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Sample records for borrelia burgdorferi endemic

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Matthew J; Davis, Cheryl; Rowland, Naomi S; Dick, Carl W

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky. Small mammals were captured using live traps from November 2014 to October 2015. Ticks were removed and blood and tissue collected from small mammals were screened for B. burgdorferi DNA by PCR with primers specific to the OspA gene. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi (21.8%) in Kentucky small mammals was comparable to the lowest recorded prevalence in regions where Lyme disease is endemic. Moreover, infestation of small mammals by Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, was rare, while Dermacentor variabilis comprised the majority of ticks collected. These findings provide ecological insight into the relative paucity of Lyme disease in Kentucky.

  2. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis

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    Cassandra M. Skinner-Taylor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with Borrelia . Persons infected with Borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. Diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. There are a few reports about Borrelia infection in Mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by PCR and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Veterinarians have an occupational risk due to high rates of tick contact. The aim of this work was to investigate antibodies to Borrelia in students at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, at Nuevo León, Mexico, and determine the antibody profile to B. burgdorferi antigens. Material and methods: Sera were screened using a C6 ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA using recombinant proteins from B. burgdorferi , B. gariniii and B. afzelii . Sera with positive or grey-zone values were tested by IgG Western blot to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Results : All volunteers reported tick exposures and 72.5% remembered tick bites. Only nine persons described mild Lyme disease related symptoms, including headaches, paresthesias, myalgias and arthralgias. None of the volunteers reported erythema migrans. Nine samples were confirmed by IgG Western blot. The profile showed 89% reactivity to OspA, 67% to p83, and 45% to BmpA. Conclusions : Positive sera samples shared antibody reactivity to the markers of late immune response p83 and BmpA, even if individuals did not present symptoms of Lyme arthritis or post-Lyme disease. The best criterion to diagnose Lyme disease in our country remains to be established, because it is probable that different strains coexist in Mexico. This is the first report of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in Latin American veterinarians. Veterinarians and high-risk people should be alert to take precautionary measures to prevent tick

  3. Enzyme activities of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, M.; Němec, M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2001), s. 179-182 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  4. Temporomandibular joint involvement caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi.

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    Lesnicar, Gorazd; Zerdoner, Danijel

    2007-12-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an endemic disease in Slovenia with an incidence of around 150 patients per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the large joints are most typically affected in Lyme borreliosis, there are also periods of disease activity with arthritis or arthralgias involving smaller joints, including the temporo-mandibular joint. During the years between 2000 and 2003, two patients with Lyme borreliosis affecting the temporo-mandibular joints were treated. The patients presented with fatigue and pain in diverse muscle groups accompanied by arthralgia, which was most pronounced in the temporomandibular joint area. None of the patients were febrile or had joint effusions. Both patients were examined by means of biochemical and serological examinations for Borrelia burgdorferi using ELISA assay and Western blot test (both for IgM and IgG), plain radiographs, MR and CT scans, and scinti-scan of the temporo-mandibular joints They both had positive serum markers for an acute B. burgdorferi infection and were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. None of the patients had clinical or laboratory signs of chronic Lyme disease activity two and four years following therapy, respectively. Roentgenographic and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the temporo-mandibular joints had not shown any persistent sign of acute inflammation. There are only few reports of patients with manifest temporo-mandibular joint involvement of Lyme borreliosis in the literature. This report emphasizes the importance of differential diagnosis of acute temporo-mandibular joint arthralgia, of early diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and of the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment.

  5. Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi Motility and Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chunhao

    2018-01-01

    Swimming plate, cell motion tracking, and capillary tube assays are very useful tools to quantitatively measure bacterial motility and chemotaxis. These methods were modified and applied to study Borrelia burgdorferi motility and chemotaxis. By using these methods, numerous motility and chemotaxis mutants have been characterized and several chemoattractants were identified. With the assistance of these tools, the role of motility and chemotaxis in the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi has been established. In addition, these tools also facilitate the study of motility and chemotaxis in other spirochetes.

  6. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Dattwyler, Raymond J. (Setauket, NY); Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C. (New York, NY); Luft, Benjamin J. (East Setauket, NY); Dunn, John J.(Bellport, NY)

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  7. Genome-Wide Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui

    2018-01-01

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector. STM procedure combined with Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology and next-generation sequencing (e.g., Tn-seq) are the powerful high-throughput tools for the determination of Borrelia burgdorferi virulence determinants. The assessment of multiple tissue sites and two DNA resources at two different time points using Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology provides a robust data set. B. burgdorferi transposon mutant screening indicates that a high proportion of genes are the novel virulence determinants that are required for mouse and tick infection. In this protocol, an effective signature-tagged Himar1-based transposon suicide vector was developed and used to generate a sequence-defined library of nearly 4800 mutants in the infectious B. burgdorferi B31 clone. In STM, signature-tagged suicide vectors are constructed by inserting unique DNA sequences (tags) into the transposable elements. The signature-tagged transposon mutants are generated when transposon suicide vectors are transformed into an infectious B. burgdorferi clone, and the transposable element is transposed into the 5'-TA-3' sequence in the B. burgdorferi genome with the signature tag. The transposon library is created and consists of many sub-libraries, each sub-library has several hundreds of mutants with same tags. A group of mice or ticks are infected with a mixed

  8. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Li, Xin; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; van Dam, Alje P.; Barthold, Stephen W.; van der Poll, Tom; Speelman, Peter; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks and mice can be infected with both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii. The effect of coinfection with these two Borrelia species on the development of murine Lyme borreliosis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether coinfection with the

  9. Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.

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    Eva Sapi

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. Analyzing the extracellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells.

  10. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

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    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  11. Delineation of a New Species of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Complex, Borrelia americana sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Lin, T.; Gao, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2009), s. 3875-3880 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia americana Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  12. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in Lizards from Southern Maryland

    OpenAIRE

    SWANSON, KATHERINE I.; NORRIS, DOUGLAS E.

    2007-01-01

    Lizards serve as hosts for Ixodes ticks in the western and southeastern United States and may affect the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi in these regions. In Maryland, the role of lizards in the maintenance and transmission cycle of this pathogen has not been examined. We tested 29 lizards (Sceloporus undulatus and Eumeces spp.) and 21 ticks from these lizards for the presence of B. burgdorferi. Eight lizards were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for at least one B. bur...

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Lyme Disease in North American Horses: A Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R.B.; Madigan, J.E.; Witonsky, S.G.; Bertone, J.J.; Swinebroad, E.L.; Schutzer, S.E.; Johnson, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in horses living in Lyme endemic areas and the geographic range for exposure is increasing. Morbidity after B. burgdorferi infection in horses is unknown. Documented, naturally occurring syndromes attributed to B. burgdorferi infection in horses include neuroborreliosis, uveitis, and cutaneous pseudolymphoma. Although other clinical signs such as lameness and stiffness are reported in horses, these are often not well documented. Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on exposure to B. burgdorferi, cytology or histopathology of infected fluid or tissue and antigen detection. Treatment of Lyme disease in horses is similar to treatment of humans or small animals but treatment success might not be the same because of species differences in antimicrobial bioavailability and duration of infection before initiation of treatment. There are no approved equine label Lyme vaccines but there is strong evidence that proper vaccination could prevent infection in horses. PMID:29469222

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Kayla M. Socarras; Priyanka A. S. Theophilus; Jason P. Torres; Khusali Gupta; Eva Sapi

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known f...

  15. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  16. Preferential protection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by a Salp15 homologue in Ixodes ricinus saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J. W.; Schuijt, T. J.; de Groot, K. A.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; Oei, G. A.; Marquart, J. A.; de Beer, R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Ramamoorthi, N.; Fikrig, E.; van Dam, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ixodes ticks are the main vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In the United States, B. burgdorferi is the sole causative agent of Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. In Europe, 3 Borrelia species-B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii-are prevalent,

  17. Babesia microti, human babesiosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J F; Mintz, E D; Gadbaw, J J; Magnarelli, L A

    1991-12-01

    Babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern Connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in Connecticut was recognized. To date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in Connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland United States. Two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. Since Babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of these infections were acquired via tick bites; 1 was obtained by blood transfusion (the patient was 46 years of age) from an endemically infected donor. The ages of the patients with tick-acquired babesiosis ranged from 61 to 95 years. Two patients died with active infections, and one patient died from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease soon after treatment with clindamycin and quinine. Indirect fluorescent-antibody titers of blood samples drawn at the time of hospitalization for 11 patients and at the time of active infection for 1 asymptomatic person ranged from 1:1,024 to 1:4,096. Five of eight patients with babesiosis also had significant immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M titers (1:640 to 1:5,120) to Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti was isolated in Syrian hamsters inoculated with blood from 7 of 12 patients tested and was also isolated from mice captured in six towns. The peridomestic nature of the disease was demonstrated by isolating the parasite from white-footed mice captured in or near the yards of eight different patients. Of 59 mice tested, 27 were positive and 25 were coinfected with B. burgdorferi. The isolation of B. microti from a white-footed mouse captured in north-central Connecticut (West Hartford), away from the focus of human infections in southeastern Connecticut, suggests that this pathogen may spread into other areas where Ixodes dammini, the tick vector, becomes established.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socarras, Kayla M; Theophilus, Priyanka A S; Torres, Jason P; Gupta, Khusali; Sapi, Eva

    2017-11-29

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known forms of B. burgdorferi . In this study, natural antimicrobial agents such as Apis mellifera venom and a known component, melittin, were tested using SYBR Green I/PI, direct cell counting, biofilm assays combined with LIVE/DEAD and atomic force microscopy methods. The obtained results were compared to standalone and combinations of antibiotics such as Doxycycline, Cefoperazone, Daptomycin, which were recently found to be effective against Borrelia persisters. Our findings showed that both bee venom and melittin had significant effects on all the tested forms of B. burgdorferi. In contrast, the control antibiotics when used individually or even in combinations had limited effects on the attached biofilm form. These findings strongly suggest that whole bee venom or melittin could be effective antimicrobial agents for B. burgdorferi; however, further research is necessary to evaluate their effectiveness in vivo, as well as their safe and effective delivery method for their therapeutic use.

  19. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

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    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  20. Stable Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J F; Apperson, C S; Levin, M; Kelly, T R; Kakumanu, M L; Ponnusamy, L; Sutton, H; Salger, S A; Caldwell, J M; Szempruch, A J

    2017-08-01

    The spirochaete (Borrelia burgdorferi) associated with Lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991-2009, at five locations on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for B. burgdorferi. The white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (Mus musculus) marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and six-lined racerunner (Cnemidophorus sexlineatus) were live-trapped, and their tissues cultured to isolate spirochaetes. Borrelia burgdorferi isolates were obtained from questing adult I. scapularis and engorged I. scapularis removed from P. leucopus, O. palustris and S. floridanus. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection was variable at different times and sites ranging from 7 to 14% of examined questing I. scapularis. Mitochondrial (16S) rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis from 65 adult I. scapularis identified 12 haplotypes in two major clades. Nine haplotypes were associated with northern/Midwestern I. scapularis populations and three with southern I. scapularis populations. Sixteen isolates obtained from tick hosts in 2005 were confirmed to be B. burgdorferi by amplifying and sequencing of 16S rRNA and 5S-23S intergenic spacer fragments. The sequences had 98-99% identity to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31, JD1 and M11p. Taken together, these studies indicate that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is endemic in questing I. scapularis and mammalian tick hosts on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Spirochetes, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in mosquitoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 62, 3 Suppl. (2000), s. 288-289 ISSN 0002-9637. [Annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene /49./. Houston, 29.10.2000-02.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2000

  2. Does Host Complement Kill Borrelia burgdorferi within Ticks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within ...

  3. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  4. Molecular detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lager, Malin; Faller, Maximilian; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    the protocols using 16S rRNA as the target gene, however, this concordance was mainly related to cDNA as the type of template. When comparing cDNA and DNA as the type of template the analytical sensitivity was in general higher for the protocols using DNA as template regardless of the use of target gene...... molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may serve as a complement. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and concordance of eight different real-time PCR methods at five laboratories in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Method: Each...... participating laboratory was asked to analyse three different sets of samples (reference panels; all blinded) i) cDNA extracted and transcribed from water spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, ii) cerebrospinal fluid spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, and iii) DNA dilution series extracted from cultured...

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

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    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  6. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  7. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  8. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and their reflection on immune response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefančíková, A.; Derdáková, M.; Tresová, Gabriela; Peťko, B.; Szestáková, E.; Škardová, I.; Čisláková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2005), s. 211-216 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : horses * ELISA * SDS-PAGE * IgG * seroprevalence * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia garinii * Borrelia afzelii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2005

  9. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  10. Zinc is the metal cofactor of Borrelia burgdorferi peptide deformylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kiet T; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Boylan, Julie A; Gherardini, Frank C; Pei, Dehua

    2007-12-15

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, E.C. 3.5.1.88) catalyzes the removal of N-terminal formyl groups from nascent ribosome-synthesized polypeptides. PDF contains a catalytically essential divalent metal ion, which is tetrahedrally coordinated by three protein ligands (His, His, and Cys) and a water molecule. Previous studies revealed that the metal cofactor is a Fe2+ ion in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial PDFs. In this work, we found that PDFs from two iron-deficient bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Lactobacillus plantarum, are stable and highly active under aerobic conditions. The native B. burgdorferi PDF (BbPDF) was purified 1200-fold and metal analysis revealed that it contains approximately 1.1 Zn2+ ion/polypeptide but no iron. Our studies suggest that PDF utilizes different metal ions in different organisms. These data have important implications in designing PDF inhibitors and should help address some of the unresolved issues regarding PDF structure and catalytic function.

  11. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirat A. Adetunji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector Ixodes scapularis. It is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from Texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493 collected during the 2001–2015 hunting seasons, using indirect ELISA. Samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above than the negative control group (0.662 were further tested using a more specific standardized western immunoblot assay to rule out false positives. Using ELISA, 4.7% of the samples were sero-reactive against B. burgdorferi, and these originated in two eco-regions in Texas (Edwards Plateau and South Texas Plains. However, only 0.5% of the total samples were sero-reactive by standardized western immunoblot assay. Additionally, both ELISA and standardized western immunoblot assay results correlated with an increased incidence in human Lyme Disease cases reported in Texas. This is the first longitudinal study to demonstrate fluctuation in sero-reactivity of white-tailed deer to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in southern United States. Future ecological and geographical studies are needed to assess the environmental factors governing the prevalence of Lyme Disease in non-endemic areas of the southern United States.

  12. Population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Christoph Binder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many chronic inflammatory diseases are known to be caused by persistent bacterial or viral infections. A well-studied example is the tick-borne infection by the gram-negative Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia in humans and other mammals, causing severe symptoms of chronic inflammation and subsequent tissue damage (Lyme Disease, particularly in large joints and the central nervous system, but also in the heart and other tissues of untreated patients. Although killed efficiently by human phagocytic cells in vitro, Borrelia exhibits a remarkably high infectivity in mice and men. In experimentally infected mice, the first immune response almost clears the infection. However, approximately one week post infection, the bacterial population recovers and reaches an even larger size before entering the chronic phase. We developed a mathematical model describing the bacterial growth and the immune response against Borrelia burgdorferi in the C3H mouse strain that has been established as an experimental model for Lyme disease. The peculiar dynamics of the infection exclude two possible mechanistic explanations for the regrowth of the almost cleared bacteria. Neither the hypothesis of bacterial dissemination to different tissue nor a limitation of phagocytic capacity were compatible with experiment. The mathematical model predicts that Borrelia recovers from the strong initial immune response by the regrowth of an immune-resistant sub-population of the bacteria. The chronic phase appears as an equilibration of bacterial growth and adaptive immunity. This result has major implications for the development of the chronic phase of Borrelia infections as well as on potential protective clinical interventions.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina D'Arco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223-modVlsE(275-291, a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8% from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  16. Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from Whole Blood of Patients with Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoo, Mark W.; Crowder, Christopher C.; Rebman, Alison W.; Rounds, Megan A.; Matthews, Heather E.; Picuri, John M.; Soloski, Mark J.; Ecker, David J.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Aucott, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct molecular tests in blood for early Lyme disease can be insensitive due to low amount of circulating Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. To address this challenge, we have developed a sensitive strategy to both detect and genotype B. burgdorferi directly from whole blood collected during the initial patient visit. This strategy improved sensitivity by employing 1.25 mL of whole blood, a novel pre-enrichment of the entire specimen extract for Borrelia DNA prior to a multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection assay. We evaluated the assay on blood collected at the initial presentation from 21 endemic area patients who had both physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) and positive two-tiered serology either at the initial visit or at a follow-up visit after three weeks of antibiotic therapy. Results of this DNA analysis showed detection of B. burgdorferi in 13 of 21 patients (62%). In most cases the new assay also provided the B. burgdorferi genotype. The combined results of our direct detection assay with initial physician visit serology resulted in the detection of early Lyme disease in 19 of 21 (90%) of patients at the initial visit. In 5 of 21 cases we demonstrate the ability to detect B. burgdorferi in early Lyme disease directly from whole blood specimens prior to seroconversion. PMID:22590620

  17. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and immunity in mice deficient in the fifth component of complement.

    OpenAIRE

    Bockenstedt, L K; Barthold, S; Deponte, K; Marcantonio, N; Kantor, F S

    1993-01-01

    When immunocompetent mice are inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi, they develop acute arthritis and carditis that undergo spontaneous regression despite the persistence of infection. Specific T- and/or B-cell immunity appears to be necessary for resolution of disease manifestations. Humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi are also important in prevention of B. burgdorferi infection, in that passive transfer of immune sera or protective monoclonal antibodies prevents the spirochete from es...

  19. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  20. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  2. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans.

  3. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  4. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  6. Does host complement kill Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2003-02-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within the vector. The Lyme disease outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine is a transmission-blocking vaccine that targets spirochetes in the vector. In experiments with mice hyperimmunized with OspA, complement was not required to kill spirochetes within nymphs and to block transmission from nymphs to the vaccinated host. However, host complement did enhance the ability of OspA antibody to block larvae from acquiring spirochetes. Thus, the effects of OspA antibody on nymphal transmission and larval acquisition appear to be based on different mechanisms.

  7. The Tick Salivary Protein Salp15 Inhibits the Killing of Serum-Sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; van Burgel, Nathalie D.; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Fikrig, Erol; van Dam, Alje P.

    2008-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by ticks. During transmission from the tick to the host, spirochetes are delivered with tick saliva, which contains the salivary protein Salp15. Salp15 has been shown to protect spirochetes against B. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. We now show that Salp15 from both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis protects serum-sensitive isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato against complement-mediated killing. I. ricinus Salp15 show...

  8. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) titers ≥1:32. All but one of the IFA-positive and 10 of the ELISA-positive, IFA-negative sera were further tested by western blot. Eight western blot positive and three equivocal reactors were obtained. Three of the eight confirmed reactors had visited areas known to be endemic for Lyme disease, leaving five reactors that might have been infected in previously undocumented areas for B. burgdorferi activity in Ontario. Diagnostic submissions of sera from 223 dogs were received between August 1987 and February 1992. Test results revealed 21 (9.4%) IFA reactors, of which only six had significant titers (≥1:256) and were reactive by an immunodot Borrelia test. All six dogs had travelled to known Lyme endemic areas. Based on results obtained from this study, it seems likely that the agent of Lyme disease is not widespread in Ontario. PMID:17424284

  9. Analysis of the lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A from Borrelia burgdorferi by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Klein, Michele; Bischoff, Rainer; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Roitsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The outer surface protein A, OspA, from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a lipoprotein of 25 kDa. The recombinant OspA (rOspA) expressed in Escherichia coli has been purified and analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). A heterogenous spectrum gave a measured mass of 28,462 +/- 9 Da

  10. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus tick genes induced by blood feeding or Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Edwards, M. J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2005), s. 36-41 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi * subtractive hybridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2005

  11. Lectin-binding characteristics of a Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, M.; Nebesářová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 229-238 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * electron microscopy * lectin binding Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  12. Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

  13. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  14. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Novak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease.

