura de cobertura. Os cortes com gordura de

  14. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  15. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  16. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  17. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en becerros de cruzas Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Córdova; Gustavo Rodríguez; Mary Córdova; Cristian Córdova,; José Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatromeses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para locual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgianblue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Losresultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiv...

  18. GANANCIA DIARIA Y PESO AL DESTETE EN TERNEROS DE CRUCES Bos taurus CON Bos indicus EN TRÓPICO HÚMEDO

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Córdova, Mary; Córdova, Cristian; Pérez, José

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatro meses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para lo cual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgian blue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descri...

  19. Parâmetros genéticos entre características de leite, de peso e a idade ao primeiro parto em gado mestiço leiteiro (Bos taurus x Bos indicus Genetic parameters between milk traits, weight traits and age at first calving in crossbreed dairy cattle (Bos taurus x Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Vercesi Filho

    2007-08-01

    , fat and protein yield with heifer live weight gain, -0.59±0.35, -0.73±0.44, -0.62±0.37 as well. Genetic correlations between milk yield, cow average weight and heifer live weight gain with age at first calving were, respectively, 0.05±0.18, -0.05±0.18, 0.02±0.20. The high genetic correlation between milk production and lactation length (0.93±0.02 indicated that variation of the lactation length should not be removed when selecting tropical dairy cattle.

  20. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  1. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  2. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  3. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  4. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

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    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  5. Malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in young calves (Bos indicus: a case report

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    MCR Luvizotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of susceptible ruminants, including domestic cattle (Bos taurus and American bison (Bison bison, with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 may provoke the fatal vasculitis and lymphoproliferative syndrome, known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, reported worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical case of MCF-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 infection in young calves (Bos indicus including central nervous symptoms that occurred in Três Lagoas city, Mato Grosso do Sul state, a border town near São Paulo state, Brazil. The diagnosis was based on typical histological lesions characterized by systemic lymphohistiocytic and fibrinoid vasculitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of detected OvHV-2 sequences. This finding indicates that MCF disease is spread among herds concentrated in border areas between Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo states.

  6. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle. Serum concentrations of total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA in the calf and efficiency of absorption at 6 and 12 h were not affected by breed type, sex of calf, or any interaction. PMID:8617676

  7. Random Regression Models for Estimation of Covariance Functions, Genetic Parameters and Prediction of Breeding Values for Rib Eye Area in a Colombian Bos indicus-Bos taurus Multibreed Cattle Population

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    CARLOS ALBERTO MARTÍNEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an application of random regression models (RRM to obtain restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance functions and predictions of breeding values for longitudinal records of rib eye area measured by ultrasound (REA in a Colombian multibreed cattle population. The dataset contained 708 records from 340 calves progeny of 37 sires from nine breeds mated to Gray Brahman Cows. The mixed model was a RRM that used Legendre polynomials (LP of order 1 to 3. Fixed effects were age of animal, dam parity, contemporary group (herd*year*season*sex, breed additive genetic and heterosis, whereas direct and maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environment were random effects. Residual variances were modeled either as constant or changing across the growth trajectory. Models were compared with two Information Criteria, the corrected Akaikes and the Schwartzs Bayesian. According to these criteria the best model was the one with first order LP and constant residual variance. Given that with this model estimated maternal additive genetic and permanent environment covariance functions showed that these effects were not accurately disentangled, a parsimonious model without maternal additive genetic effects was used to obtain genetic parameters and breeding values. Direct additive genetic variance decreased until 150 days and then increased. Maternal permanent environment variance increased with age. Direct heritability estimates for REA at 4 months, weaning, 12 and 15 months (considered as target ages, were 0.003, 0.007, 0.034 and 0.058, respectively. Direct additive correlations ranged from -0.7 to 1. Maternal permanent environmental correlations were close to unity across the entire range of ages. Estimates of (covariance components showed the need to validate results with larger multigenerational multibreed populations before implement RRM in regional or national genetic evaluation procedures in Colombia.

  8. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

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    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  9. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

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    G.S. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  10. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  11. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas; Paola Moretti Rueda; Tiago da Silva Valente; Luísa Cunha Carneiro; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  12. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  13. Comparison of Skin Characterizes Between Pure Breed and Crossbred Azeri Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus

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    Alireza Lotfi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For investigation of crossbreeding efficiency in some skin characterizes in pure and crossbred cattle with Azeri Zebu, 100 head Azeri Zebu and pure breeds were divided into 4 group in 4 treatments, randomly. After cross breeding between zebu and pure cattle breeds, the diameters of skin in different parts of body were significantly increased in hybrids (offspring. Zebu hybrids, because of their strength epidemic layer on slat and legs had deep skin in compare with parents. Skin area were measured at two different parts, that more than 60% of skin were include 5 mm diameter in hybrids. As conclusion; in this investigation it has been cleared that cross-breeding in Azeri zebu (with pure cattle breeds can cause deep diameter of skin that also it can produce high quality skin for leather and shoe Industry.

  14. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45

  15. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

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    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  16. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

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    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12

  17. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  18. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P < 0.05). Cows with a BCS greater than or equal to 5 had synchronized AI pregnancy rates of 50% compared to 39% for cows with BCS lesser than 5.0. In summary, the modified COS protocol yielded similar synchronized AI pregnancy rates compared to the SSC protocol, and it appears that the modified COS protocol has the potential to be an effective timed-AI protocol in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows. PMID:26631280

  19. Effects of beta agonists in the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the state of Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently in Mexico about 30 million cattle of which about 15000.000 million are in areas at high risk of infestation and about 5,000,000 million fascioliosis animals are with, if we estimate the economic losses per year gives us an approximate price of 4,500,000,000 pesos are lost annually, on the other hand, the lack of good pasture especially in times of drought in the state are helping farmers are feeding their animals with food additives in this case the betaagonist (clenbuterol and the like ), At present there are several municipal traces at the state level are discarding the livers of cattle producing very large economic losses. been conducted on prevailing level of municipal trail Atlixco (zone endemic to the disease) in the year 2001-02 with a prevalence of 32-33 % While that in 2007 set a precedence of 7% over the same track municipal; this parasitic disease that affects the liver parenchyma and pipelines, affects the metabolic activity of the liver, this organ is one of the most important thing, because it participates in many metabolic pathways, as in the production and secretion of bile, regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins among others. This parasitic disease affects the production of meat and milk in ruminant animals in this very particular case Bos taurus x Bos indicus, the affected animals, these activities are depleted in previous studies have found that animals are fed with food additives such as beta -adrenergic-agonist, whose effect is to produce lipolysis, lipogenesis, are glucoliticos, and glycogen, affecting body composition, favouring neoformation tissue by the redistribution of power, also increasing the release of fatty acids into the blood, facilitating the synthesis of protein and retains the nitrogen fed into skeletal muscle, these components used as food additives are prohibited by federal law nationals (SAGARPA NOM-015-ZOO-2002), as the consumption of meat produced visceral primarily of clinical cases as tachycardia

  20. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning performance, but the particular cross that produces the calves also should be considered in making breeding decisions. PMID:17235021

  1. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  2. Rendimiento de la canal en búfalos de río (Bubalus bubalis y Bovinos mestizos (Bos indicus x Bos taurus en el Municipio Bayazo - Canal performance in river buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and mixed racial bovines (Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the Bayamo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Reyes, B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de determinar algunas características de rendimientoen canales bufalinas (Bubalus bubalis de animales procedentes delCentro de Ceba El Progreso y compararlas con canales vacunas (Bosindicus x Bos taurus comercializadas, se desarrolló esta investigación en el matadero Jucaibama. Se trabajaron 60 animales enteros de cada especie con edades entre 24 y 32 meses, a los cuales se les determinaron los siguientes parámetros: peso de embarque (Kg.(PE, peso vivo reposo (PV (Kg. peso de la canal en kg. (PC,rendimiento en carne en kg. (RC, rendimiento en carne de primera enKg. (RC1 y rendimiento en carne de segunda en Kg. (RC2. Losresultados fueron para (PE 543,43 y 489,92 arrojando el análisisdiferencias altamente significativas, al igual que para las (PV y (PC que fueron de 527,12 y 474,15; 271,52 y 244,83 para búfalos yvacunos respectivamente. Las variables (RC, (RC1 y (RC2 nomostraron diferencias significativas, sus valores fueron 167,37 y171,93; 88,7 y 91,12; 76,66 y 78,74 para canales bubalinas yvacunas. Se concluye que los búfalos presentaron pesos mayores alsacrificio y de canal que los vacunos evaluados. El búfalo presentómayores rendimientos en carne, parámetros que indican que tiene laposibilidad de desarrollar mayor masa muscular que sus competidoresvacunos.SummaryThis research was carried out in the drudgery Jucaibama of determining some quality characteristics in the buffaloes meat(Bubalus bubalis of animal that belong to the feeding place ElProgreso. These characteristics are compare with the ones of the beefcattle (Bos indicus x taurus that are commercialized. 60 whole maleanimals of each species were taken as sample. They were about 24and 32 months old and they were determine the following parameters:Shipment weight (Kg., weight after twelve hours, meat weight, meatservility and servility of the best showed highly significant differences, just as the ones for (PV and (PC whose results were 527,12 and 474

  3. Eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial prefixada em rebanhos Bos taurus e Bos indicus Efficacy of the Ovsynch treatment associated to fixed-time artificial insemination in Bos taurus and Bos indicus herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia do tratamento Ovsynch associado à inseminação artificial em tempo prefixado em vacas Bos taurus e Bos indicus. Foram utilizados rebanhos das raças Holandesa, Caracu, Nelore e Mantiqueira. Também foi incluído um rebanho de vacas Gir, com problemas de fertilidade. Cada rebanho foi dividido em três grupos. O grupo 1 recebeu o tratamento Ovsynch e foi inseminado em tempo prefixado. O grupo 2 foi inseminado no cio induzido com cloprostenol. O grupo 3 foi inseminado no cio natural. As taxas de concepção e de prenhez foram determinadas por ultra-sonografia. Não existiu interação significativa das variáveis reprodutivas analisadas para rebanho, idade, período pós-parto, número de parição e presença do bezerro. A taxa de concepção não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos, ao passo que a taxa de prenhez foi superior (PThe present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Ovsynch treatment associated with prefixed-time artificial insemination on Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows. Herds of Holstein, Caracu, Nelore and Mantiqueira breeds were used. A herd of Gir cows with poor reproductive performance was also included. Each breed was divided in tree groups. Group 1 received Ovsynch treatment and was inseminated at prefixed time. Group 2 was induced to estrus with cloprostenol and inseminated thereafter. Group 3 was inseminated at natural heat. Conception and pregnancy rates were determined by ultra-sound. No significant interactions were detected among breeds, age, parity, postpartum period and lactating cows with or without their calves. Conception rates did not differ (P>0.05 among groups while pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05 for group 1 and 2 comparing to group 3. In the Gir herd Ovsynch treatment did not enhance conception nor pregnancy rates. Independently of breed, conception rate is similar after Ovsynch, cloprostenol and control treatments, and pregnancy rate can be improved with

  4. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  5. Sequenciamento e análise dos genes das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de bovino (Bos taurus indicus Sequencing and analysis of subunits alpha and beta of the follicle stimulating hormone from bovine (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Sayori Murata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata uma clonagem e seqüenciamento das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de Bos taurus indicus. Também apresenta os resultados de comparação realizada das seqüências gênicas dessas cadeias com as seqüências das cadeias alfa e beta do FSH de suínos e da cadeia beta de bovinos Bos taurus taurus já presentes no GenBank. Na comparação das seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos predita da cadeia αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com as cadeias αFSH de outras espécies como suínos e búfalo (Bubalis bubalis, observou-se que as seqüências são bastante similares. A comparação da seqüência da subunidade αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com a de suíno demonstrou diferenças em três resíduos de aminoácidos. Na comparação com ßFSH, registrou-se modificação na primeira base do codon que levou à alteração no resíduo do aminóacido 83, que, em Bos taurus indicus, é uma glicina, ao invés da serina presente em Bos taurus taurus. Confirmaram-se essa modificação e todas as outras identificadas na seqüência dos cDNA das cadeias αFSH e βFSH em outra clonagem. A modificação Ser para Gly na posição 83 foi a única que alterou a identidade do resíduo de aminoácido na comparação entre as subunidades beta do FSH de Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus. Contudo, ela não deve alterar significativamente as propriedades fisiológicas do FSH, uma vez que o resíduo de glicina encontrado nessa posição também é encontrado na cadeia βFSH suína. Trata-se, portanto, de uma modificação particular que distingue as cadeias βFSH de B. taurus taurus e B. taurus indicus.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, clonagem, FSH, hormônio.

    The aim this work was to promove the cloning and analysis sequencing

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

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    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  7. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  8. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf. PMID:17235022

  9. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  10. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  11. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  12. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

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    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  13. History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Schibler, J.; Schlumbaum, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (similar to 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic unt...

  14. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  15. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  16. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (Pcows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (Pmilk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at

  17. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  18. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  19. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (pBrahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    -significant (p>0.05, amongst group 5/8H3/8N (1.57U/g and the others (HH=1.23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1.35U/g, and a significant difference in shear force between groups HH and 5/8H3/8N (3.67 and 5.00kg, respectively. It was concluded that the calpastatin activity determined 24 hs post mortem can be useful to predict the texture of beef, aged or not, in genetic improvement programs. Also, the increasing participation of Bos indicus genotype in the South Region herds of cattle, besides the productivity advantages, may result in beef of lower texture quality.

  1. Immunocastration of Bos indicus x Brown Swiss bulls in feedlot with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Stegner, J; King, V; Rubio, L M S; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a GnRH vaccine on feedlot performance and meat quality in Bos indicus Zebu × Brown Swiss bulls. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 1,600 bulls allocated by BW into 4 groups of ≈ 400 animals. The GnRH vaccine (Bopriva) was injected on d 0 and 42, and anabolic implants given on d 0 (Component E-S) and d 84 (Synovex Choice). Group designations were: Con = placebo control; Imp = implants alone; Vac = GnRH vaccine alone; and Vac+Imp = GnRH vaccine together with implants. The second GnRH vaccination at d 42 resulted in elevated titers of IgG antibody and suppressed concentrations of testosterone in vaccinated groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) at d 56 (P Meat quality of bulls receiving the GnRH vaccine was improved irrespective of implant status, with a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of bulls in groups Vac and Vac+Imp, respectively, grading as USDA Choice (P Meat tenderness was improved in the vaccine groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) compared with groups Con and Imp (P meat quality, with or without implants, and in particular, better USDA carcass grading and loin fat cover. PMID:22665672

  2. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E; Bickhart, Derek M.; Da Silva, Marcos VB; Marco A. Machado; Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Garcia, Jose F.; Gondro, Cedric; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural selection has molded evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos taurus taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos taurus indicus. After domestication, human selection exponentially intensified these differences. To better understand the genetic differences between these subspecies and detect genomi...

  3. Assessment of the reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus cattle in the tropical areas of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor bovine reproductive efficiency in tropical climates could explain why areas with these conditions account for only 50 and 25% of the world's beef and milk production, respectively. The marked influence of season on reproduction in the tropics is reflected in reduced oestrus detection and calf survival, as well as later onset of ovarian activity during the winter months under range conditions. Lack of knowledge of some of the basic mechanisms that regulate reproductive physiology in farm animals in the tropics has restricted use of techniques such as artificial insemination, thereby limiting genetic progress. From our data we have detected differences in oestrous behaviour, hormonal levels during the oestrous cycle and fertility when comparing our results with the information already available for bovines in temperate areas. (author)

  4. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts. PMID:26243573

  5. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  6. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  7. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  8. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A. P.; Bah, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced in...

  9. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  10. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions. PMID:26946475

  11. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

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    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  12. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  13. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon for in vitro embryo production (IVEP. The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9% and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm. Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10 and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI: oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII: oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII: oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV: denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS and pregnancy status of cow on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%. Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%, 2.72±0.15 (24.82%, 2.24±0.15 (20.43% and 2.47±0.20 (22.54% respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05 compared with other animals. Oocytes with

  14. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J; Dawaye, S M; Zoli, A P; Bah, G S

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57

  15. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  16. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Ernani Henkes; Wilson Araújo Silva Jr; José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes; Tania de Azevedo Weimer

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence) was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus) as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus). Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006) and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.0...

  17. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

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    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different

  18. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  19. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus, INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893 DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Schenki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Babesia bigemina, parasitemia, bioquímica sérica.

  20. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  1. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins in some Bos genus populations

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    A.M. Guastella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cattle the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins provides an effective tool both to characterize the genetic diversity and to improve the efficiency of selection for specific production traits. Four genes, αS1-casein (CSN1S1, β-casein (CSN2, κ-casein (CSN3 and β-lactoglobulin (BLG have showed a high level of genetic polymorphism and are candidate to play a role in selection programmes in order to improve milk production. In this work three Bos genus populations, one taurine breed autochthonous of South-East of Sicily (Modicana and two Bos indicus populations (Azaouak and Gudali reared in Niger and Cameroon, respectively,..........

  2. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (PBrangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  3. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

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    Gao Chuan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is possible to perform genome wide population genetic analyses in cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among eight cattle breeds sampled from Bos indicus and Bos taurus. Results Two thousand six hundred and forty one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning all of the bovine autosomal genome were genotyped in Angus, Brahman, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black, Limousin and Nelore cattle. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE and Fst estimates were used to construct a neighbor-joining tree to represent the phylogenetic relationship among these breeds. Conclusion The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. The greatest level of genetic differentiation was detected between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. When the Bos indicus breeds were excluded from the analysis, genetic differences among beef versus dairy and European versus Asian breeds were detected among the Bos taurus breeds. Exploration of the number of SNP loci required to differentiate between breeds showed that for 100 SNP loci, individuals could only be correctly clustered into breeds 50% of the time, thus a large number of SNP markers are required to replace the 30 microsatellite markers that are currently commonly used in genetic diversity studies.

  4. Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle

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    Liljavirta Jenni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assortment of cattle immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes has been extracted from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome sequence as a part of an international effort to sequence and annotate the bovine genome. Results 63 variable lambda chain and 22 variable kappa chain genes were identified and phylogenetically assigned to 8 and 4 subgroups, respectively. The specified phylogenetic relationships are compatible with the established ruminant light chain variable gene families or subgroups. Because of gaps and uncertainties in the assembled genome sequence, the number of genes might change in the future versions of the genome sequence. In addition, three bovine surrogate light chain genes were identified. The corresponding cDNAs were cloned and the expression of the surrogate light chain genes was demonstrated from fetal material. Conclusion The bovine kappa gene locus is compact and simple which may reflect the preferential use of the lambda chain in cattle. The relative orientation of variable and joining genes in both loci are consistent with a deletion mechanism in VJ joining. The orientation of some variable genes cannot be determined from the data available. The number of functional variable genes is moderate when compared to man or mouse. Thus, post-recombinatorial mechanisms might contribute to the generation of the bovine pre-immune antibody repertoire. The heavy chains probably contribute more to recombinational immunoglobulin repertoire diversity than the light chains but the heavy chain locus could not be annotated from the version 3.1 of Bos taurus genome.

  5. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  6. The Agersoe cattle: the last remnants of the Danish island cattle (Bos taurus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...... characterize the Agersoe cattle, using microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and mtDNA markers, and analyse the genetic variability within the breed and the genetic relationship to 14 European breeds with focus on the Red Danish and Jutland breed. The results show diversity in nuclear...... breeds. Several arguments based on this survey have been put forward in favour of characterizing the Agersoe cattle as being the last remnants of the Danish Island Cattle...

  7. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  8. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near ...

  10. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  11. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  12. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted

  13. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing 80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P = 0.005). In conclusion, these studies determined that the Bos taurus × Bos indicus genotype impacts fetal size and rate of fetal development by

  14. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship

  15. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas

  16. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus.

