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Sample records for bos indicus animals

  1. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  2. Quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals treated with vitamin D3 Características qualitativas do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus tratados com vitaminaD3

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    Aparecida Carla de Moura Silveira Pedreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Among several techniques to improve beef tenderness, vitamin D3, important for calcium mobilization, has recently been developed as an alternative. It acts on the intracellular calcium-dependent proteases (mu- and m-calpain. Ten days prior to slaughter, 36 Nelore steers were fed 0, 3, 6 and 9 million IU of supplemental vitamin D3 (D3 per animal per day (an-1 d-1. Animals were slaughtered and tenderness (shear force, cooking losses (1, 8 and 15 days of aging, sensory evaluation, and minerals in blood plasma and muscle (Longissimus dorsi were measured. There were no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments for blood plasma and muscle mineral concentration, evaporation losses, and sensory juiciness. For drip and total loss, the smallest losses were for the 6 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment. The control treatment resulted in lowest shear force and aging also tended to lower resistance to shearing. The 3 × 10(6 IU an-1 d-1 treatment had a positive effect on tenderness, flavor and overall palatability. High levels of supplemental D3 did not improve the quality characteristicsof Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus animals.Muitas técnicas são empregadas para melhorar a maciez da carne de bovinos. A mais recente usa a vitamina D3, que tem importância na mobilização do cálcio e na ativação das proteases cálcio-dependentes (mi- e m-calpaína. Neste estudo, 36 machos castrados (Nelore foram suplementados por via oral com quatro níveis de vitamina D3 (0, 3, 6 e 9 milhões de UI de vitamina D3 animal-1 dia-1 durante os 10 dias que antecederam o abate. Após o abate foram medidos a força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (aos dias 1, 8 e 15 de maturação, pH, concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo Longissimus dorsi, além de análise sensorial de amostras. Não houve (P > 0.05 efeito da dose de vitamina D3 na concentração de minerais no plasma sangüíneo e no músculo, nas perdas por evaporação, e na sucul

  3. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

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    Fernanda Barros Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L. or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger pasture systems, with mineral or mineral protein supplementation. Animals were slaughtered with an average body weight of 450 kg (Bos indicus or 470 kg (Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbreed. There was no treatments effect on carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of cut without fat thickness. The cuts with fat thickness of steers fed millet presented the highest fat deposition. Bos indicus steers presented higher carcass yield (57.23% and fat thickness (4.88 mm compared with crossbreed (53.40% and 3.05 mm. There was no breed effect on chemical composition of meat. The mean levels of cholesterol concentration were 31.41 mg/100 and 37.55 mg/100g of meat with and without fat thickness.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de carcaça (peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, espessura de gordura de cobertura, área de olho de lombo, marmoreio e coloração e composição química do músculo Longissimus dorsi (umidade, cinzas, proteína bruta, gordura e colesterol de cortes, com ou sem gordura de cobertura, de novilhos Bos indicus e mestiços Bos indicus x Bos taurus terminados em sistemas em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum L. ou grama estrela (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger, com suplementação mineral ou protéica e mineral. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 450 kg (Bos indicus ou 470 kg (mestiços. Não houve efeito de tratamento sobre as características de carcaça e composição da carne com ou sem gordura de cobertura. Os cortes com gordura de

  4. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

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    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  5. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

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    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  6. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  7. Evaluation of carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in pasture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fernanda Barros; Souza Nilson Evelázio de; Matsushita Makoto; Prado Ivanor Nunes do; Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics (carcass weight, carcass yield, fat thickness, loin area, marbling and colour) and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat and cholesterol) of cuts with or without fat thickness, of Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus crossbred steers finished in millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) or star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus Pilger) pasture systems, with mineral or mineral prot...

  8. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  9. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  10. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

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    Neves, Haroldo HR; Carvalheiro, Roberto; O’Brien, Ana M Pérez; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; do Carmo, Adriana S; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sölkner, Johann; McEwan, John C; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos VGB; Queiroz, Sandra A; Tad S. Sonstegard; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to accelerate genetic improvement of production and fertility in this breed. We present the first results of the implementation of genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population. Methods Influential bulls were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD chip in order to assess genomic predictive ability for weight and carcas...

  11. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

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    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  12. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en terneros de cruces Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo

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    Córdova, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Córdova, Mary; Córdova, Cristian; Pérez., José

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatro meses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para lo cual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgian blue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descri...

  13. Ganancia diaria y peso al destete en becerros de cruzas Bos taurus con Bos indicus en trópico húmedo.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Córdova; Gustavo Rodríguez; Mary Córdova; Cristian Córdova; José Pérez

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la ganancia diaria de peso desde el nacimiento hasta el destete a los cuatromeses de edad de terneros de la cruza Bos taurus con Bos indicus, manejados en pastoreo convencional, para locual se utilizaron los registros de 302 terneros. Las razas Bos taurus utilizadas para las cruzas fueron Belgianblue, Charolais, Limousine y Beef master; las Bos indicus, fueron Brahman, Nelore, Indobrasil y Simbrah. Losresultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiv...

  14. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

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    Machado, Marco Antonio; S Azevedo, Ana Luisa; Teodoro, Roberto L; Pires, Maria A; CD Peixoto, Maria Gabriela; de Freitas, Célio; Prata, Márcia Cristina A; Furlong, John; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius GB; Guimarães, Simone EF; Regitano, Luciana CA; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Gasparin, Gustavo; Verneque, Rui S

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resista...

  15. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  16. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  17. Identification of genes involved with tick infestation in Bos taurus and Bos indicus.

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    Kongsuwan, K; Piper, E K; Bagnall, N H; Ryan, K; Moolhuijzen, P; Bellgard, M; Lew, A; Jackson, L; Jonsson, N N

    2008-01-01

    Tick resistant cattle could provide a potentially sustainable and environmentally sound method of controlling cattle ticks. Advances in genomics and the availability of the bovine genome sequence open up opportunities to identify useful and selectable genes controlling cattle tick resistance. Using quantitative real-time PCR and theAffymetrix bovine array platform, differences in gene expression of skin biopsies from tick resistant Bos indicus (Brahman) and tick susceptible Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle following tick challenge were examined. We identified 138 significant differentially-expressed genes, including several immunologicallhost defence genes, extracellularmatrix proteins, and transcription factors as well as genes involved in lipid metabolism. Three key pathways, represented by genes differentially expressed in resistant Brahmans, were identified; the development of the cell-mediated immune response, structural integrity of the dermis and intracellular Ca2+ levels. Ca2+, which is implicated in host responses to microbial stimuli, may be required for the enhancement or fine-tuning of transcriptional activation of Ca2+ -dependant host defence signalling pathways. PMID:18817288

  18. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

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    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  19. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

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    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  20. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

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    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  1. Tick-susceptible Bos taurus cattle display an increased cellular response at the site of larval Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus attachment, compared with tick-resistant Bos indicus cattle.

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    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2010-03-15

    Cattle demonstrate divergent and heritable phenotypes of resistance and susceptibility to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Bos indicus cattle are generally more resistant to tick infestation than Bos taurus breeds although large variations in resistance can occur within subspecies and within breed. Increased tick resistance has been previously associated with an intense hypersensitivity response in B. taurus breeds; however, the mechanism by which highly resistant B. indicus cattle acquire and sustain high levels of tick resistance remains to be elucidated. Using the commercially available Affymetrix microarray gene expression platform, together with histological examination of the larval attachment site, this study aimed to describe those processes responsible for high levels of tick resistance in Brahman (B. indicus) cattle that differ from those in low-resistance Holstein-Friesian (B. taurus) cattle. We found that genes involved in inflammatory processes and immune responsiveness to infestation by ticks, although up-regulated in tick-infested Holstein-Friesian cattle, were not up-regulated in Brahman cattle. In contrast, genes encoding constituents of the extracellular matrix were up-regulated in Brahmans. Furthermore, the susceptible Holstein-Friesian animals displayed a much greater cellular inflammatory response at the site of larval R. microplus attachment compared with the tick-resistant Brahman cattle. PMID:19852965

  2. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  3. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

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    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  4. Gene expression in the skin of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle infested with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bagnall, Neil H; Kongsuwan, Kritaya K; Lew, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2008-11-15

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus) is responsible for severe production losses to the cattle industry worldwide. It has long been known that different breeds of cattle can resist tick infestation to varying degrees; however, the mechanisms by which resistant cattle prevent heavy infestation are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene expression varied significantly between skin sampling sites (neck, chest and tail region), and whether changes in gene expression could be detected in samples taken at tick attachment sites (tick attached to skin sample) compared with samples taken from non-attachment sites (no tick attachment). We present here the results of an experiment examining the expression of a panel of forty-four genes in skin sections taken from Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle of known high resistance, and Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle of known low resistance to the cattle tick. The forty-four genes chosen for this study included genes known to be involved in several immune processes, some structural genes, and some genes previously suggested to be of importance in tick resistance by other researchers. The expression of fifteen gene transcripts increased significantly in Holstein-Friesian skin samples at tick attachment sites. The higher expression of many genes involved in innate inflammatory processes in the Holstein-Friesian animals at tick attachment sites suggests this breed is exhibiting a non-directed pathological response to infestation. Of the forty-four genes analysed, no transcripts were detected in higher abundance at tick attachment sites in the Brahman cattle compared with similar samples from the Holstein-Friesian group, nor difference between attachment site and non-attachment site samples within the Brahman group. The results presented here suggest that the means by which these two cattle breeds respond to tick infestation differ and warrant further investigation. PMID

  5. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus

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    Guimarães Simone EF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus × Holstein (Bos taurus cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle.

  6. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

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    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  7. Imputation of Microsatellite Alleles from Dense SNP Genotypes for Parentage Verification Across Multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Charles Mcclure

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N=479 from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8,000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus were used to predict 9,410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles for 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N=2 to 36 breeds. These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had <1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents’ reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset.

  8. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  9. High environmental temperature and humidity decrease oocyte quality in Bos taurus but not in Bos indicus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A; Randel, R D; Broussard, J R; Lim, J M; Blair, R M; Roussel, J D; Godke, R A; Hansel, W

    1998-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental temperature and humidity on the quality and developmental capabilities of bovine oocytes. In Experiment 1, Bos taurus (Holstein and crossbred Angus) cows were subjected to 5 weekly sessions of ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration from February 16 through March 23 (cool season) and 5 sessions from May 22 through June 20 (hot season). In Experiment 2, Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cows were superstimulated (Super-Ov) during the months of August (hot season) or January (cool season), and each cow was subjected to a single oocyte aspiration session. In each experiment, oocytes were classified as normal or abnormal based on ooplasm morphology and cumulus cell layers. In Experiment 1, oocytes classified as normal were in vitro matured and fertilized (IVM/IVF), and the resulting embryos cultured for 8 d. All oocytes recovered from superstimulated cows in Experiment 2 were matured and fertilized in vitro and the subsequent embryos cultured for 8 d, regardless of their morphological appearance. In Experiment 1, Bos taurus cows produced a higher (P = 0.02) percentage of normal oocytes during the cool season (75.9 +/- 8.0) than during the hot season (41.0 +/- 9.5). The percentage of fertilized oocytes developing to the 2-cell (82.4), 8-cell (65.4) and morula (46.6) stages were also greater (P Holstein) had a lower (P = 0.01) percentage of normal oocytes in the hot season (24.5 vs 80.0) and a lower (P or = 0.57) in the percentage of normal oocytes or in embryo development was detected between seasons in Bos indicus (Brahman) cows. In conclusion, high environmental temperature and humidity resulted in a marked decline in the quality of oocytes retrieved from Bos taurus cows and markedly decreased their in vitro developmental capabilities. In contrast, a high percentage of oocytes retrieved from Bos indicus cows exhibited normal morphology and yielded a high proportion of blastocysts

  10. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  11. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  12. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros; Welder Angelo Baldassini; Victor Augusto Domingos Dias; Josineudson Augusto II Vasconcelos da Silva; Rogério Abdalah Curi; Luiz Artur Loyola Chardulo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT) on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus). Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3) and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6). Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsat...

  13. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  14. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  15. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

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    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram

  16. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

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    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  17. Study of the temperament of bos indicus calves on weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo da Silva Freitas; Paola Moretti Rueda; Tiago da Silva Valente; Luísa Cunha Carneiro; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Ones of the largest commercial cattle herd in the world, Brazil has its cattle characterized by the use of an extensive system and the predominance of zebu breeds, especially the Nelore and its crosses. In this system the temperament of cattle becomes a problem because of the low human-animal interaction, and bad-tempered animals can cause accidents, increase maintenance costs of facilities and provide poorer quality of the carcass, meat and leather. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  18. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature.

  19. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  20. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

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    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  1. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  2. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle. Serum concentrations of total Ig, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA in the calf and efficiency of absorption at 6 and 12 h were not affected by breed type, sex of calf, or any interaction. PMID:8617676

  3. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore, these data show the feasibility of the process even when used in a large-scale IVEP program. PMID:24412681

  4. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  5. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  6. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  7. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  8. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf.

  9. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces the calf play an important role in its ultimate performance for B crossbred calves. For body composition and meat-related traits, it appears that the breed makeup of the embryo transfer calf itself is more important to animal performance than the specific cross used to produce the calf. PMID:17235022

  10. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3-15N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  11. Effects of beta agonists in the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Bos indicus x Bos taurus in the state of Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently in Mexico about 30 million cattle of which about 15000.000 million are in areas at high risk of infestation and about 5,000,000 million fascioliosis animals are with, if we estimate the economic losses per year gives us an approximate price of 4,500,000,000 pesos are lost annually, on the other hand, the lack of good pasture especially in times of drought in the state are helping farmers are feeding their animals with food additives in this case the betaagonist (clenbuterol and the like ), At present there are several municipal traces at the state level are discarding the livers of cattle producing very large economic losses. been conducted on prevailing level of municipal trail Atlixco (zone endemic to the disease) in the year 2001-02 with a prevalence of 32-33 % While that in 2007 set a precedence of 7% over the same track municipal; this parasitic disease that affects the liver parenchyma and pipelines, affects the metabolic activity of the liver, this organ is one of the most important thing, because it participates in many metabolic pathways, as in the production and secretion of bile, regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins among others. This parasitic disease affects the production of meat and milk in ruminant animals in this very particular case Bos taurus x Bos indicus, the affected animals, these activities are depleted in previous studies have found that animals are fed with food additives such as beta -adrenergic-agonist, whose effect is to produce lipolysis, lipogenesis, are glucoliticos, and glycogen, affecting body composition, favouring neoformation tissue by the redistribution of power, also increasing the release of fatty acids into the blood, facilitating the synthesis of protein and retains the nitrogen fed into skeletal muscle, these components used as food additives are prohibited by federal law nationals (SAGARPA NOM-015-ZOO-2002), as the consumption of meat produced visceral primarily of clinical cases as tachycardia

  12. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning performance, but the particular cross that produces the calves also should be considered in making breeding decisions. PMID:17235021

  13. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  14. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

  15. Nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine lymphotoxin A gene and their distribution among Bos indicus zebu cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Mishra, Priyanka; Verma, N K; Niranjan, S K; Dangi, P S; Sharma, Rekha; Behl, Rahul

    2016-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the genetic variation present in lymphoxin A gene (LTA gene) encoding for the lymphotoxin A protein also known as tumor necrosis factor beta, a cytokine produced by lymphocytes, known to be cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and, which is essential for normal immunological development; in 40 animals of 5 diverse Bos indicus Indian zebu cattle breeds. These breeds survive under the harsh and tough tropical climatic conditions of various parts of the Indian subcontinent. The LTA gene in the present study was observed to contain 33 SNPs and 3 small insertion/deletion polymorphisms. Four SNPs occurred in the coding regions of the gene viz. g.1327A>G and g.1400C>T in exon 2 and g.1840C>T and g.1942C>T in exon 3, of which the SNP g.1327A>G in exon 2 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change G38D. This amino acid change was however predicted not be affecting the protein function in any manner. The gene contained putative transcription factor binding sites for the c-Re1 and for Pax-4 transcription factors. A putative promoter region was also predicted on the reverse DNA strand from position 894 to 644. Several repeat elements and microsatellite repeats were detected to be occurring across the 3.2kb LTA gene sequence. The study showed the occurrence of 40 genotypes and 48 most probable haplotypes. The genotypes at the observed SNP positions in the LTA gene were in near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A negative Tajima's D value that was not significant statistically at P>0.10 indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could not be excluded. The genetic variations observed in the LTA gene in the present study have not been reported earlier and these could possibly be used as molecular markers for further studies involving association of the gene variability with disease resistance/tolerance traits.