  15. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Fingerprinting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; van Dam, Alje P.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Dankert, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    To study whether pathogenic clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains occur, we typed 136 isolates, cultured from specimens from patients (n = 49) with various clinical entities and from ticks (n = 83) or dogs (n = 4) from different geographic regions, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting with four arbitrary primers. The RAPD patterns were reproducible up to the 95% similarity level as shown in duplicate experiments. In these experiments the purified DNAs prepared on different days, from different colonies, and after various passages were used as templates. With an intergroup difference of 55%, the 136 strains could be divided into seven genetic clusters. Six clusters comprised and corresponded to the established species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 23), Borrelia garinii (n = 39), Borrelia afzelii (n = 59), Borrelia japonica (n = 1), Borrelia valaisiana (n = 12), and genomic group DN127 (n = 1). One strain from a patient with erythema migrans (EM) did not belong to any of the species or genomic groups known up to now. The RAPD types of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii isolates, which may give rise to human Lyme borreliosis (LB), were associated with their geographic origins. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among the 39 B. garinii strains, and six subgroups could be recognized. One of these comprised eight isolates from patients with disseminated LB only and no tick isolates. B. afzelii strains from patients with EM or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were not clustered in particular branches. Our study showed that RAPD analysis is a powerful tool for discriminating different Borrelia species as well as Borrelia isolates within species. PMID:9508310

  16. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is now the most common vectorborne disease in North America, Europe and Asia. It is a multisystemic infection which may cause skin, neurological, cardiac or rheumatologic disorders. The aims of the present thesis were: (i) to develop...... and different clinical presentations (dermatoborreliosis versus neuroborreliosis) and courses (self-limiting versus chronic disease). Furthermore, strain differences were of importance for selection of suitable antigens for diagnostic assays and for vaccine development. Since then, B. burgdorferi isolates have...... a histological B. burgdorferi specific immunophosphatase-staining method. The utility of the PCR was then tested for identification of B. burgdorferi DNA in skin biopsies from 31 patients with erythema migrans. The sensitivity of PCR was 71%, which was superior to culture and serology. Based on own and otherwise...

  17. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  18. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  19. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of spoT in Borrelia burgdorferi during Serum Starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Concepcion, Marc B.; Nelson, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis. A 2.9-kb fragment containing a putative spoT gene was isolated from B. burgdorferi genomic DNA by PCR amplification and cloned into a pBAD24 vector. The cloned gene complemented Escherichia coli mutant strain CF1693, which contains deletions of both the relA and spoT genes. The spoT gene in E. coli encodes a bifunctional enzyme capable of synthesizing and degrading (p)ppGpp, which mediates...

  1. Host association of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato--the key role of host complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Klaus; De Michelis, Simona; Etti, Susanne; Schäfer, Stefanie M; Sewell, Henna-Sisko; Brade, Volker; Kraiczy, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the tick-borne agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial species complex comprising 11 genospecies. Here, we discuss whether the delineation of genospecies is ecologically relevant. We provide evidence that B. burgdorferi s.l. is structured ecologically into distinct clusters that are host specific. An immunological model for niche adaptation is proposed that suggests the operation of complement-mediated selection in the midgut of the feeding tick. We conclude that vertebrate hosts rather than tick species are the key to Lyme borreliosis spirochaete diversity.

  2. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, K.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), 267.e9-267.e15 ISSN 1198-743X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic treatment * live Borrelia burgdorferi * live Borrelia bissettii * Lyme borreliosis * recovery of live spirochaetes Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.292, year: 2016

  3. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonczek, Ondřej; Žákovská, A.; Vargová, L.; Šerý, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 642-646 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s. I. * Borrelia spielmanii * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2015

  4. Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Lenka; Černá, Kateřina; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-154 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease spirochete * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia baronii * Borrelia afzelii * tick * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  5. [Recombinant OspC identification and antigenicity detection from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2003-10-01

    To recombine OspC gene from Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 of China and expressed it in E. coli for early diagnosis of Lyme disease. The OspC gene was amplified from the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi PD91 strain by polymerase chain reaction and recombined with plasmid PET-11D. The recombinant plasmid PET-11D-OspC was identified with PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing. The antigenicity was verified with Western Blot. OspC gene was cloned correctly into vector PET-11D. The resultant sequence was definitely different from the published sequence. The recombinant OspC seemed to have had strong antigenicity. The findings laid basis for the studies on early diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  6. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographi...

  7. Exposed and hidden lectin-binding epitopes at the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoitsova, S. R.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2003), s. 654-658 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022001 Grant - others:National Research Council at the Ministry of Education and Science(BG) K-709/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * lectin-binding epitopes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  8. [Using the polymerase chain reaction to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in localized scleroderma injure (morphea), in Venezuelan patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-León, Fabiola; Arocha, Francisco; Hassanhi, Manzur; Arévalo, Julio

    2010-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme Borreliosis, an infectious multisystemic disease transmitted to humans by the Ixodes ticks bite. A possible association of Borrelia burgdorferi with localized scleroderma has been postulated. However, published data do not provide unequivocal results. Previous serologic analysis of patients with localized scleroderma in South American countries (including Venezuela), have been reported as yielding some reactivity. The present study looked for evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in venezuelan patients with localized scleroderma, using the polymerase chain reaction to analyze 21 skin samples of patients with this skin condition. The results were negative in all the samples studied. Our data do not support an association of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the sclerotic lesions of localized scleroderma; but do not rule out the possibility of a relationship between localized scleroderma and an unknown geno-specie of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, a different Borrelia specie or a different spirochetal organism, as the etiological agents of the skin lesions in this area.

  9. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  10. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by nonimmune sera from sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D R; Rooney, S; Miller, N J; Mather, T N

    2000-12-01

    Various species of cervid deer are the preferred hosts for adult, black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) in the United States. Although frequently exposed to the agent of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), these animals, for the most part, are incompetent as transmission reservoirs. We examined the borreliacidal activity of normal and B. burgdorferi-immune sera from sika deer (Cervus nippon) maintained in a laboratory setting and compared it to that of similar sera from reservoir-competent mice and rabbits. All normal deer sera (NDS) tested killed > 90% of B. burgdorferi cells. In contrast, normal mouse and rabbit sera killed feeding exhibited IFA titers of 1:256, whereas sera from mice and rabbits similarly exposed had titers of > 1:1,024. Heat treatment (56 C, 30 min) of NDS reduced borreliacidal activity, with complement-mediated killing. The chelators EGTA and EDTA were used to block the classical or both the classical and alternative complement pathways, respectively. Addition of 10 mM EGTA to NDS had a negligible effect on borreliacidal activity, with > 90% of the cells killed. Addition of 10 mM EDTA reduced the killing to approximately 30%, whereas the addition of Mg2+ (10 mM) restored borreliacidal activity to NDS. The addition of zymosan A, an activator of the alternative pathway, increased the survival of B. burgdorferi cells to approximately 80% in NDS. These data suggest that the alternative complement activation pathway plays a major role in the borreliacidal activity of NDS. Additionally, 10 mM EGTA had almost no effect on the killing activity of B. burgdorferi-exposed deer sera, suggesting that the classical pathway is not involved in Borrelia killing, even in sera from B. burgdorferi-exposed deer.

  11. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  12. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Coleman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The canonical ATP-dependent protease Lon participates in an assortment of biological processes in bacteria, including the catalysis of damaged or senescent proteins and short-lived regulatory proteins. Borrelia spirochetes are unusual in that they code for two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologs, Lon-1 and Lon-2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted through the blood feeding of Ixodes ticks. Previous work in our laboratory reported that B. burgdorferi lon-1 is upregulated transcriptionally by exposure to blood in vitro, while lon-2 is not. Because blood induction of Lon-1 may be of importance in the regulation of virulence factors critical for spirochete transmission, the clarification of functional roles for these two proteases in B. burgdorferi was the object of this study. On the chromosome, lon-2 is immediately downstream of ATP-dependent proteases clpP and clpX, an arrangement identical to that of lon of Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lon-1 and Lon-2 cluster separately due to differences in the NH(2-terminal substrate binding domains that may reflect differences in substrate specificity. Recombinant Lon-1 manifested properties of an ATP-dependent chaperone-protease in vitro but did not complement an E. coli Lon mutant, while Lon-2 corrected two characteristic Lon-mutant phenotypes. We conclude that B. burgdorferi Lons -1 and -2 have distinct functional roles. Lon-2 functions in a manner consistent with canonical Lon, engaged in cellular homeostasis. Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a tick borne zoonotic infection, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. For the transmission of the disease, the presence of ticks is a prerequisite. Lyme borreliosis mostly occurs in people and dogs, but it may occur in other animals. Ticks which carry B. burgdorferi s.l. in Serbia are of the Ixodes ricinus specis. In Serbia, Lyme disease was detected for the first time in the late ‘80-es. In dogs, clinical symptoms may occur even months after a tick bite, and include weakness, lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness, arthritis, etc. In our survey, we have observed tick and dog populations in the province of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia. I. ricinus ticks were collected and examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in several chosen locations. In addition, blood samples were collected from house dogs and pets from the same locations, and analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi s.l. The results showed a mean infection of ticks of 22.12 %, and a mean seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs of 25.81 %. We conclude that in Vojvodina there is an actual risk of Lyme borreliosis for other animals and humans, because of the persistence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in both tick and dog populations.

  14. Cinética do crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetaceae em diferentes meios de cultivo Cinetic growth of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetacease in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a cinética de crescimento de Borrelia burgdorferi, por um período de 3 meses, utilizando os seguintes oito meios de cultivo : (1 BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, (2 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno, (3 BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Caldo Brucella e (8 BHI. Todos os meios foram preparados assepticamente e mantidos em tubos de ensaio com capacidade para 10 ml. Para cada meio, o inoculo foi padronizado para conter no início 10² espiroquetas para cada 0,1 ml de cultivo. O monitoramento do crescimento foi feito contando-se o total de espiroquetas em 0,1 ml do meio entre lâmina de microscopia e lamínula com dimen sões de 10x30mm, tendo sido utilizado microscópio de campo escuro. A contagem foi realizada durante 14 semanas, tendo sido diária nos primeiros 12 dias e semanal a partir desta data. Houve crescimento de B. burgdorferi em todos meios testados, com melhor performance para três deles: BSK adicionado de soro de coelho, BSK adicionado de soro de suíno + 5 fluorouracil e meio CTB. Observou-se crescimento de B. burgdorferi a partir da 4ª semana, atingindo o platô de crescimento entre a 8ª e 12ª semanas, quando começou a exaustão do meio de cultivo. Formas císticas de B. burgdorferi foram observadas em todos os meios testados.The cinetic of growth of Borrelia burgdorferi was studied during a 3-month period, using the following 8 culture media: (1 rabbit serum BSK, (2 swine serum BSK, (3 swine serum BSK+5 fluorouracil, (4 PMR, (5 CTB, (6 Dubos, (7 Brucella broth and (8 BHI. All media were prepared aseptically and were maintained in culture tubes of 10 ml capacity. For each medium, the inoculum was standardized to contain initially 10² spirochetes for each 0.1 ml of culture. The growth was monitorized by counting the total number of spirochetes in 0.1ml of medium in a dark field microscope, using a 10x30 mm cover slip. For the first 12 days, counting was done each 24

  15. Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a new (14th) member of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato complex from the southeastern region of the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2009), s. 134-141 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia carolinensis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  16. Resurgence of persisting non-cultivable Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hodzic

    Full Text Available The agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its varied mammalian hosts. This persistent biology may pose challenges to effective antibiotic treatment. Experimental studies in dogs, mice, and non-human primates have found persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA following treatment with a variety of antibiotics, but persisting spirochetes are non-cultivable. Persistence of B. burgdorferi DNA has been documented in humans following treatment, but the significance remains unknown. The present study utilized a ceftriaxone treatment regimen in the C3H mouse model that resulted in persistence of non-cultivable B. burgdorferi in order to determine their long-term fate, and to examine their effects on the host. Results confirmed previous studies, in which B. burgdorferi could not be cultured from tissues, but low copy numbers of B. burgdorferi flaB DNA were detectable in tissues at 2, 4 and 8 months after completion of treatment, and the rate of PCR-positive tissues appeared to progressively decline over time. However, there was resurgence of spirochete flaB DNA in multiple tissues at 12 months, with flaB DNA copy levels nearly equivalent to those found in saline-treated mice. Despite the continued non-cultivable state, RNA transcription of multiple B. burgdorferi genes was detected in host tissues, flaB DNA was acquired by xenodiagnostic ticks, and spirochetal forms could be visualized within ticks and mouse tissues by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. A number of host cytokines were up- or down-regulated in tissues of both saline- and antibiotic-treated mice in the absence of histopathology, indicating host response to the presence of non-cultivable, despite the lack of inflammation in tissues.

  17. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S

    2003-07-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Pappas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23°C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25°C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.

  19. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Ixodes minor * bird migration * bird reservoir host * multilocus sequence analysis * multilocus sequence typing * recombinant genotypes * Southeastern United States Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  20. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  1. A new (14th) member of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliver, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, S7 (2008), S110-S110 ISSN 1198-743X. [ECCMID /18./. 19.04.2008-22.04.2008, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health (NIH)(US) R37AI-24899; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)(US) U50/CCU410282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. complex * new member * multilocus sequence analysis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  2. Infection of Ixodes ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in peri-urban forests of France.

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    Axelle Marchant

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ticks that carry bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The objective of this work was to explore eco-epidemiological factors of Lyme borreliosis in peri-urban forests of France (Sénart, Notre-Dame and Rambouillet. We investigated whether the introduction of Tamias sibiricus in Sénart could alter the density of infected ticks. Moreover, the density and tick infection were investigated according to the tree species found in various patches of Sénart forest. For this purpose, ticks were sampled during 3 years. In the Sénart forest, the density of nymph and adult ticks showed no significant difference between 2008, 2009 and 2011. The nymph density varied significantly as a function of the month of collection. Regarding the nymphs, a higher rate of infection and infected density were found in 2009. Plots with chipmunks (C presented a lower density of both nymphs and adult ticks than plots without chipmunks (NC did. A higher rate of infection of nymphs with Borrelia was seen in C plots. The prevalence of the various species of Borrelia was also found to vary between C and NC plots with the year of the collect. The presence of chestnut trees positively influenced the density of both nymphs and adults. The infected nymph density showed a significant difference depending on the peri-urban forest studied, Sénart being higher than Rambouillet. The prevalence of Borrelia species also differed between the various forests studied. Concerning the putative role that Tamias sibiricus may play in the transmission of Borrelia, our results suggest that its presence is correlated with a higher rate of infection of questing ticks by Borrelia genospecies and if its population increases, it could play a significant role in the risk of transmission of Lyme borreliosis.

  3. Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers

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    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the work was to analyze the incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and farmers, major groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The study group included 275 workers (171 foresters and 104 farmers. The control group consisted of 45 people, who have not been occupationally exposed to tick bites. The screening Elisa and Wb tests for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were performed in all subjects of the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2 test. Results: The positive results denoting the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were found in 55% of farmers and 28% of foresters occupationally exposed to Lyme borreliosis and coming from the area of South Podlasie Lowland and Lublin Polesie. The differences between the forestry workers and the control group (p ≤ 0.00001 and between farmers and the control group (p ≤ 0.001 were statistically significant. The species, such as B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis, which have not yet been reported in Poland, are significant etiologic agents of Lyme disease. Conclusion: The risk of occupational exposure to the B. burgdorferi infection is high for foresters and farmers, and the infection with spirochetes is frequently confirmed on the basis of positive results of the Wb test. The presence of specific antibodies against protein antigens of B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis suggest that these bacteria can cause Lyme disease both independently and in participation with other Borrelia species, which influences the development of the clinical manifestations of infection. Med Pr 2014;65(1:109–117

  4. Granuloma Annulare and Morphea: Correlation with Borrelia burgdorferi Infections and Chlamydia-related Bacteria

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    Lauri Tolkki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order, using a PCR-based method. Borrelia DNA was detected in 7/73 (9.6% biopsies with GA and in 1/36 (2.8 % biopsies with morphea, while Chlamydiales DNA was found in 53/73 (72.6% biopsies with GA and 25/34 (73.4% biopsies with morphea. All Borrelia DNA-positive GA samples were also positive for Chlamydiales DNA. The Chlamydiales sequences detected in GA were heterogeneous and contained Waddliaceae and Rhabdochlamydiaceae bacteria, which are also present in Ixodes ricinus ticks, while the Chlamydiales sequences detected in morphea closely resembled those found in healthy skin. In conclusion, tick-mediated infections can trigger GA in some cases, while correlation of either Borrelia or Chlamydiales with morphea is unlikely.

  5. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  6. Isolation, cultivation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies from Ixodes ricinus ticks from the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchalová, K.; Žákovská, A.; Mejzlíková, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Dendis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 75-79 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * cultivation * DFM method * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2007 http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/1475.pdf

  7. A tick gut protein with fibronectin III domains aids Borrelia burgdorferi congregation to the gut during transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J.; Boder, Eric; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi transmission to the vertebrate host commences with growth of the spirochete in the tick gut and migration from the gut to the salivary glands. This complex process, involving intimate interactions of the spirochete with the gut epithelium, is pivotal to transmission. We utilized

  8. Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474

  9. Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joshua P; Kenedy, Melisha R; Iqbal, Henna; Akins, Darrin R

    2015-03-24

    Like all diderm bacteria studied to date, Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex. The bacterial BAM complexes characterized thus far consist of an essential integral outer membrane protein designated BamA and one or more accessory proteins. The accessory proteins are typically lipid-modified proteins anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane through their lipid moieties. We previously identified and characterized the B. burgdorferi BamA protein in detail and more recently identified two lipoproteins encoded by open reading frames bb0324 and bb0028 that associate with the borrelial BamA protein. The role(s) of the BAM accessory lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is currently unknown. Structural modeling of B. burgdorferi BB0028 revealed a distinct β-propeller fold similar to the known structure for the E. coli BAM accessory lipoprotein BamB. Additionally, the structural model for BB0324 was highly similar to the known structure of BamD, which is consistent with the prior finding that BB0324 contains tetratricopeptide repeat regions similar to other BamD orthologs. Consistent with BB0028 and BB0324 being BAM accessory lipoproteins, mutants lacking expression of each protein were found to exhibit altered membrane permeability and enhanced sensitivity to various antimicrobials. Additionally, BB0028 mutants also exhibited significantly impaired in vitro growth. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that BB0028 and BB0324 each interact specifically and independently with BamA to form the BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B

  10. Genome Stability of Lyme Disease Spirochetes: Comparative Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens S. R.; Dunn J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Gilcrease, E. B.; Huang, W. M.; Vujadinovic, M.; Aron, J. K.; Vargas, L. C.; Freeman, S.; Radune, D.; Weidman, J. F.; Dimitrov, G. I.; Khouri, H. M.; Sosa, J. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2012-03-14

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33-40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. The B. burgdorferi {approx}900 Kbp linear chromosomes are evolutionarily exceptionally stable, except for a short {le}20 Kbp plasmid-like section at the right end. A few of the plasmids, including the linear lp54 and circular cp26, are also very stable. We show here that the other plasmids, especially the linear ones, are considerably more variable. Nearly all of the linear plasmids have undergone one or more substantial inter-plasmid rearrangements since their last common ancestor. In spite of these rearrangements and differences in plasmid contents, the overall gene complement of the different isolates has remained relatively constant.