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    Dominique Judith Wiener

    Full Text Available Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  17. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  18. Estimulação hormonal, punção folicular transvaginal e avaliação ovocitária em bezerras pré-púberes da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus Hormonal stimulation and ultrasound guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and oocyte recovery in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus prepubertal calves

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    Marilia Viviane Snel-Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de bezerras pré-púberes como doadoras de ovócitos oferece um considerável potencial para acelerar o ganho genético através da diminuição do intervalo de gerações, além de incrementar o aproveitamento de fêmeas bovinas de alto valor genético. Os objetivos deste estudo foram analisar o efeito da idade e do tratamento estimulatório com gonadotrofinas sobre a resposta folicular, a taxa de recuperação, a produção e a avaliação morfológica de ovócitos colhidos em bezerras da raça nelore (B. t. indicus a partir de 10 meses de idade. As bezerras foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos (n=4 e receberam tratamentos hormonais distintos, repetidos nos mesmos animais nos três períodos, aos 10, 11 e 12 meses de idade. No dia zero (D0, todas as bezerras receberam um implante intravaginal de progesterona e, em D1, 2 mg de benzoato de estradiol intramuscular (im. Em D6, deu-se início à diferenciação dos tratamentos (T: T1- 120 UI de FSH, divididos em quatro aplicações im a cada 12 horas; T2 - 120 UI de FSH, em uma única aplicação subcutânea (sc, mais 300 UI de eCG sc, T3 - sem tratamento estimulatório. No D8, o implante de progesterona foi retirado e a punção folicular transvaginal, guiada por ultra-som (PFTV, foi realizada no D9. Dos 402 ovócitos coletados, 53 foram desnudados e medidos, incluindo a zona pelúcida, encontrando-se um diâmetro médio de 153,38 (8,06 mm. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos e entre as idades para quantidade de folículos > 3 mm, de ovócitos recuperados e de ovócitos viáveis. A média de ovócitos recuperados e ovócitos viáveis para cada tratamento foi: T1- 11,08 (6,20 e 59,58% (25,80, T2- 12,75 (8,04 e 66,02% (36,71, T3 - 9,66 (8,15 e 51,51% (30,69, respectivamente. O valor médio da taxa de recuperação foi de 78,70%. O uso de FSH e FSH + eCG não aumentou significantemente a quantidade de folículos > 3 mm no momento da PFTV, assim como dos ov

  19. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  20. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

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    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus. Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006 and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.014 ± 0.012. These data indicated sequence identities of 99.6 and 92.1% between the B. p. taurus' reference sequence and Brangus-Ibage and Nellore, respectively. The comparison of our data with sequence data for 612 individuals recovered from GenBank showed a total of 205 haplotypes defined by 99 polymorphic sites. Most of the variability (53% was due to differentiation within breeds. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method showed clearly the well-known dichotomy between B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus. The Brangus-Ibage clustered with B. p. taurus lineages; however, the displacement of Nellore from B. p. indicus branch probably indicates a substantial B. p. taurus maternal ancestry in some Nellore samples (obtained from GenBank and reflects the primarily male-driven introduction of this breed in Brazil.

  1. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

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    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East.Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17 and Domiaty (N = 14, from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed.Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s; (ii haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  2. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

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    Hayes Ben

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus. We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in beef (Angus and dairy (Holstein cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90% and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA. More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection

  3. Composição lipídica de carne bovina de grupos genéticos taurinos e zebuínos terminados em confinamento Lipid composition of meat from zebu and taurine cattle finished in confinement

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    Lizandra Vercezi Rossato

    2009-09-01

    Bos indicus (24.77%. For monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, Bos taurus had higher levels of C14:1 cis9, C16:1 cis9, C18:1 cis9, ΣMUFA but lower levels of C:18:1 trans. For polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, Bos taurus presented higher percentages of C18:3 n-3, C20:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-3. The C18:2 n-6, CLA, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, ΣPUFA and Σn-6 FA were similar between the groups. The ratio n-6/n-3 was lower in Bos taurus (4.63 than in Bos indicus (5.70. In general, there was a genetic influences in the cholesterol and fatty acids of cattle profile, and this effect was more pronounced for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Some preliminary observations on the susceptibility and resistance of different cattle breeds to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus, Boran (Bos indicus and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50 % mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05 between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100 %, five out of nine Borans (55.6 % and two out of five Zebus (40 %. Three of the Friesians (37.5 %, and two of the Borans (22.2 % died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis.

  5. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

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    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  6. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  7. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  8. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

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    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  9. The polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts and their associations with cattle (Bos taurus) growth traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun Lei Zhang; Hong Chen; Yan Hong Wang; Xian Yong Lan; Chu Zhao Lei; Xing Tang Fang

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART). The coding and regulating regions of CART were screened in 7 cattle breeds by the single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The four loci (C1, C2, C3 and C4) studied were all polymorphic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products representing different SSCP variants were sequenced and a total of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. The associations between polymorphic loci and the growth traits of Nanyang cattle were analysed. The results indicated that genotype A1A1 of the C1 locus was associated with a higher body weight ( < 0.05) than heterozygous A1B1. Genotype A2A2 of the C2 locus was associated with lower body weight and average daily weight gain ( ≤ 0.001) than heterozygous A2B2. C3 and C4 loci had no significant effect on Nanyang cattle growth traits (P > 0.05).

  10. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  11. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  12. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  13. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

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    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  14. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of h

  15. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

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    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  17. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

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    Reinsch Norbert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The somatic cell score (SCS is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18. In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833 in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A. Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9 to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A with SCS. For this

  18. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  19. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2 gene in crossbred cattle

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    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibitor decreases the activity of calpain, which are the enzymes responsible for the degradation of muscle fibers during the maturation of the meat. Moreover, there were previously observed differences in the frequencies of allele A of calpain among European breeds (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Holstein and Bos taurus indicus (Gir, Guzerá and Nelore. This variability has been related to tenderness of meat, as cattle with Bos taurus taurus origin have more tender meat than Bos taurus indicus, showing small values of shear force. One explanation is that the Capn2A product could confer greater proteolytic activity than the encoded by the allele Capn2B. If allele A is associated with tender meat, it will be possible the early identification of the animals that have the potential to produce meat with qualities that attend the needs of the consumer market, in order to add economic value to the final product of the animal production chain. For this reason, biochemical and genetic studies related to calpain and calpastatin systems have been considered promising for the clarification of the physiological changes that occur in muscle structure during the period post-mortem, whose results have contributed to the improvement of meat quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RFLP in calpain (Capn2 gene and its relation with meat tenderization in 252 crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus. The analyses were carried through by PCR-RFLP technique

  20. Chemical classification of cattle. 2. Phylogenetic tree and specific status of the Zebu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1980-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for the ten major breed groups of cattle were constructed by Farris's (1972) maximum parsimony method, or Fitch & Margoliash's (1967) method, which averages ou the deviation over the entire assemblage. Both techniques yield essentially identical trees. The phylogenetic tree for the ten major cattle breed groups can be superimposed on a map of Europe and western Asia, the root of the tree being close to the 'fertile crescent' in Asia Minor, believed to be a primary centre of bovine domestication. For some but not all protein variants there is a cline of gene frequencies as one proceeds from the British Isles and northwest Europe towards southeast Europe and Asia Minor, with the most extreme gene frequencies in the Zebu breeds of India. It is not clear to what extent the observed clines are primary or secondary, i.e., consequent to the initial migrations of cattle towards the end of the Pleistocene or consequent to the many migrations of man with his domesticated cattle. Such clines as exist are not in themselves sufficient to prove either selection versus genetic drift or to establish taxonomic ranking. Contrary to some suggestions in the literature, the biochemical evidence supports Linnaeus's original conclusions: Bos taurus and Bos indicus are distinct species. PMID:7458002

  1. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  2. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  3. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. PMID:23909810

  4. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (pcattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  5. 杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)朊蛋白基因的分子克隆及其序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequences Characteristics Analysis of the Prion Protein Gene from the Hybrids between Gayal (Bos frontalis)and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘情; 席冬梅; 陈学礼; 李继中; 杨舒黎; 邓卫东

    2012-01-01

    朊蛋白(prion protein,PRNP)基因编码朊蛋白,是引起疯牛病的主效基因.本研究利用PCR方法首次从杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)基因组中扩增了PRNP基因,GenBank登录号为HQ875337.PCR产物直接双向测序表明,该序列包含杂交牛PRNP基因795 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码264个氨基酸前体蛋白.生物信息学分析结果发现,该蛋白包含1个信号肽、3个α螺旋、2个β折叠、6个八肽重复序列、1个疏水区域、1个二硫键和1个糖基磷脂酰肌醇锚定位点.与已报道的其他牛PRNP基因进行序列比对分析,核苷酸和氨基酸的同源性均在97%以上.%The priori protein was encoded by the prion protein (PRNP) gene which was the major gene for affecting mad cow disease or BSE. In the present study, the PCR method was used to amplify the PRNP gene from the hybrids between Gay-al (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number HQ875337. The PCR products were sequenced bi-directly. By sequence analysis,the length of open read frame (ORF) of the PRNP gene was 795 bp, which encodes a protein of 264 amino acids,including a signal region,a octapeptide repeat,three α-heli-ces.two β-sheets,a hydrophobic region,a disulfide bridge, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor site. The homology of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other cattle was more than 97%. All this will provide the molecular basal data for breakthrough of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among different animal species.

  6. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  7. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (ppractices and mass vaccination. PMID:26100405

  8. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat deposition and composition in Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the conce...

  9. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  10. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  11. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  12. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  13. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha;

    2011-01-01

    , with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were...

  14. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  15. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  16. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for...

  17. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10...

  18. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and

  19. Differences in susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode infection between Angus and Brangus cattle in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M T; Miller, J E; Wyatt, W; Kearney, M T

    2000-03-28

    Breed susceptibility to nematode infection was evaluated in Angus (Bos taurus) and Brangus (B. indicus crossbreed) cattle. A cow-calf herd and a yearling replacement heifer herd were monitored during one grazing season. Calves were born in March and were weaned in October. Individual rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from the two herds and processed for fecal egg counts (FEC) and coprocultures. Cow and calf FEC increased from April, reaching maximum values during the summer. Angus cows and calves had significantly (pBrangus cows and calves, and Haemonchus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. Replacement heifer FEC showed a similar pattern with maximum levels during late summer/fall, and Haemonchus was the predominant genus. No significant differences were seen between breeds, however, infection levels were consistently lower in Brangus heifers. Ostertagia was present in cows and heifers only in fall/winter, which is consistent with summer inhibition. The data suggested that cows were an important source of pasture contamination for their susceptible calves and that the Brangus breed was relatively more resistant to infection. The use of B. indicus crossbreeds may help in alleviating reliance on chemical control by reducing the rate of pasture contamination and subsequent infection losses. PMID:10729645

  20. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  1. 中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛mtDNA D-loop序列多态性分析%Sequence Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region in the Population of Chinese Holstein Cattle and Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣超; 王国华; 常玉霞; 杨国忠; 昝林森

    2011-01-01

    为了从母系遗传角度深入阐明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛的群体遗传多样性以及起源进化,本研究采用PCR测序法测定了9头中国荷斯坦牛和11头鲁西黄牛的线粒体DNAD-loop区的部分序列,并经剪切后进行生物信息学软件分析。结果表明,20个个体D-loop区共711bp,共检测到19种单倍型和50个多态位点。核苷酸多样性(Pi)为0.02133±0.00454,单倍型多样性(Hd)为0.994±0.019,平均核苷酸差异数(k)为15.14620。构建的NJ网络进化树共分为两大支系,其中部分鲁西黄牛与瘤牛聚为一支,而中国荷斯坦牛和部分鲁西黄牛与普通黄牛聚为一支。说明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛群体遗传多样性均较高;鲁西黄牛同时含有瘤牛和普通黄牛的血统,而中国荷斯坦牛只含有普通黄牛的血统。%In order to illustrate population genetic polymorphism and origin of Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi cattle from the perspective of maternal inheritance,partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 9 Chinese Holsein cattles and 11 Luxi cattles were detected by PCR sequencing technology,and analyzed after cut by bioinformatics software.The results revealed that D-loop sequences were 711 bp in 20 individuals and there were 19 different haplotypes and 50 polymorphic sites.The mean nucleotide diversity(Pi) was 0.021 33±0.004 54,the haplotype diversity(Hd) was 0.994±0.019,and the average number of nucleotide differences(k) was 15.146 20.The neighbor joining(NJ) tree showed that there were two main branches in those 2 cattle breeds,in which,some Luxi cattles were clustered with Bos taurus lineage,and the others were in Bos indicus lineage which also included all Chinese Holsein cattles.The results indicated abundant genetic diversity in both two groups,and there were two marternal origins in Luxi cattle which were Bos taurus and Bos indicus,but in Chinese Holstein cattle only one origin of Bos taurus.

  2. Improving the productivity of cattle in sub-tropical environments: Effects of cross-breeding on age and live weight at puberty in Zebu, European and Zebu X European heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the evolutionary adaptation of cattle to a particular environment the frequency of genes that confer desirable traits is increased at the expense of undesirable genes. Accordingly, in the temperate climates of Europe evolution has favoured cattle with high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction, whilst in the harsher tropical and sub-tropical environments, inherent potentials for productive characteristics are low but resistance to stresses such as heat, feed shortages, and endo- and ecto-parasites is high. Information on the relative genetic merits of different breeds of cattle can be exploited through cross-breeding, which relies on heterosis, to produce animals that have the complement of productive and adaptive traits that is considered desirable for different tropical and sub-tropical production systems. For example, crossing Brahman (Bos indicus, tropically-adapted) with Hereford-Shorthorn (Bos taurus, temperate) results in F1 offspring that have high resistance to tropical stresses and high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction. The F1 shows higher productivity than either parent genotype over a wide range of environments. This includes increased growth rate, earlier age at puberty and increased lifetime fertility. Heterosis is progressively lost through inter-breeding; however, this can be substantially reduced by reciprocal cross-breeding and the formation of multi-breed synthetics which retain a high degree of hybrid vigour with inter-breeding. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Lack of specific alleles for the bovine chemokine (C-X-C) receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene in West African cattle questions its role as a candidate for trypanotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2. PMID:27117936

  4. Candidate gene analysis of GH1 for effects on growth and carcass composition of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J F; Coutinho, L L; Herring, K L; Gallagher, D S; Brenneman, R A; Burney, N; Sanders, J O; Turner, J W; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Savell, J W; Davis, S K

    1998-06-01

    We present an approach to evaluate the support for candidate genes as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) within the context of genome-wide map-based cloning strategies. To establish candidacy, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing a putative candidate gene is physically assigned to an anchored linkage map to localise the gene relative to an identified QTL effect. Microsatellite loci derived from BAC clones containing an established candidate gene are integrated into the linkage map facilitating the evaluation by interval analysis of the statistical support for QTL identity. Permutation analysis is employed to determine experiment-wise statistical support. The approach is illustrated for the growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene and growth and carcass phenotypes in cattle. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers which amplify a 441 bp fragment of GH1 were used to systematically screen a bovine BAC library comprising 60,000 clones and with a 95% probability of containing a single copy sequence. The presence of GH1 in BAC-110R2C3 was confirmed by sequence analysis of the PCR product from this clone and by the physical assignment of BAC110R2C3 to bovine chromosome 19 (BTA19) band 22 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Microsatellite KHGH1 was isolated from BAC110R2C3 and scored in 529 reciprocal backcross and F2 fullsib progeny from 41 resource families derived from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus). The microsatellite KHGH1 was incorporated into a framework genetic map of BTA19 comprising 12 microsatellite loci, the erythrocyte antigen T and a GH1-TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Interval analysis localised effects of taurus vs. indicus alleles on subcutaneous fat and the percentage of either extractable fat from the Iongissimus dorsi muscle to the region of BTA19 harbouring GH1. PMID:9720178

  5. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  6. 中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛mtDNAD-loop序列多态性分析%Sequence Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region in the Population of Chinese Holstein Cattle and Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣超; 王国华; 常玉霞; 杨国忠; 昝林森

    2011-01-01

    为了从母系遗传角度深入阐明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛的群体遗传多样性以及起源进化,本研究采用PCR测序法测定了9头中国荷斯坦牛和11头鲁西黄牛的线粒体DNA D-loop区的部分序列,并经剪切后进行生物信息学软件分析.结果表明,20个个体D-loop区共711 bp,共检测到19种单倍型和50个多态位点.核苷酸多样性(Pi)为0.021 33±0.004 54,单倍型多样性(Hd)为0.994±0.019,平均核苷酸差异数(k)为15.146 20.构建的NJ网络进化树共分为两大支系,其中部分鲁西黄牛与瘤牛聚为一支,而中国荷斯坦牛和部分鲁西黄牛与普通黄牛聚为一支.说明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛群体遗传多样性均较高;鲁西黄牛同时含有瘤牛和普通黄牛的血统,而中国荷斯坦牛只含有普通黄牛的血统.%In order to illustrate population genetic polymorphism and origin of Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi cattle from the perspective of maternal inheritance, partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 9 Chinese Holsein catties and 11 Luxi catties were detected by PCR sequencing technology, and analyzed after cut by bioin-formatics software. The results revealed that D-loop sequences were 711 bp in 20 individuals and there were 19 different haplotypes and 50 polymorphic sites. The mean nucleotide diversity (Pi) was 0.021 33±0.004 54, the hap-lotype diversity (Hd) was 0.994±0.019, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k) was 15.146 20. The neighbor joining (NJ) free showed that there were two main branches in those 2 cattle breeds, in which, some Luxi catties were clustered with Bos taurus lineage, and the others were in Bos indicus lineage which also included all Chinese Holsein catties. The results indicated abundant genetic diversity in both two groups, and there were two marternal origins in Luxi cattle which were Bos taurus and Bos indicus, but in Chinese Holstein cattle only one origin of Bos taurus.

  7. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in the genetic control of a Trypanosoma congolense infection in a trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In central and sub-Saharan Africa, the most important constraint to livestock production is trypanosomosis. This tsetse-transmitted disease represents an important risk for about 60 million cattle spread over 7 million km2. Several indigenous West African taurine (Bos Taurus) breeds, such as longhorn (N'Dama) cattle are well known to control trypanosome infections. This genetic capability named 'trypanotolerance' results from numerous biological mechanisms most probably under multigenic control, these include the control of the trypanosome infection by a parasitaemia limitation and the control of a severe anemia due to parasite pathogenic effects, both main criteria of trypanotolerance. Past methodologies were not succeeded in identifying the complete pool of genes involved in trypanotolerance. New post genomic biotechnologies, such as transcriptome analyses, are now efficient enough to characterize the full complex of genes involved in the expression of specific biological functions. One is the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) technique which consists in the construction of transcript libraries for the quantitative analysis of entire genes expressed or inactivated at a particular step of cellular activation. We used the SAGE method to compare the total expressed genes during an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in four cattle, one N'Dama individual (Bos taurus), one Baoule (Bos taurus) and two zebu (Bos indicus). These animals were infected by the Trypanosoma congolense strain SER/71/STIB/212 (300 trypanosomes per kg of body weight). They were monitored for hematocrite, parasitemia and body weight for five months. The mRNA samples were harvested before infection, at the maximum of parasitemia, at the minimum of hematocrite and at recovery. First, two total mRNA transcripts libraries were constructed from blood white cells of the N'Dama cattle: one at T0 just before the T. congolense experimental infection (T0L) and the other several

  8. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities. PMID:19036494

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in cattle (Bos taurus), moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway. The effect of anthelmintic treatment in relation to a possible cross-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The presence of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered to be a problem in domestic cattle, and various studies have tried to present reasons for and solutions to this problem. A study was conducted in Southern Norway in order to examine whether anthelmintic treatment in cattle is adequate and to investigate if wild cervids like moose and roe deer should be considered as a reservoir for nematode parasites in cattle. The results showed that egg output from cattle was low, which together with ...