  16. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  17. Clínica e hematologia de Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2,0 x 10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. As alterações clínicas surgidas a partir do 3º dia após inoculação (DAI foram: hipertermia, taquicardia, taquipnéia, anorexia, prostração, corrimento nasal e lacrimejamento. Estes sinais foram mais evidentes nos taurinos, espécie que apresentou, ainda, diarréia, fotofobia e conjuntivite. Foi possível isolar T. gondii da corrente sangüínea em todas as espécies. Nos taurinos, a partir do 5º DAI até o final do experimento, o parasito foi isolado de todas as amostras de sangue colhidas semanalmente, com exceção do 14º, 35º e 63º DAI. Os bubalinos apresentaram parasitemia no 7º, 14º, 35º e 70º DAI e os zebuínos apenas no 7º e 28º DAI, correspondendo aos picos de temperatura, em todas as espécies, sendo mais evidente em taurinos. Os parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais demonstraram que os taurinos foram mais sensíveis ao T. gondii do que os zebuínos e estes não diferiram significativamente dos bubalinos, que tiveram aparente normalidade clínico-laboratorial.

  18. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  19. Sequenciamento e análise dos genes das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de bovino (Bos taurus indicus Sequencing and analysis of subunits alpha and beta of the follicle stimulating hormone from bovine (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Sayori Murata

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho relata uma clonagem e seqüenciamento das subunidades alfa e beta do hormônio folículo estimulante de Bos taurus indicus. Também apresenta os resultados de comparação realizada das seqüências gênicas dessas cadeias com as seqüências das cadeias alfa e beta do FSH de suínos e da cadeia beta de bovinos Bos taurus taurus já presentes no GenBank. Na comparação das seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos predita da cadeia αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com as cadeias αFSH de outras espécies como suínos e búfalo (Bubalis bubalis, observou-se que as seqüências são bastante similares. A comparação da seqüência da subunidade αFSH de Bos taurus indicus com a de suíno demonstrou diferenças em três resíduos de aminoácidos. Na comparação com ßFSH, registrou-se modificação na primeira base do codon que levou à alteração no resíduo do aminóacido 83, que, em Bos taurus indicus, é uma glicina, ao invés da serina presente em Bos taurus taurus. Confirmaram-se essa modificação e todas as outras identificadas na seqüência dos cDNA das cadeias αFSH e βFSH em outra clonagem. A modificação Ser para Gly na posição 83 foi a única que alterou a identidade do resíduo de aminoácido na comparação entre as subunidades beta do FSH de Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus. Contudo, ela não deve alterar significativamente as propriedades fisiológicas do FSH, uma vez que o resíduo de glicina encontrado nessa posição também é encontrado na cadeia βFSH suína. Trata-se, portanto, de uma modificação particular que distingue as cadeias βFSH de B. taurus taurus e B. taurus indicus.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bovino, clonagem, FSH, hormônio.

    The aim this work was to promove the cloning and analysis sequencing

  20. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  1. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers.

  2. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  3. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  4. Comportamento de vacas da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus em estro Estrus behaviour in Gir cows (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ávila Pires

    2003-04-01

    4.56h in the winter, and 64.00± 4.14 vs 127.44± 4.04h in the summer. The length of estrus was similar between winter (12.33± 0.74h and summer (11.82± 0.74h, and longer in the synchronized cows (13.24± 0.70 vs 10.91± 0.78h. The number of mounts accepted during the estrus was similar between winter (28.16± 2.61 and summer (22.98± 2.58, and greater in the synchronized animals (29.97± 2.48 vs 21.17± 2.17. It was observed effect of interaction between season of the year and luteolysis type on the total received mountings per hour in estrus. The winter was not a limiting factor to the estrus manifestation, once its length and intensity allowed heat detection, however, heat synchronization meddled the manifestation of sexual behaviour.

  5. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

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    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  7. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds.

  8. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  9. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  10. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  11. Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yisehak, K.; Becker, A.; Rothman, J.M.; Dierenfeld, E.S.; Marescau, B.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the southern hemisphere, foraging areas of cattle are affected by overgrazing and soil erosion resulting in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT). This study aimed to identify biomarkers in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) fo

  12. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (Pcows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (Pmilk as compared with Sahiwal cows during lactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at

  13. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  14. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  15. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  16. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

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    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  17. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

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    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  18. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

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    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  19. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (pBrahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  20. Psychotropic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. In Experimental Animals

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    V J Galani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae is a branched herb with purple color flowers, distributed in wet places. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S. indicus (SIE in rats and mice. Effect of SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. on spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor coordination, exploratory behaviour and apomorphine-induced stereotypy were investigated in mice. SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. induced catalepsy and effect of SIE on haloperidol induced catalepsy were studied in rats. The SIE showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, exploratory behaviour and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in the mice. Neuroleptic potential of SIE was observed by the results in which SIE antagonized apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice, produced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Further, SIE had no effect on motor-coordination as determined by the rota rod test. These results provide evidence that the hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus may contain psychoactive substances that are sedative in nature with possible neuroleptic properties.

  1. Expression of genes related to quality of Longissimus dorsi muscle meat in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus × 3/8 Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Juliana; Castan, Eduardo; Dal Pai, Maeli; Arrigoni, Mário De Beni; Rodrigues Baldin, Samira; De Oliveira, Henrique Nunes

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to compare CAPN1, CAPN2, CAST, TG, DGAT1 and LEP gene expressions and correlate them with meat quality traits in two genetic groups (Nellore and Canchim) in order to assess their expression profile and use their expression profile as genetic markers. We analyzed 30 young bulls (1year old), 15 of each genetic group. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected for analysis of: total lipids (TL) and meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) and myofibrillar fragmentation (MFI) at day of slaughter and 7days of aging. Gene expression profiles were obtained via RT-qPCR. TL and MFI showed differences between breeds, higher MFI in Canchim and higher TL in Nellore. Calpains showed no differential expression between groups, as did DGAT1, TG, and LEP. CAST was expressed more in the Nellore cattle. The only significant within-breed correlation (0.79) between gene expression and meat traits was found for DGAT1 and MFI in Canchim breed. Although the number of animals used in this study was small, the results indicate that the increased expression of CAST in Nellore may reflect tougher meat, but the lack of correlations with the meat traits indicates it is not a promising genetic marker.

  2. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

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    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  3. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  4. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  5. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  6. The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisehak, K; De Boever, J L; Janssens, G P J

    2014-06-01

    The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients.

  7. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus), INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893) DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Schenki; Cláudio Roberto Madruga; Aguemi Kohayagawa; Carla Lopes de Mendonça; Dirson Vieira; Raul Kessler

    2006-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus) inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, ...

  8. Variations in the Regulatory Region of Alpha S1-Casein Milk Protein Gene among Tropically Adapted Indian Native (Bos Indicus) Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S1-casein (αS1-CN) gene was sequenced, characterized, and analyzed to detect variations among 13 Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. Comparative analysis of 1,587 bp region comprising promoter (1,418 bp), exon-I (53 bp), and partial intron-I (116 bp) revealed 35 nucleotide substitutions (32 within promoter region, 1 in exon-I, and 2 in partial intron-I region) and 4 Indels. Within promoter, 15 variations at positions −1399 (A > G), −1288 (G > A), −1259 (T > C), −1158 (T > C), −1016 (A > T), −941 (T > G), −778 (C > T), −610 (G > A), −536 (A > G), −521 (A > G), −330 (A > C), −214 (A > G), −205 (A > T), −206 (C > A), and −175 (A > G) were located within the potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), namely, NF-κE1/c-Myc, GATA-1, GATA-1/NF-E, Oct-1/POU3F2, MEF-2/YY1, GATA-1, AP-1, POU1F1a/GR, TMF, GAL4, YY1/Oct-1, HNF-1, GRalpha/AR, GRalpha/AR, and AP-1, respectively. Seventy-four percent (26/35) of the observed SNPs were novel to Indian cattle and 11 of these novel SNPs were located within one or more TFBSs. Collectively, these might influence the binding affinity towards their respective nuclear TFs thus modulating the level of transcripts in milk and affecting overall protein composition. The study provides information on several distinct variations across indicine and taurine αS1-CN regulatory domains. PMID:25937984

  9. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  10. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. PMID:25284281

  11. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

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    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  12. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  13. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P P P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  14. Bos indicus-cross feedlot cattle with excitable temperaments have tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Deesing, M J

    1997-08-01

    Temperament ratings based on a numerical scale (chute score) were assessed during weighing and handling of cattle at a feedlot. Breeds studied included Braford, Red Brangus and Simbrah. Cattle were fed to a constant fat thickness of 9 to 13 mm (target = 11 mm) over the 12th rib as determined by periodic ultrasound measurements. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial slaughter plant and stunned by captive bolt. Temperament rating had a significant effect on the incidence of borderline dark cutters which were downgraded by a USDA grader (P = 0.01). Temperament score also had a significant effect on tenderness (P < 0.001) as evaluated by Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBS) force at day 14 post mortem. The calmest animals which stood still when restrained in a hydraulic squeeze chute had a mean WBS force of 2.86 ± 11 kg and cattle which became highly agitated and struggled violently during restraint averaged 3.63 ± 19 kg. Forty percent of these cattle had WBS force values which were over 3.9 kg which is a threshold value for acceptability in food service establishments. These data show that cattle with the most excitable temperament ratings produce carcasses with tougher meat and a higher incidence of borderline dark cutters than cattle with calm temperament ratings. PMID:22062320

  15. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon

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    J. Kouamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon for in vitro embryo production (IVEP. The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9% and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm. Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10 and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI: oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII: oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII: oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV: denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS and pregnancy status of cow on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%. Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%, 2.72±0.15 (24.82%, 2.24±0.15 (20.43% and 2.47±0.20 (22.54% respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0.05 compared with other animals. Oocytes with

  16. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

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    G.S. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  17. Parâmetros genéticos entre características de leite, de peso e a idade ao primeiro parto em gado mestiço leiteiro (Bos taurus x Bos indicus Genetic parameters between milk traits, weight traits and age at first calving in crossbreed dairy cattle (Bos taurus x Bos indicus

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    A.E. Vercesi Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimadas as correlações genéticas entre características de produção de leite (produção de leite, gordura, proteína e duração da lactação em até 305 dias, na primeira lactação, características de peso (taxa de crescimento de novilhas entre 12-24 meses e peso médio de vacas e idade ao primeiro parto, em uma população de fêmeas Mestiço Leiteiro Brasileiro (MLB, por meio de metodologia REML, sob modelo animal. As estimativas de herdabilidade das características estudadas na ordem acima foram, respectivamente, 0,28± 0,08, 0,30±0,11, 0,28±0,09, 0,19±0,07, 0,18±0,06, 0,42±0,10 e 0,48±0,12. As correlações genéticas entre peso médio da vaca e a produção de leite, gordura e proteína foram, respectivamente, -0,22±0,22, -0,49±0,31 e -0,22±0,23 e da taxa de crescimento das novilhas com a produção de leite, gordura e proteína foram respectivamente, -0,59±0,35, -0,73±0,44 e -0,62±0,37. As correlações genéticas entre produção de leite, peso médio das vacas e taxa de crescimento das novilhas com idade ao primeiro parto foram respectivamente, 0,05±0,18, -0,05±0,18 e 0,02±0,20. A alta correlação genética (0,93±0,02 entre produção de leite e duração da lactação indicou que não se deve remover a variação na duração da lactação na seleção de gado leiteiro tropical.Genetic correlations between milk production (milk, fat, protein yield lactation length in 305-d lactation, live weight (average cow live weight, growth rate between 12-24 mo and age at first calving traits were estimated in a population of Mestiço Leiteiro Brasileiro (MLB females using REML methodology and animal model. The estimates of heritability were respectively, 0.28± 0.08, 0.30±0.11, 0.28±0.09, 0.19±0.07, 0.18±0.06, 0.42±0.10 and 0.48±0.12 for those traits. Genetic correlations between milk, fat and protein yield with cow average weight were, respectively, -0.22±0.22, -0.49±0.31, -0.22±0.23, and between milk

  18. Produtividade à Desmama de Novilhas Nelore e F1 Bos taurus x Nelore e Bos indicus x Nelore Productivity to Weaning of Nellore and F1 Guzerath x Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore Heifers

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    Daniel Perotto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência produtiva das vacas de corte está relacionada com o tamanho do animal, a fertilidade e a produção de leite. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência à desmama de 289 novilhas sendo 100 Nelore (N, 47 F1 Guzerá x Nelore (GN, 67 F1 Red Angus x Nelore (RN, 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nelore (MN e 38 F1 Simental x Nelore (SN da Est. Exp. Paranavaí/IAPAR. Foram analisadas a idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPV, e a relação entre o peso do bezerro à desmama e o peso metabólico da mãe ao parto, dividida pela idade da mãe em dias ao parto (PDPM. As médias por quadrados mínimos para IPP em dias, PDPV [((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e PDPM [((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] foram: 1416, 1340, 1053, 1187 e 1117; 0,394, 0,414, 0,422, 0,379 e 0,418; e 0,169, 0,179, 0,187, 0,169 e 0,188, respectivamente para os grupos N, GN, RN, MN e SN. Para IPP, foram significativos os contrastes N- RN (362 dias, GN -- RN (287 dias e RN -- MN (-133 dias. Para PDPV, foi significativo o contraste RN - MN [-0,04287((kg/kg/dia x 1000] e para PDPM foram significativos os contrastes N -- RN [-0,01803((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100], RN -- MN [0,01841((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100] e MN -- SN [-0,01915((kg/kg0,75/dia x 100]. Conclui-se que novilhas RN e SN foram mais eficientes à primeira desmama que novilhas MN, as quais não diferiram das zebuínas N e GN.Production efficiency of a beef cow-calf herd is determined by the ability of the cows in converting the ingested food into calf weight. This ability is related to cow size, fertility and milk production. The present study evaluated efficiency at weaning after first calving of 100 Nellore (N, 47 F1 Guzerath x Nellore (GN, 67 F1 Red Angus x Nellore (RN, 37 F1 Marchigiana x Nellore (MN and 38 F1 Simental x Nellore (SN heifers at Estação Experimental Paranavaí/IAPAR. The traits analyzed were age at first calving (IPP, the ratio of calf

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

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    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  20. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (PBrangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased. PMID:17212980

  1. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

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    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of h

  2. Estimulação hormonal, punção folicular transvaginal e avaliação ovocitária em bezerras pré-púberes da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus Hormonal stimulation and ultrasound guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and oocyte recovery in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus prepubertal calves

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    Marilia Viviane Snel-Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    ócitos recuperados e viáveis aos 10, 11 e 12 meses de idade.The use of pre-pubertal calves as oocyte donors offers a considerable potential to increase the genetic gain lowering the generations interval, as well as increase the usage of bovine females with high genetic value. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of age and of the stimulatory treatment with gonadotropins in the follicular response, the recovery rate, quantity and quality of oocytes of the prepubertal Nelore (B. t. indicus calves. Twelve Nelore prepubertal females were stimulated with gonadotrophin hormone and were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal oocyte recovery (OPU at 10, 11 and 12 months of age. Before OPU the females were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n=4, which consist of different protocols of ovarian super stimulation. For all treatments the animals on day zero (D0 received one intravaginal progesterone implant (CIDR-G® and on D1, 2 mg of estradiol benzoate im (Estrogin®. The stimulatory treatment began on D6 according to the following treatments: T1-120 IU of FSH (Foltropin®, divided in 4 im injections with 12 hours interval; T2-120 IU of FSH in one sc application plus 300 IU of eCG (Folligon® on D6; T3 - without stimulatory treatment (control. At D8 the CIDR-G®was removed and OPU was performed on D9. Among the 402 oocytes retrieved, 53 were denuded and measured (including the pellucid zone where a mean diameter of 153.38 ± 8.06 mm was obtained. No significant difference was detected among treatments and among ages for the quantity of follicles > 3 mm, quantity of oocytes recovery and quantity of oocytes morphologically viable. The mean of recovery oocytes and viable oocytes for each treatment was T1- 11.08 (6.20 and 59.58% (25.80, T2 - 12.75 (8.04 and 66.02% (36.71, T3 - 9.66 (8.15 and 51.51% (30.69, respectively. The mean value of recovery rate was 78.70%. The use of FSH or FSH + eCG does not increase significantly the amount of follicles > 3 mm at

  3. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using next generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreya M; Koringa, Prakash G; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Namrata V; Shah, Tejash M; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-02-01

    Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV) and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK). Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  4. Exploring genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis using next generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya M. Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity initiates various cascades of reactions that largely contribute to defense against physical, microbial or chemical damage, prompt for damage repair and removal of causative organisms as well as restoration of tissue homeostasis. Genetic polymorphism in innate immune genes plays prominent role in disease resistance capabilities in various breeds of cattle and buffalo. Here we studied single nucleotide variations (SNP/SNV and haplotype structure in innate immune genes viz CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1, BNBD4, BNBD5, TAP and LAP in Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo. Targeted sequencing of exonic regions of these genes was performed by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform. The sequence reads obtained corresponding to coding regions of these genes were mapped to reference genome of cattle BosTau7 by BWA program using genome analysis tool kit (GATK. Further variant analysis by Unified Genotyper revealed 54 and 224 SNPs in Gir and Murrah respectively and also 32 SNVs was identified. Among these SNPs 43, 36, 11,32,81,21 and 22 variations were in CHGA, CHGB, CHGC, NRAMP1, NRAMP2, DEFB1 and TAP genes respectively. Among these identified 278 SNPs, 24 were found to be reported in the dbSNP database. Variant analysis was followed by structure formation of haplotypes based on multiple SNPs using SAS software revealed a large number of haplotypes. The SNP discovery in innate immune genes in cattle and buffalo breeds of India would advance our understanding of role of these genes in determining the disease resistance/susceptibility in Indian breeds. The identified SNPs and haplotype data would also provide a wealth of sequence information for conservation studies, selective breeding and designing future strategies for identifying disease associations involving samples from distinct populations.