  11. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothineni VR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,1 Dhananjay Wagh,1 Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar,1 Mohammed Inayathullah,1 David Solow-Cordero,2 Kwang-Min Kim,1 Aneesh V Samineni,1 Mansi B Parekh,1 Lobat Tayebi,3 Jayakumar Rajadas1 1Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, 2Chemical & Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 3Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Lyme disease is the most common zoonotic bacterial disease in North America. It is estimated that >300,000 cases per annum are reported in USA alone. A total of 10%–20% of patients who have been treated with antibiotic therapy report the recrudescence of symptoms, such as muscle and joint pain, psychosocial and cognitive difficulties, and generalized fatigue. This condition is referred to as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While there is no evidence for the presence of viable infectious organisms in individuals with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, some researchers found surviving Borrelia burgdorferi population in rodents and primates even after antibiotic treatment. Although such observations need more ratification, there is unmet need for developing the therapeutic agents that focus on removing the persisting bacterial form of B. burgdorferi in rodent and nonhuman primates. For this purpose, high-throughput screening was done using BacTiter-Glo assay for four compound libraries to identify candidates that stop the growth of B. burgdorferi in vitro. The four chemical libraries containing 4,366 compounds (80% Food and Drug Administration [FDA] approved that were screened are Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC1280, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, the Microsource Spectrum, and the Biomol FDA. We subsequently identified 150

  12. Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation.

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    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Babb, Kelly; von Lackum, Kate; Riley, Sean P; Norris, Steven J; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-07-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi can persistently infect humans and other animals despite host active immune responses. This is facilitated, in part, by the vls locus, a complex system consisting of the vlsE expression site and an adjacent set of 11 to 15 silent vls cassettes. Segments of nonexpressed cassettes recombine with the vlsE region during infection of mammalian hosts, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation of the VlsE outer surface protein. We now demonstrate that synthesis of VlsE is regulated during the natural mammal-tick infectious cycle, being activated in mammals but repressed during tick colonization. Examination of cultured B. burgdorferi cells indicated that the spirochete controls vlsE transcription levels in response to environmental cues. Analysis of PvlsE::gfp fusions in B. burgdorferi indicated that VlsE production is controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation, and regions of 5' DNA involved in the regulation were identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein-DNA complexes formed between the vlsE promoter and cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting the involvement of DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of vlsE, with at least one protein acting as a transcriptional activator.

  14. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  15. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of seven patients with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, R B; Pavia, C S; Magnarelli, L A; Wormser, G P

    1990-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, has rarely been successfully cultured from blood. We report on seven patients from Westchester County, New York, with B. burgdorferi bacteremia diagnosed between April 1987 and August 1987. One hundred thirty-two attempts to isolate spirochetes were made on blood specimens obtained from 104 patients. Twenty-two of these specimens were obtained from nine patients who had recently been bitten by Ixodes ticks but who were asymptomatic. Heparinized blood or serum specimens (0.2 to 0.4 mL) were inoculated onto 6 mL of modified Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium. Lyme serology was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent polyvalent, IgM, and IgG assays, fluorescent immunoassay, and microhemagglutination. Four of the seven patients had erythema migrans, two had facial nerve palsy, and one had a flu-like syndrome without rash. These patients represented 21% (four of 19) of all patients with the characteristic skin lesion who had blood cultures for B. burgdorferi, and 40% (two of five) of all those with facial nerve palsy. Serologic testing was frequently nonreactive; two patients had no detectable antibody on multiple sera by five different assays. All patients improved with antibiotic treatment, and had negative subsequent blood cultures, but five of seven had persistent complaints after completion of therapy. Culturing blood for B. burgdorferi may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of Lyme disease in selected patients. Use of spirochete blood cultures may facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of Lyme disease.

  16. Borrelia host adaptation Regulator (BadR) regulates rpoS to modulate host adaptation and virulence factors in Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christine L.; Rajasekhar Karna, S. L.; Seshu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The RpoS transcription factor of Borrelia burgdorferi is a “gatekeeper” because it activates genes required for spirochetes to transition from tick to vertebrate hosts. However, it remains unknown how RpoS becomes repressed to allow the spirochetes to transition back from the vertebrate host to the tick vector. Here we show that a putative carbohydrate-responsive regulatory protein, designated BadR (Borrelia host adaptation Regulator), is a transcriptional repressor of rpoS. BadR levels are e...

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs from Cotia county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOPPERT Adriana Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs sera samples collected from Cotia County, São Paulo were tested using indirect immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in order to study Lyme disease serology in dogs. ELISA method was standardized and G39/40 North American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi was used as antigen. Positive results were confirmed employing the Western blotting technique. Because of the possibility of cross-reactions, sera were also tested for different serological strains of Leptospira interrogans and L. biflexa using microscopic sera agglutination test. Twenty-three of 237 (9.7% serum samples were positive in the ELISA; 20 of them (86.9% were confirmed by the Western blotting, what suggests that Cotia may be a risk area for Lyme disease. Although 4 samples (1.7% were positive for Lyme disease and leptospirosis, no correlation was found between the results (X² = 0.725; p = 0.394 what suggests absence of serological cross reactivity.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  19. Effectiveness of Stevia Rebaudiana Whole Leaf Extract Against the Various Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilus, P. A. S.; Victoria, M. J.; Socarras, K. M.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Luecke, D. F.; Sapi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne multisystemic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Administering antibiotics is the primary treatment for this disease; however, relapse often occurs when antibiotic treatment is discontinued. The reason for relapse remains unknown, but recent studies suggested the possibilities of the presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia persister cells and biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of whole leaf Stevia extract against B. burgdorferi spirochetes, persisters, and biofilm forms in vitro. The susceptibility of the different forms was evaluated by various quantitative techniques in addition to different microscopy methods. The effectiveness of Stevia was compared to doxycycline, cefoperazone, daptomycin, and their combinations. Our results demonstrated that Stevia had significant effect in eliminating B. burgdorferi spirochetes and persisters. Subculture experiments with Stevia and antibiotics treated cells were established for 7 and 14 days yielding, no and 10% viable cells, respectively compared to the above-mentioned antibiotics and antibiotic combination. When Stevia and the three antibiotics were tested against attached biofilms, Stevia significantly reduced B. burgdorferi forms. Results from this study suggest that a natural product such as Stevia leaf extract could be considered as an effective agent against B. burgdorferi. PMID:26716015

  20. Molecular characterization of the Borrelia burgdorferi in vivo-essential protein PncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Mollie W; Jain, Sunny; Linowski, Angelika K; Sarkar, Amit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    The conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinic acid by nicotinamidase enzymes is a critical step in maintaining NAD(+) homeostasis and contributes to numerous important biological processes in diverse organisms. In Borrelia burgdorferi, the nicotinamidase enzyme, PncA, is required for spirochaete survival throughout the infectious cycle. Mammals lack nicotinamidases and therefore PncA may serve as a therapeutic target for Lyme disease. Contrary to the in vivo importance of PncA, the current annotation for the pncA ORF suggests that the encoded protein may be inactive due to the absence of an N-terminal aspartic acid residue that is a conserved member of the catalytic triad of characterized PncA proteins. Herein, we have used genetic and biochemical strategies to determine the N-terminal sequence of B. burgdorferi PncA. Our data demonstrate that the PncA protein is 24 aa longer than the currently annotated sequence and that pncA translation is initiated from the rare, non-canonical initiation codon AUU. These findings are an important first step in understanding the catalytic function of this in vivo-essential protein.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marmet, Julie; Chassagne, Michelle; Bord, Séverine; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of Lyme Borreliosis (LB). The Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from Asia, where it is suspected to be a B. burgdorferi reservoir. It has been intentionally released into the wild in Europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the LB agent. In this paper we studied Siberian chipmunk infestation with the LB vector (Ixodes ricinus) and infection prevalence by LB spirochetes in a suburban introduced population. We compared these findings with known competent reservoir hosts, the bank vole (Myodes [clethrionomys] glareolus) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). All Siberian chipmunks were infested with larvae and larval abundance was higher in this species (mean number of larvae [95% Confidence Interval]: 73.5 [46.0, 117.2]) than in the two other rodent species (bank voles: 4.4 [3.0, 6.3] and wood mice: 10.2 [4.9, 21.2]). Significant factors affecting abundance of larvae were host species and sampling season. Nymphs were most prevalent on chipmunks (86.2%, mean: 5.1 [3.3, 8.0]), one vole carried only two nymphs, and none of the mice had any nymphs. Nymph abundance in chipmunks was affected by sampling season and sex. Furthermore, the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in the Siberian chipmunk was the highest (33.3%) and predominantly of B. afzelii. The infection prevalence was 14.1% in bank voles, but no wood mouse was found to be infected. Our results suggest that the Siberian chipmunk may be an important reservoir host for LB.

  2. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV, thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy

  3. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-16

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive

  4. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  5. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  6. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  7. Effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks on the proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Martina; Oborník, Miroslav; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-158 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Grant - others:Studentská grantová agentura, Biologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) SGA2004/009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva-activated transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  8. Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2006), s. 166-172 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis risk Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2006

  9. Salivary gland extract from engorged Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) stimulates in vitro growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Kopecký, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 294-298 ISSN 0233-111X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : salivary gland extract * Ixodes ricinus ticks * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2010

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to three antibiotics commonly used for treating equine Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caol, Sanjie; Divers, Thomas; Crisman, Mark; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2017-09-29

    Lyme disease in humans is predominantly treated with tetracycline, macrolides or beta lactam antibiotics that have low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Borrelia burgdorferi. Horses with Lyme disease may require long-term treatment making frequent intravenous or intramuscular treatment difficult and when administered orally those drugs may have either a high incidence of side effects or have poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of three B. burgdorferi isolates to three antibiotics of different classes that are commonly used in practice for treating Borrelia infections in horses. Broth microdilution assays were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of three antibiotics (ceftiofur sodium, minocycline and metronidazole), for three Borrelia burgdorferi isolates. Barbour-Stoner-Kelly (BSK K + R) medium with a final inoculum of 10 6 Borrelia cells/mL and incubation periods of 72 h were used in the determination of MICs. Observed MICs indicated that all isolates had similar susceptibility to each drug but susceptibility to the tested antimicrobial agents varied; ceftiofur sodium (MIC = 0.08 μg/ml), minocycline hydrochloride (MIC = 0.8 μg/ml) and metronidazole (MIC = 50 μg/ml). The MIC against B. burgorferi varied among the three antibiotics with ceftiofur having the lowest MIC and metronidazole the highest MIC. The MIC values observed for ceftiofur in the study fall within the range of reported serum and tissue concentrations for the drug metabolite following ceftiofur sodium administration as crystalline-free acid. Minocycline and metronidazole treatments, as currently used in equine practice, could fall short of attaining MIC concentrations for B. burgdorferi.

  11. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  12. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) tite...

  13. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii , despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR. IMPORTANCE Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of

  14. A plasmid-encoded nicotinamidase (PncA) is essential for infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Joye E; Lawrenz, Matthew B; Caimano, Melissa J; Howell, Jerrilyn K; Radolf, Justin D; Norris, Steven J

    2003-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete that causes Lyme borreliosis, contains 21 linear and circular plasmids thought to be important for survival in mammals or ticks. Our results demonstrate that the gene BBE22 encoding a nicotinamidase is capable of replacing the requirement for the 25 kb linear plasmid lp25 during mammalian infection. Transformation of B. burgdorferi lacking lp25 with a shuttle vector containing the lp25 gene BBE22 (pBBE22) restored infectivity in mice to a level comparable to that of wild-type Borrelia. This complementation also restored the growth and host adaptation of lp25-B. burgdorferi in dialysis membrane chambers (DMCs) implanted in rats. A single Cys to Ala conversion at the putative active site of BBE22 abrogated the ability of pBBE22 to re-establish infectivity or growth in DMCs. Additional Salmonella typhimurium complementation studies and enzymatic analysis demonstrated that the BBE22 gene product has nicotinamidase activity and is most probably required for the biosynthesis of NAD. These results indicate that some plasmid-encoded products fulfil physiological functions required in the enzootic cycle of pathogenic Borrelia.

  15. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Gregory M; Brown, Richard N; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen's chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables "host species", "month", and "elevation" (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation.

  16. Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Andrew K; Mugnai, Kristen

    2015-02-10

    In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative bacterial agent of canine Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted following prolonged attachment and feeding of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. Its prevention is predicated upon tick-avoidance, effective on-animal tick control and effective immunization strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize dogs that are newly seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in relation to compliant use of a recombinant OspA canine Lyme borreliosis vaccine. Specifically, Preventive Fractions (PF) and Risk Ratios (RR) associated with the degree of vaccine compliancy (complete versus incomplete) are determined. 6,202 dogs were tested over a five year period in a single veterinary hospital utilizing a non-adjuvanted, recombinant OspA vaccine according to a 0, 1, 6 month (then yearly) protocol. Rates of newly acquired "Lyme-positive" antibody test results were compared between protocol compliant and poorly compliant (incompletely and/or non-vaccinated) dogs. Over the five-year span, one percent (range 0.39 - 1.3) of protocol compliant vaccinated, previously antibody negative dogs became seropositive for infection. Approximately twenty-one percent (range 16.8 - 33.3) of incompletely vaccinated dogs became positive for infection-specific antibodies. The Preventative Fraction for testing positive for antibodies specific for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in any given year based on optimal vaccine compliance was, on average, 95.3% (range 93.29 - 98.08). The Risk Ratio for becoming infected with Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in any given year if vaccine non-compliant was 21.41 (range 14.9 - 52.1). There was a high statistically significant relationship (p = <0.0001) in the observed data in terms of vaccination protocol compliance and the probability of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in each of the five years under study. The recombinant outer surface protein A (rOspA) vaccine for dogs is highly

  17. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Vancova, M; Clark, K; Grubhoffer, L; Oliver, J H

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder with a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is an infectious disease that can be successfully cured by antibiotic therapy in the early stages; however, the possibility of the appearance of persistent signs and symptoms of disease following antibiotic treatment is recognized. It is known that Lyme borreliosis mimics multiple diseases that were never proven to have a spirochaete aetiology. Using complete modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium we succeeded in cultivating live B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from samples taken from people who suffered from undefined disorders, had symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis, but who had undergone antibiotic treatment due to a suspicion of having Lyme disease even though they were seronegative. We report the first recovery of live B. burgdorferi sensu stricto from residents of southeastern USA and the first successful cultivation of live Borrelia bissettii-like strain from residents of North America. Our results support the fact that B. bissettii is responsible for human Lyme borreliosis worldwide along with B. burgdorferi s.s. The involvement of new spirochaete species in Lyme borreliosis changes the understanding and recognition of clinical manifestations of this disease. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of Ixodes scapularis, Borrelia burgdorferi and wildlife hosts in Lyme disease prevalence: A quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Allan, Brian F; Miller, James R

    2018-04-16

    Due to the ongoing expansion of Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged tick) throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States, there is need to identify the role wildlife hosts play in the establishment and maintenance of tick populations. To quantify and synthesize the patterns of I. scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and sensu lato prevalence relative to wildlife hosts, we reviewed the findings of independent studies conducted throughout the United States. We performed a comprehensive literature search from 1970 to 2017 using the ISS Web of Science Core Collection and the keywords "Ixodes scapularis," "Ixodes dammini" and "Borrelia burgdorferi." We identified 116 studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis, with 187,414 individual wildlife hosts captured and examined for I. scapularis and either the host or ticks collected subsequently tested for B. burgdorferi. We found that only 13% of the wildlife mammals sampled comprised species other than Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) and Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse). To examine whether there were regional differences between the Northeast, Midwest and the Southeast U.S. in I. scapularis infestation rates on wildlife hosts, we used general linear models (glm), with post hoc pairwise comparisons. In most cases, detection of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi was significantly higher in the Northeast than the Midwest. Using data on host-specific I. scapularis infestation prevalence, B. burgdorferi prevalence in feeding larvae, and host permissiveness, we developed an epizootiological model to determine the relative contributions of individual hosts to B. burgdorferi-infected nymphs. Our model provides additional evidence that wildlife hosts other than P. leucopus may contribute more to Lyme disease risk than commonly thought. To aid in understanding the ecology of Lyme disease, we propose that additional studies sample non-Peromyscus spp. hosts to obtain more detailed tick and pathogen

  19. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  20. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  1. Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. States

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. In contrast, infections rapidly became systemic for the persistently infecting strain. In a field study, we assessed opportunities for co-feeding transmission by measuring co-occurrence of two tick stages on ears of small mammals over two years at multiple sites. Finally, in a modeling study, we assessed the importance of co-feeding on R0, the basic reproductive number. The model indicated that co-feeding increases the fitness of rapidly-cleared strains in regions with synchronous immature tick feeding. Our results are consistent with increased diversity of B. burgdorferi in areas of higher synchrony in immature feeding – such as the midwestern United States. A higher relative proportion of rapidly-cleared strains, which are less human pathogenic, would also explain lower Lyme disease incidence in this region. Finally, if co-feeding transmission also occurs on refractory hosts, it may facilitate the emergence and persistence of new pathogens with a more limited host range.

  2. Leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with Borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, Amber L; Moroff, Scott; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later. Blood was collected on weeks 0, 3, 4, 8, and 12. After confirming that maximal Leptospira spp. titers occurred on week 4, aliquots of sera from week 4 were shipped frozen for analysis of B. burgdorferi antibodies against OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP with the AccuPlex system. Week 4 sera from all 31 dogs had a titer of 1:100 for at least 1 Leptospira spp. serovar. Titers of 1:800 or greater were detected against multiple serovars in 27 dogs. None of the samples contained antibodies against the B. burgdorferi OspA, OspC, OspF, P39, and SLP peptides used in the commercial assay. The B. burgdorferi peptides used in the AccuPlex system do not recognize naturally occurring Leptospira spp. antibodies or those induced by the commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines administered in our study.

  3. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sin Hang Lee,1,21Pathology Department, Milford Hospital, Milford, CT, USA; 2Milford Molecular Diagnostics, Milford, CT, USA Abstract: Lyme disease (LD, the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, homeologous 16S rRNA genes, DNA sequencing

  5. Dual role of Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Anne Belperron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ-/- mice harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88-/- mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ-/-MyD88-/- mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC, Xcr1 (Gpr5, IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  6. Coordinated Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Proteins during the Lyme Disease Spirochete's Mammal-Tick Infection Cycle▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Woodman, Michael E.; Cooley, Anne E.; Brissette, Catherine A.; Brade, Volker; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Stevenson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is largely resistant to being killed by its hosts’ alternative complement activation pathway. One possible resistance mechanism of these bacteria is to coat their surfaces with host complement regulators, such as factor H. Five different B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins having affinities for factor H have been identified: complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (BbCRASP-1), encoded by cspA; BbCRASP-2, encoded by cspZ; and three ...