  10. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  11. Infestation by Haematopinus quadripertusus on cattle in São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil Infestação por Haematopinus quadripertusus em bovinos de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scofield

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe infestation with lice was observed on crossbred cattle (Bos taurus indicus ×Bos taurus taurus in the municipality of São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil. Sixty-five animals were inspected and the lice were manually collected, preserved in 70% alcohol and taken to the Animal Parasitology Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Brazil, for identification. The adult lice were identified as Haematopinus quadripertusus, and all the cattle examined were infested by at least one development stage of this ectoparasite. The specimens collected were located only on the tail in 80% (52/65 of the cattle, while they were around the eyes as well as on the ears and tail in 20% (13/65. Nits, nymphs and adults of the parasite were respectively collected from 98.46% (64/65, 38.46% (25/65 and 23.08% (15/65 of the animals examined. This is the first report of bovine pediculosis caused by H. quadripertusus in the state of Pará, Brazil. Further studies should be conducted to determine the occurrence pattern of this species in Brazil and its importance to livestock production.Alta infestação por piolhos foi observada em vacas mestiças Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus do município de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil. Sessenta e cinco animais foram inspecionados e os piolhos foram coletados manualmente, armazenados em álcool 70% e transportados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Pará para a identificação. Os exemplares adultos foram identificados como Haematopinus quadripertusus e todos os animais examinados apresentaram pelo menos um estágio de desenvolvimento do ectoparasito. Em 80% (52/65 dos animais, os exemplares coletados localizavam-se somente na cauda e em 20% (13/65 na região periocular, orelha e cauda. Lêndeas, ninfas e adultos foram coletados, respectivamente, em 98,46% (64/65, em 38,46% (25/65 e em 23

  12. Dual origins of dairy cattle farming--evidence from a comprehensive survey of European Y-chromosomal variation.

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    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu haplogroup (Y3, as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles and BM861 (2 alleles. European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries.

  13. Analysis of a polymorphism in the DGAT1 gene in 14 cattle breeds through PCR-SSCP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoli, M V; Corva, P; Giovambattista, G

    2006-06-01

    The diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. Recent work have evidenced a significant association between lysine at amino acid position 232 with elevated milk fat content, while an alanine at this position is associated with lowered milk fat content. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and inexpensive PCR-SSCP assay in order to discriminate the CG/AA alleles in exon 8 of the DGAT1 gene. In addition, this method was used to analyze the polymorphism of the DGAT1 through PCR-SSCP methods in 14 populations of cattle from Argentine, Bolivia and Uruguay. The PCR primers were designed from GenBank reported sequences. In this study, we found three PCR-SSCP variants, which were denominated from "A" to "C". However, DNA sequencing analysis showed that "A" variant corresponded with the A allele, while both "B" and "C" observed pattern have the motif AA at positions 10,433-10,434 (K allele), being two alternative conformations of the same DNA sequence. Both variants were detected within each breed with the exception of Hereford, and the heterozygosity varied between 0.000 and 0.524. The gene frequency analysis evidenced significant differences among the studied breeds (F(ST) = 0.325, p = 0.000). European Bos taurus breeds, with the exception of Jersey breed, showed the lowest frequency of the K allele, while highest K allele frequencies were harboured by Bos indicus type cattle. In addition, unselected South American Creole cattle breeds and the synthetic Brangus breed had intermediate allele frequencies. PMID:16464654

  14. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

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    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  16. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  17. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

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    Joaquim Manoel da Silva

    Full Text Available High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production.

  18. Época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo de terneiros cruzas taurinos e zebuínos sobre o peso ao nascer, à desmama e eficiência individual de primíparas Hereford Calving season, genotype and sex of crossbred taurus and indicus calves on the birth and weaning weight and individual efficiency of primiparous Hereford

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    Gilson de Mendonça

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo do terneiro sobre a eficiência individual das vacas à desmama (relação percentual entre o peso do terneiro à desmama e o peso da vaca, peso ao nascer e peso à desmama dos terneiros. Foram utilizadas 48 vacas da raça Hereford (Bos taurus, com idade de três anos, manejadas sobre campo natural, 16 inseminadas com um touro da raça Red Angus (Bos taurus e 32 com Nelore (Bos indicus. Os fatores estudados foram genótipo do terneiro (GENOT - Bos taurus x Bos taurus e Bos taurus x Bos indicus, época de nascimento (EPOCN subdividida em três períodos - 1S (setembro, 2O (outubro e 3N (novembro e sexo do terneiro (SEXO. A produção de leite (PL foi incluída como co-variável. Foram realizadas dez medidas de produção de leite pelo método indireto pesagem - mamada - pesagem e onze medidas de peso para vacas e terneiros, em intervalos de 21 dias. Os fatores que influenciaram significativamente o PN foram GENOT e SEXO (PThe objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of calving season, genotype and calf sex on the cows weaning individual efficiency ( percentual relationship between cow body weight and calf weaning weight, birth and weaning weight of calves. Forty-eight primiparous Hereford cows with approximate average age of 3 years and grazing only native pastures were used. Sixteen inseminated with one Red Angus bull (Bos taurus and 32 with Nelore (Bos indicus. Effects studied were calf genotype (GENOT, Bos taurus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus, calving season (EPOCN concentrated in the Spring and subdivided into three periods: 1S (September, 2O (October and 3N (November and December and calf sex (SEXO. Milk production (PL was included as co-variable. Ten measurements of milk production obtained by the indirect method, weighing the calf before and after suckling, and eleven measurements of cow and calf weights, were made at 21

  19. Prevalence of Endoglobular Hemotropic Parasites in Pure Gyr Cattle in Córdoba, Colombia

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    Rafael Blanco Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine parasitic sadness produces significant losses in Colombia and it is associated with the presence of ticks. It is caused by microscopic endoglobular hemotropic parasites such as Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. In this study, 131 pure Gyr cows were studied from four cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia. A blood sample of 5 ml was collected from the coccygeal vein for hematocrit determination and for blood smears stained with Wright’s stain, in order to assess intracellular parasitic forms morphologically compatible with Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables of body condition, mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement were independent from the frequency of endoglobular hemotropic parasites. The study found that 24.43% of the sampled animals were positive for endoglobular hemotropic parasites; 20.61% (27/131 of them were positive for Anaplasma spp.; 3.05% (4/131 for Babesia spp., and 0.76% (1/131 for both Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found for variables of mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement. This allowed to register for the first time the prevalence of infection by endoglobular hemotropic parasites in Bos indicus cattle, of the Gyr breed specifically.

  20. Comparative tick counts on game, cattle and sheep on a working game ranch in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, F D; Orinda, G O; Ngae, G N; Grootenhuis, J

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the possible influence of host species on the maintenance of ticks in the field by determining the relative contribution of game animals compared to domestic animals. The study was carried out on a game ranch 32 km south-east of Nairobi. Tick counts were carried out on 30 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) aged 1 to 3 years and 20 red Maasai sheep (Ovis aries) aged 6 months to 1 year grazing with game animals in a common area for a period of 2 years and these counts were compared with those on eland and Thomson's gazelle. Half-body counts were carried out on the cattle and sheep once every week. To avoid excessive stress, the animals were dipped in amitraz whenever the half body counts exceeded 50 fully engorged female ticks of any species. Tick counts on two wild animal species (eland (Taurotragus oryx) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii)) were carried out during the weekly culling of the herbivores. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the number ticks per square metre between the wild ungulates and the domestic animals. PMID:17405627

  1. Mitochondrial DNA of Nellore and European x Nellore crossing cattle of high performance DNA mitocondrial de bovinos Nelore e cruzados Europeu x Nelore de alto desempenho

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    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate, through a polymorphism in the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial DNA, the frequency of Bos taurus indicus mtDNA individuals in a sample of Nellore purebred origin animals (n = 69 and crossbred animals originated from crosses of European sires and Nellore purebred origin females (n = 275. Only 2.26% (8/354 of the animals presented Bos taurus indicus mtDNA. The high frequency of Bos taurus taurus mtDNA in these animals can be a consequence of selection, once the animals studied are originated from selected lineages of high performance for meat production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de um polimorfismo no gene ND5 do DNA mitocondrial de bovinos, a porcentagem de indivíduos portadores de mtDNA Bos taurus indicus em animais Nelore PO (n = 69 e em animais provenientes do cruzamento entre machos europeus e fêmeas Nelore PO (n = 275. Apenas 2,26% (8/354 dos animais apresentaram mtDNA Bos taurus indicus. A alta freqüência de mtDNA Bos taurus taurus nesses animais pode ser reflexo de seleção, uma vez que os animais estudados se originam de linhagens selecionadas para alto desempenho de produção de carne.

  2. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

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    Paola Augusta Kemenes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  3. Comportamento de vacas da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus em estro Estrus behaviour in Gir cows (Bos taurus indicus

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    M.F. Ávila Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de vacas da raça Gir em estro e a concentração plasmática de progesterona foram avaliadas durante um estro induzido e o natural subseqüente, em 35 animais da raça Gir, no inverno e no verão de dois anos consecutivos. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e ano do experimento sobre a duração do ciclo estral. O proestro foi maior no verão (51,82± 4,77h do que no inverno (33,43± 4,82h e no estro natural (64,41± 4,95h do que no induzido (20,85± 4,64h. Observou-se menor duração da atividade sexual total no estro induzido do que no natural (41,62± 4,81 vs 94,83± 4,56h no inverno, e 64,00± 4,14 vs 127,44± 4,04h no verão. A duração do estro foi similar no inverno (12,33± 0,74h e no verão (11,82± 0,74h, e maior nas vacas sincronizadas (13,24± 0,70 vs 10,91± 0,78h. O número de montas recebidas durante o estro foi similar no inverno (28,16± 2,61 e no verão (22,98± 2,58 e maior nos animais sincronizados (29,97± 2,48 vs 21,17± 2,17. Observou-se efeito de interação entre estação e tipo de luteólise sobre o número de montas recebidas por hora em estro. O inverno não se constituiu em fator limitante à manifestação do estro, cuja duração e intensidade foram suficientes para permitir sua detecção; contudo, a sincronização dos estros interferiu com a manifestação do comportamento sexual.The estrus behaviour and the plasma progesterone concentration were monitored during an induced and a natural subsequent estrus, in 35 Gir cows, during the winter and summer seasons of two consecutives years. The length of estrous cycle was influenced by the interaction between season and experimental year. The proestrus period was longer in the summer (51.82± 4.77h compared to the one in the winter (33.43± 4.82h season as far as in the natural (64.41± 4.95h vs in the induced estrus (20.85± 4.64h. The total sexual activity was shorter in the induced than in the natural estrus (41.62± 4.81 vs 94.83± 4.56h in the winter, and 64.00± 4.14 vs 127.44± 4.04h in the summer. The length of estrus was similar between winter (12.33± 0.74h and summer (11.82± 0.74h, and longer in the synchronized cows (13.24± 0.70 vs 10.91± 0.78h. The number of mounts accepted during the estrus was similar between winter (28.16± 2.61 and summer (22.98± 2.58, and greater in the synchronized animals (29.97± 2.48 vs 21.17± 2.17. It was observed effect of interaction between season of the year and luteolysis type on the total received mountings per hour in estrus. The winter was not a limiting factor to the estrus manifestation, once its length and intensity allowed heat detection, however, heat synchronization meddled the manifestation of sexual behaviour.

  4. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  5. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Azevedo Mota; Juliana Duarte Messana; Roberta Carrilho Canesin; Giovani Fiorentini; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW) were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four ...

  6. Evaluation of carcass characteristics of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds selected for postweaning weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Alleoni, G F; Nardon, R F; Resende, F D

    2008-08-01

    Data from 9 studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of 20 yr of selection for postweaning weight (PWW) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in experimental herds of control Nellore (NeC) and selected Nellore (NeS), Caracu (CaS), Guzerah (GuS), and Gir (GiS) breeds. These studies were conducted with animals from a genetic selection program at the Experimental Station of Sertãozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. After the performance test (168 d postweaning), bulls (n = 490) from the calf crops born between 1992 and 2000 were finished and slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Treatments were different across studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and year were considered as random effects. Either calculated maturity degree or initial BW was used interchangeably as the covariate, and least squares means were used in the multiple-comparison analysis. The CaS and NeS had heavier (P = 0.002) carcasses than the NeC and GiS; GuS were intermediate. The CaS had the longest carcass (P body, carcass, and quarter weights of NeS were similar to those of CaS, NeS had more edible meat in the leg region than did CaS bulls. Selection for PWW increased rib-eye area in Nellore bulls. Selected Caracu had the lowest (most favorable) shear force values compared with the NeS (P = 0.003), NeC (P = 0.005), GuS (P = 0.003), and GiS (P = 0.008). Selection for PWW increased body, carcass, and meat retail weights in the Nellore without altering dressing percentage and body fat percentage. PMID:18407987

  7. Allelic Frequency of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin in Indian Crossbred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajesh K.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Singh, Krishna M.; Kalpesh J. Soni

    2007-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism test was performed on DNA samples extracted from blood samples of 256 Holstein Friesian crossbred and 112 from Jersey crossbred bulls/bull calves to detect allelic frequency of the bovine kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene responsible for milk production traits. A 350 bp fragment of kappa-casein and a 247 bp fragment of beta-lactoglobulin were amplified and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes, respec...

  8. Accuracy of genomic breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, C U; Lopes, F B; Fragoso, R C; Eifert, E C; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Sainz, R D

    2016-07-01

    Zebu () cattle, mostly of the Nellore breed, comprise more than 80% of the beef cattle in Brazil, given their tolerance of the tropical climate and high resistance to ectoparasites. Despite their advantages for production in tropical environments, zebu cattle tend to produce tougher meat than Bos taurus breeds. Traditional genetic selection to improve meat tenderness is constrained by the difficulty and cost of phenotypic evaluation for meat quality. Therefore, genomic selection may be the best strategy to improve meat quality traits. This study was performed to compare the accuracies of different Bayesian regression models in predicting molecular breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. The data set was composed of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus muscle from 205, 141, and 81 animals slaughtered in 2005, 2010, and 2012, respectively, which were selected and mated so as to create extreme segregation for WBSF. The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD (HD; 777,000 from 90 samples) chip or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP Indicus HD; 77,000 from 337 samples). The quality controls of SNP were Hard-Weinberg Proportion -value ≥ 0.1%, minor allele frequency > 1%, and call rate > 90%. The FImpute program was used for imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the HD chip. The effect of each SNP was estimated using ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayes A, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ methods. Different numbers of SNP were used, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the markers preselected based on their significance test (-value from genomewide association studies [GWAS]) or randomly sampled. The prediction accuracy was assessed by the correlation between genomic breeding value and the observed WBSF phenotype, using a leave-one-out cross-validation methodology. The prediction accuracies using all markers were all very similar for all models, ranging from 0

  9. Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D0), and at 7 days (D7) and 23 days (D23) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs

  10. Interactions among nutrition, heat stress, and reproduction in tropical cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient reproductive performance of lactating dairy cattle in tropical/subtropical environments throughout the world is impacted by a multiplicity of factors such as: the physical environment, social-economic status of producers, available nutrients, adaptability and genetic composition of cattle, intensive or extensive management systems, and available reproductive technology. Seasonal periods of reduced fertility are associated with concurrent increases in temperature and humidity, availability of nutrients, and elevations in body temperature detrimental to ovarian function, oocyte competence and embryo development. Implementation of heat abatement facilities can enhance both pregnancy rates and milk production. However, pregnancy rates are not restored to levels of the cooler season. Bulls that transmit a high tolerance to heat stress have daughters with higher pregnancy rates, a longer productive life, but lower milk yields. Continued selection for milk yield without consideration of heat tolerance likely will result in greater susceptibility to heat stress. Various genes regulate heat tolerance such as the slick hair gene that contributes to a greater tolerance of lactating dairy cows to heat stress that likely improves fertility. Furthermore, Bos Taurus x Bos indicus embryos, in vitro heat shock, have a higher rate of blastocyst development acquired through boss indicus genes from the oocyte or imprinting of certain embryonic paternal genes. With the known gene sequences of the bovine genome, identification of heat tolerance genes of boss indicus breeds offers the potential of introducing these genes into less heat tolerant breeds. Upgrading of heat tolerant boss indicus cattle to certain percentage of dairy breeding increases milk production and sustains tolerance to heat stress while maintaining a level of resistance to parasites and diseases. An array of refined reproductive technologies is available to better manage the reproductive performance of dairy

  11. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  12. Genetic polymorphism of milk proteins in some Bos genus populations

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Guastella; G. D'Urso; G. Tirella; Budelli, E; S. Bordonaro; Marletta, D

    2011-01-01

    In cattle the analysis of the genetic polymorphism of milk proteins provides an effective tool both to characterize the genetic diversity and to improve the efficiency of selection for specific production traits. Four genes, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), β-casein (CSN2), κ-casein (CSN3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) have showed a high level of genetic polymorphism and are candidate to play a role in selection programmes in order to improve milk production. In this work three Bos genu...

  13. Studies on the growth and reproduction of cattle in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a number of studies that had the long term aim of increasing the productivity of cattle in the tropics are reported. The studies were conducted on the B (Brahman), HS (interbred Hereford x Shorthorn), F1BX (first cross B x HS) and FnBX (interbred B x HS) lines. These breeds were used to demonstrate the origins of the heterosis that occurs in both the realized growth and the reproductive rate of Bos indicus x Bos taurus. Genetic and environmental factors that limit the realized reproductive rates were also investigated. The reproductive rate of cows of each breed that differed in lactation status during the breeding season was compared in contrasting environments. It was shown that the main limitation to HS achieving high realized reproductive rates was of environmental origin. For B cows, the main limitation was associated with the stress of lactation. Unsuccessful attempts were made to overcome this limitation by using progesterone releasing intravaginal devices alone or in combination with temporary calf weaning to try to induce a fertile oestrus. Improvement of the realized reproductive rates in the HS line was achieved by increasing their resistance to environmental stresses. The prospects for increasing the realized reproductive rate of maiden heifers by increasing their live weight at the start of their first breeding season were also investigated. About half of the heifers of each breed were implanted with the synthetic growth promotant Synovex 'H' on three occasions before the start of the breeding season. Although the live weight of all breeds increased in response to Synovex 'H', the magnitude of the response was dependent on the presence or absence of parasite control. Previously implanted heifers had a lower pregnancy rate than non-implanted heifers. 4 refs, 6 tabs

  14. Analysis of Genetic Diversity of the mtDNA D-Loop Regions and Phylogenetic Evolution of Chinese Local Cattle%中国部分地方牛种mtDNA D-loop区全序列的遗传多样性与系统进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云; 于波; 徐永杰; 吴海港; 梁小娟; 付蕾; 李芬

    2012-01-01

    Using PCR technology, sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis technology to amplify and analyze the mtDNA D-loop region complete sequence of four local cattle varieties,a hybrid cattle variety,five local buffalo species and two local yak breeds. The results showed that Chinese domestic buffalo,yak and cattle breeds had rich mitochondrial genetic diversity. Based on the mtDNA D-loop sequences, the phylogeny of the representative species of buffalo,cattle,yak,wild yak,Bos Taurus,Bos indicus and rivers of India-based buffalo were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships showed that cattle and yaks clustered into one,buffalo alone clustered into one. This means cattle have a close relationship with yaks with a distant relationship with buffalo. China buffalo belong to the swamp type water buffalo, but a small number of rivers type water buffalo gradually mixed into the China buffalo groups. Chinese cattle for the Bos taunts and the Bos indicus mixture of maternal origin; phylogenetic tree showed that the plateau yak has a close relationship with the wild yak,the lake yak has a close relationship with the domestic yak.%利用PCR测序及生物信息学分析技术,对我国5个地方黄牛品种、5个地方水牛品种及2个地方牦牛品种的mtDNA D-loop区全序列进行PCR扩增以及核苷酸多样度、单倍型多样度分析,发现中国地方黄牛、水牛与牦牛具有丰富的遗传多样性.对试验牛mtDNA D-loop区全序列与牛亚科代表性物种黄牛、水牛、家牦牛、野牦牛、欧洲普通牛、印度瘤牛以及摩拉水牛相应序列进行系统发育分析.结果显示:黄牛与牦牛的亲缘关系较近,它们与水牛的亲缘关系较远;中国水牛属于沼泽型水牛,也有少量江河型水牛渐渗入中国水牛群体;中国黄牛为普通牛和瘤牛的混合母系起源;进化树显示高原牦牛与野牦牛的素缘关系较近,环湖牦牛与家牦牛的亲缘关系较近.