  5. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  6. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P  0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species. PMID:24570857

  7. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  8. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous cows (n = 18) received the

  9. Perfil metabólico de touros da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus confinados e tratados com somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST Metabolic and hormonal profile of feedlot Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Amorim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da administração da somatotrofina bovina recombinante (r-bST sobre os metabólitos sangüíneos de touros da raça Nelore de duas diferentes idades. Foram utilizados 16 touros, distribuídos em um delineamento fatorial 2 x 2 (idades: jovens e adultos; r-bST: 0 e 500mg com quatro animais por tratamento. A idade média dos animais foi de 13,37 e 20,62 meses para jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Quatro animais por tratamento receberam, a cada 14 dias, solução salina ou 500mg de r-bST, totalizando nove aplicações por animal, em um período experimental de 120 dias. Os touros foram alimentados com silagem de milho e ração concentrada à base de farelo de milho e soja, duas vezes por dia, fornecidas em baias individuais. As coletas de sangue foram realizadas a cada três dias, para determinação da concentração dos metabólicos sangüíneos. Para análise estatística, foram compilados dados a intervalo de três aplicações, o que constituiu um período (período 1, 2 e 3. As concentrações de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (NEFA foram analisadas semanalmente. As concentrações séricas de colesterol, proteína total e plasmáticas de glicose diferiram para os períodos e nos grupos de tratamentos (P0,05.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (r-bST administration on profiles of blood metabolites of two different ages Nellore bulls. Sixteen bulls were randomly allotted in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (ages: youngs and adults; and r-bST dose: 0 and 500 mg with four animals per treatment. The mean ages of the young and adult animals were 13.37 and 20.62 months, respectively. Four animals per treatment received saline solution or r-bST 500mg, every 14 days, totaling nine applications per animal during 120 days. The Bulls were fed corn silage and concentrated diet based on corn crumb and soybean meal, twice a day, in individual stalls. Blood was collected every three

  10. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus (Nota Científica EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0 e 120 (D120 por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT com onze animais. Os touros do GT receberam 4g de probiótico/animal/dia, durante 120 dias. Houve diferença (p<0,01 entre as colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT para o perímetro escrotal (GC – D0: 30,50 cm e D120: 33,55 cm; GT – D0: 29,90 cm e D120: 34,30 cm. Houve diferença (p<0,05 entre colheitas (D0 e D120 nos grupos GC e GT, respectivamente, para: defeitos menores (GC – D0: 13,84 % e D120: 21,79%; GT – D0: 14,99% e D120: 20,84% e defeitos totais (GC – D0: 22,29% e D120: 29,24%; GT – D0: 25,14% e D120: 32,81%. Os resultados demonstram que, entre grupos, não houve alteração significativa das características seminais e perímetro escrotal.
       
    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aditivo, nutrição, sêmen, touro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Touro, sêmen, nutrição, aditivo.    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Proenzime® on scrotal perimeter and spermiogram in young Tabapua bulls. Two samples of semen from 21 Tabapua bulls, aging 30 months, were collected in day zero (D0 and 120 (D120 by electroejaculation, totalizing 42 samples. The bulls were divided in control group (CG with 10 animals and trated group (TG with 11 animals. The bulls of TG received 4g of probiotic/animal/day, during 120 days. There was difference (p<0.01 between collects (D0 and D120 in the groups CG and TG for scrotal perimeter (CG – D0: 30.50 cm and D120: 33.55 cm

  11. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  12. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Hélder Silva e Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica clássica. Os folículos primordiais expostos à concentração de 40% apresentaram redução do diâmetro folicular e ovocitário quando comparados ao grupo controle (sem exposição, 10% e 20% (P0,05. Esses resultados sugerem que folículos primários são mais resistentes aos efeitos do etileno glicol quando comparados aos primordiais.The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different concentrations of ethylene glycol on the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of the preantral ovarian follicles. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%. Tissue analysis was done using classical histology techniques. The primordial follicles expose at a concentration of 40% showed reduction of the follicular diameter and oocyte when compared to the control (non exposing, 10 and 20% groups (P0.05. These results suggest that primary follicles are more resistant to the effect of ethylene glycol when compared to primordial ones.

  14. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  15. Comparison of Skin Characterizes Between Pure Breed and Crossbred Azeri Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus

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    Alireza Lotfi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For investigation of crossbreeding efficiency in some skin characterizes in pure and crossbred cattle with Azeri Zebu, 100 head Azeri Zebu and pure breeds were divided into 4 group in 4 treatments, randomly. After cross breeding between zebu and pure cattle breeds, the diameters of skin in different parts of body were significantly increased in hybrids (offspring. Zebu hybrids, because of their strength epidemic layer on slat and legs had deep skin in compare with parents. Skin area were measured at two different parts, that more than 60% of skin were include 5 mm diameter in hybrids. As conclusion; in this investigation it has been cleared that cross-breeding in Azeri zebu (with pure cattle breeds can cause deep diameter of skin that also it can produce high quality skin for leather and shoe Industry.

  16. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  17. Época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo de terneiros cruzas taurinos e zebuínos sobre o peso ao nascer, à desmama e eficiência individual de primíparas Hereford Calving season, genotype and sex of crossbred taurus and indicus calves on the birth and weaning weight and individual efficiency of primiparous Hereford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Mendonça

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da época de nascimento, genótipo e sexo do terneiro sobre a eficiência individual das vacas à desmama (relação percentual entre o peso do terneiro à desmama e o peso da vaca, peso ao nascer e peso à desmama dos terneiros. Foram utilizadas 48 vacas da raça Hereford (Bos taurus, com idade de três anos, manejadas sobre campo natural, 16 inseminadas com um touro da raça Red Angus (Bos taurus e 32 com Nelore (Bos indicus. Os fatores estudados foram genótipo do terneiro (GENOT - Bos taurus x Bos taurus e Bos taurus x Bos indicus, época de nascimento (EPOCN subdividida em três períodos - 1S (setembro, 2O (outubro e 3N (novembro e sexo do terneiro (SEXO. A produção de leite (PL foi incluída como co-variável. Foram realizadas dez medidas de produção de leite pelo método indireto pesagem - mamada - pesagem e onze medidas de peso para vacas e terneiros, em intervalos de 21 dias. Os fatores que influenciaram significativamente o PN foram GENOT e SEXO (PThe objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of calving season, genotype and calf sex on the cows weaning individual efficiency ( percentual relationship between cow body weight and calf weaning weight, birth and weaning weight of calves. Forty-eight primiparous Hereford cows with approximate average age of 3 years and grazing only native pastures were used. Sixteen inseminated with one Red Angus bull (Bos taurus and 32 with Nelore (Bos indicus. Effects studied were calf genotype (GENOT, Bos taurus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus, calving season (EPOCN concentrated in the Spring and subdivided into three periods: 1S (September, 2O (October and 3N (November and December and calf sex (SEXO. Milk production (PL was included as co-variable. Ten measurements of milk production obtained by the indirect method, weighing the calf before and after suckling, and eleven measurements of cow and calf weights, were made at 21

  18. Juridica; Bos, bouw en gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Bouwen in het bos van de ecologische hoofdstructuur. Geen probleem als niemand bezwaar maakt.... Uiteindelijk is de gemeente vergunningverlener aan zichzelf, is wetgever in eigen zaak en maakt voor zichzelf een lucratief bestemmingsplan. Aldus de analyse van wetskenner Fred Kistenkas

  19. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Azevedo Mota; Juliana Duarte Messana; Roberta Carrilho Canesin; Giovani Fiorentini; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW) were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four ...

  20. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  1. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r = 0.84). The role of these co-expressed genes in puberty and heifers luteal phase merits further research. PMID:27803898

  2. Genome-wide association with residual body weight gain in Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M H A; Gomes, R C; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Novais, F J; Bonin, M N; Fukumasu, H; Garcia, J F; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Coutinho, L L; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-01-01

    Weight gain is a key performance trait for beef cat-tle; however, attention should be given to the production costs for better profitability. Therefore, a feed efficiency trait based on per-formance can be an interesting approach to improve performance without increasing food costs. To identify candidate genes and ge-nomic regions associated with residual body weight gain (RWG), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 720 Nellore cattle using the GRAMMAR-Gamma association test. We identified 30 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), especially on chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 17. Several genes and quantitative train loci (QTLs) present in the regions identified were appointed; we highlight DMRT2 (doublesex and mab-3 related tran-scription factor 2), IFFO2 (intermediate filament family orphan 2), LNX2 (ligand of numb-protein X 2), MTIF3 (mitochondrial transla-tional initiation factor 3), and TRNAG-CCC (transfer RNA glycine anticodon CCC). The metabolic pathways that can explain part of the phenotypic variation in RWG are related to oxidative stress and muscle control. PMID:26125717

  3. Assessment of inbreeding depression in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbreeding has been incriminated as a cause of decrease in reproductive performance in cattle. This negative correlation is known as ‘inbreeding depression’, and evidence supporting this hypothesis was generated from association studies between reproductive traits and estimates of inbreeding coeffic...

  4. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  5. Morfometría ovárica de hembras Cebú (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la morfometría ovárica está directamente relacionado con sus aplicaciones para analizar e interpretar los hallazgos, en los exámenes ginecológicos de las vacas. Para este trabajo se recolectaron 114 pares de ovarios en frigorífico, clasificados a partir del ancho, grueso, largo, volumen, diámetro del folículo, diámetro y área del cuerpo lúteo. Fue observada una diferencia significativa en el ancho (1,95cm y 1,83cm y el volumen (7,26 mL y 6,23 mL de los ovarios izquierdos y derechos, respectivamente. En cuanto al tamaño y el volumen de los folículos, el diámetro y el área de los cuerpos lúteos, no hubo diferencia relevante. En los lados hubo correlación positiva (p<0,01 entre el volumen del ovario izquierdo y el área del cuerpo lúteo. La presencia de folículos con diámetro igual o superior a 9mm, el cuerpo lúteo de tipo macizo y protruso presente en 43,39% de los 53 ovarios, predominó con relación al tipo cóncavo. De los 84 ovarios con cuerpos lúteos, el 26,20% eran de tipo extrapolado. Se concluye, que la presencia de cuerpo lúteo incluso, en vacas cebú, puede resultar en fallas diagnósticas durante el examen de palpación rectal para estimar la actividad ovárica.

  6. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. PMID:24725537

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI MICROBIAL STUDIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many forms of alternative medicines were available for those who cannot be helped by conventional medicine. Ayurvedha and Herbal medicine were two important forms of alternative medicine that was widely available in India. This work was mainly concerned with the identification of the therapeutic properties of Hemidesmus indicus. The ethanolic extract of hemidesmus indicus root was used for its anti oxidant and antimicrobial activity. Hemidesmus indicus root extract has very well anti oxidant and anti microbial activity. The ethanolic extract of Hemidesmus indicus was checked for anti microbial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as staphylococcus aures, pseudomonas aeruginosa andfungi Aspergillus niger.

  9. History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from neolithic to early middle ages

    OpenAIRE

    Schibler, J.; Schlumbaum, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (similar to 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic unt...

  10. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  11. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  12. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malairajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI (Compositae was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percentage protection found was 66.6 and 67.4 respectively. The result suggested that ALSI possess significant and dose dependent analgesic activity.

  13. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  14. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  15. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  16. Pilot meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, G.M.; Daamen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Alterra en Bosdata voerden in opdracht van het Expertisecentrum LNV een proef uit voor het meetnet functievervulling bos, natuur en landschap. Het meetnet schat periodiek met een geografische steekproef de oppervlakte land met een zekere kwaliteit voor recreatie, natuur, milieu en economie. De steek

  17. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  18. Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

    2013-12-01

    The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein.

  19. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits.

  20. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds.

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  2. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  3. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  4. Phosphorus requirements for containerized Pterocarpus indicus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng Hai Lok; Bernard Dell

    2015-01-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd is a tropical woody legume that holds promise for plantation forestry. Two glasshouse experiments were undertaken on two soil types to determine the phosphorus (P) concentration ranges in the foliage of P-stressed and healthy plants, and to define cri-tical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency and toxicity. There was a narrow range in rates of P fertilizer, supplied as Ca(H2PO4)2?H20, between deficiency and toxicity compared to other tree species. The relationship between shoot yield and P concentration in the youngest fully expanded leaf enabled critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of deficiency (0.17%) and toxicity (0.41%) to be determined at 90% maximum yield from linear re-gressions fitted to the data. The foliar P concentration ranges for deficiency and toxicity were similar to other nitrogen-fixing trees. The defined P concentration ranges and the critical P concentrations for the diagnosis of P deficiency and P toxicity should be useful for monitoring the P status of nursery stock and the health of young seedlings after out-planting.

  5. Lipid Lowering Activity of Anthocephalus indicus Root in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid lowering activity of Anthocephalus indicus (family Rubiaceae; Hindi name Kadamba root extract has been studied in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. In this model, feeding with root extract (500 mg kg−1 b.w. lowered plasma lipids and reactivated post-heparin lipolytic activity in hyperlipidemic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50–500 μM inhibited the generation of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non-enzymic systems, in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated both lipid lowering and antioxidant activities in root extract of A. indicus, which could help prevention of hyperlipidemia and related diseases.

  6. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter. PMID:22061376

  7. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  8. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A. P.; Bah, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced in...

  9. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J; Dawaye, S M; Zoli, A P; Bah, G S

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P quality (grade I and II) acceptable for IVEP constituted 57.15% of the harvest. This study indicated that factors such as age, pregnancy status, BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  10. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  11. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesia, Lilido Nelson; Roman Bravo, Rafael María; Díaz de Ramirez, Adelina; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which were assigned to NSE-AI and in this group a modified table was used. Response variable was first service fertility rate (FSF), which was coded 1 for pregnant and 0 for empty. Predictor variables were AIP, postpartum anestrus, daily milk yield, body condition score at AI and calving number. Statistical analyses included association chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results showed an overall 41.94% FSF and a significant association was detected (P 0.05). The odds ratio for the effect of AIP was only 1.050, suggesting no differences in FSF between groups. The NSE-AI protocol can enhance both the technique of VO and reproductive efficiency. Further validation of the table is required. PMID:26464929

  12. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A.P.; Bah, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P BCS and ovarian size must be taken into account to increase the potential of the ovary for IVEP. PMID:26623353

  13. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the blood or muscle of any cattle at slaughter.