  7. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  8. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisherTM magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekinen, Johanna; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification

  9. MicroRNA-146a provides feedback regulation of lyme arthritis but not carditis during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Lochhead

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of inflammatory and immune responses and are implicated in several immune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but their role in Lyme borreliosis remains unknown. We performed a microarray screen for expression of miRNAs in joint tissue from three mouse strains infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This screen identified upregulation of miR-146a, a key negative regulator of NF-κB signaling, in all three strains, suggesting it plays an important role in the in vivo response to B. burgdorferi. Infection of B6 miR-146a-/- mice with B. burgdorferi revealed a critical nonredundant role of miR-146a in modulating Lyme arthritis without compromising host immune response or heart inflammation. The impact of miR-146a was specifically localized to the joint, and did not impact lesion development or inflammation in the heart. Furthermore, B6 miR-146a-/- mice had elevated levels of NF-κB-regulated products in joint tissue and serum late in infection. Flow cytometry analysis of various lineages isolated from infected joint tissue of mice showed that myeloid cell infiltration was significantly greater in B6 miR-146a-/- mice, compared to B6, during B. burgdorferi infection. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that TRAF6, a known target of miR-146a involved in NF-κB activation, was dysregulated in resting and B. burgdorferi-stimulated B6 miR-146a-/- macrophages, and corresponded to elevated IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 production. This dysregulated protein production was also observed in macrophages treated with IL-10 prior to B. burgdorferi stimulation. Peritoneal macrophages from B6 miR-146a-/- mice also showed enhanced phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi. Together, these data show that miR-146a-mediated regulation of TRAF6 and NF-κB, and downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1, are critical for modulation of Lyme arthritis during chronic infection with B

  10. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  11. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how often exposure to these two microorganisms results in infection or disease. We show that of all the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-positive ticks, 25% were co-infected with rickettsiae. Predominantly R. helvetica was detected while R. monacensis was only found in approximately 2% of the ticks. In addition, exposure to tick-borne pathogens was compared by serology in healthy blood donors, erythema migrans (EM)-patients, and patients suspected of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). As could be expected, seroreactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato was lower in blood donors (6%) compared to EM patients (34%) and suspected LNB cases (64%). Interestingly, seroreactivity against SFG Rickettsia antigens was not detected in serum samples from blood donors (0%), but 6% of the EM patients and 21% of the LNB suspects showed anti-rickettsial antibodies. Finally, the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Rickettsia spp. in cerebrospinal fluid samples of a large cohort of patients suspected of LNB (n=208) was investigated by PCR. DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l., R. helvetica and R. monacensis was detected in seventeen, four and one patient, respectively. In conclusion, our data show that B. burgdorferi s.l. and SFG rickettsiae co-infection occurs in Dutch I. ricinus and that Lyme borreliosis patients, or patients suspected of Lyme borreliosis, are indeed exposed to both tick-borne pathogens. Whether SFG rickettsiae actually cause disease, and whether co-infections alter the clinical course of Lyme borreliosis, is not clear from our data, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of type I and type III interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with pathogenesis and requires linear plasmid 36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Krupna-Gaylord

    Full Text Available The capacity for Borrelia burgdorferi to cause disseminated infection in humans or mice is associated with the genotype of the infecting strain. The cytokine profiles elicited by B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of different genotype (ribosomal spacer type groups were assessed in a human PBMC co-incubation model. RST1 isolates, which are more frequently associated with disseminated Lyme disease in humans and mice, induced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IFN-λ1/IL29 relative to RST3 isolates, which are less frequently associated with disseminated infection. No differences in the protein concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 or TNF-α were observed between isolates of differing genotype. The ability of B. burgdorferi to induce type I and type III IFNs was completely dependent on the presence of linear plasmid (lp 36. An lp36-deficient B. burgdorferi mutant adhered to, and was internalized by, PBMCs and specific dendritic cell (DC subsets less efficiently than its isogenic B31 parent strain. The association defect with mDC1s and pDCs could be restored by complementation of the mutant with the complete lp36. The RST1 clinical isolates studied were found to contain a 2.5-kB region, located in the distal one-third of lp36, which was not present in any of the RST3 isolates tested. This divergent region of lp36 may encode one or more factors required for optimal spirochetal recognition and the production of type I and type III IFNs by human DCs, thus suggesting a potential role for DCs in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection.

  13. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  14. Serological survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents and detection of spirochaetes in ticks and fleas in South Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2002), s. 383-387 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087601; GA ČR GA206/00/1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.169, year: 2002

  15. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  16. Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Ward, Jeffrey S; Worthley, Thomas E; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-08-01

    In many Connecticut forests with an overabundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) has become the dominant understory shrub, which may provide a habitat favorable to blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) survival. To determine mouse and larval tick abundances at three replicate sites over 2 yr, mice were trapped in unmanipulated dense barberry infestations, areas where barberry was controlled, and areas where barberry was absent. The number of feeding larval ticks/mouse was recorded. Adult and nymphal ticks were sampled along 200-m draglines in each treatment, retained, and were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) presence. Total first-captured mouse counts did not differ between treatments. Mean number of feeding larval ticks per mouse was highest on mice captured in dense barberry. Adult tick densities in dense barberry were higher than in both controlled barberry and no barberry areas. Ticks sampled from full barberry infestations and controlled barberry areas had similar infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi the first year. In areas where barberry was controlled, infection prevalence was reduced to equal that of no barberry areas the second year of the study. Results indicate that managing Japanese barberry will have a positive effect on public health by reducing the number of B. burgdorferi-infected blacklegged ticks that can develop into motile life stages that commonly feed on humans.

  17. Competitive advantage of Borrelia burgdorferi with outer surface protein BBA03 during tick-mediated infection of the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestor, Aaron; Rego, Ryan O M; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Linear plasmid lp54 is one of the most highly conserved and differentially expressed elements of the segmented genome of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We previously reported that deletion of a 4.1-kb region of lp54 (bba01 to bba07 [bba01-bba07]) led to a slight attenuation of tick-transmitted infection in mice following challenge with a large number of infected ticks. In the current study, we reduced the number of ticks in the challenge to more closely mimic the natural dose and found a profound defect in tick-transmitted infection of the bba01-bba07 mutant relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi. We next focused on deletion of bba03 as the most likely cause of this mutant phenotype, as previous studies have shown that expression of bba03 is increased by culture conditions that simulate tick feeding. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated increased expression of bba03 by spirochetes in fed relative to unfed ticks. We also observed that a bba03 deletion mutant, although fully competent by itself, did not efficiently infect mice when transmitted by ticks that were simultaneously coinfected with wild-type B. burgdorferi. These results suggest that BBA03 provides a competitive advantage to spirochetes carrying this protein during tick transmission to a mammalian host in the natural infectious cycle.

  18. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjetland, Reidar; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a healthy adult population from Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway by different assays. Sera from 1213 blood donors at four different blood banks were analysed in Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG (IgG), Enzygnost Borreliosis IgM (IgM), and Immunetics C6 Lyme ELISA kit (C6). Sera showing positive or grey-zone reactivities were further examined with Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgG blot and Borrelia-EUROLine-RN-AT IgM blot. The seroprevalences were 9.6%, 8.2%, 8.4%, 6.4% and 5.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence for IgG was lower in the eastern part of the county and in owners of pet animals. It was higher in men, and increased with age and number of tick bites. C6 and IgG gave comparable results. IgM only was found in 4.5%, more often in women, did not increase with age, and showed no relationship with geography, and 56.4% were positive in IgM blot. In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance

  20. Role of acetyl-phosphate in activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Haijun Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, dramatically alters its transcriptome and proteome as it cycles between the arthropod vector and mammalian host. During this enzootic cycle, a novel regulatory network, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway (also known as the σ(54-σ(S sigma factor cascade, plays a central role in modulating the differential expression of more than 10% of all B. burgdorferi genes, including the major virulence genes ospA and ospC. However, the mechanism(s by which the upstream activator and response regulator Rrp2 is activated remains unclear. Here, we show that none of the histidine kinases present in the B. burgdorferi genome are required for the activation of Rrp2. Instead, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway occurs via the small, high-energy, phosphoryl-donor acetyl phosphate (acetyl∼P, the intermediate of the Ack-Pta (acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase pathway that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA. Supplementation of the growth medium with acetate induced activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the overexpression of Pta virtually abolished acetate-induced activation of this pathway, suggesting that acetate works through acetyl∼P. Overexpression of Pta also greatly inhibited temperature and cell density-induced activation of RpoS and OspC, suggesting that these environmental cues affect the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway by influencing acetyl∼P. Finally, overexpression of Pta partially reduced infectivity of B. burgdorferi in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetyl∼P is one of the key activating molecule for the activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway and support the emerging concept that acetyl∼P can serve as a global signal in bacterial pathogenesis.

  1. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

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    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  2. Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Bandoski, Cheryl; Burke, Jennie; Sapi, Eva; Filush, Katherine R; Wang, Yean; Franco, Agustin; Mayne, Peter J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2015-02-12

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a complex skin disorder characterized by ulcerating lesions that have protruding or embedded filaments. Many clinicians refer to this condition as delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation and consider the filaments to be introduced textile fibers. In contrast, recent studies indicate that MD is a true somatic illness associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are keratin and collagen in composition and that they result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. Previously, spirochetes have been detected in the dermatological specimens from four MD patients, thus providing evidence of an infectious process. Based on culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and molecular testing, we present corroborating evidence of spirochetal infection in a larger group of 25 MD patients. Irrespective of Lyme serological reactivity, all patients in our study group demonstrated histological evidence of epithelial spirochetal infection. Strength of evidence based on other testing varied among patients. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in-situ DNA hybridization were detected in 24/25 of our study patients. Skin cultures containing Borrelia spirochetes were obtained from four patients, thus demonstrating that the organisms present in dermatological specimens were viable. Spirochetes identified by PCR as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from blood in seven patients and from vaginal secretions in three patients, demonstrating systemic infection. Based on these observations, a clinical classification system for MD is proposed. Our study using multiple detection methods confirms that MD is a true somatic illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment for this spirochete-associated dermopathy.

  3. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

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    Eva Ružić-Sabljić

    Full Text Available The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; p<0.0001. The far most frequently isolated species was Borrelia afzelii (92.9% and 97.2% strains isolated from BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of strains cultured from individual patients in both media showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6% strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8% strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP. BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  4. Predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG antibody levels in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerink, M; Zomer, T P; van Kooten, B; Blaauw, G; van Bemmel, T; van Hees, B C; Vermeeren, Y M; Landman, G W

    2018-03-01

    A two-step testing strategy is recommended in serological testing for Lyme borreliosis; positive and indeterminate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results are confirmed with immunoblots. Several ELISAs quantify the concentration of antibodies tested, however, no recommendation exists for an upper cut-off value at which an IgG ELISA is sufficient and the immunoblot can be omitted. The study objective was to determine at which IgG antibody level an immunoblot does not have any additional predictive value compared to ELISA results. Data of adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme centre between 2008 and 2014 were analysed. Both an ELISA (Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE IgG) and immunoblot (recomLine blot Borrelia) were performed. Clinical data were extracted from the patient's digital medical record. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for either previous or active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated for different cut-off ELISA IgG antibody levels where the immunoblot was regarded as reference test. In total, 1454 patients were included. According to the two-step test strategy, 486 (33%), 69 (5%) and 899 (62%) patients had positive, indeterminate and negative Borrelia IgG serology, respectively. At IgG levels of 500 IU/ml and higher, all immunoblots were positive, resulting in a 100% PPV (95% CI: 97.0-100). At IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, the PPV was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.4-99.8). In conclusion, at IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, an ELISA was sufficient to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. At those IgG levels, a confirmatory immunoblot may be omitted in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre. Before these results can be implemented in routine diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, confirmation of the results is necessary in other patient populations and using other quantitative ELISAs and immunoblots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  6. Recurrent evolution of host and vector association in bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Noémie S; Margos, Gabriele; Blum, Helmut; Krebs, Stefan; Graf, Alexander; Lane, Robert S; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-09-15

    The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex consists of tick-transmitted bacteria and currently comprises approximately 20 named and proposed genospecies some of which are known to cause Lyme Borreliosis. Species have been defined via genetic distances and ecological niches they occupy. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of species of the complex is fundamental to explaining patterns of speciation. This in turn forms a crucial basis to frame testable hypotheses concerning the underlying processes including host and vector adaptations. Illumina Technology was used to obtain genome-wide sequence data for 93 strains of 14 named genospecies of the B. burgdorferi species complex and genomic data already published for 18 additional strain (including one new species) was added. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 114 orthologous single copy genes shows that the genospecies represent clearly distinguishable taxa with recent and still ongoing speciation events apparent in Europe and Asia. The position of Borrelia species in the phylogeny is consistent with host associations constituting a major driver for speciation. Interestingly, the data also demonstrate that vector associations are an additional driver for diversification in this tick-borne species complex. This is particularly obvious in B. bavariensis, a rodent adapted species that has diverged from the bird-associated B. garinii most likely in Asia. It now consists of two populations one of which most probably invaded Europe following adaptation to a new vector (Ixodes ricinus) and currently expands its distribution range. The results imply that genotypes/species with novel properties regarding host or vector associations have evolved recurrently during the history of the species complex and may emerge at any time. We suggest that the finding of vector associations as a driver for diversification may be a general pattern for tick-borne pathogens. The core genome analysis presented here

  7. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    been studied by phenotypic and genotypic traits and have been shown to be highly heterogeneous. Our first approach was to genotype a panel of human B. burgdorferi isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of three genes. Thereafter, sequencing and dideoxy fingerprinting of osp...... for PCR amplification and subsequent identification of B. burgdorferi specific sequences were established and used. For all assays the analytical sensitivity was a few genome copies using purified DNA as template. The efficacy of PCR was initially evaluated using tissue samples from experimentally...... classification by Baranton et al., According to this the term B. burgdorferi sensu lato comprises three different human pathogenic genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. All three genospecies have been isolated among Danish patients with Lyme borreliosis and are thus prevalent...

  8. Whole-Genome Sequences of Borrelia bissettii Borrelia valaisiana and Borrelia spielmanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett C. M.; Qiu W.-G.; Kraiczy P.; Mongodin E. F.; Luft B. J.; Casjens S. R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127.

  9. Lack of IgG antibody seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome and linear morphea en coup de sabre in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Godínez-Hana, Ana L; García-Hernández, Marisela; Suárez-Roa, María de Lourdes; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos E

    2014-08-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy or Parry-Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is a rare, acquired, progressive dysplasia of subcutaneous tissue and bone characterized by unilateral facial involvement. Its etiology is unknown, but theories about its pathogenesis include infectious, degenerative, autoimmune, and traumatic causes among others. The causal relationship of PRS and linear morphea en coup de sabre (LMCS) with Borrelia burgdorferi infection remains controversial. Our goal was to serologically determine anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies in patients diagnosed with PRS and LMCS to establish a possible association as a causative agent. We conducted a serology study with patients belonging to a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with PRS, six with LMCS, and 21 matched controls. Anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. A descriptive statistical analysis and Fischer's exact test were done. In serological tests, only two cases had borderline values and were further analyzed by Western blot with non-confirmatory results. For both the PRS and LMCS group, the association test was not significant, suggesting a lack of association between PRS or LMCS and the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. In Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti-Borrelia-antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  12. Analysis of an ordered, comprehensive STM mutant library in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: insights into the genes required for mouse infectivity.

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    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  13. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten – research from the area of Poland, 2012–2014

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    Edyta Gałęziowska

    2018-03-01

    Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme disease cases are recorded in all regions of Poland.

  14. Tick saliva affects both proliferation and distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in mouse organs and increases transmission of spirochetes to ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Helena; Černá-Kýčková, Kateřina; Skallová, Anna; Kopecký, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 299, č. 5 (2009), s. 373-380 ISSN 1438-4221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva-activated transmission * real-time PCR Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.802, year: 2009

  15. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  16. Polymorphism of 41 kD Flagellin Gene and Its Human B-Cell Epitope in Borrelia burgdorferi Strains of China

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    Huixin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. Here, we chose 89 B. burgdorferi strains in China, amplified the gene encoding the 41 kD flagellin, and compared the sequences. The results showed that genetic diversity presented in the 41 kD flagellin genes of all 89 strains among the four genotypes of B. burgdorferi, especially in the genotype of B. garinii. Some specific mutation sites for each genotype of the 41 kD flagellin genes were found, which could be used for genotyping B. burgdorferi strains in China. Human B-cell epitope analysis showed that thirteen of 15 nonsynonymous mutations occurred in the epitope region of 41 kD flagellin and thirty of 42 B-cell epitopes were altered due to all 13 nonsynonymous mutations in the epitope region, which may affect the function of the antigen. Nonsynonymous mutations and changed human B-cell epitopes exist in 41 kD flagellin of B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains; these changes should be considered in serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  17. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M.; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G.

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established. PMID:29560357

  18. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtesh Sherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE. Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98, and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24 were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo, while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle from the Prishtina region (Kosovo. B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo. Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  19. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus , two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus , but also in D. marginatus , in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  20. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Esteve-Gassent

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348 exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560, and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15 were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC, Decorin binding protein A (DbpA, fibronectin binding protein (BBK32, RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of

  1. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

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    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  2. Established Population of Blacklegged Ticks with High Infection Prevalence for the Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Clark, Kerry L.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Manord, Jodi M.; Smith, Morgan L.

    2016-01-01

    We document an established population of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, on Corkscrew Island, Kenora District, Ontario, Canada. Primers of the outer surface protein A (OspA) gene, the flagellin (fla) gene, and the flagellin B (flaB) gene were used in the PCR assays to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the Lyme disease bacterium. In all, 60 (73%) of 82 adult I. scapularis, were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. As well, 6 (43%) of 14 unfed I. scapularis nymphs were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. An I. scapularis larva was also collected from a deer mouse, and several unfed larvae were gathered by flagging leaf litter. Based on DNA sequencing of randomly selected Borrelia amplicons from six nymphal and adult I. scapularis ticks, primers for the flagellin (fla) and flagellin B (flaB) genes reveal the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. We collected all 3 host-feeding life stages of I. scapularis in a single year, and report the northernmost established population of I. scapularis in Ontario. Corkscrew Island is hyperendemic for Lyme disease and has the highest prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. for any established population in Canada. Because of this very high infection prevalence, this population of I. scapularis has likely been established for decades. Of epidemiological significance, cottage owners, island visitors, outdoors enthusiasts, and medical professionals must be vigilant that B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis on Corkscrew Island pose a serious public health risk. PMID:27877080

  3. Disruption of bbe02 by Insertion of a Luciferase Gene Increases Transformation Efficiency of Borrelia burgdorferi and Allows Live Imaging in Lyme Disease Susceptible C3H Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. Infection with B. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic Lyme disease in humans. Some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of Lyme disease. Genetic manipulation of B. burgdorferi remains difficult. First, B. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding unknown functions. The presence of these plasmids needs to be confirmed after each genetic manipulation. Second, the restriction modification defense systems, including that encoded by bbe02 gene lead to low transformation efficiency in B. burgdorferi. Therefore, studying the molecular basis of Lyme pathogenesis is a challenge. Furthermore, investigation of the role of a specific B. burgdorferi protein throughout infection requires a large number of mice, making it labor intensive and expensive. To overcome the problems associated with low transformation efficiency and to reduce the number of mice needed for experiments, we disrupted the bbe02 gene of a highly infectious and pathogenic B. burgdorferi strain, N40 D10/E9 through insertion of a firefly luciferase gene. The bbe02 mutant shows higher transformation efficiency and maintains luciferase activity throughout infection as detected by live imaging of mice. Infectivity and pathogenesis of this mutant were comparable to the wild-type N40 strain. This mutant will serve as an ideal parental strain to examine the roles of various B. burgdorferi proteins in Lyme pathogenesis in the mouse model in the future.