  15. Promoter region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene: single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cattle and association with performance in Brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2008-12-01

    Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:18676722

  16. Morfometría ovárica de hembras Cebú (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la morfometría ovárica está directamente relacionado con sus aplicaciones para analizar e interpretar los hallazgos, en los exámenes ginecológicos de las vacas. Para este trabajo se recolectaron 114 pares de ovarios en frigorífico, clasificados a partir del ancho, grueso, largo, volumen, diámetro del folículo, diámetro y área del cuerpo lúteo. Fue observada una diferencia significativa en el ancho (1,95cm y 1,83cm y el volumen (7,26 mL y 6,23 mL de los ovarios izquierdos y derechos, respectivamente. En cuanto al tamaño y el volumen de los folículos, el diámetro y el área de los cuerpos lúteos, no hubo diferencia relevante. En los lados hubo correlación positiva (p<0,01 entre el volumen del ovario izquierdo y el área del cuerpo lúteo. La presencia de folículos con diámetro igual o superior a 9mm, el cuerpo lúteo de tipo macizo y protruso presente en 43,39% de los 53 ovarios, predominó con relación al tipo cóncavo. De los 84 ovarios con cuerpos lúteos, el 26,20% eran de tipo extrapolado. Se concluye, que la presencia de cuerpo lúteo incluso, en vacas cebú, puede resultar en fallas diagnósticas durante el examen de palpación rectal para estimar la actividad ovárica.

  17. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. PMID:24725537

  19. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  20. Estimación del comportamiento productivo y parámetros genéticos de características predestete en bovinos de carne (Bos taurus y sus cruzas, VIII Región, Chile Estimation of pre-weaning productive performance and genetic parameters in beef cattle (Bos taurus and crosses, VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G Cienfuegos-Rivas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento productivo al nacimiento y destete de los terneros hijos de toros Angus, Hereford y Polled Hereford con vacas Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford e Híbridas (cruzas de Holstein con combinaciones de Hereford en un rebaño bovino de carne en la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile. Los animales fueron clasificados de acuerdo a sus características fenotípicas. El comportamiento productivo se evaluó analizando 1.119 registros productivos, desde 1999 al 2000, para las variables peso al nacimiento (PN, N=1.119, peso al destete ajustado (PD205, N=660 y ganancia predestete (GDP, N=660 utilizando el método de mínimos cuadrados para determinar el efecto de la raza del toro (GRT, la raza de la vaca (GRV, el grupo contemporáneo (GC y edad de la vaca (EDV como covariable sobre las variables PN, PD205 y GDP. Los parámetros genéticos y ambientales fueron estimados usando un modelo animal con la metodología MTDFREML, empleándose análisis univariados y bivariados para la estimación de los componentes de varianza. El efecto de GRT y GC fue significativo (PThe objective was to determine the productive performance in body weight change from birth until weaning, of calves sired by Angus, Hereford and Polled Hereford with Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford, and Hybrid (different Holstein and Hereford combinations cows in a beef cattle herd in the dry area of the Ñuble, province of the VIII Region in Chile. The sires and cows were classified according to their phenotypic characteristics. The productive performance was evaluated by analyzing 1,119 production records from year 1990 to 2000 for the variables: birth weight (PN, N=1,119, adjusted weaning weight (PD205, N=660 and preweaning daily gain (GDP; N=660 using the least squares method to determine the effects of breed group of the sire (GRT, breed group of the dam (GRV, and contemporary groups (GC, with age of dam

  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2) gene in crossbred cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara; Eder Pinatti; Aderbal Cavalcante-Neto; Gunta Gutmanis; Weber Vilas Boas Soares; Flávio Dutra de Resende; Marcelo Henrique de Faria

    2012-01-01

    With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibit...

  2. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Schibler; Julia Elsner; Angela Schlumbaum

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to...

  3. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  4. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  5. RECENT SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS IN THE CATTLE GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (> or =90% sequence identity, > or =5 kb length) within the newest public version of the Bos taurus genome assembly (bta_3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the cattle assembly is approximately equiva...

  6. Post-partum reproductive efficiency of pure- and cross-bred Zebu cattle under different management and nutritional conditions in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments described were carried out by the Research Centre of the Veterinary Institute for Tropical and High Altitude Research (IVITA), at an experimental station located near Pucallpa in the Amazon Basin of Peru. The aim was to study some of the factors affecting reproductive efficiency under field conditions, with special emphasis on the effects of nutrition, body weight, suckling and some adaptation related parameters in pure- and cross-bred Zebu cattle. Progesterone assay was used in combination with clinical examinations to evaluate more precisely the reproductive parameters studied. A long post-partum anoestrus interval was the most important factor limiting reproductive efficiency in pure-bred Zebu animals. The 10 month interval observed under field and experimental conditions was shortened by improving the level of nutrition. However, the first ovulation after parturition was inhibited by free or restricted suckling until weaning took place 8 months post-partum. In contrast, dual purpose cross bred Bos taurus x Bos indicus animals tended to show better reproductive performance when suckling was allowed, the difference being significant when adequate management and feeding were also provided. Body weight at calving and subsequent weight changes during the post-partum period significantly affected the onset of post-partum reproductive function in both pure- and cross-bred Zebu cows. Cross-bred animals with a low body weight at calving remained acyclic for 8 months. On small farms, only 35% of the intervals between artificial insemination services were in the range of 18 to 24 days. Progesterone profiles determined between successive oestrous periods revealed a high frequency of unobserved oestrus. The correlation between rectal palpation of ovarian structures and progesterone concentration was 0.82 and 0.96 in diagnosing luteal and non-luteal structures respectively. The combination of weekly clinical examinations and progesterone determinations gave a

  7. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  8. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  9. Size of the Ovulatory Follicle Dictates Spatial Differences in the Oviductal Transcriptome in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella-Diaza, Angela María; da Silva Andrade, Sónia Cristina; Sponchiado, Mariana; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Mesquita, Fernando Silveira; Van Hoeck, Veerle; de Francisco Strefezzi, Ricardo; Gasparin, Gustavo R.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Binelli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In cattle, molecular control of oviduct receptivity to the embryo is poorly understood. Here, we used a bovine model for receptivity based on size of the pre-ovulatory follicle to compare oviductal global and candidate gene transcript abundance on day 4 of the estrous cycle. Growth of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) of Nelore (Bos indicus) cows was manipulated to produce two groups: large POF large corpus luteum (CL) group (LF-LCL; greater receptivity) and small POF-small CL group (SF-SCL). Oviductal samples were collected four days after GnRH-induced ovulation. Ampulla and isthmus transcriptome was obtained by RNA-seq, regional gene expression was assessed by qPCR, and PGR and ERa protein distribution was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. There was a greater abundance of PGR and ERa in the oviduct of LF-LCL animals thus indicating a greater availability of receptors and possibly sex steroids stimulated signaling in both regions. Transcriptomic profiles indicated a series of genes associated with functional characteristics of the oviduct that are regulated by the periovulatory sex steroid milieu and that potentially affect oviductal receptivity and early embryo development. They include tissue morphology changes (extra cellular matrix remodeling), cellular changes (proliferation), and secretion changes (growth factors, ions and metal transporters), and were enriched for the genes with increased expression in the LF-LCL group. In conclusion, differences in the periovulatory sex steroid milieu lead to different oviductal gene expression profiles that could modify the oviductal environment to affect embryo survival and development. PMID:26699362

  10. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  11. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  12. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  13. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ujan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  14. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  15. Prevalence of liver flukes Fasciola hepatica in cattle of Puebla State in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is not a priority for Mexican agriculture authorities, even though it has been known since XVIII century and their affectations oscillate between 5-80% of animals infected in several cattle zones of the country, fundamentally between the small producers. The introduction of Bubalus bubalis fortify the epidemiologists conditions and possible introduction of Fasciola gigantica in the states of Puebla and Veracruz. This study was performed in 870 animals of reproductive age in 30 farms of the state of Puebla, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the coprological assay (Fascidig) technique (ELISA), for the determination of circulating antigens of Fasciola from a monoclonal Antibody. 25% of the productive animals of each farm were selected and coproparasitological technique of Lumbreras was used to have a better idea of the real prevalence of Fasciola hepatica. Selected areas were: zones of altitude between 1500 and 2000M above the sea level, an area of operation below the 700 msnm and an area of total stabulation. In all areas of transmission the presence of Fossaria cubensis and the potentiality for transmission of viable metacercarias was verified. A higher prevalence (57,1%) to the hypothesis of study in low zones of the municipality Tlatlauquitepec, North Sierra of Puebla was obtained, the high zone of Teziuitlan showed an elevated percentage of infected animals (67%), but in this case they verified the lack of measures of sanitary regulation, when Bovine gained being transferred Bos taurus X Bos indicus, infected from white Earth and other areas of transmission well-known in Veracruz, where it is notified in sign until more of 50% of infected animals. In the case of Atlixco Puebla, a high prevalence in ten milk farms were detected, which surpass percentage notified in previous years, although the immunoassay study reflects not only the egg shedding, but those animals infected at the moment of the study

  16. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  17. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  18. Lipid Lowering Activity of Anthocephalus indicus Root in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid lowering activity of Anthocephalus indicus (family Rubiaceae; Hindi name Kadamba root extract has been studied in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. In this model, feeding with root extract (500 mg kg−1 b.w. lowered plasma lipids and reactivated post-heparin lipolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50–500 μM inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems, in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated both lipid lowering and antioxidant activities in root extract of A. indicus, which could help prevention of hyperlipidemia and related diseases.

  19. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    Beef cows in the subtropical USA must be adapted to the stressors of the environment, typically supplied by using Brahman (Br) breeding. Calves produced in the region, however, are usually grown and finished in more temperate regions, and have a perceived reputation for poor ADG and feed efficiency during finishing. Compromised fertility and carcass quality often associated with the Br have increased interest in tropically adapted Bos taurus breed types. The objective of this study was to evaluate 3 breeds [An = Angus (Bos taurus, temperate); Br (B. indicus, tropical); and Ro = Romosinuano (B. taurus, tropical)] and all possible crosses during various segments of post-weaning growth, and for feed efficiency during the finishing phase. Steer calves (n = 473) born over 3 yr were weaned in late September, backgrounded for at least 21 d (BKG), shipped 2,025 km to El Reno, OK, in October, fed a preconditioning diet for 28 d (RCV), grazed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pasture from November to May (WHT), finished on a conventional feedlot diet (FIN), and serially harvested after approximately 95, 125, and 150 d on feed. Body weight and ADG during each segment were tested using a mixed model that included calf age at weaning, year (Y), breed of sire (SB), breed of dam (DB), and interactions. In addition, winter treatment (continuous wheat or reduced grazing of wheat with supplement) was included for the wheat and feedlot phases. Sire within SB × SB [and pen (barn × year) for feedlot phase] were considered random. The SB × DB interaction was significant for all traits (P < 0.01) except exit velocity taken at weaning and ADG during FIN, but both traits were affected by 3-way interactions with Y or harvest group. Tropically-adapted purebred steers had greater (P < 0.01) ADG than AnAn through weaning and BKG in FL but the reverse was true during the RCV and WHT segments. Similar, but less pronounced results were noted for F(1) steers with 100% tropical influence compared

  20. Assessment of sewage water as carrier of pathogenic organisms to cattle/
    Ensaio com águas poluídas como veiculadoras de patógenos para bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Valdair Josino Carvalho Landin; Vanete Thomaz Soccol; Vando Edésio Soares; Giane Serafin da Silva; Alvimar José da Costa; Uriel Franco Rocha; Oeliton Ferreira Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Water of a brook that receives raw sewage from Jaboticabal, São Paulo State tawn, that passes through the grounds of the UNESP University campus, and, of the well that provides water to the University’s facilities were submitted to bacteriological and parasitological analysis. At the same time, 16 steers aged 8 to 16 months (8 Bos indicus and 8 Bos taurus), were closed in and given one of each type of water to drink (4 to each water source) for seven fifteen day periods. On day zero all the a...

  1. Virulence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus Ibis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Van, Dao Thanh; Tung, Dao Duy; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    In Vietnam, Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) are common in a variety of habitats, such as freshwater marshes, beaches, and paddy fields. They are also found associated with cattle (Bos spp.) and occasionally with pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), and horses (Equus caballus) and are kept for...... insect control in households. In this study, six Cattle Egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) A/duck/Vietnam/40D/04 (H5N1) to investigate a possible epidemiologic role for Cattle Egrets in outbreaks of H5N1 AI in Vietnam. The Cattle Egrets were...

  2. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    OpenAIRE

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  3. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P heifers receiving MGA had lower conception results following AI (51.6 vs. 71.4%; P = 0.01). In addition, MGA-treated heifers were more likely to have a corpus luteum in the middle of the breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers. PMID:26115267

  4. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  5. Efecto de SNPs de genes candidatos asociados a textura de la carne en bovinos Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla López, Yenny Catherine

    2014-01-01

    La terneza de la carne es el principal atributo de aceptación de la carne por parte del consumidor, sin olvidar las características de jugosidad y el sabor; por lo que su impacto en la rentabilidad y la calidad de la carne es de gran importancia. La terneza de la carne de bovinos está influenciada por factores genéticos y ambientales. El evaluar el desempeño de la terneza a través de factores como son el tiempo de maduración y el efecto del cruce de los animales, estos han sido de uso frecuen...

  6. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P Angus were lighter (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  8. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  9. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawrayup, S; Duvallet, G; Sukonthabhirom, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T

    2012-08-01

    A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2%) and S. calcitrans (49.5%). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. PMID:22910668

  10. Psychotropic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. In Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V J Galani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae is a branched herb with purple color flowers, distributed in wet places. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S. indicus (SIE in rats and mice. Effect of SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. on spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor coordination, exploratory behaviour and apomorphine-induced stereotypy were investigated in mice. SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. induced catalepsy and effect of SIE on haloperidol induced catalepsy were studied in rats. The SIE showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, exploratory behaviour and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in the mice. Neuroleptic potential of SIE was observed by the results in which SIE antagonized apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice, produced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Further, SIE had no effect on motor-coordination as determined by the rota rod test. These results provide evidence that the hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus may contain psychoactive substances that are sedative in nature with possible neuroleptic properties.

  11. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  12. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  13. Optimizing Stocking Rate for Maximum Return to Wheat-cattle Enterprise Using Model Simulation and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing dual-purpose wheat is complex because of the tradeoff relationship between cattle (Bos taurus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Stocking rate (SR) and planting date are the key decision variables of the dual systems. The objective was to develop decision support information th...

  14. Measuring microbial protein supply from purine excretion in Yerli Kara cattle in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara (Bos indicus) bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other, where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40, 60, 80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4 x 4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8-14C-uric acid via a jugular catheter. In addition to the above two experiments, the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined. In the first experiment, fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (± 0.053) mmol/kg W0.75/d. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre-fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P 14C-uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8-14C-uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (± 43.8) and 250.3 L (± 29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin:PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (mmol/d), and DDMI (kg/d) and DOMI (kg/d) (r = 0.99, P 0.75 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were: 1.34 (± 0.72) and 0.44 (± 0.05), and 0.13 (± 0.03) and 0.08 (± 0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and intestinal mucosa, respectively. In plasma xanthine oxidase activity was 5.0 (± 1.2) unit/L while uricase activity was absent. (author)

  15. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Zhiqiang Fu; Yang Hong; Haiwei Wu; Yamei Jin; Chuangang Zhu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Yaojun Shi; Chunxiu Yuan; Guofeng Cheng; Xingang Feng; Jinming Liu; Jiaojiao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection we...

  16. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in Underground Mine Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Edmund Chime

    2011-01-01

    The schlieren technique describes an optical analysis method designed to enhance light distortions caused by air movement. The ability to visualize gas flows has significant implications for analyzing underground mine ventilation systems. Currently, the widely utilized traditional schlieren methods are impractical underground due to complex equipment and design requirements. Background oriented schlieren (BOS) provides a solution to this problem. BOS requires two primary components, a pro...

  17. Effect of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in south-east Brazil: Part 3-Meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A

    1982-02-01

    Significant differences in a number of economically important appearance and palatability traits were recorded between the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Muscles from the Charolais and Canchim animals were consistently and significantly lighter in colour than those from the zebu breeds, even after pH effects had been taken into account. Differences were shown to be directly related to variations in muscle myoglobin levels, but may have been complicated by observed textural differences. Muscles from the zebu animals were not noticeably coarser grained, having significantly larger fibre diameters and fibre bundle sizes. The inferiority of the Bos indicus breeds in terms of muscle tenderness was clearly demonstrated. Significantly higher shear force values were recorded in all muscles from the Nelore and Guzera breeds, except the Psoas major. These differences were also detected by taste panel evaluation. Major differences between breeds were demonstrated in the thermo-stability of extracted intra-muscular connective tissue elements, being highest in the zebu breeds, intermediate in the Canchim and lowest in the Charolais. These solubility characteristics were thought to be due to differences in the relative proportions of genetically different collagen types in the muscles and an association between coarseness of texture and toughness was shown. PMID:22054790

  18. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  19. National Genetic Evaluation (System) of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, B; Choi, T; Kim, S.; Oh, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae) have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selec...

  20. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

  1. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida. PMID:2005003

  2. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG...

  3. Effect of Cooking on Quality Commonly Consumed Marine Fish Platycephalidae (Platycephalus indicus) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Aberoumand; Saeed Ziaei-Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Fish Platycephalus indicus usually are consumed by southern people in Iran. The present study assessed the effect of processing on proximate compositions in the fillets of P.indicus. The fish samples were prepared by boiling, baking and frying, while proximate analysis was done by standard methods. Boiling processing method significantly reduced ash content in the fillet whereas fat content was significantly increased in frying. Baking method recorded highest ash content of 10.64%. The hi...

  4. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  5. Polymorphism in Sahiwal breed of zebu cattle revealed using synthetic oligonucleotide markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    conditions could be the reason for variation in banding pattern of same core sequences of differing length. The probe TCC5 produced multilocus polymorphic fingerprints. The level of polymorphism was low as revealed by high mean band sharing values of 0.75. The reason for this deviation from the present observation could be the variation between genome of Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Alternatively it is possible that HinfI restriction sites are adjacent to TCCn sequences are conserved while there may be variation in HaeIII restriction sites. The probe GTG5 produced highly polymorphic DNA fingerprints. The number of bands ranged between 9-17 with average band sharing of 0.48. The probe GTG5 or its complementary sequences CAC5 produced highly polymorphic fingerprints. High heterozygosity level obtained in this study and low level of mutation rate associated with the sequences indicate that the probe can be used for analyzing population structure, parentage verification and as a marker to identify loci controlling quantitative traits, disease resistance, fertility etc. (author)

  6. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  7. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  8. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  9. Metanálise para características de carcaça de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos Metanalysis for carcass traits of cattle from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Silva Lopes

    2008-11-01

    applied in this study to evaluate factors that affect the carcass quality components in beef cattle (rib eye area - AOL and fat thickness - EGC, measured between the 12th and the13th ribs and to compare them in different genetic groups. Data from 215 measures of AOL and 209 measures of EGC, from 65,174 animals, extracted from 36 papers published between 1985 and 2006 were used. The Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method and an animal model that considered AOL and EGC as functions of the fixed effects of country from where the data come from; animal category; feed system; measure methodology; Bos indicus, british and continental Bos taurus gene contribution; age and weight at measure, were used. The observed averages for AOL and e EGC were 63.5cm² and 4.2mm, respectively. The animals were in average 552.22 days old at the measure of the characteristics and had 468.47kg of live weight. The use of meta-analysis permitted to get generalized conclusions about AOL and EGC: animals rose in the EUA presented values significantly superior for AOL and EGC when compared with those rose in Australia and Brazil; castrated and the entire males presented bigger AOL measures (do not differing among them compared to females, and females presented bigger EGC. The feed system, confined and do not confined, were superior to the greasing system. The Continental Bos taurus genotypes presented bigger AOL values, British Bos taurus presented bigger EGC values, and Bos indicus presented intermediate values. The measures taken in the carcass (pos mortis and by ultra son (in vivo were not different. The increase in the characteristics decreased with the age and live weight increase.