  14. Fertility in Gyr Cows (Bos indicus) with Fixed Time Artificial Insemination and Visual Estrus Detection Using a Classification Table

    OpenAIRE

    Lilido Nelson Ramírez-Iglesia; Rafael María Roman Bravo; Adelina Díaz de Ramirez; Torres, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare two artificial insemination protocols (AIP): hormonal synchronization with fixed time artificial insemination (SC-FTAI) and the use of a table based on visual observation of estrus signs (VO) in order to identify cows in natural or spontaneous estrus being assigned to AI (NSE-IA). Two groups were formed: in the first group 109 cows were assigned to SC-FTAI, in which a commercial protocol is used; the second one included 108 randomly chosen cows, which w...

  15. Efecto de SNPs de genes candidatos asociados a textura de la carne en bovinos Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla López, Yenny Catherine

    2014-01-01

    La terneza de la carne es el principal atributo de aceptación de la carne por parte del consumidor, sin olvidar las características de jugosidad y el sabor; por lo que su impacto en la rentabilidad y la calidad de la carne es de gran importancia. La terneza de la carne de bovinos está influenciada por factores genéticos y ambientales. El evaluar el desempeño de la terneza a través de factores como son el tiempo de maduración y el efecto del cruce de los animales, estos han sido de uso frecuen...

  16. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P Angus were lighter (P Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  17. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  18. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    to be the major flora associated with juveniles of P. indicus in the culture environment when they were maintained in hapa. Bacterial flora of the body surface and gills of the prawns in a grow out system were predominantly composed of Pseudomonas, Coryneform...

  19. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. Van 't bos los?; een verkennende studie naar de interactie tussen recreatieve gebruikers en beheerders van het Nederlandse bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, L.J.; Molenaar, de H.G.; Verbij, E.E.M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 is op een inductieve wijze onderzoek gedaan naar de vervreemding die plaatsvindt tussen bosgebruikers en bosbeheerders. Door allerlei ontwikkelingen in de samenleving is de afhankelijkheid van het bos enorm afgenomen en heeft bos vooral een functie van ontspanning en rust. In dit onderzoek i

  2. Bos in water, water in bos; kansenkaarten voor multifunctionele natte bossen met meerwaarde voor waterbeheer, natuur en recreatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommel, P.W.F.M.; Rooij, van S.A.M.; Waal, de R.W.; Vries, de F.; Goossen, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Uit eerder onderzoek is gebleken dat de combinatie van water en bos gunstig kan zijn voor natuur, waterbeheer en recreatie. Dit vervolg onderzoek heeft tot doel in beeld te brengen wáár in Nederland de meest kansrijke plekken voor deze combinatie liggen. De volgende hoofdtypen 'nat bos' worden onder

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyun; Ma, Yanbin; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Du, Junzheng; Ma, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-EL...

  4. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  5. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  6. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in Underground Mine Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Edmund Chime

    2011-01-01

    The schlieren technique describes an optical analysis method designed to enhance light distortions caused by air movement. The ability to visualize gas flows has significant implications for analyzing underground mine ventilation systems. Currently, the widely utilized traditional schlieren methods are impractical underground due to complex equipment and design requirements. Background oriented schlieren (BOS) provides a solution to this problem. BOS requires two primary components, a pro...

  7. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship between response to stress and rectal temperature that helps

  8. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  9. The Effect of Myogenic Factor 5 Polymorphism on the Meat Quality in Chinese Bos Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ujan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated polymorphism of myogenic factor 5, involved in growth and meat quality traits. Based on PCR-SSCP technology, a novel missense substitution SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism g.1142 A > G was identified in the intron1 region of the MyF-5 gene, it causes an amino acid substitution (1142Glutamine/ Glycine1142. Allele frequencies, gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MyF-5 SNP in three population breeds were determined and evaluated by the χ2 test. Results showed that the polymorphism distribution was not similar in all of the three Bos taurus breeds, the genotype distributions of two cattle breeds Jia xian red and Nanyang did not agree with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P 0.05. The A/G allelic frequencies in these breeds were 0.797/0.202, 0.770/0.229, 0.863/0.136 respectively. The genotype frequencies in Jia xian red and Nanyang cattle breeds showed moderate diversity (0.25< polymorphism information content <0.5. Furthermore, least squares analysis revealed significant effects of genotype on intramuscular fat, rib area and water holding capacity in 510 individuals (P < 0.05. Our result suggests that A1142G SNP can be used as an efficacious genetic marker for meat quality traits in native Chinese cattle breeds (Bos taurus but a much large number of animals are required for Marker assisted selection.

  10. In Memoriam Dr Lute Bos (1928-2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday July 6, 2010 we were shocked by the news that that day our former colleague Lute Bos had died unexpectedly at the age of 82. Lute was a world-famous plant virologist. From the start of his career in 1957 until his retirement from the Institute for Plant Protection (IPO-DLO) in Wageningen in

  11. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  12. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  13. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  14. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  15. Effects of Anomalous Tensor Couplings in BOs -(B-)Os Mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Qin; HAN Lin; YANG Ya-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed anomalous large dimuon charge asymmetry in neutral B decays,we study the effects of the anomalous tensor couplings to pursue a possible solution.With the constraints from the observables φJ/(φ)(φ,f0)s,aSsl and ΔMs,the new physics parameter spaces are severely restricted.We find that the contributions induced by the color-singlet or the color-octet tensor operators are helpful to moderate the anomaly in BOs - (B-)Osmixing.Numerically,the observable aSsl could be enhanced by about two orders of magnitude by the contributionsof color-singlet or color-octet tensor operators with their respective nontrivial new weak phase φT1 =41° ± 35° orφs =-47° ± 33° and relevant strength parameters |gT1| =(2.89 ± 1.40) × 10-2 or |gT8| =(0.79 ± 0.34) × 10-2.However,due to the fact that the NP contributions are severely suppressed by the recent LHCb measurement for φJ/φ(φ,f0)s,our theoretical result of aSsl is still much smaller than the central value of the experimental data.

  16. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  17. Pengaruh Anggaran Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) Terhadap Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar Siswa SMP Di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to find out the correlation and the effectiveness of BOS (School Operation Assistance) fund with the improvement of SMP students' learning achievement in Medan. BOS program has started since July, 2005 which is aimed to ease people's burden in education cost by giving financial aid for supporting qualified nine-year learning compulsory. Although the government has distributed BOS fund to schools, there are still many poor children who drop out of school, and ...

  18. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  19. Occurrence of abnormal starfish Astropecten indicus (Doderlein, 1888 (Echinodermata: Astroidea along Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prabhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Starfish Astropecten indicus was collected from bycatch landings at Mudasalodai fishing harbour, Tamil Nadu (India in November 2011. Totally 134 specimens collected among three specimens (2,2% have abnormally developed four and six arms. Normally, A. indicus has five arms and the deviation from pentamerism is a rare phenomenon in starfishes. The present observations suggest that deviations from pentamerism are not a heritable character but are a consequence of environmental perturbations on the metamorphosis of larvae and/or abnormal regeneration of arms.

  20. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  1. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  2. Protocolos de inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo en vacas (Bos indicus en el trópico bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M. Sanabria-V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En una hacienda de clima tropical bajo, se evalula  respuesta  a  tres  programas de  Inseminación Artificial a Tiempo Fijo (IATF en 30 vacas vacías cebú  comercial, cíclicas,  con buena  condición corporal,  seleccionadas por  palpación  rectal  ydistribuidas al azar en  tres grupos de 10 vacas cada uno. A  éstos  se  les  asignó  un  protocolo  de sincronización de celos y ovulación diferente. En el grupo 1 se utilizó un dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona;  las vacas del grupo 2 recibieron un  implante auricular  impregnado de Norgestomet  y  en  el  grupo  3  se  realizó  el protocolo de Ovsynch. Se diagnosticó la preñez mediante ultrasonografía, 30 días después de la inseminación en  los  tratamientos y  los datos  fueron analizados mediante  estadística descriptiva  con variables  de  tipo  cuantitativo.  Los  resultados obtenidos para el grupo 1, fueron 4 de 10 vacas preñadas, en el grupo 2, 6 de 10 vacas preñadas y en  el  grupo  3, 3  de 10  vacas. Se  encontraron diferencias  significativas  entre  las  vacas  que recibieron  el  implante  auricular,  así  como  a aquellas  vacas que  se  les hizo  el protocolo de Ovsynch,  pero  no  se  encontraron  diferencias significativas  entre  el  dispositivo  intravaginal impregnado con progesterona,  respecto de  los dos restantes. El valor más económico por preñez se obtuvo  con  la  utilización  del  protocolo  de Ovsynch; sin embargo, en  términos de eficiencia,fue mejor usar el implante auricular impregnado de  Norgestomet;  esto  por  razones  de mejoramiento  genético.  De  esta  forma  se concluyó que el protocolo del implante auricular con Norgestomet  tuvo una superior  tasa de preñez,sin que  esto  sea  una  constante,  debido  a  que  existen diferentes  factores que hacen variar  los resultados de la IATF.

  3. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus) gestantes e não gestantes

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Vargas; P.R. Xavier; C.A. Rezende; M.M. Neves; A.P. Marques Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o tr...

  4. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) and their correlation with climatic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Francisco Carlos Platzeck Estrella Alves; Eunice Oba; Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of t...

  5. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  6. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  7. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus gestantes e não gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o trimestre gestacional: primeiro - gestação de até 90 dias; segundo - de 91 a 180 dias; e terceiro - de 181 a 270 dias. Os corpos lúteos, processados para inclusão em paraplast, foram avaliados em microscópio de luz. Na proporção volumétrica do corpo lúteo, os constituintes avaliados foram citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas, tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos, células endoteliais e pericitos e vasos sanguíneos. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma de células lúteas reduziu de 46,1±2,8% para 37,9±3,5% e a de núcleo de células lúteas reduziu de 9,2±1,0% para 6,2±1,0%, do primeiro para o segundo trimestre. A proporção de tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos aumentou de 20,9±5,4%, no primeiro trimestre, para 34,0±4,2%, no segundo trimestre. Grânulos citoplasmáticos foram evidenciados pelas técnicas histoquímicas xylidine ponceau e azul de bromofenol, que indicam sua provável composição proteica. A quantidade de células maiores com grânulos aumentou significativamente de 2,3±1,9%, no primeiro trimestre, para 25,5±20,3%, no segundo. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas diminuiu ao longo da gestação, e a de tecido conjuntivo aumentou. A quantidade de células lúteas maiores contendo grânulos também aumentou ao longo da gestação.

  8. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano; Usaquén Martínez William

    2006-01-01

    La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es e...

  9. Dinámica folicular y función lútea durante la gestación temprana. Estudio de un caso en Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henao R Guillermo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A una vaca Cebú de seis años, tres partos y 432 Kg de peso, se le practicaron ecografías ováricas transrectales y muestreos sanguíneo tres veces por semana desde el día uno al 74 de gestación. Se contó el número de folículos > 4 mm y se midió el diámetro de los folículos y el diámetro y tiempo de observación ecográfica del cuerpo lúteo. Se determinó la ovulación y se calculó la tasa de crecimiento del folículo dominante y el intervalo interdominancia. Los niveles de progesterona se midieron por radioinmunoanálisis. Durante los primeros 74 días de la gestación se desarrollaron 10 ondas foliculares; la primera fue conformada por seis folículos  4mm, de los cuales se desarrolló uno dominante que alcanzó un diámetro de 11 mm, creció a una tasa de un mm/día y presentó un intervalo interdominancia de 10 días. El folículo subordinado más desarrollado alcanzó un diámetro de 6 mm. Los folículos dominantes alcanzaron 9.11 mm de diámetro, crecieron a una tasa de 1,0  0,19 mm/día y presentaron un intervalo interdominancia de 7,5  1,73 días. El cuerpo lúteo alcanzó un diámetro máximo de 21mm el día 40 de gestación. La progesterona alcanzó niveles >10 ng/100ml a partir del día 11. Durante la gestación temprana de una vaca Cebú se presentó dinámica folicular caracterizada por el desarrollo de ondas foliculares semejantes a las producidas durante el ciclo estral y se formó un cuerpo lúteo activo productor de niveles característicos de progesterona.

  10. Marcadores moleculares asociados a la Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) en carne de Bos indicus y sus cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Gutiérrez, Joel David

    2013-01-01

    La Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) es una de las características de la carne con mayor efecto sobre la rentabilidad del sector, al estar asociada a las mermas y a la jugosidad. Los objetivos principales son: resaltar la importancia de la CRA de la carne de bovino, evaluar el desempeño de estos parámetros según los factores tiempo de maduración y cruce de los animales y establecer polimorfismos en genes candidatos asociados al parámetro evaluado. Varios genes y sus polimorfismos han sido ...

  11. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

  12. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas europeas a esta raza.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA of Nellore and European x Nellore crossing cattle of high performance DNA mitocondrial de bovinos Nelore e cruzados Europeu x Nelore de alto desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate, through a polymorphism in the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial DNA, the frequency of Bos taurus indicus mtDNA individuals in a sample of Nellore purebred origin animals (n = 69 and crossbred animals originated from crosses of European sires and Nellore purebred origin females (n = 275. Only 2.26% (8/354 of the animals presented Bos taurus indicus mtDNA. The high frequency of Bos taurus taurus mtDNA in these animals can be a consequence of selection, once the animals studied are originated from selected lineages of high performance for meat production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de um polimorfismo no gene ND5 do DNA mitocondrial de bovinos, a porcentagem de indivíduos portadores de mtDNA Bos taurus indicus em animais Nelore PO (n = 69 e em animais provenientes do cruzamento entre machos europeus e fêmeas Nelore PO (n = 275. Apenas 2,26% (8/354 dos animais apresentaram mtDNA Bos taurus indicus. A alta freqüência de mtDNA Bos taurus taurus nesses animais pode ser reflexo de seleção, uma vez que os animais estudados se originam de linhagens selecionadas para alto desempenho de produção de carne.

  14. Staphylococcus via an interaction with the ELR+ CXC chemokine ENA-78 is associated with BOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, A L; Wang, X; Injean, P; Weigt, S S; Shino, M; Sayah, D; DerHovanessian, A; Lynch, J P; Ross, D J; Saggar, R; Ardehali, A; Li, G; Elashoff, R; Belperio, J A

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated gram-positive bacterium after lung transplantation (LT) and has been associated with poor posttransplant outcomes, but its effect on bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and death in the context of the allograft inflammatory environment has not been studied. A three-state Cox semi-Markovian model was used to determine the influence of allograft S. aureus and the ELR+ CXC chemokines on the survival rates and cause-specific hazards for movement from lung transplant (State 1) to BOS (State 2), from transplant (State 1) to death (State 3), and from BOS (State 2) to death (State 3). Acute rejection, pseudomonas pneumonia, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CXCL5 and its interaction with S. aureus all increased the likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS. Transition to death from transplant was facilitated by pseudomonas infection and single lung transplant. Movement from BOS to death was affected by the interaction between aspergillus, pseudomonas and CXCL5, but not S. aureus. S. aureus isolation had state specific effects after LT and only in concert with elevated BALF CXCL5 concentrations did it augment the risk of BOS. Pseudomonas and elevated BALF concentrations of CXCL5 continued as significant risk factors for BOS and death after BOS in lung transplantation.

  15. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects. PMID:17434541

  16. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  17. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  18. Redescription and new records of Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Tenebrioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulomimus indicus Bates, 1873 of the tribe Ulomini is recorded for the first time from China (Guangxi and Hainan, Indonesia (Sumatra and Thailand (Chiang Dao. A redescription of the male and the first description of the female are also provided.

  19. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods: Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also...... counts. Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick...