  4. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    % of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  5. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  6. Updates on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex with respect to public health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2011), s. 123-128 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Spirochetes * Borrelia * Genetic diversity * Lyme borreliosis * Distribution * New species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.370, year: 2011

  7. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  8. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  9. BB0347, from the lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is surface exposed and interacts with the CS1 heparin-binding domain of human fibronectin.

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    Robert A Gaultney

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process.

  10. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

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    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  11. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

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    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  12. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

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    Loïc Coutte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B. burgdorferi immune evasion. Gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlsE expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the VlsE product. In this study, we examined vlsE sequence variation in B. burgdorferi B31 during mouse infection by analyzing 1,399 clones isolated from bladder, heart, joint, ear, and skin tissues of mice infected for 4 to 365 days. The median number of codon changes increased progressively in C3H/HeN mice from 4 to 28 days post infection, and no clones retained the parental vlsE sequence at 28 days. In contrast, the decrease in the number of clones with the parental vlsE sequence and the increase in the number of sequence changes occurred more gradually in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. Clones containing a stop codon were isolated, indicating that continuous expression of full-length VlsE is not required for survival in vivo; also, these clones continued to undergo vlsE recombination. Analysis of clones with apparent single recombination events indicated that recombinations into vlsE are nonselective with regard to the silent cassette utilized, as well as the length and location of the recombination event. Sequence changes as small as one base pair were common. Fifteen percent of recovered vlsE variants contained "template-independent" sequence changes, which clustered in the variable regions of vlsE. We hypothesize that the increased frequency and complexity of vlsE sequence changes observed in clones recovered from immunocompetent mice (as compared with SCID mice is due to rapid clearance of relatively invariant clones by variable region-specific anti-VlsE antibody responses.

  13. Complement factor H-related proteins CFHR2 and CFHR5 represent novel ligands for the infection-associated CRASP proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Corinna Siegel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One virulence property of Borrelia burgdorferi is its resistance to innate immunity, in particular to complement-mediated killing. Serum-resistant B. burgdorferi express up to five distinct complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASP which interact with complement regulator factor H (CFH and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL1 or factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1. In the present study we elucidate the role of the infection-associated CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 protein to serve as ligands for additional complement regulatory proteins as well as for complement resistance of B. burgdorferi.To elucidate whether CRASP-5 and CRASP-3 interact with various human proteins, both borrelial proteins were immobilized on magnetic beads. Following incubation with human serum, bound proteins were eluted and separated by Glycine-SDS-PAGE. In addition to CFH and CFHR1, complement regulators CFHR2 and CFHR5 were identified as novel ligands for both borrelial proteins by employing MALDI-TOF. To further assess the contributions of CRASP-3 and CRASP-5 to complement resistance, a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain G1 which lacks all CFH-binding proteins was used as a valuable model for functional analyses. Both CRASPs expressed on the B. garinii outer surface bound CFH as well as CFHR1 and CFHR2 in ELISA. In contrast, live B. garinii bound CFHR1, CFHR2, and CFHR5 and only miniscute amounts of CFH as demonstrated by serum adsorption assays and FACS analyses. Further functional analysis revealed that upon NHS incubation, CRASP-3 or CRASP-5 expressing borreliae were killed by complement.In the absence of CFH and the presence of CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5, assembly and integration of the membrane attack complex was not efficiently inhibited indicating that CFH in co-operation with CFHR1, CFHR2 and CFHR5 supports complement evasion of B. burgdorferi.

  14. Pleomorphism and Viability of the Lyme Disease Pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi Exposed to Physiological Stress Conditions: A Correlative Cryo-Fluorescence and Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Rudenko, Natalia; Vaněček, Jiří; Golovchenko, Maryna; Strnad, Martin; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Tichá, Lucie; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, 11 April (2017), č. článku 596. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cryo-fluorescence * cryo-scanning electron microscopy * Borrelia burgdorferi * Lyme disease * round body * pleomorphism * viability staining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  15. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten - research from the area of Poland, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęziowska, Edyta; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Najda, Nella; Kołodziej, Przemysław; Domżał-Drzewicka, Renata; Rząca, Marcin; Muraczyńska, Bożena; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Ślusarska, Barbara; Guty, Edyta

    2018-03-14

    During feeding, the tick sucks blood from the host along with the pathogens that are in the blood, simultaneously exchanging its own pathogens with the host. Humans can also be a host. It is important to understand the most typical circumstances in which people might become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This knowledge will help to prepare health education programmes aimed at the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, depending on the circumstances of getting bitten. The research material consisted of ticks acquired from people who had been bitten, and questionnaires completed by these people. 510 ticks were acquired from 257 females and 253 males. Following delivery of a tick for testing, the stage of its development was determined and a molecular assay of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA performed. A positive result of the nested-PCR test was obtained in 78 ticks, which represents 15.30% of all ticks. The infected ticks were collected from male (41 ticks - 52.56%) and female subjects (37 ticks - 47.44%). The biggest number of infected ticks were collected in autumn (54 ticks - 69.23%) and from people who had been into forests (44 ticks - 56.41%). Among the people from whom the infected ticks were acquired, the dominating group included persons over 16 years of age (53 persons - 67.95%) and children aged 0-5 years (16 persons - 20.51%). One in four infected ticks were acquired from the southwestern (20 ticks - 25.64%) and eastern regions of Poland (21 ticks - 26.92%). Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme

  16. Using Landscape Analysis to Test Hypotheses about Drivers of Tick Abundance and Infection Prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, A Michelle; Brinkerhoff, R Jory

    2018-04-12

    Patterns of vector-borne disease risk are changing globally in space and time and elevated disease risk of vector-borne infection can be driven by anthropogenic modification of the environment. Incidence of Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, has risen in a number of locations in North America and this increase may be driven by spatially or numerically expanding populations of the primary tick vector, Ixodes scapularis . We used a model selection approach to identify habitat fragmentation and land-use/land cover variables to test the hypothesis that the amount and configuration of forest cover at spatial scales relevant to deer, the primary hosts of adult ticks, would be the predominant determinants of tick abundance. We expected that land cover heterogeneity and amount of forest edge, a habitat thought to facilitate deer foraging and survival, would be the strongest driver of tick density and that larger spatial scales (5-10 km) would be more important than smaller scales (1 km). We generated metrics of deciduous and mixed forest fragmentation using Fragstats 4.4 implemented in ArcMap 10.3 and found, after adjusting for multicollinearity, that total forest edge within a 5 km buffer had a significant negative effect on tick density and that the proportion of forested land cover within a 10 km buffer was positively associated with density of I. scapularis nymphs. None of the 1 km fragmentation metrics were found to significantly improve the fit of the model. Elevation, previously associated with increased density of I. scapularis nymphs in Virginia, while significantly predictive in univariate analysis, was not an important driver of nymph density relative to fragmentation metrics. Our results suggest that amount of forest cover (i.e., lack of fragmentation) is the most important driver of I. scapularis density in our study system.

  17. Use of nonelectrolytes reveals the channel size and oligomeric constitution of the Borrelia burgdorferi P66 porin.

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    Iván Bárcena-Uribarri

    Full Text Available In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than 'normal' Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be ≤1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition of NEs. Furthermore, the P66-induced membrane conductance could be blocked by 80-90% by the addition of the nonelectrolytes PEG 400, PEG 600 and maltohexaose to the aqueous phase in the low millimolar range. The analysis of the power density spectra of ion current through P66 after blockage with these NEs revealed no chemical reaction responsible for channel block. Interestingly, the blockage of the single-channel conductance of P66 by these NEs occurred in about eight subconductance states, indicating that the P66 channel could be an oligomer of about eight individual channels. The organization of P66 as a possible octamer was confirmed by Blue Native PAGE and immunoblot analysis, which both demonstrated that P66 forms a complex with a mass of approximately 460 kDa. Two dimension SDS PAGE revealed that P66 is the only polypeptide in the complex.

  18. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection

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    Hagman Kayla E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, are surface-exposed lipoproteins that presumably bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, decorin. B. burgdorferi infects various tissues including the bladder, heart, joints, skin and the central nervous system, and the ability of B. burgdorferi to bind decorin has been hypothesized to be important for this disseminatory pathogenic strategy. Results To determine the role of DbpBA in the infectious lifecycle of B. burgdorferi, we created a DbpBA-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi strain 297 and compared the infectious phenotype of the mutant to the wild-type strain in the experimental murine model of Lyme borreliosis. The mutant strain exhibited a 4-log decrease in infectivity, relative to the wild-type strain, when needle inoculated into mice. Upon complementation of the DbpBA-mutant strain with DbpA, the wild-type level of infectivity was restored. In addition, we demonstrated that the DbpBA-deficient mutant was able to colonize Ixodes scapularis larval ticks after feeding on infected mice and persist within the ticks during the molt to the nymphal state. Moreover, surprisingly, the DbpBA-mutant strain was capable of being transmitted to naïve mice via tick bite, giving rise to infected mice. Conclusion These results suggest that DbpBA is not required for the natural tick-transmission process to mammals, despite inferences from needle-inoculation experiments implying a requirement for DbpBA during mammalian infection. The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted.

  19. Determination of Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG in Adult Population Living in Trabzon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Merve; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Topbaş, Murat; Çan, Gamze; Yavuzyılmaz, Asuman; Tosun, İlknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne, multi-systemic infectious disease that is thought to be wide spread in Turkey even though studies on its seroprevalence are limited. To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in part of north-eastern Tur-key (in the city of Trabzon), and to identify possible relationships between seropositivity and various factors such as location, gender, age group, occupation, income, and educational level. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 884 blood samples collected from provincial and district health centers serving a population of about 800,000 were included in this study. ELISA was used to determine the anti-Borrelia IgG antibody levels in the samples. Samples that yielded positive results by ELISA were further subjected to western blot (WB). IgG antibodies were found in 128 samples (14.5%). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between age groups and educational levels in terms of the incidence of seropositivity, whereas location, gender, occupational group and income level had no effect (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.948, p=0.645, p=0.131, p=0.080 respectively). The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis in Trabzon is high, and necessary measures need to be taken to avoid the spread of disease.

  20. Determination of Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG in Adult Population Living in Trabzon

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    Merve Cora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne, multi-systemic infectious disease that is thought to be wide spread in Turkey even though studies on its seroprevalence are limited. Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in part of north-eastern Tur-key (in the city of Trabzon, and to identify possible relationships between seropositivity and various factors such as location, gender, age group, occupation, income, and educational level. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 884 blood samples collected from provincial and district health centers serving a population of about 800,000 were included in this study. ELISA was used to determine the anti-Borrelia IgG antibody levels in the samples. Samples that yielded positive results by ELISA were further subjected to western blot (WB. Results: IgG antibodies were found in 128 samples (14.5%. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between age groups and educational levels in terms of the incidence of seropositivity, whereas location, gender, occupational group and income level had no effect (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.948, p=0.645, p=0.131, p=0.080 respectively. Conclusions: The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis in Trabzon is high, and necessary measures need to be taken to avoid the spread of disease

  1. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  2. Structure-function mapping of BbCRASP-1, the key complement factor H and FHL-1 binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Frank S; Kraiczy, Peter; Roversi, Pietro; Simon, Markus M; Brade, Volker; Jahraus, Oliver; Wallis, Russell; Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F; Wallich, Reinhard; Lea, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete transmitted to human hosts during feeding of infected Ixodes ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most frequent vector-borne disease in Eurasia and North America. Sporadically Lyme disease develops into a chronic, multisystemic disorder. Serum-resistant B. burgdorferi strains bind complement factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1) on the spirochaete surface. This binding is dependent on the expression of proteins termed complement-regulator acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs). The atomic structure of BbCRASP-1, the key FHL-1/FH-binding protein of B. burgdorferi, has recently been determined. Our analysis indicates that its protein topology apparently evolved to provide a high affinity interaction site for FH/FHL-1 and leads to an atomic-level hypothesis for the functioning of BbCRASP-1. This work demonstrates that pathogens interact with complement regulators in ways that are distinct from the mechanisms used by the host and are thus obvious targets for drug design.

  3. Genetic Control of Lyme Arthritis by Borrelia burgdorferi Arthritis-Associated Locus 1 Is Dependent on Localized Differential Production of IFN-β and Requires Upregulation of Myostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Jackie K; Ma, Ying; Fisher, Colleen; Li, Jinze; Lee, Sang Beum; Zachary, James F; Kim, Yong Soo; Teuscher, Cory; Weis, Janis J

    2017-11-15

    Previously, using a forward genetic approach, we identified differential expression of type I IFN as a positional candidate for an expression quantitative trait locus underlying Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-associated locus 1 ( Bbaa1 ). In this study, we show that mAb blockade revealed a unique role for IFN-β in Lyme arthritis development in B6.C3- Bbaa1 mice. Genetic control of IFN-β expression was also identified in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with B. burgdorferi , and it was responsible for feed-forward amplification of IFN-stimulated genes. Reciprocal radiation chimeras between B6.C3- Bbaa1 and C57BL/6 mice revealed that arthritis is initiated by radiation-sensitive cells, but orchestrated by radiation-resistant components of joint tissue. Advanced congenic lines were developed to reduce the physical size of the Bbaa1 interval, and confirmed the contribution of type I IFN genes to Lyme arthritis. RNA sequencing of resident CD45 - joint cells from advanced interval-specific recombinant congenic lines identified myostatin as uniquely upregulated in association with Bbaa1 arthritis development, and myostatin expression was linked to IFN-β production. Inhibition of myostatin in vivo suppressed Lyme arthritis in the reduced interval Bbaa1 congenic mice, formally implicating myostatin as a novel downstream mediator of the joint-specific inflammatory response to B. burgdorferi . Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Molecular Survey on Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Infesting Dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia

    2017-11-01

    Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.

  5. Eradication of Biofilm-like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. While the majority of Lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. Although the cause for PTLDS is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current Lyme antibiotics. Recent studies identified several drug candidates including daptomycin, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and mitomycin C that had good activity against B. burgdorferi persisters. However, their relative activities against B. burgdorferi persisters have not been evaluated under the same conditions. In this study, we tested the anti-persister activities of these drugs against both 7-day and 15-day old stationary phase cultures of B. burgdorferi individually as well as in combination with Lyme antibiotics doxycycline and cefuroxime (Ceftin. Our findings demonstrate daunomycin and daptomycin were more active than mitomycin C in single drug comparison at 10 and 20 µM, as well as in drug combinations with doxycycline and cefuroxime. In addition, daunomycin was more active than doxorubicin which correlated with their ability to stain and accumulate in B. burgdorferi. The two drug combination of doxycycline and cefuroxime was unable to eradicate biofilm-like microcolonies of B. burgdorferi persisters. However, the addition of either daunomycin or daptomycin to the doxycycline + cefuroxime combination completely eradicated the biofilm-like structures and produced no visible bacterial regrowth after 7 days and 21 days, while the addition of doxorubicin was unable to prevent regrowth at either 7 day or 21 day subculture. Mitomycin C in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime caused no regrowth at 7 days but visible spirochetal regrowth occurred after 21 day subculture. Furthermore, we found that

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi requires the alternative sigma factor RpoS for dissemination within the vector during tick-to-mammal transmission.

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    Star M Dunham-Ems

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While the roles of rpoS(Bb and RpoS-dependent genes have been studied extensively within the mammal, the contribution of the RpoS regulon to the tick-phase of the Borrelia burgdorferi enzootic cycle has not been examined. Herein, we demonstrate that RpoS-dependent gene expression is prerequisite for the transmission of spirochetes by feeding nymphs. RpoS-deficient organisms are confined to the midgut lumen where they transform into an unusual morphotype (round bodies during the later stages of the blood meal. We show that round body formation is rapidly reversible, and in vitro appears to be attributable, in part, to reduced levels of Coenzyme A disulfide reductase, which among other functions, provides NAD+ for glycolysis. Our data suggest that spirochetes default to an RpoS-independent program for round body formation upon sensing that the energetics for transmission are unfavorable.

  7. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy

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    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atomic force microscopy (AFM is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. Material and methods: In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young’s modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker.Results/Conclusion: The average value of flexibility of spirochetes’ surface expressed by Young’s modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young’s modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  8. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  9. Nested-PCR real time as alternative molecular tool for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi compared to the classical serological diagnosis of the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Ufir, Krzysztof; Salamon, Dominika; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Gosiewski, Tomasz

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a multisystem disease that often makes difficulties to recognize caused by their genetic heterogenity. Currently, the gold standard for the detection of Lyme disease (LD) is serologic diagnostics based mainly on tests: ELISA and Western blot (WB). These methods, however, are subject to consider- able defect, especially in the initial phase of infection due to the occurrence of so-called serological window period and low specificity. For this reason, they might be replaced by molecular methods, for example polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which should be more sensitivity and specificity. In the present study we attempt to optimize the PCR reaction conditions and enhance existing test sensitivity by applying the equivalent of real time PCR - nested PCR for detection B. burgdorferi DNA in the patient's blood. The study involved 94 blood samples of patients with suspected LD. From each sample, 1.5 ml of blood was used for the isolation of bacterial DNA and PCR real time am- plification and its equivalent, in nested version. The remaining part earmarked for serologi- cal testing. Optimization of the reaction conditions made experimentally, using gradient of the temperature and gradient of the magnesium ions concentration for reaction real time in nested-PCR and PCR version. The results show that the nested-PCR real time, has a much higher sensitivity 45 (47.8%) of positive results for the detection of B. burgdorferi compared to the single- variety, without a preceding pre-amplification 2 (2.1%). Serological methods allowed the detection of infection in 41 (43.6%) samples. These results support of the nested PCR method as a better molecular tool for the detection of B. burgdorferi infection than classical PCR real time reaction. The nested-PCR real time method may be considered as a complement to ELISA and WB mainly in the early stages of infection, when in the blood circulating B. burgdorferi cells. By contrast, the

  10. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  11. Further structural insights into the binding of complement factor H by complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Zipfel, Peter F.; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi binds complement factor H using a dimeric surface protein, CspA (BbCRASP-1). Presented here is a new structure of CspA that suggests that there is a degree of flexibility between subunits which may have implications for complement regulator binding. Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved many mechanisms of evading the different immune systems across its range of reservoir hosts, including the capture and presentation of host complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein-1 (FHL-1). Acquisition is mediated by a family of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), of which the atomic structure of CspA (BbCRASP-1) is known and shows the formation of a homodimeric species which is required for binding. Mutagenesis studies have mapped a putative factor H binding site to a cleft between the two subunits. Presented here is a new atomic structure of CspA which shows a degree of flexibility between the subunits which may be critical for factor H scavenging by increasing access to the binding interface and allows the possibility that the assembly can clamp around the bound complement regulators

  12. Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    or relative change is defined by dividing the measurement units from the second sample by those from the first sample. The threshold for the minimum level of significant change was defined at the 2.5% level to represent the random error level. The thresholds were a 2.7-fold rise for the flagellar IgG assay......Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. The seroconversion...