  10. Effect of biological type of cattle on the incidence of the dark, firm, and dry condition in the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Dikeman, M E

    1994-02-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to characterize longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness for beef carcasses of diverse biological types and to determine the genetic parameters of lean color, texture, and firmness. The carcasses (n = 3,641) used in this experiment were from steers produced by mating Angus, Brahman, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chianina, Galloway, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Longhorn, Maine Anjou, Nellore, Piedmontese, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, Sahiwal, Salers, Shorthorn, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise sires to Hereford and Angus dams. Steers were fed a corn-corn silage diet from weaning until slaughter at 356 to 575 d of age. Steers were slaughtered at commercial packing plants and longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness were scored by trained carcass evaluators. Sire line least squares means for lean color, texture, and firmness ranged approximately one unit on a 7-point scale. Chianina crosses had darker-colored lean than all breed groups except Tarentaise and Simmental crosses (P < .05). Moreover, a higher percentage (P < .05) of Chianina crosses than of all other breed groups had unacceptably dark-colored ("dark red" or darker) lean. Bos indicus sire lines were not different from Bos taurus sire lines in frequency of carcasses with unacceptably dark-colored lean. However, Bos indicus crosses were more likely to be scored "very light cherry-red." Lean color and texture were lowly heritable, whereas lean firmness was moderately heritable. Thus, this experiment demonstrated that there is genetic variation in the incidence of the DFD condition; however, genetic variation was small relative to environmental variation. PMID:8157518

  11. Stocking rate and monensin supplemental level effects on growth performance of beef cattle consuming warm-season grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, J M B; Sanchez, J M D; Cooke, R F; Aguiar, A D; Moriel, P; da Silva, W L; Cunha, O F R; Ferreira, P D S; Pereira, A C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of monensin supplementation on animals receiving warm-season grass with limited supplementation. In Exp. 1, treatments were a factorial combination of 2 stocking rates (1.2 and 1.7 animal unit [AU] [500 kg BW]/ha) and supplementation with monensin (200 mg/d) or control (no monensin) distributed in a complete randomized design with 3 replicates. Thirty Angus × Brahman crossbred heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with initial BW of 343 ± 8 kg were randomly allocated into 12 bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures and supplemented with 0.4 kg DM of concentrate (14% CP and 78% TDN) daily for 86 d. Herbage mass (HM) and nutritive value evaluations were conducted every 14 d, and heifers were weighed every 28 d. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.97) of monensin on HM, herbage allowance (HA), and ADG; however, animals receiving monensin had greater (P = 0.03) plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. The stocking rate treatments had similar HM in June (P = 0.20) and July (P = 0.18), but the higher stocking rate decreased (P < 0.01) HM and HA during August and September. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.01) for the pastures with the lower stocking rate in August but not different in July and September (P ≥ 0.15). Gain per hectare tended to be greater on pastures with the higher stocking rate (P ≤ 0.06). In Exp. 2, treatments were 3 levels of monensin (125, 250, and 375 mg/animal per day) and control (no monensin) tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 10-d adaptation period followed by 5 d of rumen fluid collection and total DMI evaluation. Blood samples were collected on d 4 and 5 of the collection period. Ground stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay (11.0% CP and 52% in vitro digestible organic matter) was offered daily. The steers received the same supplementation regimen as in Exp. 1. Total DMI was not different among treatments (P = 0.64). There was a linear increase (P ≤ 0.01) in propionate and a tendency

  12. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  13. Characteristics of feeding and breeding practices for intensification of smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands

    OpenAIRE

    B.O. Bebe; Udo, H.M.J.; Thorpe, W.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at better understanding of the characteristics of feeding and breeding practices smallholder farmers adopt in intensifying their dairy production. Use of hired labour for fodder gathering, growing of fodder crops and purchase of feeds increased with increasing intensification, but Bos taurus breeds did not respond to increasing feeding intensification while Bos indicus cattle responded, calving at earlier age and yielding more milk. Overall, first calving occurred at 32 month...

  14. Niveles de infestación parasitaria y condición corporal en bovinos doble propósito infestados en condiciones naturales (Degree of infestation and body condition in dual purpose naturally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En una finca semi-intensiva ubicada en el sector San Antonio de la parroquia Ciudad Bolivia, municipio Pedraza, Estado Barinas; se realizó el estudio coproparasitológico de 65 bovinos mestizos (Predominante Bos taurus y acebuados [ ½ Bos taurus x ½ Bos indicus], mediante la técnica coproscópica de McMaster con solución salina sobresaturada como líquido de flotación, se estableció la condición corporal por el método de la escala del 1 al 5 y 2,5 como punto de inflexión. Se determinó el hematocrito mediante el método de microhematocrito por centrifugación. Los resultados obtenidos fueron los siguientes: Los recuentos más elevados de huevos por gramo de heces de estróngilos digestivos (h.p.g. le correspondieron a animales con condición corporal ≤ 2,5. Estos animales pueden ser considerados acumuladores de parásitos. Los animales con altas cargas de parásitos y buena condición corporal pueden ser considerados resilientes. Estos dos grupos de animales son los principales contaminadores del pastizal, se evidenció el efecto negativo de las altas cargas parasitarias sobre los valores de hematocrito. Los animales no acumuladores de parásitos y los resilientes presentaron valores de hematocrito similares. No se evidenció ninguna asociación entre el color de la conjuntiva ocular y el valor del hematocrito. Los animales acebuados presentaron mayores valores de hematocrito. Este valor se vio afectado por las altas cargas parasitarias. Se determinó elevada eficiencia en los antihelmínticos utilizados en la finca (Albendazol, Doramectina e Ivermectina, a pesar de que se vienen usando desde hace cinco años. Esto puede ser debido a la baja frecuencia de dosificación y a la rotación del producto en relación al grupo etario de los animales. La presencia de animales resilientes en la granja limita el uso de la condición corporal como criterio de selección de la fracción de animales a tratar dentro del rebaño. SUMMARY.- This

  15. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  16. Relationship between back and rump fat thickness and residual feed intake of young Nellore cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Eimar de Oliveira Lara; Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante; André Luiz Grion; Enilson Geraldo Ribeiro; Renata Helena Branco

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Evidence exists of a positive correlation between RFI and fat thickness in Bos taurus, suggesting that low RFI cattle (feed efficient ones) are leaner. The objective of this study was to access the relationship between fat thickness and RFI by partial correlation including all animals (n=603...

  17. Bronchodilatory effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs

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    R V Sarpate

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn and its various fractions were tested for their bronchodilatory effect against histamine induced acute bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The methanolic extract and its fractions viz. petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate exhibited significant protection against bronchospasm, induced by histamine in guinea pigs. However significant (p< 0.001 protection was exhibited by methanolic extract which was comparable with Chlorophenarmine maleate (2mg/kg included as the standard in the study. The results of present study suggest that, the plant Sphaeranthus indicus shows the bronchodilatory activity.

  18. Pengaruh Anggaran Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) Terhadap Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Siswa SMP Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to find out the correlation and the effectiveness of BOS (School Operation Assistance) fund with the improvement of SMP students' learning achievement in Medan. BOS program has started since July, 2005 which is aimed to ease people's burden in education cost by giving financial aid for supporting qualified nine-year learning compulsory. Although the government has distributed BOS fund to schools, there are still many poor children who drop out of school, and ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  20. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano; Usaquén Martínez William

    2006-01-01

    La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es e...

  1. Dinámica folicular y función lútea durante la gestación temprana. Estudio de un caso en Bos indicus.

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    Henao R Guillermo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A una vaca Cebú de seis años, tres partos y 432 Kg de peso, se le practicaron ecografías ováricas transrectales y muestreos sanguíneo tres veces por semana desde el día uno al 74 de gestación. Se contó el número de folículos > 4 mm y se midió el diámetro de los folículos y el diámetro y tiempo de observación ecográfica del cuerpo lúteo. Se determinó la ovulación y se calculó la tasa de crecimiento del folículo dominante y el intervalo interdominancia. Los niveles de progesterona se midieron por radioinmunoanálisis. Durante los primeros 74 días de la gestación se desarrollaron 10 ondas foliculares; la primera fue conformada por seis folículos  4mm, de los cuales se desarrolló uno dominante que alcanzó un diámetro de 11 mm, creció a una tasa de un mm/día y presentó un intervalo interdominancia de 10 días. El folículo subordinado más desarrollado alcanzó un diámetro de 6 mm. Los folículos dominantes alcanzaron 9.11 mm de diámetro, crecieron a una tasa de 1,0  0,19 mm/día y presentaron un intervalo interdominancia de 7,5  1,73 días. El cuerpo lúteo alcanzó un diámetro máximo de 21mm el día 40 de gestación. La progesterona alcanzó niveles >10 ng/100ml a partir del día 11. Durante la gestación temprana de una vaca Cebú se presentó dinámica folicular caracterizada por el desarrollo de ondas foliculares semejantes a las producidas durante el ciclo estral y se formó un cuerpo lúteo activo productor de niveles característicos de progesterona.

  2. Protocolos de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo en vacas (Bos indicus en el trópico bajo

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    Andrés M. Sanabria-V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En una hacienda de clima tropical bajo, se evalula  respuesta  a  tres  programas de  Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF en 30 vacas vacías cebú  comercial, cíclicas,  con buena  condición corporal,  seleccionadas por  palpación  rectal  ydistribuidas al azar en  tres grupos de 10 vacas cada uno. A  éstos  se  les  asignó  un  protocolo  de sincronización de celos y ovulación diferente. En el grupo 1 se utilizó un dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona;  las vacas del grupo 2 recibieron un  implante auricular  impregnado de Norgestomet  y  en  el  grupo  3  se  realizó  el protocolo de Ovsynch. Se diagnosticó la preñez mediante ultrasonografía, 30 días después de la inseminación en  los  tratamientos y  los datos  fueron analizados mediante  estadística descriptiva  con variables  de  tipo  cuantitativo.  Los  resultados obtenidos para el grupo 1, fueron 4 de 10 vacas preñadas, en el grupo 2, 6 de 10 vacas preñadas y en  el  grupo  3, 3  de 10  vacas. Se  encontraron diferencias  significativas  entre  las  vacas  que recibieron  el  implante  auricular,  así  como  a aquellas  vacas que  se  les hizo  el protocolo de Ovsynch,  pero  no  se  encontraron  diferencias significativas  entre  el  dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona,  respecto de  los dos restantes. El valor más económico por preñez se obtuvo  con  la  utilización  del  protocolo  de Ovsynch; sin embargo, en  términos de eficiencia,fue mejor usar el implante auricular impregnado de  Norgestomet;  esto  por  razones  de mejoramiento  genético.  De  esta  forma  se concluyó que el protocolo del implante auricular con Norgestomet  tuvo una superior  tasa de preñez,sin que  esto  sea  una  constante,  debido  a  que  existen diferentes  factores que hacen variar  los resultados de la IATF.

  3. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P heifers. PMID:26169688

  4. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus) gestantes e não gestantes

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Vargas; P.R. Xavier; C.A. Rezende; M.M. Neves; A.P. Marques Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o tr...

  5. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) and their correlation with climatic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Francisco Carlos Platzeck Estrella Alves; Eunice Oba; Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of t...

  6. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

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    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  7. Marcadores moleculares asociados a la Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) en carne de Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Gutiérrez, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    La Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) es una de las características de la carne con mayor efecto sobre la rentabilidad del sector, al estar asociada a las mermas y a la jugosidad. Los objetivos principales son: resaltar la importancia de la CRA de la carne de bovino, evaluar el desempeño de estos parámetros según los factores tiempo de maduración y cruce de los animales y establecer polimorfismos en genes candidatos asociados al parámetro evaluado. Varios genes y sus polimorfismos han sido ...

  8. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

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    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  9. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects. PMID:17434541

  10. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  11. Assessment of sewage water as carrier of pathogenic organisms to cattle/ Ensaio com águas poluídas como veiculadoras de patógenos para bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdair Josino Carvalho Landin

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Water of a brook that receives raw sewage from Jaboticabal, São Paulo State tawn, that passes through the grounds of the UNESP University campus, and, of the well that provides water to the University’s facilities were submitted to bacteriological and parasitological analysis. At the same time, 16 steers aged 8 to 16 months (8 Bos indicus and 8 Bos taurus, were closed in and given one of each type of water to drink (4 to each water source for seven fifteen day periods. On day zero all the animals were treated with ivermectin (at a dosage of 200 mg/Kg and were randomly separated in two groups (one for each water source. The experimental cattle came from farms supposedly free of cysticercosis and underwent clinical and laboratorial testing to detect the presence of this parasite before the beginning and at regular intervals during the experiment. After the seven fifteen day period, the 16 steers were slaughtered and were inspected by the “Serviço de Inspeção Federal – SIF” (Federal Inspection Service. Blood and tissue samples were taken from all animals for laboratorial testing. a the bacteriological tests revealed that the water from the well, classified as drinking water, had fecal coliform levels compatible to the classification as “drinking water” (CONAMA 20, but the water from the brook “Cerradinho” was classified as polluted in all samples; b the samples taken during the 15 weeks all showed the presence of eggs of Cestode ( Taenia and Hymenolepis and Nematode ( Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria and Ancylostomidae helminthes; c while one of eight steers given drinking water from the well was infected with Cysticercus bovis, four of the eight that drank water from the Cerradinho brook were infected; d although the parasitological tests showed the presence of helminth eggs of Taenia genus, the finding of one animal with positive serum and another with the parasite embedded in its muscle, both from the group that drank the well

  12. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

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    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  13. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams. PMID:16333344

  14. Redescription and new records of Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae

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    Shanshan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 of the tribe Ulomini is recorded for the first time from China (Guangxi and Hainan, Indonesia (Sumatra and Thailand (Chiang Dao. A redescription of the male and the first description of the female are also provided.

  15. Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001) by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F) had the highest least squares means (LSM) for LY (2,490±178.9 kg), IY (10.5±0.8 kg), PY (12.7±0.9 kg), YD (7.6±0.55 kg) and LL (361.4±31.2 d), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single

  16. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  17. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  18. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  19. WHOLE GENOME ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY ALLELES FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN BOS TAURUS CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduced herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population c...

  20. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  1. Evaluation of line and breed of cytoplasm effects on performance of purebred Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, G A; Taylor, J F; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    1994-11-01

    Substantial differences between reciprocally crossed Bos taurus x Bos indicus calves for birth, weaning, and yearling weights have been reported. To determine whether cytoplasmic inheritance is responsible for a portion of these differences, field records for birth and weaning weight (n = 7,353) and postweaning average daily gain (n = 2,746) from registered Brangus calves were analyzed. An animal model that included maternal effects was fit for each trait. Breed of cytoplasmic origin was fit as a fixed effect and coded as Angus, Brahman, or unknown. Cytoplasmic line within each breed of origin was treated as a random effect. Variance components for random effects were estimated using derivative-free REML procedures. Line of cytoplasm accounted for less than .002% of the phenotypic variance in all three traits. Estimates for cytoplasmic breed of origin effects were small in magnitude, and contrasts tested (Angus vs Brahman and Angus vs Unknown) were not significant (P > .10). Estimates of heritability of direct (maternal) effects were .36 (.20), .41 (.27), and .21 (.08) for birth weight, weaning weight, and postweaning average daily gain, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects ranged from -.27 for postweaning average daily gain to -.58 for birth weight. No evidence for breed or line within breed of cytoplasmic origin effects was detected in these data. PMID:7730171

  2. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae) from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    OpenAIRE

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam; Bharath Reddy; Venugopal Satla; Imran Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  3. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  4. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Keele, J W; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, T P L; Stone, R T

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in a family from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire. A Brahman x Hereford sire was used to develop a half-sib family (n = 547). The sire was mated to Bos taurus cows. Traits analyzed were birth (kg) and weaning weights (kg); hot carcass weight (kg); marbling score; longissimus area (cm2); USDA yield grade; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (%); fat thickness (cm); fat yield (%); and retail product yield (%). Meat tenderness was measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg) at 3 and 14 d postmortem. Two hundred and thirty-eight markers were genotyped in 185 offspring. One hundred and thirty markers were used to genotype the remaining 362 offspring. A total of 312 markers were used in the final analysis. Seventy-four markers were common to both groups. Significant QTL (expected number of false-positives yield on chromosome 9, for birth weight on chromosome 21, and for marbling score on chromosome 23. Evidence suggesting (expected number of false-positives yield grade were identified on chromosomes 2, 11, 14, and 19. Three QTL for fat thickness were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 14. For marbling score, QTL were identified on chromosomes 3, 10, 14, and 27. Four QTL were identified for retail product yield on chromosomes 12, 18, 19, and 29. A QTL for estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was detected on chromosome 15, and a QTL for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 d postmortem was identified on chromosome 20. Two QTL were detected for meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 14 d postmortem on chromosomes 20 and 29. These results present a complete scan in all available progeny in this family. Regions underlying QTL need to be assessed in other populations. PMID:14677852

  5. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jeong Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Woonsu Kim; Duhak Yoon; Seongwon Seo

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carc...

  6. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L) TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    OpenAIRE

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-01-01

    A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L.) to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan...

  7. The level of infestation with the vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Guglielmone

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to determine the differential aptitude to sustain the only vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina, the tick Boophilus microplus, throughout the infested region of this country. Tick counts on Bos taurus cattle were used as the main criterion to classify favourable (F, intermediate (I and unfavourable (U areas for its development. The geographical limits of each area set up using data of non-parasitic tick stages, temperature, water balance and map recognition of flooded and unflooded zones. The F area contained 16.5 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with a cattle population of 6 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência; the I and U areas had 25 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with 2.7 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência cattle and 198 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência with population of 2.4 x 10(elevado a sexta potência cattle, respectively. Research on the relationship amongst Babesia-Boophilus-cattle is needed in the F area for tick development which coincides with the best region for cattle breeding.

  8. Antidiabetic activity of leaves of Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Umesh Sanadhya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine the antidiabetic potential of leaves of Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. The aqueous extract of leaves was screened for serum glucose lowering activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley adult male rats by intra peritoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at 80mg/kg bw. to the rats. Aqueous leaves extract of Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. at 400mg/kg bw was given orally to control and diabetic rats for 21 days. Blood samples taken from retro orbital plexus of rats were analysed for serum glucose level, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol as per standard kit method. The rats feed with aqueous leaves extract showed significant reduction in blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL as compared to diabetic rats. Aqueous leaf extract results for antidiabetic activity were compared with standard drug glibenclamide at 10mg/kg bw. and the antidiabetic acitivity was found to be significant. Histopathological study of liver and pancreas of rats showed that alloxan caused damage in the liver cells and degeneration of pancreatic islet cells. Administration of aqueous leaves extract caused an improvement in damaged liver cells and degenerated pancreatic islet cells. Thus, Anthocephalus indicus can be considered as a good natural antidiabetic drug.

  9. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Mongolian indigenous cattle populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity

  10. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus) (Nota Científica) EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo; Gabriella Biondi de Godoy; Andrea Novoa Castillo Oliveira; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2009-01-01

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0) e 120 (D120) por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC) com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT) com onze animais. Os to...

  11. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus (Nota Científica EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0 e 120 (D120 por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT com onze animais. Os touros do GT receberam 4g de probiótico/animal/dia, durante 120 dias. Houve diferença (p<0,01 entre as colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT para o perímetro escrotal (GC – D0: 30,50 cm e D120: 33,55 cm; GT – D0: 29,90 cm e D120: 34,30 cm. Houve diferença (p<0,05 entre colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT, respectivamente, para: defeitos menores (GC – D0: 13,84 % e D120: 21,79%; GT – D0: 14,99% e D120: 20,84% e defeitos totais (GC – D0: 22,29% e D120: 29,24%; GT – D0: 25,14% e D120: 32,81%. Os resultados demonstram que, entre grupos, não houve alteração significativa das características seminais e perímetro escrotal.
       
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aditivo, nutrição, sêmen, touro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Touro, sêmen, nutrição, aditivo.    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Proenzime® on scrotal perimeter and spermiogram in young Tabapua bulls. Two samples of semen from 21 Tabapua bulls, aging 30 months, were collected in day zero (D0 and 120 (D120 by electroejaculation, totalizing 42 samples. The bulls were divided in control group (CG with 10 animals and trated group (TG with 11 animals. The bulls of TG received 4g of probiotic/animal/day, during 120 days. There was difference (p<0.01 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG for scrotal perimeter (CG – D0: 30.50 cm and D120: 33.55 cm; TG – D0: 29.90 cm and D120: 34.30 cm. There was difference (p<0.05 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG, respectively. Minor defects (CG – D0: 13.84% and D120: 21.79%; TG – D0: 14.99% and D120: 20.84% and total defects (CG – D0: 22.29% and D120: 29.24%; TG – D0: 25.14% and D120: 32.81%. The results exposed allow concluding that significant alterations were not observed between groups for the seminal characteristics and scrotal perimeter.   