  20. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae) from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    OpenAIRE

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam; Bharath Reddy; Venugopal Satla; Imran Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  1. Alternative genotyping method for the single nucleotide polymorphism A2959G (AF159246 of the bovine CAST gene Método alternativo de genotipagem do polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único A2959G (AF159246 do gene CAST bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to genotype the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP A2959G (AF159246 of bovine CAST gene by PCR-RFLP technique, and to report its use for the first time. For this, 147 Bos indicus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus animals were genotyped. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the direct sequencing of PCR products of nine individuals. The lowest frequency of the meat tenderness favorable allele (A in Bos indicus was confirmed. The use of PCR-RFLP for the genotyping of the bovine CAST gene SNP was shown to be robust and inexpensive, which will greatly facilitate its analysis by laboratories with basic structure.O objetivo deste trabalho foi genotipar o polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único ("single nucleotide polymorphism" - SNP A2959G (AF159246 do gene CAST bovino, pela técnica de PCR-RFLP, e reportar a sua utilização pela primeira vez. Para tanto, 147 animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus x Bos indicus foram genotipados. A acurácia do método foi confirmada por meio do seqüenciamento direto de produtos de PCR de nove indivíduos. A menor freqüência do alelo A, favorável à maciez da carne, foi confirmada nos animais Bos indicus. O uso da PCR-RFLP, para a genotipagem do SNP do gene CAST bovino, mostrou-se consistente e de baixo custo, o que permite a sua análise por laboratórios dotados de estrutura básica.

  2. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 gb|ACX37363.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 7 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37365.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 9 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37367.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 11 [Bos i...ndicus] gb|ACX37383.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 27 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37385.1| toll-like receptor 1 var...iant 29 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37389.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 33 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37397.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 41 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37398.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 42 [Bos indicus] ACX37363.1 0.0 89% ...

  4. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

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    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  5. Flavoring extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots and Vanilla planifolia pods exhibit in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anish; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2013-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are important for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Search for potent and safe AChEIs from plant sources still continues. In the present work, we explored fragrant plant extracts that are traditionally used in flavoring foods, namely, Hemidesmus indicus and Vanilla planifolia, as possible sources for AChEI. Root and pod extracts of H. indicus and V. planifolia, respectively, produce fragrant phenolic compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin). These methoxybenzaldehydes were shown to have inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vanillin (IC50 = 0.037 mM) was detected as more efficient inhibitor than MBALD (IC50 = 0.047 mM). This finding was supported by kinetic analysis. Thus, plant-based food flavoring agents showed capacity in curing Alzheimer's disease and other neurological dysfunctions.

  6. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J.; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis inc...

  7. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  8. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  9. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L) TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    OpenAIRE

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-01-01

    A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L.) to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan...

  10. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration 32.81 ± 1.84 ; Reticulocytes 0.27 ± 0.54%; erythroblast 214 ± 594/mul; leukocytes (mu l: 10593 ± 3008; band neutrophils 97 ± 165; segmented neutrophils 4837 ± 2201; lymphocytes 5222 ± 1909; eosinophils 86 ± 139: monocytes 346 ± 221; basophils 3 ± 24. Sex had no influencing the hemogram values except to reticulocytes and erythroblast that were higher in females. Age significantly influenced the leucogram and eritrogram values (p≤0.0 3. The Package Cell Volume, erythrocytes, and hemoglobin decreasing and the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration and reticulocytes increasing until the thirth to seventh days. There was an subsequent inversion of this variation in this period until the thirtieth day. The lymphocyte percentage regression curve increasing and neutrophils decreasing after birth. The intersection between the two leukocytes curves occurred between the seventh and the fourteenth day of life.

  11. EFEITO DE UM PROBIÓTICO NO PERÍMETRO ESCROTAL E ESPERMIOGRAMA EM TOUROS JOVENS TABAPUÃ (Bos taurus indicus) (Nota Científica) EFFECT OF ONE PROBIOTIC ON SCROTAL PERIMETER AND SPERMIOGRAM IN YOUNG TABAPUA BULLS (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria da Silva Gandolfo; Gabriella Biondi de Godoy; Andrea Novoa Castillo Oliveira; Marcelo George Mungai Chacur; Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2009-01-01

    Neste experimento avaliou-se o efeito do probiótico Proenzime® no perímetro escrotal e espermiograma em touros jovens Tabapuã. Duas colheitas de sêmen de 21 touros Tabapuã, com trinta meses de idade, foram realizadas nos dias zero (D0) e 120 (D120) por eletroejaculação, totalizando 42 amostras. Dividiram-se os touros em grupo-controle (GC) com dez animais e grupo tratado (GT) com onze animais. Os to...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1139 gb|ACX37386.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 30 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37387.1| toll...-like receptor 1 variant 31 [Bos indicus] gb|ACX37395.1| toll-like receptor 1 variant 39 [Bos indicus] ACX37386.1 0.0 89% ...

  13. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  14. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  15. Pesquisa de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. em animais silvestres e em estado feral da região de Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: utilização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para detecção do agente Investigation of antibodies to Leptospira spp. in wild and feral animals from the region of Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: use of the immunohistochemistry technique for the agent detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul José Silva Girio

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 315 amostras de soros sangüíneos de diversas espécies de animais que vivem em estado feral ou silvestre na região de Nhecolândia, Corumbá, MS, por meio da prova de soroaglutinação microscópica para leptospirose. Dessas amostras, 67 foram de bois baguás (Bos taurus indicus, 39 de porcos-monteiros (Sus scrofa, 39 de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis, nove de quatis (Nasua nasua, 41 de veados-campeiros (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, 10 de veados-mateiros (Mazama americana e 110 amostras de ovinos (Ovis aries. Em 12 animais que vieram a óbito, seis porcos-monteiros, quatro veados-campeiros e dois ovinos, foram realizadas tentativas de isolamento de Leptospira do fígado e dos rins por cultura em meio semi-sólido. Fragmentos desses órgãos foram submetidos a exame histopatológico e também a exame para detecção das Leptospiras pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica. Os resultados dos exames sorológicos mostraram que 64 (20,3% das amostras foram reagentes para, pelo menos, um sorovar de Leptospira patogênica; foram reagentes 41,0% das amostras de búfalos, 40,3% das de bois baguás, 17,9% das de porcos-monteiros, 9% das de ovinos e 9,7% das amostras de veados-campeiros; nenhuma das amostras de veados-mateiros e de quatis foi reagente. Os sorovares mais freqüentes foram: pomona, para búfalos e ovinos; icterohaemorrhagiae, para ovinos, veados-campeiros e suínos; e copenhageni, para veados-campeiros e suínos. As tentativas de isolamento dos rins e fígados foram todas negativas, e pela técnica da imuno-histoquímica foi detectada Leptospira no fígado de um porco-monteiro. As principais alterações estruturais, encontradas nos rins de dois veados-campeiros e de um porco-monteiro, foram infiltrado inflamatório intersticial com congestão associada a hemorragias.Three hundred and fifteen serum samples of several animal species living in wild or in feral state in the area of Nhecolândia, Corumbá, MS, Brazil, were examined by the

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) reconstructed from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyland, J; Wolko, L; Bocianowski, J; Szalata, M; Słomski, R; Dzieduszycki, A M; Ryba, M; Przystałowska, H; Lipiński, D

    2013-01-01

    Extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), accepted as the ancestor of domestic cattle, was one of the largest wild animals inhabiting Europe, Asia and North Africa. The gradual process of aurochs extinction finished in Poland in 1627, were the last recorded aurochs, a female, died. Some aspects of cattle domestication history and the distribution of aurochs genetic material among modern cattle breeds still remain unclear. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) from bone sample deliver new genetic information about extinct wild aurochs as well as modern cattle phylogeny. DNA was extracted from a fragment of aurochs fossil bone found in the Pisz Forest, Poland. The sample was radiocarbon-dated to about 1500 yBP. The aDNA was used for Whole Genome Amplification in order to form a DNA bank. Auroch mitochondrial DNA sequences were amplified using sets of 41 primers overlapping the whole mtDNA, cloned and sequenced. The sequence of the whole mitochondrial genome was reconstructed and deposed in GenBank [GenBank:JQ437479]. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of the Bovine mitochondrial genomes, a phylogenetic tree was created. As expected, the tree clearly shows that the mtDNA sequence of the analyzed PWA (Polish Wild Aurochs) individual belongs to haplogroup P. In the course of the comparative mtDNA analysis we identified 30 nucleotide marker positions for haplogroup P and nine unique PWA differences compared to the two remaining haplotype P representatives. Our analysis provides the next step to the reconstruction of the demographic history of this extinct but still exciting species.

  17. An experimental study of aero-optical aberration and dithering of supersonic mixing layer via BOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The optical performance of supersonic mixing layer is heavily deteriorated by the aero-optical aberration and dithering of coherent structures, but current measuring methods limit the spatiotemporal resolution in relevant studies. A high resolution whole-field aero-optical aberration and dithering measuring method based on the Background Orient Schlieren (BOS) technique was studied. The systematic structure, sensitivity and resolution of BOS are analyzed in this paper. The aero-optical aberration and dithering of streamwise structures in supersonic mixing layers were quantificationally studied with BOS. The aberration field of spanwise structures revealed the ribbon-like aberration structures, which heavily restrict the optical performance of a mixing layer. The quantifications of aero-optical aberration and dithering are very important in studying aero-optical performance of supersonic mixing layer.

  18. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  19. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Safaei; Keikhosro Karimi; Poorandokht Golkar; Akram Zamani

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the ...

  20. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM XYLOSE AND WOOD HYDROLYZATE BY MUCOR INDICUS AT DIFFERENT AERATION RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Millati

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Mucor indicus is able to produce ethanol from xylose as well as dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The fungus completely assimilated 10 g/L xylose as the sole carbon and energy source within 32 to 65 h at an aeration rate of 0.1 to 1.0 vvm. The highest ethanol yield was 0.16 g/g at 0.1 vvm. Xylitol was formed intermediately with a maximum yield of 0.22 g/g at 0.5 vvm, but disappeared towards the end of experiments. During cultivation in a mixture of xylose and glucose, the fungus did not assimilate xylose as long as glucose was present in the medium. The anaerobic cultivation of the fungus in the hydrolyzate containing 20% xylose and 80% hexoses resulted in no assimilation of xylose but complete consumption of the hexoses in less than 15 h. The ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g. However, the xylose in the hydrolyzate was consumed when the media was aerated at 0.067 to 0.333 vvm. The best ethanol yield was 0.44 g/g at 0.067 vvm. The results of this study suggest that M. indicus hydrolyzate can be first fermented anaerobically for hexose assimilation and subsequently continued under oxygen-limited conditions for xylose fermentation.

  1. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  2. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  3. ‘Lute Bos draagt nog altijd bij aan de virologie’ : fonds laat ecologische virologie herrijzen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Branderhorst, A.

    2014-01-01

    Met ecologische kennis van plantenvirussen in de tuin- en akkerbouw zijn opbrengstverliezen te voorkomen. René van der Vlugt gaat het onderzoek en onderwijs in dit vakgebied nieuw leven inblazen. Dat is mogelijk dankzij een legaat van de Wageningse plantenviroloog Lute Bos.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  5. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  6. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  7. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  8. Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine alpha S1-casein I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühken, G; Caroli, A; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of alpha(s1)-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the alpha(s1)-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known alpha(s1)-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the alpha(s1)-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the alpha(s1)-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to beta-casein A(2) and kappa-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the alpha(s1)-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus subsequently.

  9. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera ...

  10. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bai

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx 1 and stx 2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96% stx 1 and/or stx 2-positive samples, 85 (61.59% were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a and 5 stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, stx 2c, stx 2d and stx 2g were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfA O157/OI-141, lpfA O157/OI-154, lpfA O113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC.

  11. Length and Straightness of the Tubes for the BOS Prototype Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T

    1998-01-01

    We have measured length and straightness of 50 tubes of 3.8~m length, after cleaning, wiring and testing from a batch that was used in the construction of the BOS prototype chamber. The specifi ed length (aluminum tube only, without endplug) was 3800~mm with a tolerance of $\\pm$1~mm. We found a mean value of (3805$\\pm$2)~mm with a standard deviation of (0.3$\\pm$0.1)~mm. The measureme nts of the straightness of the 50 BOS MDT tubes gave a mean of the maximum deviation of 150~$\\mu$m for 10 measured points along the tubes at 0$^{\\circ}$, 90$^{\\circ}$, 180$^{\\circ}$ and 270$^{\\circ }$ around the tube diameter and a mean value of all deviations of 20~$\\mu$m with a measuring accuracy of 10~$\\mu$m.

  12. The Use of Eugenol as an Anesthetic in Transportation of With Indian Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) Post Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, Sohrab; Khoshnod, Mohammad J.; Rajaian, Hamid; Afsharnasab, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The safe margin of eugenol for sedation of the healthy post larvae (PL) of white Indian shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus) was determined by estimating the median lethal concentration of eugenol during 24 hours (24hLC50). Sedation concentration of eugenol was obtained experimentally by considering behavioral factors of PLs such as response to indirect stimuli and changes in water quality parameters. Applying the estimated concentrations of eugenol for 12 hours transportation of PLs, biometric pa...

  13. Pharmacological and biomedical properties of sea anemones Paracondactylis indicus, Paracondactylis sinensis, Heteractis magnificaand Stichodactyla haddonifrom East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bragadeeswaran Subramanian; Thangaraj Sangappellai; Rajiv Chandra Rajak; Balaji Diraviam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the biomedical and pharmacological activity ofParacondactylis indicus (P. indicus),Paracondactylis sinensis(P. sinensis),Heteractis magnifica (H. magnifica) and Stichodactyla haddoni (S. haddoni).Methods: The live sea anemones were kept inside the glass bowl along with some amount of distilled water in an ice container for15 min. During stress condition, nematocysts released from the tentacles were collected and centrifuged at5 000 rpm for 15 min. The supernatant were collected in separate cleaned beakers for lyophilisation.Results:The protein content of crude extracts was15.2, 28.7, 18.2 and35.4μg/mL. In hemolytic assay, the P. indicus was sensitive (16.842 HT/mg) on chicken blood butP. sinensis was less sensitive (1.114 HT/mg) on chicken and goat blood. WhereasH. magnificaandS. haddoni showed hemolysis (0.879, 0.903 HT/mg and 56.263, 0.451 HT/mg) in chicken and goat blood. In antimicrobial assay, the methanol extract ofP. indicus showed maximum inhibition zone of9.7mm againstS. typhii andP. sinensisshowed9.8 mm againstK. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts. Whereas theH. magnifica andS. haddoni showed maximum of10 mm againstS. typhii, K. pneumonia in methanol and ethanol extracts.Conclusions: The high toxic sea anemones may also contain some biologically active agents which has haemolytic, analgesic and anti-infilamatory activity.

  14. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  15. Bosreservaat Bos Ter Rijst (Heikruis): basisrapport:situering, standplaats, historiek en onderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Baeté, Hans; Christiaens, Bart; De Keersmaeker, Luc; Esprit, Marc; Van de Kerckhove, Peter; Vandekerkhove, Kris; Walleyn, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This report is a reference report linked to the monitoring of forest reserve Bos Ter Rijst in Heikruis/Hautecroix near Edingen/Enghien in central Belgium (bilingual region across a linguistic, regional and provincial frontier). It covers various topics:administrative situation and protective status of the reserveits location, soil characteristics and habitatshistorical ecology of the seignory Ter Rijst/Risoir, Ter Rijst/Risoir Wood and the Strijdhout/Strihoux Forestthe reserve's management hi...

  16. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Khairiah; I. Zawawi; H. Wahid; Hajarian, H.; Fahrul, F.J.; M.D. Hafiz; Hafiz, M.M.; Z.F. Ann; M.I. Iswadi; O.A. Mazni

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen w...

  17. Genome-Wide Detection and Characterization of Endogenous Retroviruses in Bos taurus ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis): An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa Samy Sherif; Mohammed Attia; Hatem Bahgaat; Ahmed Kassab

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis) on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints) were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then ...

  19. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Ö. Karatekin; J.-P. Noël; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2014-01-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radi...