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  14. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi B31-Specific Interferon Gamma-Secreting T Cells Cannot Discriminate Active Lyme Neuroborreliosis from Past Lyme Borreliosis: a Prospective Study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorkom, T; Sankatsing, S U C; Voet, W; Ismail, D M; Muilwijk, R H; Salomons, M; Vlaminckx, B J M; Bossink, A W J; Notermans, D W; Bouwman, J J M; Kremer, K; Thijsen, S F T

    2018-04-01

    Two-tier serology testing is most frequently used for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB); however, a positive result is no proof of active disease. To establish a diagnosis of active LB, better diagnostics are needed. Tests investigating the cellular immune system are available, but studies evaluating the utility of these tests on well-defined patient populations are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay to diagnose active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of various study groups were stimulated by using Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 and various recombinant antigens, and subsequently, the number of Borrelia -specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells was measured. We included 33 active and 37 treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients, 28 healthy individuals treated for an early manifestation of LB in the past, and 145 untreated healthy individuals. The median numbers of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs did not differ between active Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (6.0; interquartile range [IQR], 0.5 to 14.0), treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (4.5; IQR, 2.0 to 18.6), and treated healthy individuals (7.4; IQR, 2.3 to 14.9) ( P = 1.000); however, the median number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs among untreated healthy individuals was lower (2.0; IQR, 0.5 to 3.9) ( P ≤ 0.016). We conclude that the Borrelia ELISpot assay, measuring the number of B. burgdorferi B31-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells/2.5 × 10 5 PBMCs, correlates with exposure to the Borrelia bacterium but cannot be used for the diagnosis of active Lyme neuroborreliosis. Copyright © 2018 van Gorkom et al.

  15. Integration of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into Mountain Ecosystems, Following a Shift in the Altitudinal Limit of Distribution of Their Vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Schwarzová, L.; Materna, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Holubová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kilian, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 223-230 ISSN 1530-3667 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/06/1546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies * Climate * Ixodes ricinus tick * Mountain ecosystems * Tick-borne encephalitis virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2010

  16. [Determination of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and erythema chronicum migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo Canales, I; Betlloch Mas, I; Mestre Bauza, F; Salva Armengod, F; Parras Vázquez, F; Alomar Cardell, J

    1990-04-01

    Several cutaneous entities described in Europe as Chronic Migrans Erythema (CME), Mild Cutis Lymphadenosis (MCL) and Chronic Atrophyc Acrodermatitis (CAA) constitute clinical manifestations of a Borrellia Burgdorferi. The presence of clinical and hystologic lesions similar to those of liquen esclerosus and atrophyc (LEA) and localized esclerodermia (morphea) in patients with CAA has driven to several authors to demonstrate the aethiologic participation of B. Burgdorferi in patients carrying those cutaneous lesions with contradictory results. A serologic study with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and FIAX test was performed in 16 patients (9 with morphea, 6 with LEA and 1 with CME) in order to evaluate the role of this microorganism in our environment. Five reactive sera were obtained of which only one presented IgG antibodies titrated at 1/256. The IgM antibodies by IIF and IgG by FIAX test turned out to be negative. A specific relationship between B. Burgdorferi and the studied entities could not be established.

  17. Exposure to ticks and seroprevalence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]among a healthy young population living in the area of southern Podlasie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pańczuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objectives[/b]. The objective of the study was assessment of risk of infection with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] in the area of southern Podlasie in Poland, near the border with Belarus, by analysis of post-exposure procedure, and evaluation of asymptomatic infection in adolescents bitten by a tick, confirmed by serologic tests. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among 128 healthy individuals aged 16–20 who declared being bitten by a tick. The level of IgM and IgG class antibodies was determined using the immunoenzymatic test (Borrelia 14 kD + OspC IgM ELISA and Borrelia IgG + VlsE ELISA, DRG Diagnostics. Positive and doubtful results were confirmed using the Western blot method (EUROLINE-WB, EUROIMMUN. [b]Results[/b]. In the study group, the largest number of respondents (59.4% declared tick bite in the region of the lower extremities, most often in the knee pit. Among the methods for removing the tick the largest number of respondents indicated removing it with the use of tweezers, with a simple, swift steady movement (29.7%, and pulling it out with the fingers (22.7%. In the ELISA test, a positive or doubtful result in at least one class was observed in 25.0% of respondents (n=32/128: in IgM class – 23.4% (n=30/128, and in IgG class – 4.7% (n=6/128. After verification with the Western blot test, infection was confirmed in 5.5% of respondents (n=7/128: in IgM class – 1.6% (n=2/128, in IgG class – 3.9% (n=5/128. In IgM class antibodies, the Western blot test confirmed positive or doubtful results of the ELISA test in 6.7%, while in IgG class antibodies in 83.3%. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Evaluation of the actual infection with [i]Borrelia spp.[/i] using serologic tests is difficult due to a certain non-specificity of the ELISA test, especially in IgM class antibodies, and difficulties with performance of a wide scope of specific Western blot tests. The variety of methods of tick removal declared by adolescents suggests

  18. Habitat properties are key drivers of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence in Ixodes ricinus populations of deciduous forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Ruyts, Sanne C; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bauhus, Jürgen; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Panning, Marcus; Prinz, Maren; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Liira, Jaan

    2018-01-08

    The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging. Latitude, macroclimate, landscape and habitat properties drive both hosts and ticks and are comparable metrics across Europe. Therefore, we instead assess these environmental drivers as indicators and determine their respective roles for the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in I. ricinus. We sampled I. ricinus and measured environmental properties of macroclimate, landscape and habitat quality of forest patches in agricultural landscapes along a European macroclimatic gradient. We used linear mixed models to determine significant drivers and their relative importance for nymphal and adult B. burgdorferi prevalence. We suggest a new prevalence index, which is pool-size independent. During summer months, our prevalence index varied between 0 and 0.4 per forest patch, indicating a low to moderate disservice. Habitat properties exerted a fourfold larger influence on B. burgdorferi prevalence than macroclimate and landscape properties combined. Increasingly available ecotone habitat of focal forest patches diluted and edge density at landscape scale amplified B. burgdorferi prevalence. Indicators of habitat attractiveness for tick hosts (food resources and shelter) were the most important predictors within habitat patches. More diverse and abundant macro- and microhabitat had a diluting effect, as it presumably diversifies the niches for tick-hosts and decreases the probability of contact between ticks

  19. Long-Term Effects of Berberis thunbergii (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) Management on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Prevalence in Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Linske, Megan A; Ward, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-08

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. At six locations across Connecticut, adult I. scapularis were sampled for up to 10 yr. At each location, we sampled an area where barberry infestations were unmanipulated, adjacent areas where barberry was virtually nonexistent, and areas where barberry was managed utilizing a variety of techniques. Barberry management reduced B. burgdorferi-infected adult I. scapularis (BBIAIS) abundances (191/ha ± 64 SE) over 6 yr to statistically indifferent from that of no barberry areas (140/ha ± 47 SE; P = 0.080) and significantly less than intact barberry stands (458/ha ± 80 SE; P = 0.026). Over 9 yr, BBIAIS abundances in managed barberry remained lower than intact barberry stands (P = 0.037), but increased to be significantly greater than no barberry areas (P = 0.007) as cover increased over time. Longer-term data further document that Japanese barberry infestations are favorable habitat for I. scapularis. Control of Japanese barberry and other invasives should be at least on a 5-yr rotation to maintain low levels of invasive cover and eliminate humidity refugia to expose juvenile I. scapularis to more hostile environmental conditions in the interest of public health. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Habitat properties are key drivers of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence in Ixodes ricinus populations of deciduous forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Ruyts, Sanne C.; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bauhus, Jürgen; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Kolb, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Background The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes ...

  1. Evidence of Borrelia in wild and domestic mammals from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emmanuel Montandon

    Full Text Available The main of the study was to evaluate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in domestic and wild vertebrates and ectoparasites in endemic areas from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 445 serum samples were examined by ELISA, which used the Borrelia burgdorferi strain G39/40 U.S. source and 3,821 tick samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. B. burgdorferi antibodies were found in 30 serum samples (6.74%; three in marsupials (7.69%, three in rodents (2.80%, nine in dogs (6.25%, and 15 in horses (9.68%. Nested-PCR performed in DNA samples obtained from collected ticks demonstrated negative results. Although attempts to amplify B. burgdorferi DNA from ticks had been not successful, the presence of seroreactive vertebrates suggests the possibility the Borrelia species circulating in these regions. Further research is required to provide information on the presence of Borrelia in Brazilian territory and its association with Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome.

  2. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which may result in mixed infections of humans and exacerbation of the clinical course of Lyme disease cases on the studied area.

  3. Enhancement of immune response towards non-lipidized Borrelia burgdorferi recombinant OspC antigen by binding onto the surface of metallochelating nanoliposomes with entrapped lipophilic derivatives of norAbuMDP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křupka, M.; Mašek, J.; Bartheldyová, E.; Turánek Knotigová, P.; Plocková, J.; Korvasová, Z.; Škrabalová, M.; Koudelka, Š.; Kulich, P.; Zachová, K.; Czerneková, L.; Strouhal, O.; Horynová, M.; Šebela, M.; Miller, A. D.; Ledvina, Miroslav; Raška, M.; Turánek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2012), s. 374-381 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Grant - others:GA UP(CZ) LF-2010-014; GA UP(CZ) LF-2011-002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * OspC * metallochelating liposomes * MDP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.633, year: 2012

  4. Does more favourable handling of the cerebrospinal fluid increase the diagnostic sensitivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific PCR in Lyme neuroborreliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forselv, Kristine J N; Lorentzen, Åslaug R; Ljøstad, Unn; Mygland, Åse; Eikeland, Randi; Kjelland, Vivian; Noraas, Sølvi; Quarsten, Hanne

    2018-04-01

    Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA). Patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for LNB were classified as LNB cases and the rest as controls. Bb DNA in CSF was detected by PCR in seven of 28 adults with LNB. Two were Bb antibody negative. No Bb DNA was detected in CSF from 137 controls. Diagnostic sensitivity was 25% and specificity 100%. There was a non-significant trend towards larger CSF sample volume, faster handling of the sample, shorter duration of symptoms, and higher CSF cell count in the PCR-positive cases. We did not find that optimized handling of CSF increased diagnostic sensitivity of PCR in adults with LNB. However, our case series is small and we hypothesize that the importance of these factors will be clarified in further studies with larger case series and altered study design. PCR for diagnosis of LNB may be useful in cases without Bb antibodies due to short duration of symptoms.

  5. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P.; Crew, Rebecca M.; Brandt, Kevin S.; Ullmann, Amy J.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Molins, Claudia R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. PMID:26376927

  6. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. Ixodes ricinus ticks and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Danielová, V.; Fialová, A.; Kříž, B.; Malý, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 182-192 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia afezelii * B. garinii * B. burgdorferi s. s. * B. bavariensis * B. valaisiana * B. spielmanii * B. lusitaniae * B. bissettii * distribution * altitude * season * medical importance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  8. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is

  9. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi

  10. Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Petrovskis, Ivars; Kazaks, Andris; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of ErpC at 2.15Å resolution. Recently, the crystal structure of the Erp family member OspE from B. burgdorferi N40 was determined in complex with CFH domains 19-20, revealing the residues involved in the complex formation. Despite the high sequence conservation between ErpA, ErpC, ErpP and the homologous protein OspE (78-80%), the affinity for CFH and CFHRs differs markedly among the Erp family members, suggesting that ErpC may bind only CFHRs but not CFH. A comparison of the binding site in OspE with those of ErpC and ErpP revealed that the extended loop region, which is only observed in the potential binding site of ErpC, plays an important role by preventing the binding of CFH. These results can explain the inability of ErpC to bind CFH, whereas ErpP and ErpA still possess the ability to bind CFH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Horka, Helena; Salat, Jiri; Andersen, John F. (South Bohemia); (ASCR-ICP); (NIAID)

    2010-11-17

    We have previously demonstrated that two salivary cysteine protease inhibitors from the Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) vector Ixodes scapularis - namely sialostatins L and L2 - play an important role in tick biology, as demonstrated by the fact that silencing of both sialostatins in tandem results in severe feeding defects. Here we show that sialostatin L2 - but not sialostatin L - facilitates the growth of B. burgdorferi in murine skin. To examine the structural basis underlying these differential effects of the two sialostatins, we have determined the crystal structures of both sialostatin L and L2. This is the first structural analysis of cystatins from an invertebrate source. Sialostatin L2 crystallizes as a monomer with an 'unusual' conformation of the N-terminus, while sialostatin L crystallizes as a domain-swapped dimer with an N-terminal conformation similar to other cystatins. Deletion of the 'unusual' N-terminal five residues of sialostatin L2 results in marked changes in its selectivity, suggesting that this region is a particularly important determinant of the biochemical activity of sialostatin L2. Collectively, our results reveal the structure of two tick salivary components that facilitate vector blood feeding and that one of them also supports pathogen transmission to the vertebrate host.

  12. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepołomice forest (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Marek; Nowak, Magdalena; Cuber, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr; Trapp, Gizela; Siuda, Krzysztof; Solarz, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Niepołomice Forest is located about 20 kilometers east of Cracow (Malopolska province, southern Poland). Its natural and touristic values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe. Its seasonal activity begins in Poland in the early spring, and ends with late autumn. A total number of 129 specimens of I. ricinus was collected by flagging in Niepołomice Forest. DNA was isolated by ammonia method from 30 randomly-selected individuals. PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Molecular studies confirmed the presence of all three pathogens in I. ricinus. A. phagocytophilum was found in 76.7%, Babesia sp., 60%, B. burgdorferi s. l., in 3.3% of studied ticks. A. phagocytophilum co-infection with Babesia sp., was found in 46.7% of the specimens. A co-infection of all three tested pathogens was recorded in one case (3.3%). In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.

  13. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Hönig, Václav; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Balczun, C.; Albring, A.; Schaub, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, NOV 21 (2012) ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Tick density * Borrelia prevalence * Borrelia lusitaniae * Multiple infections * Siebengebirge Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/268

  14. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  15. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of CFSE staining of borreliae in studies on the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytönen Jukka

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the tick-transmitted spirochete group Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi cause Lyme borreliosis. Acute borrelial infection of the skin has unusual characteristics with only a mild local inflammatory response suggesting that the interaction between borreliae and the cells of the first-line defence might differ from that of other bacteria. It has been reported that human neutrophils phagocytose motile borreliae through an unconventional mechanism (tube phagocytosis which is not observed with non-motile borreliae. Therefore, it would be of great interest to visualise the bacteria by a method not affecting motility and viability of borreliae to be able to study their interaction with the cells of the innate immunity. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE labelling has been previously used for studying the adhesion of labelled bacteria to host cells and the uptake of labelled substrates by various cells using flow cytometry. Results In this study, CFSE was shown to efficiently stain different genospecies of B. burgdorferi without affecting bacterial viability or motility. Use of CFSE staining allowed subsequent quantification of borreliae associated with human neutrophils with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. As a result, no difference in association between different borrelial genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, or between borreliae and the pyogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, with neutrophils could be detected. Borrelial virulence, on the other hand, affected association with neutrophils, with significantly higher association of a non-virulent mutant B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain compared to the parental virulent wild type strain. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay using CFSE labelled borreliae is a valuable tool in the analysis of the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils. The

  17. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected South Bohemian locations (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2004), s. 151-156 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  18. T-Helper 17 Cell Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate With Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection and With Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients With Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strle, Klemen; Sulka, Katherine B; Pianta, Annalisa; Crowley, Jameson T; Arvikar, Sheila L; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Steere, Allen C

    2017-04-01

    Control of Lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive T-helper 1 cell (TH1) immune responses, whereas the role of T-helper 17 cell (TH17) responses is less clear. Here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (EM) or Lyme arthritis (LA) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection. Levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate, TH1, and TH17 immune responses, were assessed by Luminex in acute and convalescent sera from 91 EM patients, in serum and synovial fluid from 141 LA patients, and in serum from 57 healthy subjects. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi or autoantigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with healthy subjects, EM patients had significantly higher levels of innate, TH1, and TH17-associated mediators (P ≤ .05) in serum. In these patients, the levels of inflammatory mediators, particularly TH17-associated cytokines, correlated directly with B. burgdorferi immunoglobulin G antibodies (P ≤ .02), suggesting a beneficial role for these responses in control of early infection. Late in the disease, in patients with LA, innate and TH1-associated mediators were often >10-fold higher in synovial fluid than serum. In contrast, the levels of TH17-associated mediators were more variable, but correlated strongly with autoantibodies to endothelial cell growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 10, and apolipoprotein B-100 in joints of patients with antibiotic-refractory LA, implying a shift in TH17 responses toward an autoimmune phenotype. Patients with Lyme disease often develop pronounced TH17 immune responses that may help control early infection. However, late in the disease, excessive TH17 responses may be disadvantageous by contributing to autoimmune responses associated with antibiotic-refractory LA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions

  19. Immunochemical characterization of and isolation of the gene for a Borrelia burgdorferi immunodominant 60-kilodalton antigen common to a wide range of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Fjordvang, H

    1988-01-01

    . burgdorferi CA was localized on a 2.3-kilobase fragment of the plasmid pKH1. CA may have pathogenetic implications in Lyme borreliosis, since the CA of mycobacteria recently has been shown to play a role in the etiology of experimental autoimmune arthritis. The extensive cross-reactivity of this antigen may...... account for the low diagnostic specificity of the currently used serological tests in Lyme borreliosis....

  20. Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Šíma, Radek; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Rudenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 28 2014 (2014), s. 538 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : B. burgdorferi ospC type * Invasive potential * Lyme disease * Southeastern U.S.A. * Tick vector * Vertebrate host Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  1. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  2. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Møller, Jens K.; Kolmos, Birte

    2015-01-01

    A multiplex-bead-based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contained 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay; thus, a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. A total of 49 Danish patients......, the construction of a diagnostic score, evaluation of the scoring method using an independent dataset and an assessment of the analytical quality of the multiplex assay. The VlsE IgG had the highest diagnostic value with an AUC (area under the curve) of 96% on the receiver operating characteristic curve. The Osp......C IgM had AUCs just above 80%. All the other antigens had both low quantitative reactivity and lower contrast in the patients with LNB compared to controls. The diagnostic value of the assay may be improved by using a logistic model giving a sensitivity of 90 and 79% for the specificities at 92 and 98...

  3. Evidence for frequent OspC gene transfer between Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and other Lyme disease spirochetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; van Dam, A. P.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular polymorphism of the ospC gene has been reported in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, the spirochetes causing human Lyme borreliosis. To assess the genetic relationship between ospC genes from the recently described Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and

  4. Borrelia infection and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schollkopf, C.; Melbye, M.; Munksgaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports of the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in malignant lymphomas have raised the hypothesis that infection with B. burgdorferi may be causally related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) development. We conducted a Danish-Swedish case-control study including 3055 NHL patients and 3187.......9-2.0]). However, in analyses of NHL subtypes, self-reported history of B. burgdorferi infection (OR = 2.5 [1.2-5.1]) and seropositivity for anti-Borrelia antibodies (OR = 3.6 [1.8-7.4]) were both associated with risk of mantle cell lymphoma. Notably, this specific association was also observed in persons who did...... not recall Borrelia infection yet tested positive for anti-Borrelia antibodies (OR = 4.2 [2.0-8.9]). Our observations suggest a previously unreported association between B. burgdorferi infection and risk of mantle cell lymphoma Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/15...

  5. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.; Mason, L. M. K.; Oei, A.; de Wever, B.; van der Poll, T.; Bins, A. D.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method

  6. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  7. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    and may support host specific strains. This study examined the role of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), (n=679), an invasive species in the United Kingdom (UK), as B. burgdorferi s.l. hosts. We found that grey squirrels were frequently infested with Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of B. burgdorferi...