    KEY WORDS: Aditive, bull, nutrition, semen.

  12. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  13. Study of the reproductive efficiency of dual purpose cattle in Panama through the use of radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive parameters were monitored in 50 post-partum Bos indicus x Bos taurus animals located on four farms in two ecological zones of Panama. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured in four of these animals twice a week and their reproductive organs palpated per rectum once a week until 60 days post-artificial-insemination or post-natural-service. The other 46 cows were palpated for early pregnancy between days 45 and 60 post-service. The mean P4 concentration in cows with palpable corpora lutea (CL) was 10.3±4.0 nmol/L; when no Cl were detected, the mean P4 level was 2.2±1.6 nmol/L. Of the 46 animals palpated for early pregnancy, 36 (70%) were found to be pregnant, one (2%) exhibited early embryonic death and one (2%) aborted; the other eight cows (17%) were anoestrous. The mean P4 concentration in pregnant cows was 11.9±4.0 nmol/L and the calving to conception interval was 148 days. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  15. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  16. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J.; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis inc...

  17. Effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition score in Brahman cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón, Violeta; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Salmerón, Frida

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition, multiparous Bos indicus cows were distributed in two groups. One group (RS=36) was subjected to a scheme of restricted suckling starting at 21 days postpartum. Calves were allowed to suckle once per day for a period of two h whilst the control group (C=18) remained with their dams at all times. At calving, body condition score, back fat thickness and body weight had similar values (p>0.05) for both groups. By day 85 postpartum both groups had recorded losses in body weight. The cows in the continuous group formed a greater (p0.05). The number of cows that exhibited estrus after 45 days, was greater (p0.05). A regime of restricted suckling favors the earlier growth of follicles and the prompt restoration of ovarian activity. PMID:26936657

  18. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  19. Cattle grazing in semiarid forestlands: Habitat selection during periods of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, C L; DelCurto, T; Rowland, M; Vavra, M; Wisdom, M

    2015-06-01

    Climate change models are predicting increased frequency and severity of droughts in arid and semiarid environments, and these areas are responsible for much of the world's livestock production. Because cattle (Bos Taurus) grazing can impact the abundance, distribution, and ecological function of native plant and animal communities, it is important to understand how cattle might respond to increasingly arid conditions. Here, we evaluate changes in habitat selection by cattle across an 8-yr period as a function of rainfall and other environmental covariates. Using resource selection functions, we evaluated habitat selection based on 2 behaviors, stationary and mobile. Models revealed similarity in cattle habitat selection across years, with only modest changes in selection as a function of precipitation, despite marked seasonal and interannual differences in rainfall. Cattle preferred gentle slopes, forest edges, wet meadows, and areas near water as well as areas far from water on plateaus. Cattle avoided areas at intermediate distances from water, typically associated with steep slopes. As conditions became drier during the late season, cattle did not switch selection patterns but instead contracted their selection around water. Cattle also selected similar habitats whether they were mobile or stationary, possibly making microsite decisions therein. This consistent pattern of selection across years could be particularly problematic for riparian communities as climates become drier; however, it may also simplify cattle management, as range managers can focus vegetation monitoring efforts on riparian areas. Due to the uncertainty surrounding future climatic conditions, it is imperative that both range and wildlife managers develop long-term plans to continue managing these multiuse landscapes in an ecologically sustainable manner based on expected patterns of livestock grazing. PMID:26115307

  20. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Safaei; Keikhosro Karimi; Poorandokht Golkar; Akram Zamani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the ...

  1. Anatomy and radiography of the lungs of a stiliborn Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung of a stillborn female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) was disected for macroscopic anatomical study. Its tracheobronchial ramifications wee studied by a contrast radiographic technique using barium sulphate infusion. The lung was thick and triangular in shape. The right lung was divided into 4 lobes: cranial, middle, caudal and accessory, while the left lung had 3 lobes: cranial, middle and caudal. The lobulation was obvious, but the tracheal bronchus was not found. The cranial lobe of the left and right lungs was divided into cranial and caudal parts. The right, middle and left tracheobronchial lymph nodes were denominated according to their positions

  2. Use of gamma radiation in the production of vaccines against cattle tick fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sri Lanka both Babesiosis bigemina and Babesiosis bovis are present. These parasites cause considerable economic losses among susceptible Bos. Taurus (European) cattle. Control of Babesiosis is by four main methods-management, tick control, chemotherapy and immunization. A vaccine containing Co-60 irradiated B. bigemina to immunize calves in state forms was used. The aims of the study was to produce a vaccine that would be both protective and safe so that vaccination could be extended to small former units as well. Experimental data and results are given

  3. Polymorphisms of two Y chromosome microsatellites in Chinese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Kai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two Y chromosome specific microsatellites UMN2404 and UMN0103 were genotyped and assessed for polymorphisms in a total of 423 unrelated males from 25 indigenous Chinese cattle breeds. Consistently, both microsatellites displayed specific indicine and taurine alleles in each bull examined. The indicine and taurine alleles were detected in 248 males (58.6%, and 175 males (41.4%, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst different breeds examined. The indicine alleles dominated in the southern group (92.4%, while the taurine alleles dominated in the northern group (95.5%. Hainan Island was possibly the site for the origin of Chinese zebu, and Tibetan cattle were probably independently domesticated from another strain of Bos primigenius. The geographical distribution of these frequencies reveals a pattern of male indicine introgression and a hybrid zone of indicine and taurine cattle in China. The declining south-to-north and east-to-west gradient of male indicine introgression in China could be explained by historical data, geographical segregation and temperature and weather conditions.

  4. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  5. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM XYLOSE AND WOOD HYDROLYZATE BY MUCOR INDICUS AT DIFFERENT AERATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Millati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Mucor indicus is able to produce ethanol from xylose as well as dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The fungus completely assimilated 10 g/L xylose as the sole carbon and energy source within 32 to 65 h at an aeration rate of 0.1 to 1.0 vvm. The highest ethanol yield was 0.16 g/g at 0.1 vvm. Xylitol was formed intermediately with a maximum yield of 0.22 g/g at 0.5 vvm, but disappeared towards the end of experiments. During cultivation in a mixture of xylose and glucose, the fungus did not assimilate xylose as long as glucose was present in the medium. The anaerobic cultivation of the fungus in the hydrolyzate containing 20% xylose and 80% hexoses resulted in no assimilation of xylose but complete consumption of the hexoses in less than 15 h. The ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g. However, the xylose in the hydrolyzate was consumed when the media was aerated at 0.067 to 0.333 vvm. The best ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g at 0.067 vvm. The results of this study suggest that M. indicus hydrolyzate can be first fermented anaerobically for hexose assimilation and subsequently continued under oxygen-limited conditions for xylose fermentation.

  6. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  7. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  8. The enigmatic origin of bovine mtDNA haplogroup R: sporadic interbreeding or an independent event of Bos primigenius domestication in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonfiglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When domestic taurine cattle diffused from the Fertile Crescent, local wild aurochsen (Bos primigenius were still numerous. Moreover, aurochsen and introduced cattle often coexisted for millennia, thus providing potential conditions not only for spontaneous interbreeding, but also for pastoralists to create secondary domestication centers involving local aurochs populations. Recent mitochondrial genomes analyses revealed that not all modern taurine mtDNAs belong to the shallow macro-haplogroup T of Near Eastern origin, as demonstrated by the detection of three branches (P, Q and R radiating prior to the T node in the bovine phylogeny. These uncommon haplogroups represent excellent tools to evaluate if sporadic interbreeding or even additional events of cattle domestication occurred. METHODOLOGY: The survey of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control-region variation of 1,747 bovine samples (1,128 new and 619 from previous studies belonging to 37 European breeds allowed the identification of 16 novel non-T mtDNAs, which after complete genome sequencing were confirmed as members of haplogroups Q and R. These mtDNAs were then integrated in a phylogenetic tree encompassing all available P, Q and R complete mtDNA sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analyses of 28 mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups P (N = 2, Q (N = 16 and R (N = 10 together with an extensive survey of all previously published mtDNA datasets revealed major similarities between haplogroups Q and T. Therefore, Q most likely represents an additional minor lineage domesticated in the Near East together with the founders of the T subhaplogroups. Whereas, haplogroup R is found, at least for the moment, only in Italy and nowhere else, either in modern or ancient samples, thus supporting an origin from European aurochsen. Haplogroup R could have been acquired through sporadic interbreeding of wild and domestic animals, but our data do not rule out the

  9. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  10. Development of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cattle from Benin using IPCC Tier 2 methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouazounde, J B; Gbenou, J D; Babatounde, S; Srivastava, N; Eggleston, S H; Antwi, C; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop emission factors (EF) for methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation in cattle native to Benin. Information on livestock characteristics and diet practices specific to the Benin cattle population were gathered from a variety of sources and used to estimate EF according to Tier 2 methodology of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Most cattle from Benin are Bos taurus represented by Borgou, Somba and Lagune breeds. They are mainly multi-purpose, being used for production of meat, milk, hides and draft power and grazed in open pastures and crop lands comprising tropical forages and crops. Estimated enteric CH4 EFs varied among cattle breeds and subcategory owing to differences in proportions of gross energy intake expended to meet maintenance, production and activity. EFs ranged from 15.0 to 43.6, 16.9 to 46.3 and 24.7 to 64.9 kg CH4/head per year for subcategories of Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. Average EFs for cattle breeds were 24.8, 29.5 and 40.2 kg CH4/head per year for Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. The national EF for cattle from Benin was 39.5 kg CH4/head per year. This estimated EF was 27.4% higher than the default EF suggested by IPCC for African cattle with the exception of dairy cattle. The outcome of the study underscores the importance of obtaining country-specific EF to estimate global enteric CH4 emissions. PMID:25385068

  11. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  12. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (Pcolor stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (Pcolor stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle. PMID:27236337

  13. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  14. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  15. Oviposition and development of face flies in dung from cattle on herbage and supplemented herbage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C T; Knapp, F W

    1994-10-01

    Dung was collected from Angus cattle (Bos taurus L.) fed (ad libitum) hays of endophyte-free (EF) and endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams) infected (EI) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and alfalfa-smooth bromegrass (1:1 w/w) and green-chopped Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Samples of dung were subsequently collected from the same animals offered the same herbage diets supplemented each day with ground maize (Zea mays L.) kernels at 0.35 kg per body weight. Dung from both sources were used in bioassays to establish oviposition preferences of face flies (Musca autumnalis De Geer). When offered dung from herbage diets, face flies deposited 38.3% of their eggs on dung derived from EF tall fescue diets, 9.9% on dung from EI tall fescue diets, 21.0% on dung from alfalfa diets, 7.4% on dung from red clover diets and 22.8% on dung from alfalfa-bromegrass diets. Face flies avoided ovipositing in dung from cattle ingesting bromegrass hay and Kentucky bluegrass green-chop. Supplements increased oviposition preference of face flies for dung from cattle ingesting Kentucky bluegrass greenchop to 19.1% at the expense of oviposition on dung from cattle ingesting alfalfa hay diets (4.5%), otherwise, they had little effect on oviposition preference ranking. Growth and development of first instar larvae of face flies was also measured in bioassays of dung from cattle on herbage and supplemented herbage diets. The presence of endophyte reduced pupation in dung from cattle on tall fescue hay diets from 86.3 to 79.8% and from 90.1 to 73.2% in dung from cattle on supplemented tall fescue hay diets. Pupal liveweights averaged 27.5 mg on dung from cattle on EF tall fescue diets, 22.1 mg from dung of cattle on EI tall fescue diets, 22.2 mg from dung of cattle on supplemented EF tall fescue diets and 24.0 mg from dung of cattle on supplemented

  16. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  17. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  19. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  20. Bluetongue in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V, DVM; Burrell, W. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease that is spread mainly by one specific type of gnat. Other gnats and blood sucking insects may occasionally transmit BT, but they are much less important in its transfer. Cattle are the main reservoir for overwintering of the virus in temperate climates. The gnats become infected from cattle and then spread the disease to other cattle and sheep as they take blood meals. It is also spread through infected semen and may be spread by blood sucking lice and a sof...

  1. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  2. The Use of Eugenol as an Anesthetic in Transportation of With Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) Post Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Sohrab; Khoshnod, Mohammad J.; Rajaian, Hamid; Afsharnasab, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The safe margin of eugenol for sedation of the healthy post larvae (PL) of white Indian shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) was determined by estimating the median lethal concentration of eugenol during 24 hours (24hLC50). Sedation concentration of eugenol was obtained experimentally by considering behavioral factors of PLs such as response to indirect stimuli and changes in water quality parameters. Applying the estimated concentrations of eugenol for 12 hours transportation of PLs, biometric pa...

  3. Pharmacological and biomedical properties of sea anemones Paracondactylis indicus, Paracondactylis sinensis, Heteractis magnificaand Stichodactyla haddonifrom East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bragadeeswaran Subramanian; Thangaraj Sangappellai; Rajiv Chandra Rajak; Balaji Diraviam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the biomedical and pharmacological activity ofParacondactylis indicus (P. indicus),Paracondactylis sinensis(P. sinensis),Heteractis magnifica (H. magnifica) and Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni).Methods: The live sea anemones were kept inside the glass bowl along with some amount of distilled water in an ice container for15 min. During stress condition, nematocysts released from the tentacles were collected and centrifuged at5 000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were collected in separate cleaned beakers for lyophilisation.Results:The protein content of crude extracts was15.2, 28.7, 18.2 and35.4μg/mL. In hemolytic assay, the P. indicus was sensitive (16.842 HT/mg) on chicken blood butP. sinensis was less sensitive (1.114 HT/mg) on chicken and goat blood. WhereasH. magnificaandS. haddoni showed hemolysis (0.879, 0.903 HT/mg and 56.263, 0.451 HT/mg) in chicken and goat blood. In antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract ofP. indicus showed maximum inhibition zone of9.7mm againstS. typhii andP. sinensisshowed9.8 mm againstK. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts. Whereas theH. magnifica andS. haddoni showed maximum of10 mm againstS. typhii, K. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts.Conclusions: The high toxic sea anemones may also contain some biologically active agents which has haemolytic, analgesic and anti-infilamatory activity.

  4. Mycoplasma in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Currin, John F.; Whittier, W. Dee; Currin, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma is a tiny bacterium that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, drooped ears, and lameness in dairy cattle. While this bacterium has existed for more than 100 years, the current disease has only recently become a problem in Virginia.

  5. Acceleration of X-chromosome gene order evolution in the cattle lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woncheoul; Oh, Hee-Seok; Kim, Heebal

    2013-06-01

    The gene order on the X chromosome of eutherians is generally highly conserved, although an increase in the rate of rearrangement has been reported in the rodent lineage. Conservation of the X chromosome is thought to be caused by selection related to maintenance of dosage compensation. However, we herein reveal that the cattle (Btau4.0) lineage has experienced a strong increase in the rate of X-chromosome rearrangement, much stronger than that previously reported for rodents. We also show that this increase is not matched by a similar increase on the autosomes and cannot be explained by assembly errors. Furthermore, we compared the difference in two cattle genome assemblies: Btau4.0 and Btau6.0 (Bos taurus UMD3.1). The results showed a discrepancy between Btau4.0 and Btau6.0 cattle assembly version data, and we believe that Btau6.0 cattle assembly version data are not more reliable than Btau4.0. PMID:23790974

  6. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  7. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Corva; Liliana Soria; Alejandro Schor; Edgardo Villarreal; Macarena Pérez Cenci; Mariana Motter; Carlos Mezzadra; Lilia Melucci; Cristina Miquel; Enrique Paván; Gustavo Depetris; Francisco Santini; Juan Grigera Naón

    2007-01-01

    The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G) and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G). We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from cro...

  8. Measurement of density in axisymmetric jets using a novel background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dominic James; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Honnery, Damon

    2015-11-01

    A novel application of the adaptive Fourier-Hankel (AFH) Abel algorithm to reconstruct the radial density distribution of axisymmetric jets is presented. The fluid is imaged using the non-intrusive path-integrated background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. BOS images are cross-correlated to obtain background displacements that are proportional to the first derivative of the refractive index. The critical step is deconvolving the projected displacements. The AFH method is applied to simulated displacement data to validate the use of averaged turbulent fluctuations that approximate an axisymmetric field. The influence of experimental noise and variations in the flow on the accuracy of the method is discussed. The limitations of the system are demonstrated by applying it to low- and high-Reynolds ( Re) number jets. The high- Re jets are produced from a high-pressure fuel injector operating at nozzle pressure ratios of 2, 3, and 4.

  9. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  10. Length and Straightness of the Tubes for the BOS Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured length and straightness of 50 tubes of 3.8~m length, after cleaning, wiring and testing from a batch that was used in the construction of the BOS prototype chamber. The specifi ed length (aluminum tube only, without endplug) was 3800~mm with a tolerance of $\\pm$1~mm. We found a mean value of (3805$\\pm$2)~mm with a standard deviation of (0.3$\\pm$0.1)~mm. The measureme nts of the straightness of the 50 BOS MDT tubes gave a mean of the maximum deviation of 150~$\\mu$m for 10 measured points along the tubes at 0$^{\\circ}$, 90$^{\\circ}$, 180$^{\\circ}$ and 270$^{\\circ }$ around the tube diameter and a mean value of all deviations of 20~$\\mu$m with a measuring accuracy of 10~$\\mu$m.

  11. Bosreservaat Bos Ter Rijst (Heikruis): basisrapport:situering, standplaats, historiek en onderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Baeté, Hans; Christiaens, Bart; De Keersmaeker, Luc; Esprit, Marc; Van de Kerckhove, Peter; Vandekerkhove, Kris; Walleyn, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This report is a reference report linked to the monitoring of forest reserve Bos Ter Rijst in Heikruis/Hautecroix near Edingen/Enghien in central Belgium (bilingual region across a linguistic, regional and provincial frontier). It covers various topics:administrative situation and protective status of the reserveits location, soil characteristics and habitatshistorical ecology of the seignory Ter Rijst/Risoir, Ter Rijst/Risoir Wood and the Strijdhout/Strihoux Forestthe reserve's management hi...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis): An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Samy Sherif; Mohammed Attia; Hatem Bahgaat; Ahmed Kassab

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints) were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then ...

  13. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Khairiah; I. Zawawi; H. Wahid; Hajarian, H.; Fahrul, F.J.; M.D. Hafiz; Hafiz, M.M.; Z.F. Ann; M.I. Iswadi; O.A. Mazni

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen w...

  14. Genome-Wide Detection and Characterization of Endogenous Retroviruses in Bos taurus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A...

  15. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Ö. Karatekin; J.-P. Noël; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2014-01-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radi...

  16. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument : the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present ar...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  18. Dynamic changes in subcellular localization of cattle XLF during cell cycle, and focus formation of cattle XLF at DNA damage sites immediately after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2015-09-01

    Clinically, many chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation (IR) have been applied for the treatment of various types of human and animal malignancies. These treatments kill tumor cells by causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Core factors of classical nonhomologous DNA-end joining (C-NHEJ) play a vital role in DSB repair. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the mechanisms of C-NHEJ in order to develop next-generation chemotherapeutics for cancer. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF; also called Cernunnos or NHEJ1) is the lastly identified core NHEJ factor. The localization of core NHEJ factors might play a critical role in regulating NHEJ activity. The localization and function of XLF have not been elucidated in animal species other than mice and humans. Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) are the most common and vital domestic animals in many countries. Here, we show that the localization of cattle XLF changes dynamically during the cell cycle. Furthermore, EYFP-cattle XLF accumulates quickly at microirradiated sites and colocalizes with the DSB marker γH2AX. Moreover, nuclear localization and accumulation of cattle XLF at DSB sites are dependent on 12 amino acids (288-299) of the C-terminal region of XLF (XLF CTR). Furthermore, basic amino acids on the XLF CTR are highly conserved among domestic animals including cattle, goat and horses, suggesting that the CTR is essential for the function of XLF in domestic animals. These findings might be useful to develop the molecular-targeting therapeutic drug taking XLF as a target molecule for human and domestic animals. PMID:25947322

  19. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  20. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  1. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...