  20. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument : the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. Van; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; S. Dewitte; Chevalier, A.; C. Conscience; Janssen, E.; M. Meftah; Irbah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present ar...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  2. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  3. Application of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to a laser-induced underwater shock wave

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We build an ultra-high-speed imaging system based on the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique in order to capture a laser-induced underwater shock wave. This BOS technique is able to provide two-dimensional density-gradient field of fluid and requires a simple setup. The imaging system consists of an ultra-high speed video camera, a laser stroboscope, and a patterned background. This system takes images every 0.2 $\\mu$s. Furthermore, since the density change of water disturbed by the shock is exceedingly small, the system has high spatial resolution $\\sim$ 10 $\\mu$m/pixel. Using this BOS system, we examine temporal position of a shock wave. The position agrees well with that measured by conventional shadowgraph, which indicates that the high-speed imaging system can successfully capture the instantaneous position of the underwater shock wave that propagates with the speed of about 1500 m/s. The local density gradient can be determined up to $O$(10$^3$ kg/m$^4$), which is confirmed by the gradient est...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-01-0084 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 0.0 78% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0261 ref|XP_594146.3| PREDICTED: Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|...ABC68311.1| toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86924.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus]... gb|ABU86926.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86927.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...28.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86929.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos tau...rus] gb|ABU86931.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] gb|ABU86932.1| Toll-like receptor 5 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] XP_594146.3 9e-85 39% ...

  6. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  7. Massive gene acquisitions in Mycobacterium indicus pranii provide a perspective on mycobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vikram; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Khurana, Jitendra P; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria. PMID:22965120

  8. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  9. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viswanathan Karthik; Thomas Ancy; Dharmaraj Ramkumar; Narayanasamy Mathivanan; Rangarajan Badri Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme fromFenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz) in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL).Methods:Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar.Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria testedKlebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay.Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  10. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  11. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  12. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus durante o anestro pós-parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12. Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica. Altas contagens relativas e alta intensidade de marcação para receptor de estrógeno e progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma foram observadas nos dois grupos. No entanto, a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular foi mais alta no grupo 2 comparado ao grupo 1. Quando o epitélio glandular e o estroma foram comparados, o número relativo de receptor de estrógeno no grupo 1 foi mais alto no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma, e a intensidade de marcação para o receptor de progesterona no grupo 2 foi mais alta no epitélio glandular comparado ao estroma. Os resultados sugerem que os mecanismos que controlam a expressão de receptores no anestro são semelhantes aos observados durante o ciclo estral.

  13. Detecção imunoistoquímica de receptores de estrógeno e progesterona no endométrio de vacas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) durante o anestro pós-parto

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, R S; I. Martin; W.C. Marques Filho; M.M.P. Rodrigues; R Laufer-Amorim; Ferreira, J.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 24 vacas Nelore P.O., em anestro pós-parto, diagnosticado pelo histórico reprodutivo, por avaliações ultrassonográficas transretais e por dosagem de progesterona plasmática, que foram submetidas à colheita de fragmento uterino via transcervical. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos conforme o máximo diâmetro folicular: grupo 1: folículos 6mm (n=12). Para avaliar receptor de estrógeno e receptor de progesterona no epitélio glandular e no estroma, foi utilizada a técnica d...

  14. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12 months; group IV-12 to 24 months; group V-24 to 48 months; group VI-48 to 72 months and group VII-older than 72 months were studied. The highest and lowest mean values observed were total white blood cell/mm³-16992±4104 (group III and 10353±2397 (group VI; neutrophils/mm³-3931±1578 (group I and 2416 ±1118 (group III; eosinophils/ mm³-999±499 (group V and 265±276 (group II; basophils/mm³-67±88 (group VII and 39±78 (group III; typical lymphocytes/ mm³-12758±3608 (group III and 5906±1883 (group VI; atypical lymphocytes/ mm³-1310±603 (group II and 760±419 (group VI ; lymphocytes total/ mm³-14079±4027 (group III and 6666±2059 (group VI; monocytes/mm³-27±62 (group I and 0 (group III. The differences (p>0.05 observed among the groups in relation to total white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils can be related to the influence of the age on leukogram of Nelore (Zebu cattle raised in São Paulo- Brazil.

  15. Parámetros protéicos del plasma seminal y su relación con la calidad del semen en toros de la raza nelore (bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sánchez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presenciae incidencia de bandas proteicas específicas delplasma seminal en toros Nelore, completa y parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Se utilizaron 68 ejemplares; 20 de variedad Padrón y 48 Mochos, con edad media de 4 años. En el perímetro escrotal (35,05±0,49 cm e 33,30±0,39cm, índice de masa corpórea (302,62±5,87 e 284,19±5,15Kg|m2 hubo diferencia (p<0,05 entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente. Con respecto al peso corpóreo (627,70±11,37 e 611,58±8,66Kg; la altura (1,44±0,01e 1,47±0,01m; el volumen del eyaculado (5,82±0,48 e 5,17±0,29 mL, la motilidad espermática progresiva (73,50±2,81% e75,62±0,97%, el vigor espermático (4,30±0,19 e4,27±0,11 y motilidad en masa (4,27±0,11 e3,33±0,23 no se presentó diferencia (p>0,05. En morfología espermática, tampoco hubo desigualdad entre las variedades Padrón y Mocho, respectivamente con 5,06 ± 8,20% e 5,32 ± 6,40% de defectos mayores; 9,91±6,74% e 8,36±6,06% para los defectos menores; e 14,76±13,20% e 13,82±12,61% para los defectos totales. La electroforesis del plasma seminal reveló bandas proteicas con pesos entre 5 a 105 KDa. En el 100% de toros aptos para la reproducción, la proteína con pesos de 13 Kda estuvo presente. De la misma forma ocurrió con las bandas de 20 KDa. El resto de las bandas proteicas mostraron presencia con diferentes porcentajes de incidencia en toros aptos o parcialmente aptos para la actividad reproductiva. Las dos variedades estudiadas hicieron evidente la adaptación reproductiva eficaz en condiciones de clima semejantes.

  16. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  17. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  18. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different

  19. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  20. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2–11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in whic...

  1. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  2. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  3. Mitochondrial pathway mediates the antileukemic effects of Hemidesmus indicus, a promising botanical drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Fimognari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cancers are characterized by the deregulation of multiple signalling pathways, most current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. Because of the enormous biological diversity of cancer, strategic combination of agents targeted against the most critical of those alterations is needed. Due to their complex nature, plant products interact with numerous targets and influence several biochemical and molecular cascades. The interest in further development of botanical drugs has been increasing steadily and the FDA recently approved the first new botanical prescription drug. The present study is designed to explore the potential antileukemic properties of Hemidesmus indicus with a view to contributing to further development of botanical drugs. Hemidesmus was submitted to an extensive in vitro preclinical evaluation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variety of cellular assays and flow cytometry, as well as a phytochemical screening, were performed on different leukemic cell lines. We have demonstrated that Hemidesmus modulated many components of intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell viability and proliferation and altered the protein expression, eventually leading to tumor cell death, mediated by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. ADP, adenine nucleotide translocator and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors did not reverse Hemidesmus-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Hemidesmus induced a significant [Ca(2+](i raise through the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Moreover, Hemidesmus significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs (methotrexate, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine. A clinically relevant observation is that its cytotoxic activity was also recorded in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemic patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate the molecular basis of

  4. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  5. DAYA HAMBAT FRAKSINASI EKSTRAK SEMBUNG DELAN (SPHAERANTUS INDICUS L TERHADAP BAKTERI ESCHERICIA COLI DAN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS GEDE DARMAYASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A research entitled "Inhibitid activity of plant fractination extract of Sembung Delan (Sphaeranthus indicus L. to Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial was carried aut to find the active of plant extract that responsible for bactericidal agent. This research used absorbance disc method to determine inhibitid fractionation extratc of Sembung Delan to growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus bacterial. Results of this study showed that the crude extract of Sembung Delan inhibited the growth of Eschericia coli and Staphylococus aureus on Muller- Hinton medium, indicated by the formation of inhibition zone around the disc loaded with plant extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm, with diamtre of 10mm, llmm, 12mm, 13mm and 16 mm respectively to S. aureus, forE. coli crude extract at concentration of 10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm, 40,000 ppm, and 50,000 ppm using diametre each of 12 mm, 13 mm, 15 mm, 17 mm and 19 mm respectively . From 17 fractions obtained from fractionation, fraction No. Vm (eluted with ethyl acetate:hexan with Rf value of 0,9 ; 0,8 ; 0,7 ; 0,68 ; and 0,62, fraction No. DC (eluted with etihil acetate : hexan with Rf value of : 0,98, ; 0,94 ; and 0,82, fraction No. XV (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% Rf value of : 0.03; 0.23; 0.35 and fraction No. XVI (eluted with ethyl acetate 100% with Rf value of: 0.03; 0.14; 0.17; 0.21, effectivity inhibited the growth of test bacterial.

  6. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  7. Inhibition Effect of Antagonistic Fungal Strain BOS-013 against the Pathogen of Rice Blast ( Pyricularia oryzae)%拮抗真菌菌株BOS-013对稻瘟病菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕跃东; 王勇; 张文革; 谢程程; 宫立晶; 王雪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为寻找对水稻稻瘟病的有防治作用的有益微生物及其代谢产物,研究放线菌BOS-013菌株发酵液对水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制作用.[方法]以水稻稻瘟病菌作为目标指示菌,采用杯碟法和滤纸片法测定BOS-13菌株发酵液及其不同溶剂提取物的抑菌活性.[结果]研究结果表明,含菌量为4×10cfu/ml的BOS-13菌株发酵液对水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制率为92.O%±0.5%;该发酵液经高温、高压灭活后对水稻稻瘟病菌仍有抑制作用,抑制率为60.0%±0.5%.发酵液经非极性CAD-5型大孔吸附树脂吸附、60%乙醇溶液洗脱后,其抑菌活性很高,抑菌圈直径达33.0 mm.[结论]BOS-13菌株发酵液水稻稻瘟病菌有显著的抑制作用;该研究结果为进一步明确BOS-13菌株发酵液时水稻稻瘟病菌的抑制作用机理及其实际应用奠定了基础.%[ Objective ] To search for the beneficial microorganisms and their metabolic products with control effect against rice blast, the paper studied the inhibition effect of the fermentation broth of actinomycetes BOS-013 strain against the pathogen of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae). [ Method] With the pathogen of rice blast as the target indicator fungus, the inhibition effect of the fermentation broth of BOS-013 strain and its extracts from different solvents against the pathogen were determined using cylinder plate method and filter paper method. [ Resuit] The results showed that the inhibition rate of the fermentation broth of BOS-013 strain with fungus amount of 4 × l08 cfu/ml against the pathogen of rice blast was 92.0% ± 0.5%; the fermentation broth still had inhibition effect against the pathogen of rice blast after inactivation under high temperature and high pressure, and the inhibition rate was 60.0% ± 0.5%. After absorbed by non-polar CAD-45 type macroporous adsorption resin and eluted by 60% ethanol, the antifungal activity of the fermentation broth was still high, and the diameter of

  8. The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Roth-Walter

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive.

  9. Deriving animal behaviour from high-frequency GPS: tracking cows in open and forested habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, van, M.; Langevelde, van, R Ronald; Oeveren, van, W.; Nolet, B.A.; Kölzsch, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver...

  10. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  11. Modelos de regresión aleatoria para la estimación de funciones de covarianza, parámetros genéticos y predicción de valores genéticos en una población bovina multirracial bos indicus-bos taurus en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Elzo, Mauricio; Manrique, Carlos; Grajales, Luis Fernando; Jiménez, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos una aplicación de modelos de regresión aleatoria (RRM) para obtener estimadores de máxima verosimilitud restringida de funciones de covarianza y predicciones del valor genético para datos longitudinales de área de ojo del lomo medidos por ultrasonido (REA) en una población bovina multirracial en Colombia. El conjunto de datos contenía 708 registros de 340 animales descendientes de 37 toros de 9 razas apareados con hembras Brahman Gris. Los modelos mixtos empleados ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1041 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0803 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 83% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1397 gb|ABU86942.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] g...b|ABU86944.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86945.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU869...46.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus] gb|ABU86949.1| Toll-like receptor 10 [Bos taurus x Bos indicus] ABU86942.1 0.0 88% ...

  15. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  16. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M L

    2004-07-01

    A significant proportion of postpartum beef cows are anestrus at the onset of the breeding season. Much progress has been made in understanding anestrus and the changes that lead to spontaneous resumption of reproductive function. Likewise, knowledge regarding the impact of hormonal interventions on the endocrine and ovarian changes normally associated with spontaneous resumption of estrous cycles continue to accumulate. A wide range of hormonal treatment programs designed to induce estrous cycles in anestrous cows to coincide with the start of the breeding season have been developed. Programs structured to provide for increased progesterone, estradiol and LH concentrations at the appropriate times during the period leading to the first ovulation, and an induced preovulatory gonadotropin surge when the dominant ovarian follicle is of appropriate maturity have been demonstrated to induce estrous cycles of normal duration and acceptable fertility in a majority of anestrous, Bos taurus beef cows.

  17. Genomic conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in wild gaur (Bos gaurus and current genetic status of this species in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Jean-Paul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild gaur (Bos gaurus is an endangered wild cattle species. In Vietnam, the total number of wild gaurs is estimated at a maximum of 500 individuals. Inbreeding and genetic drift are current relevant threats to this small population size. Therefore, information about the genetic status of the Vietnamese wild gaur population is essential to develop strategies for conservation and effective long-term management for this species. In the present study, we performed cross-species amplification of 130 bovine microsatellite markers, in order to evaluate the applicability and conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in the wild gaur genome. The genetic diversity of Vietnamese wild gaur was also investigated, based on data collected from the 117 successfully amplified loci. Results One hundred-thirty cattle microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of 11 animals. Efficient amplifications were observed for 117 markers (90% with a total of 264 alleles, and of these, 68 (58.1% gave polymorphic band patterns. The number of alleles per locus among the polymorphic markers ranged from two to six. Thirteen loci (BM1314, BM2304, BM6017, BMC2228, BMS332, BMS911, CSSM023, ETH123, HAUT14, HEL11, HEL5, ILSTS005 and INRA189 distributed on nine different cattle chromosomes failed to amplify wild gaur genomic DNA. Three cattle Y-chromosome specific microsatellite markers (INRA124, INRA126 and BM861 were also highly specific in wild gaur, only displaying an amplification product in the males. Genotype data collected from the 117 successfully amplified microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity of this species in Vietnam. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC values varied between 0.083 and 0.767 with a mean of 0.252 while observed heterozygosities (Ho ranged from 0.091 to 0.909 (mean of 0.269. Nei's unbiased mean heterozygosity and the mean allele number across loci were 0.298 and 2.2, respectively. Conclusion Extensive

  18. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  19. Complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of Hemidesmus indicus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Sreekanth; Kanakala, S; Srinivas, K P; Hema, M; Malathi, V G; Sreenivasulu, P

    2014-05-01

    The complete DNA A genome of a virus isolate associated with yellow mosaic disease of a medicinal plant, Hemidesmus indicus, from India was cloned and sequenced. The length of DNA A was 2825 nucleotides, 35 nucleotides longer than the unit genome of monopartite begomoviruses. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of DNA A of the virus isolate with those of other begomoviruses showed maximum sequence identity of 69 % to DNA A of ageratum yellow vein China virus (AYVCNV; AJ558120) and 68 % with tomato yellow leaf curl virus- LBa4 (TYLCV; EF185318), and it formed a distinct clade in phylogenetic analysis. The genome organization of the present virus isolate was found to be similar to that of Old World monopartite begomoviruses. The genome was considered to be monopartite, because association of DNA B and β satellite DNA components was not detected. Based on its sequence identity (yellow mosaic virus" (HeYMV) is proposed.