  8. Propozycja nowego podejścia metodycznego i interpretacji wyników oznaczeń przeciwciał przeciwko Borrelia burgdorferi – analiza składu przeciwciałowego krążących kompleksów immunologicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Miąskiewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Borelioza z Lyme ma bogatą symptomatologię i w znacznym odsetkuprzypadków może przypominać wczesne stadia układowej chorobytkanki łącznej. Część pacjentów trafia po wizycie u lekarza POZdo reumatologa. Reumatolog może zlecić badania autoprzeciwciał„markerowych” oraz na obecność przeciwciał bakteryjnych (przeciwkoBorrelia burgdorferi. Odsetek wyników dodatnich w kierunku B. burgdorferijest znikomy (14,7%, istnieje zatem problem wiarygodnościtych wyników.Seronegatywność pod względem obecności swoistych przeciwciałdla B. burgdorferi dotyczy ok. 30���40% surowic pacjentów z podejrzeniemboreliozy, łącznie z pacjentami z potwierdzonymi w wywiadzieukąszeniami przez kleszcza i wystąpieniem objawu patognomonicznego(rumienia wędrującego. Mimo że dysponujemy licznymitestami bakteriologicznymi, serologicznymi czy molekularnymi(PCR, diagnostyka boreliozy nastręcza trudności i może prowadzić do uzyskiwania wyników fałszywie ujemnych lub fałszywie dodatnich.Autorzy pracy skupili się na surowicach pacjentów seronegatywnychpod względem przeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi, w których wolneprzeciwciała przeciwko B. burgdorferi zostały związane przezantygeny krętka i utworzyły krążące kompleksy immunologiczne (KKI.Celem pracy była analiza KKI pod kątem obecności przeciwciał przeciwkoB. burgdorferi w trudnych diagnostycznie surowicach pacjentów,u których obraz kliniczny wskazywał na obecność zakażenia krętkiemz rodzaju B. burgdorferi (ryc. 1–7. Badania przeprowadzono nasurowicach 54 chorych z wywiadem wskazującym na boreliozę. Zastosowanonowe metodyczne podejście do analizy obecności swoistychprzeciwciał dla B. burgdorferi – wytrącanie i dysocjację KKI, a następnieoznaczanie w uzyskanej frakcji γ z osadu PEG przeciwciał swoistychdla B. burgdorferi. W 41 surowicach ujemnych w teście ELISAwytrącono frakcję γ z osadu PEG i powtórnie oznaczono przeciwciaładla B. burgdorferi. W 82

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Borrelia afzelii and Two Borrelia garinii Lyme Disease Agent Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Human Lyme disease is commonly caused by several species of spirochetes in the Borrelia genus. In Eurasia these species are largely Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi, and B. bavariensis sp. nov. Whole-genome sequencing is an excellent tool for investigating and understanding the influence of bacterial diversity on the pathogenesis and etiology of Lyme disease. We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. afzelii isolates ACA-1 and PKo and B. garinii isolates PBr and Far04.

  10. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  11. In silico evaluation of PCR - primers for detection of Lyme Borrelia

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) or Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in US and Europe. The etiologic is some species of tick-borne spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sl) complex. The most common clinical symptoms of LB is the erythema migrans (EM). The pathogen is transmitted to humans through the tick bite of Ixodes species, and spread to cause more severe manifestations such as Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans (ACA), Lyme arthritis, and neuroborrelios...

  12. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Wu, Ruiying [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Cuff, Marianne [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Fan, Yao [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Bigelow, Lance [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Jedrzejczak, Robert P. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Adkins, Joshua N. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Cort, John R. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439

    2017-06-19

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded b-barrel trans membrane domain and a C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the OM. Here we present the first crystal structures of the OmpACTD from two pathogens: S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD) in open and closed forms and causative agent of Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD), in closed form. In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long b2-a3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the binding site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of a3 helix by ordering a part of b2-a3 loop. We propose that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD suggesting PG-anchoring mechanism. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.

  13. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Kemin [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Wu, Ruiying [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Cuff, Marianne [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Fan, Yao [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Bigelow, Lance [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Jedrzejczak, Robert P. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Adkins, Joshua N. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Cort, John R. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99352; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Avenue Chicago Illinois 60637; Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439

    2017-06-19

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins of the bacterium. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded -barrel membrane domain and a C-terminal so-called OmpA C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the outer membrane. Here we present the structures of two forms of the OmpACTD of S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD) and one structure of the less-studied OmpACTD of Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD). In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long 2-3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the equivalent site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of 3 helix by ordering a part of 2-3 loop. We suggest that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.

  14. Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2004), s. 228-231 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2004

  15. Longitudinal surveillance of the tick Ixodes ricinus for borreliae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2003), s. 46-51 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1204; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.040, year: 2003

  16. Prevalence of borreliae in ixodid ticks from a floodplain forest ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Stünzner, D.; Halouzka, Jiří; Sixl, W.; Wendelin, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 115, 3-4 (2003), s. 121-124 ISSN 0043-5325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 229; GA ČR GA206/00/1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Lyme disease * Borrelia burgdorferi * floodplain forest Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.774, year: 2003

  17. Tick sialostatins L and L2 differentially influence dendritic cell responses to Borrelia spirochetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Páleníková, Jana; Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Calvo, E.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Kopecký, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY 15 2015 (2015), s. 275 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2208 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dendritic cell s * Borrelia burgdorferi * Tick cystatin * Signalling Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  18. Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne J. Middelveen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of ten control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based approaches. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.

  19. Persistent Borrelia Infection in Patients with Ongoing Symptoms of Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Sapi, Eva; Burke, Jennie; Filush, Katherine R; Franco, Agustin; Fesler, Melissa C; Stricker, Raphael B

    2018-04-14

    Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi , in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of ten control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.

  20. Differentiated THP-1 Cells Exposed to Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Borrelia Species Demonstrate Minimal Differences in Production of Four Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V; Moraru, Gail M; McIntosh, Chelsea; Kummari, Evangel; Rausch, Keiko; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2016-11-01

    Tick-borne borreliae include Lyme disease and relapsing fever agents, and they are transmitted primarily by ixodid (hard) and argasid (soft) tick vectors, respectively. Tick-host interactions during feeding are complex, with host immune responses influenced by biological differences in tick feeding and individual differences within and between host species. One of the first encounters for spirochetes entering vertebrate host skin is with local antigen-presenting cells, regardless of whether the tick-associated Borrelia sp. is pathogenic. In this study, we performed a basic comparison of cytokine responses in THP-1-derived macrophages after exposure to selected borreliae, including a nonpathogen. By using THP-1 cells, differentiated to macrophages, we eliminated variations in host response and reduced the system to an in vitro model to evaluate the extent to which the Borrelia spp. influence cytokine production. Differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to four Borrelia spp., Borrelia hermsii (DAH), Borrelia burgdorferi (B31), B. burgdorferi (NC-2), or Borrelia lonestari (LS-1), or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (activated) or media (no treatment) controls. Intracellular and secreted interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using flow cytometric and Luminex-based assays, respectively, at 6, 24, and 48 h postexposure time points. Using a general linear model ANOVA for each cytokine, treatment (all Borrelia spp. and LPS compared to no treatment) had a significant effect on secreted TNF-α only. Time point had a significant effect on intracellular IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, we did not see significant differences in selected cytokines among Borrelia spp. Thus, in this model, we were unable to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic borreliae using the limited array of selected cytokines. While unique immune profiles may be detectable in an in vitro model and may reveal predictors for pathogenicity in borreliae

  1. Borrelia infection and risk of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaedini, Armin; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wormser, Gary P; Green, Peter H; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-09-15

    Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder. In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link. We aimed to determine if infection with Borrelia contributes to an increased risk of celiac disease. Biopsy reports from all of Sweden's pathology departments were used to identify 15,769 individuals with celiac disease. Through linkage to the nationwide Patient Register, we compared the rate of earlier occurrence of Lyme disease in the patients with celiac disease to that in 78,331 matched controls. To further assess the temporal relationship between Borrelia infection and celiac disease, we also examined the risk of subsequent Lyme disease in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. Twenty-five individuals (0.16%) with celiac disease had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease, whereas 79 (0.5%) had a subsequent diagnosis of Lyme disease. A modest association between Lyme disease and celiac disease was seen both before (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-2.47) and after the diagnosis of celiac disease (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.40-2.35), with the risk of disease being highest in the first year of follow-up. Only a minor fraction of the celiac disease patient population had a prior diagnosis of Lyme disease. The similar association between Lyme disease and celiac disease both before and after the diagnosis of celiac disease is strongly suggestive of surveillance bias as a likely contributor. Taken together, the data indicate that Borrelia infection is not a substantive risk factor in the development of celiac disease.

  2. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratoriediagnostik af infektion forårsaget af Borrelia burgdorferi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Bangsborg, Jette M; Jensen, Tove P Ejlertsen

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Denmark is reviewed with recommendations for serological testing. In Denmark the laboratory testing is performed with an ELISA technique. Most laboratories use an assay based on purified flagella antigen. The two-tier approach with Western Blot as confi......The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Denmark is reviewed with recommendations for serological testing. In Denmark the laboratory testing is performed with an ELISA technique. Most laboratories use an assay based on purified flagella antigen. The two-tier approach with Western Blot...... as confirmatory testing is not recommended since the contribution to the diagnostic specificity is only marginal. Predictive values of Lyme serology are presented, based on the estimated prevalence of the different stages of Lyme disease in Denmark. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug-21...

  4. Laboratoriediagnostik af infektion forårsaget af Borrelia burgdorferi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, Tove P Ejlertsen

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Denmark is reviewed with recommendations for serological testing. In Denmark the laboratory testing is performed with an ELISA technique. Most laboratories use an assay based on purified flagella antigen. The two-tier approach with Western Blot as confi......The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Denmark is reviewed with recommendations for serological testing. In Denmark the laboratory testing is performed with an ELISA technique. Most laboratories use an assay based on purified flagella antigen. The two-tier approach with Western Blot...... as confirmatory testing is not recommended since the contribution to the diagnostic specificity is only marginal. Predictive values of Lyme serology are presented, based on the estimated prevalence of the different stages of Lyme disease in Denmark....

  5. Laboratoriediagnostik af infektion forårsaget af Borrelia burgdorferi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram B; Bangsborg, Jette M; Jensen, Tove P Ejlertsen

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Denmark is reviewed with recommendations for serological testing. In Denmark the laboratory testing is performed with an ELISA technique. Most laboratories use an assay based on purified flagella antigen. The two-tier approach with Western Blot...... as confirmatory testing is not recommended since the contribution to the diagnostic specificity is only marginal. Predictive values of Lyme serology are presented, based on the estimated prevalence of the different stages of Lyme disease in Denmark....

  6. Babesia microti, human babesiosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J F; Mintz, E D; Gadbaw, J J; Magnarelli, L A

    1991-01-01

    Babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern Connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in Connecticut was recognized. To date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in Connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland United States. Two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. Since Babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of...

  7. Immunity against Ixodes scapularis salivary proteins expressed within 24 hours of attachment thwarts tick feeding and impairs Borrelia transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Narasimhan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, an obligate haematophagus arthropod, is a vector of several human pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. In this report, we show that the tick salivary gland transcriptome and proteome is dynamic and changes during the process of engorgement. We demonstrate, using a guinea pig model of I. scapularis feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission, that immunity directed against salivary proteins expressed in the first 24 h of tick attachment - and not later - is sufficient to evoke all the hallmarks of acquired tick-immunity, to thwart tick feeding and also to impair Borrelia transmission. Defining this subset of proteins will promote a mechanistic understanding of novel I. scapularis proteins critical for the initiation of tick feeding and for Borrelia transmission.

  8. A Dual Luciferase Reporter System for B. burgdorferi Measures Transcriptional Activity during Tick-Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B. burgdorferi genome. However, there is a lack of molecular genetic tools for B. burgdorferi for quantitative, strand-specific, comparative analysis of these transcripts in distinct environments such as the arthropod vector. To address this need, we have developed a dual luciferase reporter system to quantify B. burgdorferi promoter activities in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of a B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Renilla reniformis luciferase gene (rlucBb allows normalization of the activity of a promoter of interest when fused to the B. burgdorferi codon-optimized Photinus pyralis luciferase gene (flucBb on the same plasmid. Using the well characterized, differentially regulated, promoters for flagellin (flaBp, outer surface protein A (ospAp and outer surface protein C (ospCp, we document the efficacy of the dual luciferase system for quantitation of promoter activities during in vitro growth and in infected ticks. Cumulatively, the dual luciferase method outlined herein is the first dual reporter system for B. burgdorferi, providing a novel and highly versatile approach for strand-specific molecular genetic analyses.

  9. Bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen; Melanson, Michel; Desai, Jamsheed A

    2012-09-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. The number of known Lyme disease-endemic areas in Canada is increasing as the range of the vector Ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, southern Manitoba, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec are now considered Lyme disease-endemic regions in Canada. The use of field surveillance to map risk and endemic regions suggests that these geographic areas are growing, in part due to the effects of climate warming. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the most common neurologic abnormality in the second stage of Lyme borreliosis, with up to 25% of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy) occurring due to Lyme disease. Here we present a case of occult bilateral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. In Lyme disease-endemic regions of Canada, patients presenting with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy should be evaluated for Lyme disease with serologic testing to avoid misdiagnosis. Serologic testing should not delay initiation of appropriate treatment for presumed Bell palsy.

  10. Borrelia spirochetes in Russia: Genospecies differentiation by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhacheva, T A; Kovalev, S Y

    2014-10-01

    Spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis which is widespread in Russia. Nowadays, three clinically important B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. bavariensis sp. nov., can be found in Russia, as well as B. miyamotoi, which belongs to the tick-borne relapsing fever group of spirochetes. Several techniques have been developed to differentiate Borrelia genospecies. However, most of them do not allow detection of all of these genospecies simultaneously. Also, no method based on the RT-PCR TaqMan approach has been proposed to differentiate the genetically closely related species B. bavariensis and B. garinii. In the present paper, we investigated two species of ticks, I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi (1343 and 92 adults, respectively). Two sets of primers and probes for RT-PCR, with uvrA, glpQ and nifS genes as targets, were designed to detect four Borrelia genospecies in positive samples. The average prevalence of Borrelia sp. was about 40%, with B. afzelii as the most prevalent genospecies. Mixed infections of B. bavariensis and B. garinii were found to be extremely rare. While B. bavariensis was predominant in I. persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks were infected exclusively by B. garinii. The proposed technique proved to be efficient in selection of individual Borrelia species for further genetic analysis, in particular, for multilocus sequence typing. Also, it could be applied for the differentiation of Borrelia genospecies in clinical material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay-Based Direct Detection of Three Lyme Disease-Related Borrelia Species in Whole-Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica L; Giese, Heidi; Bandoski-Gralinski, Cheryl; Townsend, Jessica; Jacobson, Beck E; Shivers, Robert; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Fritsche, Thomas R; Green, Clayton; Callister, Steven M; Branda, John A; Lowery, Thomas J

    2017-08-01

    In early Lyme disease (LD), serologic testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. In this study, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single-cell-per-milliliter range: 5 cells/ml for B. afzelii and 8 cells/ml for Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii Clinical samples ( n = 66) from confirmed or suspected early LD patients were also analyzed. B. burgdorferi was detected using T2MR in 2/2 (100%) of blood samples from patients with confirmed early LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans and documentation of seroconversion or a positive real-time blood PCR. T2MR detected B. burgdorferi in blood samples from 17/54 (31%) of patients with probable LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans without documented seroconversion or of documented seroconversion in patients with a compatible clinical syndrome but without erythema migrans. Out of 21 clinical samples tested by real-time PCR, only 1 was positive and 13 were negative with agreement with T2MR. An additional 7 samples that were negative by real-time PCR were positive with T2MR. Therefore, T2MR enables a low limit of detection (LoD) for Borrelia spp. in whole blood samples and is able to detect B. burgdorferi in clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagh D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dhananjay Wagh,* Venkata Raveendra Pothineni,* Mohammed Inayathullah, Song Liu, Kwang-Min Kim, Jayakumar Rajadas Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work  Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA, a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 µg/mL (250 µM. Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia.  Keywords: Lyme disease, BmtA, Borrelia burgdorferi, desloratadine, Bac Titer-Glo assay

  13. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilske Bettina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl cause tick-borne Lyme disease. Previous work including the genome analysis of B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii PBi suggested a highly variable plasmid part. The frequent occurrence of duplicated sequence stretches, the observed plasmid redundancy, as well as the mainly unknown function and variability of plasmid encoded genes rendered the relationships between plasmids within and between species largely unresolvable. Results To gain further insight into Borreliae genome properties we completed the plasmid sequences of B. garinii PBi, added the genome of a further species, B. afzelii PKo, to our analysis, and compared for both species the genomes of pathogenic and apathogenic strains. The core of all Bbsl genomes consists of the chromosome and two plasmids collinear between all species. We also found additional groups of plasmids, which share large parts of their sequences. This makes it very likely that these plasmids are relatively stable and share common ancestors before the diversification of Borrelia species. The analysis of the differences between B. garinii PBi and B. afzelii PKo genomes of low and high passages revealed that the loss of infectivity is accompanied in both species by a loss of similar genetic material. Whereas B. garinii PBi suffered only from the break-off of a plasmid end, B. afzelii PKo lost more material, probably an entire plasmid. In both cases the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is affected. Conclusion The complete genome sequences of a B. garinii and a B. afzelii strain facilitate further comparative studies within the genus Borrellia. Our study shows that loss of infectivity can be traced back to only one single event in B. garinii PBi: the loss of the vls cassettes possibly due to error prone gene conversion. Similar albeit extended losses in B. afzelii PKo support the hypothesis that infectivity of Borrelia

  15. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, A; Mason, L M K; Oei, A; de Wever, B; van der Poll, T; Bins, A D; Hovius, J W R

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule. We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule. We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 10(5) B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative. Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge. To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.

  16. Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aase, A.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Øines, Ø.; Quarsten, H.; Wilhelmsson, P.; Herstad, T.K.; Kjelland, V.; Šíma, Radek; Jalovecká, Marie; Lindgren, P-E.; Aaberge, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2016), s. 411-419 ISSN 2374-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lyme disease * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * babesiosis * Babesia spp. * Lyme borreliosis * PCR * microscopy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.119, year: 2016

  17. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, C.; Lundqvist, J.; Rooijen, van N.; Bergstrom, S.

    2009-01-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been

  18. Refractoriness of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R S; Mun, J; Eisen, L; Eisen, R J

    2006-08-01

    The western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is refractory to experimental infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, one of several Lyme disease spirochetes pathogenic for humans. Another member of the Lyme disease spirochete complex, Borrelia bissettii, is distributed widely throughout North America and a similar, if not identical, spirochete has been implicated as a human pathogen in southern Europe. To determine the susceptibility of S. occidentalis to B. bissettii, 6 naïve lizards were exposed to the feeding activities of Ixodes pacificus nymphs experimentally infected with this spirochete. None of the lizards developed spirochetemias detectable by polymerase chain reaction for up to 8 wk post-tick feeding, infected nymphs apparently lost their B. bissettii infections within 1-2 wk after engorgement, and xenodiagnostic L. pacificus larvae that co-fed alongside infected nymphs did not acquire and maintain spirochetes. In contrast, 3 of 4 naïve deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) exposed similarly to feeding by 1 or more B. bissettii-infected nymphs developed patent infections within 4 wk. These and previous findings suggest that the complement system of S. occidentalis typically destroys B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes present in tissues of attached and feeding I. pacificus nymphs, thereby potentially reducing the probability of transmission of these bacteria to humans or other animals by the resultant adult ticks.