  2. Hubungan Kekerabatan Sapi Aceh dengan Menggunakan Daerah Displacement-loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Agus Nashri Abdullah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relationship of aceh cattle using displacement-loop region ABSTRACT. The aims of this study were to describe relationship of D-loop of mtDNA Aceh cattle which is useful database for conducting conservation programme. The whole blood samples were collected (8 samples for D-loop analysis from four locations which were Aceh Besar, Pidie, North Aceh regencies and Banda Aceh city. Out group whole blood samples were collected from two samples from Bali cattles (Bali Island, Madura cattle (Madura Island, Pesisir cattle (West Sumatera respectively and one sample from PO cattle (West Java. Amplification of D-loop sequences of mtDNA with BIDLF and BIDLR primary have PCR product 980 bp. The Data were analyzed using Squint 1.02 and MEGA 4.0 programme. Result of analysis indicate that Aceh cattle have nearer relationship with zebu and there is items inset of genetik Bali cattle (Bos javanicus at the end sequences start ke-354 situs up to 483, so that the origin Aceh cattle was from Bos indicus which have hybridization with Bos javanicus.

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 0.0 78% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 9e-85 39% ...

  5. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  6. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  7. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanathan Karthik; Thomas Ancy; Dharmaraj Ramkumar; Narayanasamy Mathivanan; Rangarajan Badri Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme fromFenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz) in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL).Methods:Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar.Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria testedKlebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay.Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  8. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  9. Highly Ordered Structure Formation in RAFT-Synthesized PtBOS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Martin; Hofman, Anton H; Loos, Katja; Brinke, Gerrit Ten

    2016-06-01

    Linear poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PtBOS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The self-assembly of four different PtBOS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers is studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and a number of interesting observations are made. A tBOS62 -b-4VP28 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.21 shows a disordered morphology of P4VP spheres with liquid-like short-range order despite an estimated value of χN of the order of 50. Increasing the length of the 4VP block to tBOS62 -b-4VP199 results in a diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.66. It forms a remarkably well-ordered lamellar structure. Likewise, a tBOS146 -b-4VP120 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.33 forms an extremely well-ordered hexagonal structure of P4VP cylinders. Increasing the P4VP block of this block copolymer to tBOS146 -b-4VP190 with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.44 results in a bicontinuous gyroid morphology despite the estimated strong segregation of χN≅150. These results are discussed in terms of the architectural dissimilarity of the two monomers, characterized by the presence of the large side group of PtBOS, and the previously reported value of the interaction parameter, χ≅0.39, for this polymer pair. PMID:27079547

  10. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    in this study clearly shows that the crustacean members distributed in four different groups (Fig 3). F. indicus TCTP along with other penaeid family representatives clustered to a separate clade and the protein sequences, taken for the tree construction... of the four groups. A high similarity shared by TCTP from F. indicus with other penaeid species suggests its conserved nature within the penaeid family. Full length cloning of ferritin gene After 3′ and 5′ ends RACE PCR, the full-length cDNA fragment...

  11. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  12. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazami-Goudarzi Katy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed.

  13. Interactive Effects of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs and Cattle on Shrub Encroachment in a Desert Grassland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Davidson, Ana; Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), help control shrub encroachment through clipping of shrubs and consumption of their seedlings, but little is known about how this important ecological role interacts with and may be influenced by co-existing large herbivores, especially domestic livestock. Here, we established a long-term manipulative experiment using a 2 × 2 factorial design to assess the independent and interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) abundance and structure. We found that, after five years, mesquite abundance was three to five times greater in plots where prairie dogs were removed compared to plots where they occurred together or alone, respectively. While both prairie dogs and cattle reduced mesquite cover, the effect of prairie dogs on reducing mesquite abundance, cover, and height was significantly greater than that by cattle. Surprisingly, cattle grazing enhanced prairie dog abundance, which, in turn, magnified the effects of prairie dogs on mesquite shrubs. Mesquite canopy cover per hectare was three to five times greater where prairie dogs and cattle were absent compared to where they occurred together or by themselves; whereas, cumulative mesquite height was two times lower on sites where prairie dog and cattle occurred together compared to where they occurred alone or where neither occurred. Data from our experimental study demonstrate that prairie dogs and moderate grazing by cattle can suppress mesquite growth, and, when their populations are properly managed, they may interact synergistically to significantly limit mesquite encroachment in desert grasslands. PMID:27144274

  14. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus durante o anestro pós-parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12. Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica. Altas contagens relativas e alta intensidade de marcação para receptor de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma foram observadas nos dois grupos. No entanto, a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular foi mais alta no grupo 2 comparado ao grupo 1. Quando o epitélio glandular e o estroma foram comparados, o número relativo de receptor de estrógeno no grupo 1 foi mais alto no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma, e a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no grupo 2 foi mais alta no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma. Os resultados sugerem que os mecanismos que controlam a expressão de receptores no anestro são semelhantes aos observados durante o ciclo estral.

  15. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm, índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 hubo diferencia (p<0,05 entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto al peso corpóreo (627,70±11,37 e 611,58±8,66Kg; la altura (1,44±0,01e 1,47±0,01m; el volumen del eyaculado (5,82±0,48 e 5,17±0,29 mL, la motilidad espermática progresiva (73,50±2,81% e75,62±0,97%, el vigor espermático (4,30±0,19 e4,27±0,11 y motilidad en masa (4,27±0,11 e3,33±0,23 no se presentó diferencia (p>0,05. En morfología espermática, tampoco hubo desigualdad entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente con 5,06 ± 8,20% e 5,32 ± 6,40% de defectos mayores; 9,91±6,74% e 8,36±6,06% para los defectos menores; e 14,76±13,20% e 13,82±12,61% para los defectos totales. La electroforesis del plasma seminal reveló bandas proteicas con pesos entre 5 a 105 KDa. En el 100% de toros aptos para la reproducción, la proteína con pesos de 13 Kda estuvo presente. De la misma forma ocurrió con las bandas de 20 KDa. El resto de las bandas proteicas mostraron presencia con diferentes porcentajes de incidencia en toros aptos o parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Las dos variedades estudiadas hicieron evidente la adaptación reproductiva eficaz en condiciones de clima semejantes.

  16. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) durante o anestro pós-parto

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, R S; I. Martin; W.C. Marques Filho; M.M.P. Rodrigues; R Laufer-Amorim; Ferreira, J.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12). Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica d...

  17. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sánchez; Marcelo Mungai; Nelson Machado

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm), índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 ) hubo diferencia (p<0,05) entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto...

  18. Analysis of Two Chinese Yak(Bos grunniens) Population Using Bovine Microsatellite Primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Minqiang; S.Weigend; A.Barre-Dirie; J.W.Carnwath; Lou Zhonglin; H.Niemann

    2005-01-01

    Two Chinese domestic yak populations representing the Plateau type and the Huanhu Alpine type were analysed with 12 bovine microsatellite primers. All primer pairs functioned in the yak genome and polymorphism was found at all loci. The allele size ranges and frequencies of the two yak populations were similar and there was considerable overlap with the allele size ranges observed in cattle. Data for European cattle breeds was obtained from the Cattle Diversity Database(CaDBase)to interpret the heterozygosity and genetic distance estimates in yak populations. Heterozygosity estimated for the two yak populations was comparable to that of European cattle while Nei's Genetic Distance DA between the two yak populations was less than distances between the most closely related German cattle breeds. Bovine microsatellite primers proved to be a valuable tool for characterization of yak populations.

  19. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  20. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  1. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  2. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. PMID:22610959

  3. Mitochondrial pathway mediates the antileukemic effects of Hemidesmus indicus, a promising botanical drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Fimognari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cancers are characterized by the deregulation of multiple signalling pathways, most current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. Because of the enormous biological diversity of cancer, strategic combination of agents targeted against the most critical of those alterations is needed. Due to their complex nature, plant products interact with numerous targets and influence several biochemical and molecular cascades. The interest in further development of botanical drugs has been increasing steadily and the FDA recently approved the first new botanical prescription drug. The present study is designed to explore the potential antileukemic properties of Hemidesmus indicus with a view to contributing to further development of botanical drugs. Hemidesmus was submitted to an extensive in vitro preclinical evaluation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variety of cellular assays and flow cytometry, as well as a phytochemical screening, were performed on different leukemic cell lines. We have demonstrated that Hemidesmus modulated many components of intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell viability and proliferation and altered the protein expression, eventually leading to tumor cell death, mediated by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. ADP, adenine nucleotide translocator and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors did not reverse Hemidesmus-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Hemidesmus induced a significant [Ca(2+](i raise through the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Moreover, Hemidesmus significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs (methotrexate, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine. A clinically relevant observation is that its cytotoxic activity was also recorded in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemic patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate the molecular basis of

  4. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L. to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan inhibited the growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus on Muller- Hinton medium, indicated by the formation of inhibition zone around the disc loaded with plant extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm, with diamtre of 10mm, llmm, 12mm, 13mm and 16 mm respectively to S. aureus, forE. coli crude extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm using diametre each of 12 mm, 13 mm, 15 mm, 17 mm and 19 mm respectively . From 17 fractions obtained from fractionation, fraction No. Vm (eluted with ethyl acetate:hexan with Rf value of 0,9 ; 0,8 ; 0,7 ; 0,68 ; and 0,62, fraction No. DC (eluted with etihil acetate : hexan with Rf value of : 0,98, ; 0,94 ; and 0,82, fraction No. XV (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% Rf value of : 0.03; 0.23; 0.35 and fraction No. XVI (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% with Rf value of: 0.03; 0.14; 0.17; 0.21, effectivity inhibited the growth of test bacterial.

  5. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  6. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  7. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyun; Ma, Yanbin; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Du, Junzheng; Ma, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-EL...

  9. Preweaning growth of F1 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds x Angus and reproductive performance of their Angus dams in arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the preweaning performance of F1 Brahman (Bos indicus)-, Senepol (Bos taurus)-, and Tuli (Sanga)-Angus calves under semiarid south Texas conditions and to evaluate the reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Four hundred eighty-nine records collected over 4 yr were analyzed. The statistical model for performance traits included the effects of breed of sire, year, sex, age of dam, and breed of sire x year. Year effects were important (P Brahman F1 calves were 13% less (P Brahman and Tuli F1 calves for birth and weaning weight but had 11% more (P 0.05) in BCS and frame size at weaning. Males were 3.3 kg heavier (P = 0.12) at birth than females, especially for the F1 Brahman males that were 4.5 kg heavier (P Brahman F1 weaned 19.9 kg heavier (P x year interaction (P Brahman F1 were heavier at every measurement and appeared to be later-maturing and more able to excel under good forage conditions than the other two F1 breed types; Senepol and Tuli F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in these respects but appeared to be more competitive in relative growth rate to the Brahman F1 calves in years of greater nutritional stress. Angus females were observed to have a relatively low reproductive rate and high apparent fetal loss at the first (27.5%) and second (19.2%) compared with the third or later pregnancy (11.2%). Angus females that gave birth to Brahman F1 calves had 20.1% lower (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates in the succeeding year than those that had given birth to the other two breeds. PMID:12002328

  10. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...

  11. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Mehdi; Isabelle Dufrasne

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyan...

  12. "Herontwerp de melkveesector" : duurzaamheid melkveehouderij gaat volgens ASG-onderzoeker Bram Bos verder dan nieuwe stal of duurzamere koe

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; Bos, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bram Bos haalde dit jaar de landelijke pers met uitspraken, dat de Nederlandse koe veel te vroeg naar het slachthuis wordt afgevoerd. Ondanks de stijging van de levensproductie bij afvoer dit jaar, blijft de ASG-onderzoeker kritisch over de levensduur van de koe. ‘Stimuleren van herfstafkalven is slecht voor de levensduur van de koe.’

  13. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A;

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... of more than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 88% ...

  17. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus on plasma glucose, plasma, erythrocyte and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound Ca 2+ ATPase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In our study, diabetic rats had increased levels of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in plasma, erythrocytes and erythrocyte membrane and decreased level of plasma insulin and decreased activity of low affinity Ca 2+ ATPase in erythrocytes. Restoration of plasma insulin and glucose in diabetic rats indicates the effect of HMBA on insulin, glucose and lipid peroxidation. HMBA also restored diabetes-induced alterations in the activity of membrane-bound Ca 2+ ATPase. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that HMBA mediated normalization of membrane-bound ATPase in erythrocytes is due to improved glycemic control and antioxidant activity.

  18. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  19. Analysis of the X-Ray Tomograph Data of the BOS MDT Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kroha, H; Ostapchuk, A Ya

    1999-01-01

    The complete X-ray tomograph data of the BOS MDT prototype chamber for the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been analyzed. The geometrical parameters of the chamber determined from the average of all X-ray scans are in good agreement with the design values. The spread of the measured wire positions with respect to the fitted wire grid is 17.0 mu (19 mu) RMS in the z coordinate and 18.2 mu (19.3 mu) RMS in y on the readout (high voltage) side. The errors include the average measuring uncertainty of the X-ray tomograph estimated to be 4 mu RMS in z and 6 mu RMS in y from the reproducibility of repeated measurements in the same chamber position.

  20. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  1. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness. PMID:16160060

  2. Genetic Variants in SDC3 Gene are Significantly Associated with Growth Traits in Two Chinese Beef Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding these genes and polymorphisms affect economic growth traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle (Bos taurus) population. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a member of the syndecan family of type I transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. The aim of this study is to examine the association of the SDC3 polymorphism with growth traits in Chinese Jiaxian and Qinchuan cattle breeds (). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were detected in 555 cows from three Chinese native cattle breeds by means of sequencing pooled DNA samples and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. We found one SNP (g.28362A > G) in intron and three SNPs (g.30742T > G, g.30821C > T and 33418 A > G) in exons. The statistical analyses indicated that these SNPs of SDC3 gene were associated with bovine body height, body length, chest circumference, and circumference of cannon bone (P breeding programs. PMID:27119984

  3. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  4. Application of progesterone measurement for fertility control in Korean native cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted in Korean native cattle (Bos taurus coreanae) to determine the age and bodyweight at puberty, and to determine the post-partum anoestrus intervals based on plasma progesterone profiles, rectal palpation and oestrus observation. Korean native cattle reached puberty at 11.3 months of age and at 188 kg bodyweight as determined by progesterone profiles, but oestrus was not detected until 3 months later, at a bodyweight of 215 kg. Prolonged post-partum anoestrus occurred in 40% of small holder's cows, where animals were tethered and fed hay and rice straw, whereas its incidence was only 7% in a well managed herd that was grazed and housed. Plasma progesterone profiles were used to monitor ovarian activity post-partum in standard fed cows (n=44) and restricted fed cows (n=20). In standard fed cows 81.8% showed luteal activity by 50 days post-partum, compared to 55% in restricted fed cows. Approximately 40% of cows in both groups had shows observable oestrus by this time. This study indicates that one or more ovulations occurred before pubertal heifers and post-partum cows showed overt oestrous behaviour. It is concluded that improved management and feeding practices should result in improved reproductive performance. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India. PMID:26373618

  6. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  7. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390 in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114 in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections.

  8. Molecular cloning of peroxinectin gene and its expression in response to peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Sathappan; Manju, Sivalingam; Rajakumaran, Perumal; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-12-01

    The cDNA sequence of peroxinectin was obtained from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus using RT-PCR and RACE. Fenneropenaeus indicus peroxinectin (Fi-Pxn) sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2415 bp encoding a protein of 804 amino acids with 21 residues signal sequence. The mature protein has molecular mass of 89.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 8.6. Two putative integrin-binding motifs, RGD and KGD, were observed at the basic N-terminal and C-terminal part of the mature aminoacid sequence. Fi-Pxn nucleotide sequence comparison showed high homology to mud crab Scylla serrata (89%) and to various vertebrate and invertebrate species. qRT-PCR showed peroxinectin mRNA transcript in haemocytes of F. indicus increased at 6 h post injection of peptidoglycan and Vibrio harveyi. The Fi-Pxn was mainly expressed in the tissues of haemocytes and the heart. The moulting stage responses showed Fi-Pxn expression in premoult stages D0/1 and D0/2. PMID:25072536

  9. NATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THE PLACENTA FROM ZEBU CATTLE RAISED IN THE ORIENTAL AMAZONIAN, BRAZIL ASPECTOS ANATÓMICOS DE LA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CREADO EN EL AMAZÔNIA DEL ESTE ASPECTOS ANATÔMICOS DA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CRIADOS NA AMAZÔNIA ORIENTAL, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante

    2009-04-01

    morphological characteristics from zebuine cattle from Oriental Amazonian region are similar to those found in zebu from other places with different climate and environment, so the placenta does not seem to be influenced by the ambient.

    KEY WORDS: Placentome, umbilical cord, uterus, Zebu cow.

    Los bóvidos de los zebuínas de las razas son mayoría del brasilen@o de los ganados debido a su rusticidade, alto funcionamiento reproductivo, gran adaptabilidad al clima tropical, resistencia y dirección fácil. El conocimiento perfecto del ciclo reproductivo estos animales pasa obligatorio para la evaluación anatómica de las agencias de la reproducción, en varones, y las hembras, de modo que los problemas observados de tal manera del punto de vista económico, como reproductiva, puedan adecuadamente estar, tratadas y diagnosised. Así, el trabajo tiene como objetivo para analizar las características anatómicas macrocospic de la placenta de los bóvidos, Indicus del tauro de Bos creado en la región del este de Amazônia que lleva con una perfil de éstos para las multitudes regionales guardadas en Amazonian las condiciones ambiente y climáticas. Los úteros de Gravídicos en diversos períodos del entrenamiento de la gestación (los 4 8 meses de vacas habían sido cebú recogido. Cada parte fue lavada en agua actual y el ligamento intercornual fue dividido, rompiéndose encima de los cornos uterinos.  Una sección dorsal a través del cérvix fue convertida fullfilled hasta el cuerpo del útero. Así, las membranas de los fetais habían sido exhibidas y habían sido perforateed quitando los líquidos y los fetais del embrión. La pieza fue invertida para la realización de la colección de referir datos a las características morfológicas. En el 10% seguido fueron fijados en la solución del formol, para el dissecação posterior. Para la

  10. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  11. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  12. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  13. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  14. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  15. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  16. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  17. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...

  18. Electrical stunning of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, S B; Gregory, N G; Whittington, P E; Parkman, I D

    2000-12-01

    Cattle are normally stunned electrically by three sequential cycles, first a three-second head-only cycle, to stun the animal, secondly a 15-second cardiac cycle, to induce ventricular fibrillation (cardiac arrest), and thirdly a four-second discharge cycle, to reduce convulsions after death. An effective and immediate stun was produced when > or =1.15 amps sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz was applied between the nose and neck electrodes for less than one second. However, when applied for three seconds, head-only currents of >0.46 amp sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz were sufficient to induce epileptiform activity in the brain, identified as high amplitude low frequency activity in the electroencephalogram. The induction of effective head-only electrical stunning resulted in an average interval of 50 seconds before the return of rhythmic breathing movements, and positive corneal and palpebral reflexes. The cardiac arrest cycle successfully induced ventricular fibrillation when >1.51 amps sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz was applied for five seconds between the nose and brisket electrodes. PMID:11132673

  19. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  20. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  1. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia) in local Iraqi cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal M. Alsaad,; H. I. Al-Sadi,; Osama A.Abdulla

    2011-01-01

    Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%), abnormal skin...

  2. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  3. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  4. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  6. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  7. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  8. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  9. Polymorphisms and genes associated with puberty in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Nguyen, Loan To; Porto Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Moore, Stephen S; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Thomas, Milton G

    2016-07-01

    Puberty onset is a multifactorial process influenced by genetic determinants and environmental conditions, especially nutritional status. Genes, genetic variations, and regulatory networks compose the molecular basis of achieving puberty. In this article, we reviewed the discovery of multiple polymorphisms and genes associated with heifer puberty phenotypes and discuss the opportunities to use this evolving knowledge of genetic determinants for breeding early pubertal Bos indicus-influenced cattle. The discovery of polymorphisms and genes was mainly achieved through candidate gene studies, quantitative trait loci analyses, genome-wide association studies, and recently, global gene expression studies (transcriptome). These studies are recapitulated and summarized in the current review. PMID:27238439

  10. UTILIZAÇÃO DE PROBIÓTICOS SOBRE O GANHO DE PESO EM BOVINOS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Stevanato de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic proenzyme ®, added to the mineral mixture in a weight gain of cattle in extensive grazing system. We used 40 animals, Nelore bulls (Bos indicus aged approximately 12 months, randomly divided into 2 groups (20 animals / group: control group (CG received only mineral mixture and probiotic group (GP with added probiotic. Calves were weighed on days 0 and 30 from 30 to 90 days and 00 to 90 days. The results showed a significant increase in weight gain in animals only GP in the first 30 days.