  20. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  1. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  2. Managing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) in children: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Gregory I; Paraskeva, Miranda; Westall, Glen P

    2013-08-01

    The success of pediatric lung transplantation continues to be limited by long-term graft dysfunction. Historically this has been characterized as an obstructive spirometric defect in the form of the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It is recognized, however, that this does not reflect many of the other acknowledged etiologies of chronic lung dysfunction-noting it is the sum of the parts that contribute to respiratory morbidity and mortality after transplant. The term chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) has been coined to reflect these other entities and, in particular, a group of relatively recently described lung disorders called the restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). RAS is characterized by a restrictive spirometric defect. Although these entities have not yet been studied in a pediatric setting their association with poor compliance, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and post-infectious lung damage (particularly viral) warrants attention by pediatric lung transplant teams. Current therapy for the BOS subset of CLAD is otherwise limited to changing immunosuppressants and avoiding excessive infectious risk by avoiding over-immunosuppression. Long-term macrolide therapy in lung transplantation is not of proven efficacy. Reviewing previous BOS studies to explore restrictive spirometric cases and joint projects via groups like the International Pediatric Lung Transplant Collaborative will be the way forward to solve this pressing problem.

  3. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India.

  4. Morphology and molecular analysis of Mizelleus indicus Jain () and M. longicirrus (Tripathi, ) Venkatanarasaiah & Kulkarni 1981 (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the freshwater shark Wallago attu in the Ganga River, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, C; Chaudhary, A; Singh, H S

    2016-09-01

    Species of the genus Mizelleus Jain (1957) have always been controversial regarding identification and validity. Members of this group of species differ from each other in the morphology of their hard parts, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among scientists. Therefore, the main objective of present study was to identify Mizelleus worms by morphological methods and molecular analysis on the basis of 18S ribosomal DNA to clarify their phylogenetic status. In this study, specimens were isolated from the gill filaments of Wallago attu (Siluriformes) and studied morphologically. In accordance with morphological characters, the specimens were found to be Mizelleus indicus and Mizelleus longicirrus. Partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA of these two species were amplified. The results confirm the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic validation of M. indicus and M. longicirrus in India. PMID:26373618

  5. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    with antioxidant and innate immune responses, the increased expression of TCTP signifies it importance as an integral part of host response against bacterial challenges in cell death/apoptosis mechanisms. From the complete nucleotide sequence of the F. indicus...) The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP). The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 36, 379-385. Chen H., Muramoto K.,Yamauchi F., Fujimoto K. & Nokihara K. (1998) Antioxidative properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from...

  6. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  9. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  10. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  11. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  12. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  13. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  14. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  16. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  17. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Stifle Joint in Buffaloes (Bos Bubalis: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Samy Sherif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the normal anatomy of the stifle joint in buffaloes (Bos bubalis on magnetic resonance images and related anatomical sectional slices to facilitate the interpretation of all these images, as well as to understand the basis for diseases diagnosis. The hind limbs of ten healthy adult buffaloes (Twenty stifle joints were used. After slaughtering, MR images were made in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes. The limbs then were frozen at -20° then correspondingly sectioned using an electric band saw. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MR and anatomic slices. MRI images were used to identify the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint. The articular cartilage appeared with hyperintense signal and separated from the subcondral bone by gray line (moderate signal intensity. It is difficult to differentiate between the synovia, infrapatellar fat body and the articular cartilage because they appeared with hyperintense signal. The meniscial, femoropatellar and cruciate ligaments recognized as moderate signal intensity. However, the collateral and intermediate patellar ligaments, the common tendon of the Mm. extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius as well as the menisci and the medial patellar fibrocartilage appeared with hypointense signal. The knowledge of normal anatomy of the buffalo stifle joint would serve as initial reference to the evaluation of MR images in this species.

  19. Hábitos de amamantamiento del ganado bovino Chinampo (Bos taurus de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinoza V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer los hábitos de amamantamiento de becerros Chinampos (Bos taurusen diferentes etapas de su lactancia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 20 vacas con su cría. A partir de los 30 hasta los 180 días de la lactancia los animales fueron observados durante 24 horas continuas cada mes registrando la frecuencia con la que los becerros mamaron y la duración de cada amamantamiento. Resultados. Los becerros mamaron con mayor frecuencia entre las 06:00 y las 07:00 hr, se observaron otros picos a las 10:00 y a las 19:00 hr. La frecuencia promedio de amamantamiento en 24 horas fue de 4.9±0.21utilizando un total de 66.9 ± 3.1 minutos. Los becerros de 180 días de edad mamaron menos veces comparados con los de edades inferiores a los 150 días; la duración del amamantamiento disminuyó a los 180 días de edad (p0.05. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de amamantamientos es mayor durante las primeras horas de la mañana y al final de la tarde. Hasta los 5 meses de edad la frecuencia y el tiempo de amamantamiento no variaron pero se redujeron a los180 días y las hembras mamaron con más periodicidad que los machos.

  20. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  1. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Khairiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN. The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM and electroejaculation (EEJ technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  2. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  3. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  4. Comparative sequence analysis in the exon 5 of growth hormone gene in the various livestock species of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Sharma, Anurodh; Kumari, Namita; Kaur, Navneet; Jayakumar, S; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) gene locus of six different livestock species using PCR-Direct DNA sequencing method. In exon 5 of GH gene, 10 SNPs variants were identified in all livestock species studied, namely Bubalus bubalis, Bos indicus, Bos frontalis, Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, and Capra hircus. Four SNPs were observed in Bubalus bubalis, two SNPs in Bos indicus, one SNP in Ovis aries, and three SNPs in Capra hircus. No changes were observed in Bos grunniens and Bos frontalis when compared with the template sequence and the SNPs observed in the present investigation may be useful in the marker assisted selection.

  5. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  6. 杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)朊蛋白基因的分子克隆及其序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequences Characteristics Analysis of the Prion Protein Gene from the Hybrids between Gayal (Bos frontalis)and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘情; 席冬梅; 陈学礼; 李继中; 杨舒黎; 邓卫东

    2012-01-01

    朊蛋白(prion protein,PRNP)基因编码朊蛋白,是引起疯牛病的主效基因.本研究利用PCR方法首次从杂交牛(大额牛×云南黄牛)基因组中扩增了PRNP基因,GenBank登录号为HQ875337.PCR产物直接双向测序表明,该序列包含杂交牛PRNP基因795 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码264个氨基酸前体蛋白.生物信息学分析结果发现,该蛋白包含1个信号肽、3个α螺旋、2个β折叠、6个八肽重复序列、1个疏水区域、1个二硫键和1个糖基磷脂酰肌醇锚定位点.与已报道的其他牛PRNP基因进行序列比对分析,核苷酸和氨基酸的同源性均在97%以上.%The priori protein was encoded by the prion protein (PRNP) gene which was the major gene for affecting mad cow disease or BSE. In the present study, the PCR method was used to amplify the PRNP gene from the hybrids between Gay-al (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number HQ875337. The PCR products were sequenced bi-directly. By sequence analysis,the length of open read frame (ORF) of the PRNP gene was 795 bp, which encodes a protein of 264 amino acids,including a signal region,a octapeptide repeat,three α-heli-ces.two β-sheets,a hydrophobic region,a disulfide bridge, a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor site. The homology of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other cattle was more than 97%. All this will provide the molecular basal data for breakthrough of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among different animal species.

  7. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  8. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  9. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  10. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  11. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  12. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  13. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  14. Genome-wide characterization of perfect microsatellites in yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijie

    2015-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) constitute a significant portion of genomes and play an important role in gene function and genome organization. The availability of a complete genome sequence for yak (Bos grunniens) has made it possible to carry out genome-wide analysis of microsatellites in this species. We analyzed the abundance and density of perfect SSRs in the yak genome. We found a total of 723,172 SSRs with 1-6 bp nucleotide motifs, indicating that about 0.47 % of the yak whole genome sequence (2.66 Gb) comprises perfect SSRs, the average length of which was 17.34 bp/Mb. The average frequency and density of perfect SSRs was 272.18 loci/Mb and 4719.25 bp/Mb, respectively. The proportion of the six classes of perfect SSRs was not evenly distributed in the yak genome. Mononucleotide repeats (44.04 %) with a total number of 318,435 and a average length of 14.71 bp appeared to be the most abundant SSRs class, while the percentages of dinucleotide, trinucleotide, pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats was 24.11 %, 15.80 %, 9.50 %, 6.40 % and 0.15 %, respectively. Different repeat classes of SSRs varied in their repeat number with the highest being 1206. Our results suggest that 15 motifs comprised the predominant categories with a frequency above 1 loci/Mb: A, AC, AT, AG, AGC, AAC, AAT, ACC, ATTT, GTTT, AATG, CTTT, ATGG, AACTG and ATCTG.

  15. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  16. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  17. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  18. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  20. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  1. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  2. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Malzoni Furtado; Solange Maria Gennari; Cassia Yumi Ikuta; Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo; Zenaide Maria de Morais; Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena; Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio; Leandro Silveira; Rahel Sollmann; Gisele Oliveira de Souza; Natália Mundim Tôrres; José Soares Ferreira Neto

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospir...

  3. A novel application of ecological analyses to assess transposable element distributions in the genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Brent; Elliott, Tyler A; Linquist, Stefan; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan; Cottenie, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are among the most abundant components of many eukaryotic genomes. Efforts to explain TE abundance, as well as TE diversity among genomes, have led some researchers to draw an analogy between genomic and ecological processes. Adopting this perspective, we conducted an analysis of the cow (Bos taurus) genome using techniques developed by community ecologists to determine whether environmental factors influence community composition. Specifically, each chromosome within the Bos taurus genome was treated as a "linear transect", and a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify large-scale spatial patterns in TE communities associated with 10 TE families. The position of each TE community on the chromosome accounted for ∼50% of the variation along the chromosome "transect". Multivariate analysis further revealed an effect of gene density on TE communities that is influenced by several other factors in the (genomic) environment, including chromosome length and TE density. The results of this analysis demonstrate that ecological methods can be applied successfully to help answer genomic questions.

  4. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  5. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, Markus; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin, Sujito, Hidayat, Arif

    2016-03-01

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C6-C3-C6 carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  6. Stable Isotopes Suggest Low Site Fidelity in Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) in Mongolia: Implications for Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Population connectivity is an important consideration in studies of disease transmission and biological conservation, especially with regard to migratory species. Determining how and when different subpopulations intermingle during different phases of the annual cycle can help identify important geographical regions or features as targets for conservation efforts and can help inform our understanding of continental-scale disease transmission. In this study, stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in contour feathers were used to assess the degree of molt-site fidelity among Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) captured in north-central Mongolia. Samples were collected from actively molting Bar-headed Geese (n = 61), and some individual samples included both a newly grown feather (still in sheath) and an old, worn feather from the bird’s previous molt (n = 21). Although there was no difference in mean hydrogen isotope ratios for the old and new feathers, the isotopic variance in old feathers was approximately three times higher than that of the new feathers, which suggests that these birds use different and geographically distant molting locations from year to year. To further test this conclusion, online data and modeling tools from the isoMAP website were used to generate probability landscapes for the origin of each feather. Likely molting locations were much more widespread for old feathers than for new feathers, which supports the prospect of low molt-site fidelity. This finding indicates that population connectivity would be greater than expected based on data from a single annual cycle, and that disease spread can be rapid even in areas like Mongolia where Bar-headed Geese generally breed in small isolated groups. PMID:27695389

  7. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  8. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  9. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  10. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  11. Verantwoordelijkheden bij risico- en crisisbeheersing van bos- en natuurbranden : taken en bevoegdheden bij risicoberheersing, bestrijding, nazorg en herstel en een overzicht van de hiaten in regelgeving en taakverdeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffe, van J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007/2008 is gekeken welke partijen een rol spelen bij de risico- en crisisbeheersing van (grote) bos- en natuurbranden, wat hun rol precies is en welke taken en bevoegdheden ze hebben. Ook is geïnventariseerd welke hiaten er zijn in de bestaande taakverdeling en regelgeving. Hiaten die de oorzaa

  12. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  13. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  14. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  15. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  16. UTILIZAÇÃO DE PROBIÓTICOS SOBRE O GANHO DE PESO EM BOVINOS DA RAÇA NELORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Stevanato de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic proenzyme ®, added to the mineral mixture in a weight gain of cattle in extensive grazing system. We used 40 animals, Nelore bulls (Bos indicus aged approximately 12 months, randomly divided into 2 groups (20 animals / group: control group (CG received only mineral mixture and probiotic group (GP with added probiotic. Calves were weighed on days 0 and 30 from 30 to 90 days and 00 to 90 days. The results showed a significant increase in weight gain in animals only GP in the first 30 days.

  17. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  18. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  19. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  20. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  1. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. PMID:21885268

  2. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  3. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  4. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  5. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  6. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  7. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  8. WHOLE GENOME ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY ALLELES FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN BOS TAURUS CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduced herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population c...

  9. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  10. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near ...

  11. An Overview of the Antecedents and Consequences of Abandoned Residential Housing Projects in Malaysia – A solution from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasyim Hj. Mumin; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2015-01-01

    The issue of abandoned residential housing projects in Malaysia is a matter that should be given more importance in the country. This study aims to identify what are the causes, examine how it affects affected home buyers, and to suggest the solutions from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective. To achieve the goals, this study focused on reviewing relevant literatures and observing the site of abandoned housing projects. From the review of the literatures, the main objective is to find out wh...

  12. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  13. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  14. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  15. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  16. Effect of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in south-east Brazil: Part 3-Meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A

    1982-02-01

    Significant differences in a number of economically important appearance and palatability traits were recorded between the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Muscles from the Charolais and Canchim animals were consistently and significantly lighter in colour than those from the zebu breeds, even after pH effects had been taken into account. Differences were shown to be directly related to variations in muscle myoglobin levels, but may have been complicated by observed textural differences. Muscles from the zebu animals were not noticeably coarser grained, having significantly larger fibre diameters and fibre bundle sizes. The inferiority of the Bos indicus breeds in terms of muscle tenderness was clearly demonstrated. Significantly higher shear force values were recorded in all muscles from the Nelore and Guzera breeds, except the Psoas major. These differences were also detected by taste panel evaluation. Major differences between breeds were demonstrated in the thermo-stability of extracted intra-muscular connective tissue elements, being highest in the zebu breeds, intermediate in the Canchim and lowest in the Charolais. These solubility characteristics were thought to be due to differences in the relative proportions of genetically different collagen types in the muscles and an association between coarseness of texture and toughness was shown. PMID:22054790

  17. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2 gene in crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibitor decreases the activity of calpain, which are the enzymes responsible for the degradation of muscle fibers during the maturation of the meat. Moreover, there were previously observed differences in the frequencies of allele A of calpain among European breeds (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Holstein and Bos taurus indicus (Gir, Guzerá and Nelore. This variability has been related to tenderness of meat, as cattle with Bos taurus taurus origin have more tender meat than Bos taurus indicus, showing small values of shear force. One explanation is that the Capn2A product could confer greater proteolytic activity than the encoded by the allele Capn2B. If allele A is associated with tender meat, it will be possible the early identification of the animals that have the potential to produce meat with qualities that attend the needs of the consumer market, in order to add economic value to the final product of the animal production chain. For this reason, biochemical and genetic studies related to calpain and calpastatin systems have been considered promising for the clarification of the physiological changes that occur in muscle structure during the period post-mortem, whose results have contributed to the improvement of meat quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RFLP in calpain (Capn2 gene and its relation with meat tenderization in 252 crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus. The analyses were carried through by PCR-RFLP technique

  18. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaohui H; Gan, Ping

    2013-05-28

    The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  19. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  20. REVIEW: The Characteristics of Genetic Resource of Bali Cattle (Bos-bibos banteng and the Alternative of It's Conservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.

  1. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  4. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  5. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  6. The Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Limited Growth on the Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus, a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, J.; Reysenbach, A.; Habicht, K.; Canfield, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes during dissimilatory sulfate reduction, producing sulfide depleted in 34S. Although isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction of pure cultures has been extensively studied, most of the research to date has focused on mesophilic sulfate reducers, particularly for the species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Results from these studies show that: 1) fractionations range from 3-46‰ with an average around 18‰ , 2) when organic electron donors are utilized, the extent of fractionation is dependent on the rate of sulfate reduction, with decreasing fractionations observed with higher specific rates, 3) fractionations are suppressed with low sulfate concentrations, and when hydrogen is used as the electron donor. High specific sulfate-reduction rates are encountered when sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolize at their optimal temperature and under non-limiting substrate conditions. Changes in both temperature and substrate availability could shift fractionations from those expressed under optimal growth conditions. Sulfate reducers may frequently experience substrate limitation and sub-optimal growth temperatures in the environment. Therefore it is important to understand how sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes under conditions that more closely resemble the restrictions imposed by the environment. In this study the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus was explored during sulfate reduction under a wide range of temperatures and with both hydrogen-saturating and hydrogen-limited conditions. T. indicus is a thermophilic (temperature optimum = 70° C) chemolithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which was recently isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Central Indian Ridge. This bacterium represents the type species of a new genus and to date is the most deeply branching sulfate-reducing bacterium known. T. indicus was grown in carbonate-buffered salt-water medium

  7. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  8. Phylogenetic and coalescent analysis of three loci suggest that the Water Rail is divisible into two species, Rallus aquaticus and R. indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Kroon Gerard HJ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water Rails (Rallus aquaticus inhabit fragmented freshwater wetlands across their Palearctic distribution. Disjunct populations are now thought to be morphologically similar over their vast geographic range, though four subspecies had been recognized previously. The fossil record suggests that Water Rails (R. aquaticus were already spread across the Palearctic by the Pleistocene ~2 million years ago, and the oldest fossil remains thought to be closely related to the common ancestor of water rails date from the Pliocene. Results To investigate population structure in Water Rails at the genetic level we sequenced three independent loci: 686 base pairs (bp of the mitochondrial DNA COI barcode; 618 bp of the intron ADH5; and 746 bp of the exon PTPN12. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that Water Rails breeding in eastern Asia (R. a. indicus, also known as the Brown-cheeked Rail are strongly differentiated from the Water Rails in Western and Middle Asia and Europe (R. a. aquaticus and R. a. korejewi. The Kimura 3-parameter plus Gamma COI genetic distance between these two geographic groups was > 3%, and they differed by 18 diagnostic substitutions commensurate with differences between recently diverged sister species of birds. In spite of the low number of variable sites, the two nuclear loci supported this split. We estimated the split of the Brown-cheeked Rail and the Water Rail to have occurred ~534,000 years ago (95% CI 275,000-990,000 years ago. Fragmentation of the widespread ancestral population and eventual speciation of water rails is likely attributable to vicariance by a barrier formed by glacial cycles, continuous uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and increased sedimentation in deserts in southern Asia that originated in the Miocene. Conclusions Water Rails from East Asia were genetically differentiated from the ones breeding in Europe and Western to Middle Asia. Most of the genetic signal was from mitochondrial COI, and

  9. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  10. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  11. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Ben

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus. We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in beef (Angus and dairy (Holstein cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90% and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA. More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection

  12. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  13. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Mark

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs. A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P Conclusion We have identified 15,353 putative SNPs in or close to bovine genes and 2,868 of these SNPs were predicted to be non-synonymous. Approximately 29% of the non-synonymous SNPs were polymorphic and common with a minor allele frequency >10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Production as a Limiting Factor in Xenobiotic Compound Oxidation by Nitrogen-Sufficient Cultures of Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 Overproducing Peroxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.; Wasseveld, R. A.; Field, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overproduction of ligninolytic peroxidase by the N-deregulated white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 under nitrogen-sufficient conditions had no noteworthy effect on the oxidation of anthracene or the decolorization of the polymeric aromatic dye Poly R-478 in 6-day-old cultures. Only when the endogenous production of H(inf2)O(inf2) was increased by the addition of extra oxygen and glucose could a 2.5-fold increase in the anthracene oxidation rate and a 6-fold increase in the Poly ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  18. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  19. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  20. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. PMID:27107482

  1. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  2. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds.

  3. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  4. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  5. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  6. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  7. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  10. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  11. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  12. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  14. Animal mitochondrial DNA polymorphism:a valuable tool for evolutionary studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYAPING; HONGLAN; 等

    1993-01-01

    Since the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) was discovered[1],a great amount of information have been accumulated about its sturcutres and functions[2],The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome has been determined for one individual in each of the following species:mouse(Mus musculus)[3],human(HOmo sapiens)[4],cow(Bos taurus)[5],Xenopus laevis[6],fruit fly(Drosophila yacuba)[7],sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)[8].rat(rattus novegicus)[9],fin whale(Balaenoptera physalus)[10],and harbor seal(Phoca vitulina)[11],More than 300 species of animals have been studied on mtDNA3.In the past 10 years.mtDNA has been a useful and powerful tool in the field of evolutionary biology and taxonomy.

  15. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  16. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  17. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  18. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  19. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  1. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  2. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  3. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  4. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  5. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongari eSaritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild., Plumbago zeylanica L and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine.Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. ex Schult (HIEE, Leucas aspera (Wild.(Wild.(LAEE, Plumbago zeylanica L (PZEE and Tridax procumbens (L. R. Br. ex Schult. (TPEE were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization , blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study.

  6. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  7. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  8. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  9. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  10. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede;

    2013-01-01

    the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences...... autosome 9. In the present study, we induced experimental E. coli mastitis in Danish HF cows to investigate the effect of 2 E. coli mastitis-associated QTL haplotypes on the cows' disease phenotypes and recovery in early lactation. Thirty-two cows were divided in 2 groups bearing haplotypes with either low...... motility; and the paraclinical parameters: bacterial counts, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk amyloid A levels in milk; and white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) count, and serum amyloid A levels in blood were recorded at different time points post-E. coli inoculation...

  11. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  12. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  13. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  14. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions.

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions. PMID:26946475

  17. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  18. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  19. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  20. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  1. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  2. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  3. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  4. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  5. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  6. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  7. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  8. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  11. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  12. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  13. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  14. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  15. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  16. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  17. Ode to an Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  18. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  19. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  20. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted for differences in cognitive abilities. Here, we argue that personality is an important source of variation that may affect cognitive performance and we hypothesise mutual influences between personality and cognition across an individual’s lifespan. In particular, we suggest that: 1 personality profiles may be markers of different cognitive styles; 2 success or failure in cognitive tasks could affect different personalities differently; 3 ontogenetic changes of personality profiles could be reflected in changes in cognitive performance. The study of such interplay has implications in animal welfare as well as in neuroscience and in translational medicine [Current Zoology 57 (4: 491–498, 2011].

  1. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  2. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week......, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  3. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  4. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  5. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  6. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  7. Kinect driven facial animation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  8. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  9. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  10. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  11. Standing for Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    1999-01-01

    From the legal point of view, there is nothing at all new or unfamiliar in the idea of "animal rights;" on the contrary, it is entirely clear that animals have legal rights. Indeed, the rise of legal rights for animals has been one of the most distinctive features of the last thirty years of federal statutory law. An investigation of the question of standing helps show that the real issues involve problems of enforcement and scope. Human beings often do and should have standing to protect ani...

  12. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  13. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  14. Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Green, M. A. Qureshi, J. A. Long, P.J. Burfening, D.L. Hamernik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure. Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus. The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious

  15. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Retrospectives: Animal Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Koppl

    1991-01-01

    John Maynard Keynes argued that when the conditions for rational action are not present, people are driven by "animal spirits." This article briefly considers Keynes' argument, and the history of the term.

  18. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  20. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  1. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  2. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  3. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  4. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  5. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  6. Whole animal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be us...

  7. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  8. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  9. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  10. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  12. PREVALENCE OF SULFONAMIDE AND FLORFENICOL RESISTANCE GENES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM YAKS (BOS GRUNNIENS) AND HERDSMEN IN THE TIBETAN PASTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anyun; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Hongning; Lei, Changwei; Xu, Changwen; Guan, Zhongbin; Liu, Bihui; Huang, Xi; Peng, Linyao

    2015-07-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and prevalence of resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) and herdsmen in nine plateau pastures in Tibet, we isolated 184 nonidentical strains of E. coli from yaks and herdsmen. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobials was conducted and the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) and florfenicol resistance genes (floR, cfr, cmlA, fexA, pexA, and estDL136) was determined. Escherichia coli isolated from yaks had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (44%), sulphafurazole (40.4%), and florfenicol (11.4%). Escherichia coli isolated from herdsmen had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (57%) and sulphafurazole (51%). In addition, sul genes were present in 93% of sulfonamide-resistant isolates (84/90), and 17 floR genes and four cmlA genes were found in 19 florfenicol-resistant isolates. Even though florfenicol is prohibited from use in humans, three floR genes were detected in strains isolated from herdsmen. The three floR-positive isolates from herdsmen had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns similar to isolates from yaks. In addition to documenting the sul and floR genes in E. coli isolated from yaks and herdsmen in the Tibetan pasture, we demonstrated the potential risk that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli could spread among herdsmen and yaks.

  13. Animal, animalité, devenir-animal

    OpenAIRE

    Viennet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Question de regard Nous regardons les animaux et les animaux nous regardent. Nous faisons signe à un chat, par la voix, par le geste, le chat nous regarde et cligne des yeux. Il n’a pas la capacité d’exprimer des paroles selon le modèle humain, mais à sa manière il nous répond, par un clin d’œil. Que se passe-t-il dans ce clin d’œil ? Une communication s’établit, un échange a lieu. Nous regardons l’animal qui nous regarde. Que voyons-nous alors ? Le clin d’œil énigmatique nous pousse à regard...

  14. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  15. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live-animal official test, an official genotype test, the culling and postmortem examination and testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... designation from an animal that tested positive on a live-animal screening test based on an...

  16. Invited review: Efficacy, metabolism, and toxic responses to chlorate salts in food and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Oliver, C E; Taylor, J B; Anderson, R C

    2012-11-01

    For over 100 yr, scientists have explored uses of sodium chlorate in agricultural applications. Sodium chlorate is a strong oxidizer, and thus can be very hazardous when not handled accordingly. Nevertheless, late 19th century agriculturists and scientists attempted to exploit the chemical properties of sodium chlorate as an herbicide and food preservative. It is the herbicidal utility that led to subsequent use of sodium chlorate in the agricultural industry since then. However, in 2000, USDA-ARS scientists proposed a new and targeted use of sodium chlorate against enterobacteria in food animal production. Specifically, when orally dosed in to cattle (Bos taurus), swine (Sus scrofa), broilers (Gallus gallus), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and sheep (Ovis aries), chlorate reduced the fecal shedding of common enteropathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Subsequent to this discovery, the efficacy of chlorate salts has been demonstrated in numerous production classes within species. Doses of sodium chlorate as low as 30 mg/kg BW, but typically 50 to 150 mg/kg BW, have been used to demonstrate efficacy against pathogens. Single or short-duration (food animals. In all species studied to date, the major biotransformation product of chlorate is chloride ion; chlorite is not present in tissues or excreta of chlorate dosed animals. Chlorate is rapidly eliminated in ruminants and nonruminants, primarily in urine; likewise, residual chlorate in tissues depletes rapidly. Application of any new chemical entity to food animal production carries with it a responsibility to understand adverse reactions that intended and nonintended exposures may have in target and (or) nontarget animals and an understanding of the pathways of elimination that occur after exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the published data regarding the efficacy, metabolism, and toxicology of chlorate salts in target (livestock) and nontarget species.

  17. マレーバク(Tapirus indicus)糞便中に認められた虫卵のCOX1およびITS領域塩基配列を指標とした寄生蠕虫類同定の試み

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 浩子; 大沼, 学; 福本, 真一郎; 向井, 猛; 白水, 彩; 千葉, 司; 浅川, 満彦

    2004-01-01

    On November 13, 2000, an Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) was transferred from the Melaka Zoo in Malaysia to the Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Japan. During quarantine at the Sapporo Maruyama Zoo, nematode and cestode eggs were observed and disinfestation was conducted using Praziquantel. Segments were found in feces, but it was impossible to identify the cestode species morphologically because all were gravid segments filled with eggs. DNA extraction was conducted from the parasite eggs in the feces ...

  18. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  19. Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Jae Yeon; Kim, Eun Joong

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m(2), and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and 8.0 m(2)/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at pmeat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (pquality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both. Nonetheless, these results confirm previous studies reporting a negative effect of increased stocking density on animal productivity. Further, animal welfare under an intensive farming system in relation to economical return is discussed. PMID:25049516

  20. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  1. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user......This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... makes the life manifestations of the users in context visible. We present and discuss how animation- based sketching can support the elaboration and examination of different ethical stances towards the user in the product and service development process. Finally we present a framework for creating...

  3. Companion animal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  4. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  5. The experiments on healthy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on leukotitin influence on hematosis which was held on :1. healthy animals received the preparation; 2. irradiated animals received the preparation; 3. irradiated animals didn't receive the preparation

  6. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  7. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. COMPAIXÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Seligmann Silva

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho estuda a questão da compaixão, que na história do pensamento foi ora tratada como uma marca da humanidade, ora pensada como uma marca de nossa origem natural e animal. Para Lactâncio, por exemplo, sem piedade o homem é um animal. O texto parte de uma discussão de Buffon, que falava de uma compaixão como uma de nossas “affections naturelles”. Para ele, “a alma tem menos a ver do que o corpo nesse sentimento de piedade natural e os animais, assim como o homem, sã...

  9. L’animal

    OpenAIRE

    Rongier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    On sait que l’amitié entre Maurice Blanchot et Emmanuel Lévinas est dense, complète et exigeante. À partir de quelques textes (et des lignes de fuite), je voudrais souligner ce lien amical et intellectuel, la constance avec laquelle les deux hommes ont mutuellement nourri leur réflexion, leur écriture. Et, au fil des lectures, s’est progressivement dégagée l’idée de l’animal comme espace d’interrogation, l’animal et l’animalité comme enjeu pour lire le lien, mais aussi la distance. Trois text...

  10. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  11. Transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, L M

    2000-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is one of the major successes of biotechnology. Animal cells are required to synthesize proteins with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Transgenic animals are being used for this purpose. Milk, egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma and silk worm cocoon from transgenic animals are candidates to be the source of recombinant proteins at an industrial scale. Although the first recombinant protein produced by transgenic animals is expected to be in the market in 2000, a certain number of technical problems remain to be solved before the various systems are optimized. Although the generation of transgenic farm animals has become recently easier mainly with the technique of animal cloning using transfected somatic cells as nuclear donor, this point remains a limitation as far as cost is concerned. Numerous experiments carried out for the last 15 years have shown that the expression of the transgene is predictable only to a limited extent. This is clearly due to the fact that the expression vectors are not constructed in an appropriate manner. This undoubtedly comes from the fact that all the signals contained in genes have not yet been identified. Gene constructions thus result sometime in poorly functional expression vectors. One possibility consists in using long genomic DNA fragments contained in YAC or BAC vectors. The other relies on the identification of the major important elements required to obtain a satisfactory transgene expression. These elements include essentially gene insulators, chromatin openers, matrix attached regions, enhancers and introns. A certain number of proteins having complex structures (formed by several subunits, being glycosylated, cleaved, carboxylated...) have been obtained at levels sufficient for an industrial exploitation. In other cases, the mammary cellular machinery seems insufficient to promote all the post-translational modifications. The addition of genes coding for enzymes

  12. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  13. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  14. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  15. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  16. Freeing Captive Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even though theymight not haveenough food intheir own stom-achs,Tibetan peasantswould feed their draughtcattle with the best food,asthey depended on them forplowing. Such good treat-ment lasted until the ani-mals died,after which,some peasants would burythem in their own fields,

  17. Decerebrate rigidity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A; Davis, L

    1981-07-01

    Decerebrate rigidity (DR) in animals is caused by a release of spinal neurons from supraspinal inhibition, which results in a caricature of reflex standing and includes tonic neck and labyrinthine reflexes. The reticular formation, cerebellum, vestibular complex, spinal cord, and muscle spindle system and their neurophysiological interaction are critical to DR. Its discovery and investigation were essential to Sherrington's concept of the integrative action of the nervous system. There are two types of DR with different anatomical and physiological bases. Intercollicular decerebration yields rigidity in extensor muscles that results from bilateral destruction of the central tegmental tracts, is abolished by posterior root section, and is due to a facilitation of gamma motoneuron discharge (gamma animal). Anemic decerebration is characterized by excessive extensor rigidity, depends upon the release of tonic labryinthine reflexes from cerebellar inhibition, is independent of posterior root section, and is caused by excessive alpha motoneuron discharge (alpha animal). DR has provided an insight into the mechanisms of posture and standing, but the correlation of laboratory observations and results from animals to humans must be made with caution.

  18. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  19. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  20. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.