  11. Responses of Single Chorda Tympani Taste Fibers of the Calf (Bos taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-01-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality...

  12. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, Mathew D; Kathryn Tiplady; Thomas Lopdell; Law, Tania A.; Andrew Scott; Chad Harland; Ric Sherlock; Kristen Henty; Vlad Obolonkin; Klaus Lehnert; Alistair Macgibbon; Spelman, Richard J; Stephen R. Davis; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting o...

  13. Molecular Characterization of a Newly Identified Subfamily Member of Penaeidin from two Penaeid Shrimps, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsal, V V; Antony, Swapna P; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-03-01

    Penaeidins are a major group of antimicrobial peptides found in penaeid shrimps. This study reports a new isoform of penaeidin from the hemocytes of Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus (Fi-PEN, JX657680), and the pink shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Mm-PEN, KF275674). Mm-PEN is also the first antimicrobial peptide to be identified from M. monoceros. The complete coding sequences of the newly identified Fi-PEN and Mm-PEN consisted of an ORF of 338 bp encoding 71 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 5.66 kDa and a pI of 9.38. The penaeidins had its characteristic signal peptide region (19 amino acids), which was followed by a mature peptide with a proline-rich domain (24 amino acids) at the N-terminal region and a cysteine-rich domain (28 amino acids) at the C-terminal region, designating it to penaeidin-3 subgroup. Structural analysis revealed an alpha-helix in its secondary structure and an extended structure at the proline-rich domain. The newly identified penaeidin isoform showed maximum similarity of 63 % to a penaeidin-3 isoform of P. monodon, which further proves it to be a new isoform. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it possessed similar evolutionary status like other penaeidins, which has subsequently diverged at different phases of evolution. The wide distribution of penaeidins in penaeid shrimps indicates the importance of these AMPs in the innate immunity. PMID:26607699

  14. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  15. Profile of muscle tissue gene expression specific to water buffalo: Comparison with domestic cattle by genome array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Hongbao; Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongcheng; Mei, Chugang; Zhang, Yaran; Xu, Huaichao; Jia, Cunlin; Zan, Linsen

    2016-02-10

    In contrast with the past, the water buffalo is now not only a draft animal, but also an important food source of milk and meat. It is increasingly apparent that the water buffalo have huge potential for meat production, but its breeding needs to be investigated. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the meat quality difference between the buffalo (Bubalus bulabis) and yellow cattle (Bos taurus), 12 chemical-physical characteristics related to the meat quality of longissimus thoracis muscles (LTM) have been compared at the age of 36 months. Intramuscular lipid and b* (yellowness) were greater in cattle than the buffalo, whereas a* (redness) was greater in the buffalo. Gene expression profiles were constructed by bovine genome array. A total of 8884 and 10,960 probes were detected in buffalo and cattle, respectively, with 1580 genes being differentially expressed. Over 400 probes were upregulated and nearly 1200 were downregulated in LTM of the buffalo, most being involved in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing, cholesterol homeostasis, regulation of transcription, response to hypoxia, and glycolysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Enriched GO analyses of highly expressed genes in LTM showed that protein biosynthesis, striated muscle contraction, iron homeostasis, iron transport, glycolysis and glucose metabolism were similar between the buffalo and cattle. High protein content, low fat content and deep meat color of buffalo LTM may be closely associated with the increased expression of genes involved in cholesterol and iron homeostasis, while also reducing the expression of genes involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and protein oxidative phosphorylation. These results establish the groundwork for further studies on buffalo meat quality and will be beneficial in improving water buffalo breeding by molecular biotechnology. PMID:26598327

  16. Cattle are eating the forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  17. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  18. Pass-Through in United States Beef Cattle Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...

  19. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Eythorsdottir, Emma

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  20. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  1. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  2. Effects of different levels of live food replacement with microdiet on growth factors, survival and resistance to salinity stress of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Parviz Zare

    2013-01-01

    In this study, partial and complete replacement of live food (Artemia nauplii) with a microdiet was investigated in post-larval Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus. Post-larvae (PL1) were stocked into nine 20-L vessels (5-L water volume) at a density of 50 L-1. Shrimp were fed six times a day over 10 days. At the end of the feeding period, there was no significant difference in quality index (stress-test survival) among treatments. Statistical analysis of results showed that partial o...

  3. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  4. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  5. Determinants of Cattle Feeding Profit and Cost of Gain Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.

  6. Equivalencia entre modelos fermiónicos y bosónicos bidimensionales: el método funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Naón, Carlos María

    1986-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es el de aplicar el método funcional al estudio sistemático de la equivalencia entre modelos fermiónicos y bosónicos en dos dimensiones del espacio-tiempo. En el Capítulo 2 se presentan los resultados ya conocidos sobre el procedimiento de bosonización mediante el método operacional. Se reseñan los resultados fundamentales de Lowenstein y Swieca sobre el modelo de Schwinger ( sin masa ); se estudia el problema de la rotura espontánea de la simetría quiral global, ...

  7. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  8. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  9. Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species'. PMID:20212013

  10. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  11. The multifaceted origin of taurine cattle reflected by the mitochondrial genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Achilli

    Full Text Available A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3 of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3% that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved.

  12. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  13. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  14. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mašić Zoran; Adamović Milan; Đilas Sandra M.; Mihaljev Željko A.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also pres...

  15. Reciprocal Translocations in Cattle: frequency estimation

    OpenAIRE

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Morando, Paola; Planas Cuchi, Jordi; Zannotti, Michele; Molteni, Luciano; Parma, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies, like Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations represent a big problem in cattle breeding as their presence induces, in the carrier subjects, a well documented fertility reduction. In cattle reciprocal translocations (RCPs, a chromosome abnormality caused by an exchange of material between nonhomologous chromosomes) are considered rare as to date only 19 reciprocal translocations have been described. In cattle it is common knowledge that the Robertson...

  16. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic ...

  17. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  18. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    E. SZÜCS; GulyÁs, L.; L.T. CZISZTER; I. Demirkan

    2013-01-01

    Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of ...

  19. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik

    2005-01-01

    Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...

  20. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, T

    2012-01-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial ...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...

  2. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. PMID:26334371

  3. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  4. New Q lineage found in bovine (Bos taurus) of Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, Andres; Muro-Verde, Amara; Gamarra, David; Cardoso, Sergio; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-09-01

    The northern Iberian Peninsula is home to a variety of autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Terreña and Pirenaica. With the objective of characterizing the matrilineal lineages of these breeds, a study of mitochondrial DNA was performed. The D-loop of 155 individuals was analyzed and most of the individuals were carriers of the T3 haplogroup, while haplogroups T and T1 were much less frequent. A Pirenaica individual belonging to the Q haplogroup was found. To verify the presence of the Q haplogroup individual, the entire mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and compared with two descendants. The individuals were assigned to the Q1 sub-haplogroup. These findings extend the geographic distribution of the Q haplogroup to the south west of the European continent. This new Q1 lineage has seven polymorphisms in the coding region, so this lineage is probably as old as the Q lineages described to date. PMID:26554433

  5. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  6. Verantwoordelijkheden bij risico- en crisisbeheersing van bos- en natuurbranden : taken en bevoegdheden bij risicoberheersing, bestrijding, nazorg en herstel en een overzicht van de hiaten in regelgeving en taakverdeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffe, van J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007/2008 is gekeken welke partijen een rol spelen bij de risico- en crisisbeheersing van (grote) bos- en natuurbranden, wat hun rol precies is en welke taken en bevoegdheden ze hebben. Ook is geïnventariseerd welke hiaten er zijn in de bestaande taakverdeling en regelgeving. Hiaten die de oorzaa

  7. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  8. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T. H.; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I R

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  9. Commercial application of high-dose irradiation to produce shelf-stable meat products. Part 3 - Effect of polyphosphates on the tenderness and sensory properties of beef silverside sterilised at 45 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five mixtures of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodiumpyrophosphate on the texture and sensory properties of irradiated beef M. biceps femoris and M. semitendinosus muscles sterilised at 45 kGy were evaluated using pH after injection, drip loss measurement, Instron texture measurement and descriptive sensory analysis. The effect of cattle race was also investigated. Three breeds of cattle namely Afrikaner (Bos indicus), Hereford (Bos taurus) and Simmentaler (Bos taurus) were used. Steers were fed and raised in a controlled environment until 18 months of age, followed by slaughtering using the same procedure for each carcass. It was found that cattle breed had a significant influence on irradiated meat tenderness and juiciness. Afrikaner breed meat was the most tender and the most juicy. The Energy to break point measured using a Warner Bratzler Shear cell correlated with the ease of fragmentation (using fingers) as well as Initial Juiciness and Sustained Juiciness. Using polyphosphate levels of 13.2 mmol/kg produced undesirable flavours in the meat. The same tenderness was obtained using levels of 8.2 mmol/kg in the meat without undesirable taste. No differences were found between sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate treatments. Warmed Over Flavour was a significant factor influencing the quality of the products. (author)

  10. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  11. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  12. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  13. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  14. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  15. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods. PMID:17484500

  16. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  17. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  18. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  19. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  20. An Overview of the Antecedents and Consequences of Abandoned Residential Housing Projects in Malaysia – A solution from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasyim Hj. Mumin; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2015-01-01

    The issue of abandoned residential housing projects in Malaysia is a matter that should be given more importance in the country. This study aims to identify what are the causes, examine how it affects affected home buyers, and to suggest the solutions from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective. To achieve the goals, this study focused on reviewing relevant literatures and observing the site of abandoned housing projects. From the review of the literatures, the main objective is to find out wh...

  1. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  2. Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Weppert Myriam; Reichenbach Horst-Dieter; Emmerling Reiner; Luntz Bernhard; Buitkamp Johannes; Schade Benjamin; Meier Norbert; Götz Kay-Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morp...

  3. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  4. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  5. Impact of Veratrum nigrum L.and Euphorbia fischeriana steud.on Embryo Development of Cattle in Sanjiang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ke-mei; FENG Yue-ping; LIU Hua-zhen; CHENG Guo-fu; YANG Jun; LI Xin

    2002-01-01

    It is very important to find out the reasons and the morphological changes of cattle abortion,death embryo and teratism in Sanjiang area, in order to determine the preventive measures, to improve animalquality, and to accelerate the animal industry. In the present studies, 25 cows and 25 local bos calves were in-vestigated. The powder of Veratrum nigrum L. and Euphorbia fischeriana steud, was medicated to the ani-mals during the 15 - 19th day of gestation. It was found that there were different poisoning reactions. Whenthe poisoning was on the 15 - 16th day of gestation, the pregnant animals were easy to miscarriage. When thepoisoning was on the 17 - 18th day of gestation, the embryos were easy to become teratism. The joint malfor-mation bicephalus and rachischisis could take place for calves. If the poisoning was after 19th day of gesta-tion, there were much more death embryos. The results of the studies showed that Veratrum and Euphorbiafischeriana steud, were the most poisonous plants to the animal industry of Sanjiang area. Some preventivemeasures were proposed.

  6. Association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the bovine chemerin gene and carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W Q; Wang, H C; Song, F B; Zan, L S; Wang, H; Wang, H B; Xin, Y P; Ujan, J A

    2011-01-01

    Qinchuan is a red or yellow draft and beef breed in China. In order to identify a predictor of carcass traits on the basis of associations between carcass traits and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine chemerin gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing. An SNP of A868G located in exon 2 of the Bos taurus chemerin gene was detected in 716 samples of six breeds (Jiaxian red, Luxi, Nan yang, Qinchuan, Simmental and Luxi crossbred steers, and Xia'nan), all in China, and three genotypes (AA, AG and GG) were found. Based on the χ(2) test, the AA/AG/GG genotype frequencies of all six breeds were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A possible association of A868G with some carcass traits was investigated in 106 Qinchuan cattle. Animals with the AG genotype were found to have significantly lower mean loin eye area and meat tenderness compared to those with the AA and GG genotypes. However, there was no significant association between any individual haplotype and backfat thickness, water holding capacity or marbling score. We suggest that A868G could be used as a molecular marker in marker-assisted selection for carcass traits. PMID:22095607

  7. Cattle dipping practices in the Philippines and the degradation of coumaphos in a simulated cattle dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)

  8. Prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using ITS-2 region of Fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anawat Phalee; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the infection ofFasciola gigantica(F. gigantica) in domestic cattle from ChiangMai province and molecular confirmation usingITS-2 region.Methods:The liver and gall bladder ofBubalus bubalis(B. bubalis) andBos taurus(B. taurus) from slaughterhouses were examined adult worms and prevalence investigation.The species confirmation with phylogenetic analysis usingITS-2 sequences was performed by maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods. Results:The total prevalences of infection inB. bubalis andBubalus taurus(B. taurus) were 67.27% and52.94% respectively.The respective prevalence in bothB. bubalis andB. taurus were acquired fromDoi-Saket,Muang, andSanpatong districts, with81.25%,62.50% and60.00% for B. bubalis and62.50%,50.00% and47.06% forBos taurus respectively.The species confirmation ofF. gigantica and some related species by basing on maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods used,4 groups of trematodes weregenerated, firstF. gigantica group including specimen ofChiang Mai, second2 samples of F. hepatica, third group of3 rumen flukes;Orthocoelium streptocoelium, F. elongatus andParamphistomum epliclitum and fourth group of3 minute intestinal flukes;Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmu falcatus,Haplorchoides sp. and liver fluke;Opisthorchis viverrini respectively.Conclusions:These results can be confirmed theGiant liver fluke which mainly caused fascioliasis inChiangMai was identified asF. gigantica and specimens were the same as those ofF. gigantica recorded in other different countries.Nucleotide sequence of ITS-2 region has been proven as effective diagnostic tool for the identification ofF. gigantica.

  9. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  10. A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds, Hemidesmus indicus (roots and Smilax glabra (rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera R Samarakoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A decoction (hot-water extract comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds, Hemidesmus indicus (roots, and Smilax glabra (rhizome has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2 cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2 cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl -2, 5 - biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05 higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion

  11. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iddamaldeniya SS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root bark and Smilax glabra rhizome is being recommended for cancer patients by a family of traditional medical practitioners of Sri Lanka. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a short term (10 weeks treatment with the decoction can significantly inhibit diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediated expression of Glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P in rat liver. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether long term (16 months treatment with the decoction would be successful in inhibiting in rat livers, not only DEN- mediated expression of GST-P, but also the carcinogen mediated development of overt tumours (OT or histopathological changes leading to tumour development (HT. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p with DEN (200 mg/kg while group 3 was injected normal saline (NS. Twenty-four hours later, decoction (DC; 6 g/kg body weight/day was orally administered to group 1 rats, while groups 2 and 3 (DEN-control and normal control were given distilled water (DW. Treatment with DC or DW continued for 16 months. At the end of the 9th month and 16th months (study 1 and study 2 respectively, six rats from each group were sacrificed, and livers observed for OT or HT, both visually and by subjecting liver sections to staining with Haemotoxylin and Eosin (H & E, Sweet's Silver stain (for reticulin fibers, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining (for glycogen, and immunohistochemical staining (for GST-P. Results At the end of 9 months (study 1 a hepatocellular adenoma (HA developed in one of the rats in the DEN + DW treated group (group 2. At the end of 16 months (study 2, livers of all rats of group 2 developed OT and HT. Large areas of GST-P positive foci were also observed. No OT, HT or GST-P positive foci were detected in any of the other groups. Conclusion

  12. Phylogenetic and coalescent analysis of three loci suggest that the Water Rail is divisible into two species, Rallus aquaticus and R. indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Kroon Gerard HJ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water Rails (Rallus aquaticus inhabit fragmented freshwater wetlands across their Palearctic distribution. Disjunct populations are now thought to be morphologically similar over their vast geographic range, though four subspecies had been recognized previously. The fossil record suggests that Water Rails (R. aquaticus were already spread across the Palearctic by the Pleistocene ~2 million years ago, and the oldest fossil remains thought to be closely related to the common ancestor of water rails date from the Pliocene. Results To investigate population structure in Water Rails at the genetic level we sequenced three independent loci: 686 base pairs (bp of the mitochondrial DNA COI barcode; 618 bp of the intron ADH5; and 746 bp of the exon PTPN12. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that Water Rails breeding in eastern Asia (R. a. indicus, also known as the Brown-cheeked Rail are strongly differentiated from the Water Rails in Western and Middle Asia and Europe (R. a. aquaticus and R. a. korejewi. The Kimura 3-parameter plus Gamma COI genetic distance between these two geographic groups was > 3%, and they differed by 18 diagnostic substitutions commensurate with differences between recently diverged sister species of birds. In spite of the low number of variable sites, the two nuclear loci supported this split. We estimated the split of the Brown-cheeked Rail and the Water Rail to have occurred ~534,000 years ago (95% CI 275,000-990,000 years ago. Fragmentation of the widespread ancestral population and eventual speciation of water rails is likely attributable to vicariance by a barrier formed by glacial cycles, continuous uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and increased sedimentation in deserts in southern Asia that originated in the Miocene. Conclusions Water Rails from East Asia were genetically differentiated from the ones breeding in Europe and Western to Middle Asia. Most of the genetic signal was from mitochondrial COI, and

  13. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  14. [Inherited thrombopathia in Simmental cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R

    2016-02-01

    During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685

  15. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  17. Recent and historical recombination in the admixed Norwegian Red cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grove Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the

  18. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  19. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib

    2015-01-01

    Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...

  20. On the breeds of cattle : Their history, classification and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Felius, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are kept worldwide in various environments and play many different roles in our society. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of cattle by combining zoological, archaeological, historical, topographical, agricultural and molecular-genetic data, This provides context and arguments for answering our main question: how do individual breeds contribute to the cattle genetic resources? This question is most relevant for the conservation of the cattle genetic resources In Chapter 2 we revie...

  1. Impact of cattle on the prevalence and severity of trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...

  2. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  3. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  4. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  5. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  6. CATTLE AS ASSETS: ASSESSMENT OF NON-MARKET BENEFITS FROM CATTLE IN SMALLHOLDER KENYAN CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ouma, Emily Awuor; Obare, Gideon A.; Staal, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio-economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of l...

  7. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  8. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. PMID:27107482

  9. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  11. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  12. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  13. NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

  14. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds. PMID:27039692

  15. Pedigree analysis of Italian beef cattle breeds.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Franci; Forabosco, F.; F. Sirtori; Bozzi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Trend in inbreeding is the most frequently used method to quantify the rate of genetic drift but, as pointed out by Maignel et al. (1996), it relies on some assumption that could be not fully satisfied in cattle populations. In fact, trend in inbreeding is very sensitive to the quality of the available pedigree information and some beef cattle populations might have a large amount of missing information. An alternative way to quantify the genetic drift is to utilise the method based on probab...

  16. Diseases of yearling feedlot cattle in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R; Pierson, R E; Braddy, P M; Saari, D A; Lauerman, L H; England, J J; Horton, D P; McChesney, A E

    1976-09-01

    During all of 1974 we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, about 407,000 yearling feedlot cattle. The morbidity was 5.1%, with a case mortality of 18.9% and a population mortality of 1.0%. Both morbidity and mortality were higher during fall and winter than during spring and summer. Of the 3,943 dead cattle, 1,988 were necropsied. The most prevalent diseases were: pneumonia, 48%; diphtheria, 6%; brisket disease, 6%; hemorrhagic colitis, 5%; riding injury, 4%; bloat, 3%; calculosis, 2%; endocarditis, 2%; abomasal ulcers, 2%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; embolic pulmonary aneurysm, 1%; and pulmonary edema, 1%. PMID:956027

  17. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  18. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Humber, R A

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the...... Entomophthora muscae species complex (E. muscae sensu lato) caused high infection levels in several species of flies. However, only a few specimens of cattle flies were infected by E. muscae sensu stricto despite the fact that cattle flies were observed to perch on spear thistles, which acted as transmission...

  19. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  20. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the