  19. Isolation and morphological characterization of mosquito spirochetes from a lyme disease endemic area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Reipert, S.; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Němec, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 916, - (2000), s. 672-675 ISSN 0077-8923. [Biennial Conference of the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine /5./. Key West, 12.06.1999-16.06.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087601; GA ČR GA206/00/1234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2000

  20. Erythema migrans and serodiagnosis by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot with three borrelia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, G; Breier, F; Menzinger, G; Schaar, B; Hafner, M; Partsch, H

    1999-12-10

    There is wide divergence of opinion between physicians regarding the use of serological measures for the diagnosis and treatment of erythema migrans, the hallmark of Lyme borreliosis. We studied the outcome of an enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot (Western blot) used on the sera of patients who had suffered tick bite and erythema migrans, and had been subsequently treated with various antibiotics. Ninety-nine consecutive patients presenting with erythema migrans after tick bite were prospectively recruited at the outpatient department of two Vienna City hospitals and at the consultation office for Lyme borreliosis of the Institute of Hygiene. University Vienna. Blood samples were taken before antibiotic treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. Blood samples from 100 blood donors served as controls. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were determined by enzyme immunoassay (IgG and IgM EIA) and by IgG immunoblot. The latter was performed with isolates of B. alzelii (H2) B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (Le) and B. garinii (W) from Austrian patients. The 4 interpretation criteria for immunoblot results were: A (3 bands out of 8), B (2 bands out of 9), C and D (1 band out of 6). In all patients, the erythema resolved within the treatment period. No complications secondary to the borrelia infection were registered. After treatment there was no significant change in titre, nor was there a difference in the immunoblot pattern between the first, second and third serum samples. Serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi were positive by EIA in 22.9% (IgG) and 2.5% (IgM). Immunoblot results offered by borrelia species and by the interpretation criteria, ranging between 8.3% (criterion A, strain Le) and 44.2% (criterion D, strain H2). By EIA, control samples were IgG and IgM positive in 5% and 1%, respectively. Positive immunoblot results with strain H2 were found in 9%, 13%, 18%, and 20% by the criteria A through D respectively. After antibiotic treatment of erythema

  1. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii DNAs in patient with Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzova, K.; Kozub, P.; Szep, Z.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2016), s. 359-363 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lyme borreliosis * samples * complex Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  2. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case of Canine Borreliosis in Iran Caused by Borrelia persica

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally J.; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by B. persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with Borrelia persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from ...

  4. Population Bottlenecks during the Infectious Cycle of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Bestor, A.; Štefka, Jan; Rosa, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e101009 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : sensu stricto * mammalian host * peromyscus-leucopus * Ixodes ricinus * ticks * mice * transmission * dissemination * diversity * North America Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  5. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, T.R.; Coipan, E.C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different

  6. Ixodes ricinus as vector and reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As specific arthropods, ticks in urban environments transmit the agents of dangerous contagious diseases endangering human and animal health. They are vectors of numerous infective agents that cause serious diseases of animals such as babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Tick populations maintain and transmit an increas­ing number of different infective agents. In regard to the human population, they transmit the agents of tick encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic disease, Crim-Congo hemorrhagic disease, Kyasa-nur forest fever, ixodid fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Siberian tick typhus and Lyme disease the last of which according to acarological references has become the dominant zoonosis in over 140 of the world's countries. In urban environments ticks represent problem both for their epidemiological significance and as organisms whose presence disturbs people during their work and rest. In Europe, the two most fre­quent species and Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. Both species have a wide spectrum of hosts.

  7. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  8. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wodecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and [i]Borrelia[/i] species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of [i]Borrelia[/i] species, the blood-meal of 325 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%[i] I. ricinus[/i] individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86% samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i], red fox ([i]Vulpes vulpes[/i], red deer ([i]Cervus elaphus[/i] and roe deer ([i]Capreolus capreolus[/i]. Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all [i]Borrelia[/i] species transmitted by [i]I. ricinus [/i]in Europe, including [i]B. miyamotoi[/i] and 3 genetic variants of [i]B. garinii[/i]. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato were identified – B. [i]garinii [/i]and B. [i]afzelii[/i], and B. [i]miyamotoi,[/i] which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  9. Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Sudsangiem, Ronnayuth; Lijuan, Wanwisa; Boonkusol, Duangjai; Baimai, Visut; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-06-24

    Species of the genus Borrelia are causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. However, in some parts of the world Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel Borrelia genotypes. Herein, we report the presence of a Borrelia sp. in an Amblyomma varanense collected from Python reticulatus. Ticks were collected from snakes, identified to species level and examined by PCR for the presence of Borrelia spp. flaB and 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining method. Three A. varanense ticks collected from P. reticulatus were positive for a unique Borrelia sp., which was phylogenetically divergent from both Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-associated Borrelia spp. The results of this study suggest for the first time that there is a Borrelia sp. in A. varanense tick in the snake P. reticulatus that might be novel.

  10. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  11. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  12. Culture and identification of Borrelia spirochetes in human vaginal and seminal secretions [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 2 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne J. Middelveen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports indicate that more than 300,000 cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Preliminary clinical, epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb could be transferred from person to person via intimate human contact without a tick vector. Failure to detect viable Borrelia spirochetes in vaginal and seminal secretions would argue against this hypothesis. Methods: Patients with and without a history of Lyme disease were selected for the study after informed consent was obtained. Serological testing for Bb was performed on all subjects. Semen or vaginal secretions were inoculated into BSK-H medium and cultured for four weeks. Examination of genital cultures and culture concentrates for the presence of spirochetes was performed using light and darkfield microscopy, and spirochete concentrates were subjected to Dieterle silver staining, anti-Bb immunohistochemical staining, molecular hybridization and PCR analysis for further characterization. Immunohistochemical and molecular testing was performed in three independent laboratories in a blinded fashion. Positive and negative controls were included in all experiments. Results: Control subjects who were asymptomatic and seronegative for Bb had no detectable spirochetes in genital secretions by PCR analysis. In contrast, spirochetes were observed in cultures of genital secretions from 11 of 13 subjects diagnosed with Lyme disease, and motile spirochetes were detected in genital culture concentrates from 12 of 13 Lyme disease patients using light and darkfield microscopy. Morphological features of spirochetes were confirmed by Dieterle silver staining and immunohistochemical staining of culture concentrates. Molecular hybridization and PCR testing confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from semen and vaginal secretions were strains of Borrelia, and all cultures were negative for treponemal

  13. Improved metod of detection and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in clinical sample by PCR without DNA purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Němec, J.; Volkaert, J.; Mallátová, N.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2005), s. 31-39 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PCR * chelex * amplification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  14. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in Amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern United States: the case of selective compatibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Clark, K.; Oliver, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, MAY 25 (2016), č. článku e48. ISSN 2222-1751 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease spirochete * Dermacentor variabilis * Ixodes scapularis * Ixodidae * Acari * strain Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 5.605, year: 2016

  15. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Entrap and Kill Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto Spirochetes and Are Not Affected by Ixodes ricinus Tick Saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menten-Dedoyart, C.; Faccinetto, C.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Dupiereux, I.; Van Lerberghe, P.B.; Dubois, S.; Desmet, C.; Elmoualij, B.; Baron, F.; Rudenko, Natalia; Oury, C.; Heinen, E.; Couvreur, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 11 (2012), s. 5393-5401 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GROUP-A STREPTOCOCCUS * IMMUNE-RESPONSE * PROTEIN * ESCAPE * INNATE * DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE * EXPRESSION * ALLOWS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2012 http://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/11/5393

  16. Immune response to Lactobacillus plantarum expressing Borrelia burgdorferi OspA is modulated by the lipid modification of the antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del Rio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the use of lactic acid bacteria as mucosal delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens, microbicides and therapeutics. We investigated the mechanism by which a mucosal vaccine based in recombinant lactic acid bacteria breaks the immunological tolerance of the gut in order to elicit a protective immune response.We analyzed how the lipid modification of OspA affects the localization of the antigen in our delivery vehicle using a number of biochemistry techniques. Furthermore, we examined how OspA-expressing L. plantarum breaks the oral tolerance of the gut by stimulating human intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte derived dendritic cells and measuring cytokine production. We show that the leader peptide of OspA targets the protein to the cell envelope of L. plantarum, and it is responsible for protein export across the membrane. Mutation of the lipidation site in OspA redirects protein localization within the cell envelope. Further, we show that lipidated-OspA-expressing L. plantarum does not induce secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it breaks oral tolerance of the gut via Th1/Th2 cell mediated immunity, as shown by the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human dendritic cells, and by the production of IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, respectively.Lipid modification of OspA expressed in L. plantarum modulates the immune response to this antigen through a Th1/Th2 immune response.

  17. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtesh Sherifi; Agim Rexhepi; Kristaq Berxholi; Blerta Mehmedi; Rreze M. Gecaj; Zamira Hoxha; Anja Joachim; Georg G. Duscher

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma mar...

  18. Serological and molecular evidence for spotted fever group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Herremans, Tineke; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Only a few reported cases indicate that Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis can cause disease in humans. Exposure to these two spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae occurs through bites of Ixodes ricinus, also the primary vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. To date, it is unclear how

  19. Multispacer sequence typing relapsing fever Borreliae in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Elbir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Africa, relapsing fevers are neglected arthropod-borne infections caused by closely related Borrelia species. They cause mild to deadly undifferentiated fever particularly severe in pregnant women. Lack of a tool to genotype these Borrelia organisms limits knowledge regarding their reservoirs and their epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome sequence analysis of Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii and Borrelia recurrentis yielded 5 intergenic spacers scattered between 10 chromosomal genes that were incorporated into a multispacer sequence typing (MST approach. Sequencing these spacers directly from human blood specimens previously found to be infected by B. recurrentis (30 specimens, B. duttonii (17 specimens and B. crocidurae (13 specimens resolved these 60 strains and the 3 type strains into 13 species-specific spacer types in the presence of negative controls. B. crocidurae comprised of 8 spacer types, B. duttonii of 3 spacer types and B. recurrentis of 2 spacer types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Phylogenetic analyses of MST data suggested that B. duttonii, B. crocidurae and B. recurrentis are variants of a unique ancestral Borrelia species. MST proved to be a suitable approach for identifying and genotyping relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. It could be applied to both vectors and clinical specimens.

  20. First insights in the variability of Borrelia recurrentis genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Marosevic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia recurrentis is the causative agent of louse-borne relapsing fever, endemic to the Horn of Africa. New attention was raised in Europe, with the highest number of cases (n = 45 reported among migrants in 2015 in Germany and sporadically from other European countries. So far only one genome was sequenced, hindering the development of specific molecular diagnostic and typing tools. Here we report on modified culture conditions for B. recurrentis and the intraspecies genome variability of six isolates isolated and cultured in different years in order to explore the possibility to identify new targets for typing and examine the molecular epidemiology of the pathogen.Two historical isolates from Ethiopia and four isolates from migrants from Somalia (n = 3 and Ethiopia (n = 1 obtained in 2015 were cultured in MPK-medium supplemented with 50% foetal calf serum. Whole DNA was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology and analysed using the CLC Genomics Workbench and SPAdes de novo assembler. Compared to the reference B. recurrentis A1 29-38 SNPs were identified in the genome distributed on the chromosome and plasmids. In addition to that, plasmids of differing length, compared to the available reference genome were identified.The observed low genetic variability of B. recurrentis isolates is possibly due to the adaptation to a very conserved vector-host (louse-human cycle, or influenced by the fastidious nature of the pathogen and their resistance to in vitro growth. Nevertheless, isolates obtained in 2015 were bearing the same chromosomal SNPs and could be distinguished from the historical isolates by means of whole genome sequencing, but not hitherto used typing methods. This is the first study examining the molecular epidemiology of B. recurrentis and provides the necessary background for the development of better diagnostic tools.

  1. Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis?

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, S.J.; Rinky, I.J.; Bonilla, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B. recurrentis, or an artefact following in vitro cultivation. We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever (B. recurrentis) or tick-borne relapsing fever (B. duttonii). We confirmed the premature stop codon in se...

  2. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Curtis L; Payne, Jessica R; Schwan, Tom G

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF.

  3. Distribution of Soft Ticks and Their Natural Infection with Borrelia in a Focus of Relapsing Fever in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Aghighi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases such as relapsing fever and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF are of public health impor¬tance in Iran. There are 471 reported cases of relapsing fever in 2003, according to the Ministry of Health of Iran.The num¬ber of cases has been increased in recent years. Its distribution is more or less prevalent in different parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to find out the fauna and natural infection of soft ticks with Borrelia in Qazvin Province, during their sea¬sonal activity. The province covers 15821 km² between 48-45 to 50-50 east of Greenwich Meridian of longitude and 35-37 to 36-45 north latitude of the equator. For this purpose a field study was carried out in the region. A total of 54 villages from 19 districts were selected ran¬domly and ticks were collected from their habitats according to the standard method. A total of 3197 Argasidae ticks were collected from human dwellings, poultry and animal shelters. They belonged to Argas and Or¬nithodoros genera which 36.8% were Argas persicus, 4% A. reflexus, 6.4% O. canestrini, 45.5% O. lahorensis and 7.3% O. tholozani. It should be noted that 12 ticks of O. erraticus were collected from 12 rodents borrows. We found that 8.82 % of O. tholozani ticks were infected with Borrelia persica and half of the O. erraticus were infected with Borrelia microti. All the people who are in¬volved with veterinary activities should be aware of disease transmission by the ticks. In the endemic area of the disease tick control is recommended.

  4. Development and Validation of a Serologic Test Panel for Detection of Powassan Virus Infection in U.S. Patients Residing in Regions Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomm, Angela M; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Dupuis, Alan P; Kramer, Laura D; Frost, Holly M; Fritsche, Thomas R; Harrington, Yvette A; Knox, Konstance K; Kehl, Sue C

    2018-01-01

    endemic, POWV testing is recommended for patients with a recent tick bite, patients with Lyme disease who have been treated with antibiotics, or patients with a tick exposure who have tested negative for Lyme disease or other tick-borne illnesses and have persistent symptoms consistent with posttreatment Lyme disease. Testing could also benefit patients with tick exposure and unexplained neurologic symptoms and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients with known tick exposure. Until now, diagnostic testing for Powassan virus has not been commercially available and has been limited to patients presenting with severe, neurologic complications. The lack of routine testing for Powassan virus in patients with suspected tick-borne disease means that little information is available regarding the overall prevalence of the virus and the full spectrum of clinical symptoms associated with infection. As Ixodes scapularis is the tick vector for Powassan virus and multiple other tick-borne pathogens, including the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , the clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of Powassan virus infection and concurrent infection with other tick-borne disease pathogens remain unknown.

  5. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. De ziekte van Lyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, J.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most prevalent vector-borne illness in the United States of America and Europe. In the Netherlands, the disease is endemic with an estimated yearly incidence of 133 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi

  7. Perpetuation of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae by Lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia lusitaniae is associated with lizards, we compared the prevalence and genospecies of spirochetes present in rodent- and lizard-associated ticks at a site where this spirochete frequently infects questing ticks. Whereas questing nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected mainly by Borrelia afzelii, one-half of the infected adult ticks harbored B. lusitaniae at our study site. Lyme disease spirochetes were more prevalent in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) and common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) than in small rodents. Although subadult ticks feeding on rodents acquired mainly B. afzelii, subadult ticks feeding on lizards became infected by B. lusitaniae. Genetic analysis confirmed that the spirochetes isolated from ticks feeding on lizards are members of the B. lusitaniae genospecies and resemble type strain PotiB2. At our central European study site, lizards, which were previously considered zooprophylactic for the agent of Lyme disease, appear to perpetuate B. lusitaniae. PMID:16820453

  8. Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, S J; Rinky, I J; Bonilla, E M

    2011-02-01

    Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B. recurrentis, or an artefact following in vitro cultivation. We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever (B. recurrentis) or tick-borne relapsing fever (B. duttonii). We confirmed the premature stop codon in seven louse-borne relapsing fever samples, and its absence from three tick-borne relapsing fever samples. Furthermore, specific signature polymorphisms were found that could differentiate between these highly similar spirochaetes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lyme borreliosis: insights into tick- / host-borrelia relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grubhoffer, Libor; Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Rudenko, Natalia; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 279-294 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326; GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health(US) R37 AI-24899; Science and Technology Collaboration AVCR-NRC Canada(CZ) Z60220518/58-8500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia spirochetes * ticks * lectins * glycoproteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  11. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a new highland endemic focus of western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, M D; Benafshi, O; Rafinejad, J; Ashraf, H

    2009-09-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. In Iran, where the disease is endemic in the mountainous north-western provinces, reports of over 200 cases annually probably under-estimate the true incidence. The species, distribution and infection of ticks that are potential vectors of Borrelia and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the local TBRF cases were recently investigated in the villages in and around the county town of Bijar, in north-western Iran. A blood sample from each suspected case of TBRF was checked for B. persica by dark-field microscopy, data were collected on the demographics and clinical manifestations of each confirmed case, and the prevalence of tick infection with borreliae and the monthly incidence of TBRF were evaluated. Between 2000 and 2007, 148 cases of TBRF (each with fever, chills and headache) were passively detected in the town. Most (115) of these were confirmed by microscopy, with the other subjects categorized as probable (21) or suspected cases (12) of TBRF. Most (91%) of the 148 subjects were young people, and most came from rural areas and lived in large households in the old mud-and-thatch houses of Bijar. Most (82%) of the cases occurred during the summer or early autumn. Overall, 8543 soft ticks (Ornithodoros tholozani, O. lahorensis, Argas persicus and A. reflexus) were collected by clustered random sampling. When a random sample of the O. tholozani ticks (96 of the 577 collected) was checked for B. persica infection, by being crushed and then inoculated intraperitoneally into a mouse or suckling Syrian hamster, 19 were found infected. Peaks in the monthly incidence of TBRF occurred as the numbers of O. tholozani in the tick collections peaked, and it seems likely that most of the cases were caused by B. persica transmitted by O

  12. Detection of Coxiella Burnetii (Q fever) and Borrelia Burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) in Field-Collected Ticks from the Cayo District of Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    variables ( soil moisture, vegetation types, and GPS coordinates) were recorded at collection sites. The wet season (November) yielded 180 samples and the...areas of the Caribbean Islands, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia , Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Panama, and Mexico. PCR analysis of previously field...e116. 29. Kaminsky, R.G., Ault, S.K., Castillo, P., Serrano, K., Troya, G. (2014). High prevalence of soil -transmitted helminths in Southern Belize

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. v klíšťatech na ostravských haldách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošová, V.; Rudolf, Ivo; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 90-97 ISSN 1210-7913 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930613 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * slag heaps * Lyme borreliosis * transmission risk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig, Václav; Švec, P.; Halas, Petr; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Kilian, Patrik; Vetišková, Vendula; Dorňáková, Veronika; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Šimonová, Zuzana; Erhart, Jan; Štěrba, Ján; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), s. 559-567 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * tick-borne encephalitis * ixodes ricinus * environmental factors * lyme borreliosis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877959X15000783/1-s2.0-S1877959X15000783-main.pdf?_tid=8785a702-8de3-11e5-bd28-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447844587_a91b4e4d404a70fda98b06e4950edb11

  15. Genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of Lyme disease spirochetes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Jean-François; Michelet, Lorraine; Chotte, Julien; Le Naour, Evelyne; Cote, Martine; Devillers, Elodie; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Huet, Dominique; Galan, Maxime; Geller, Julia; Moutailler, Sara; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2014-05-20

    In France as elsewhere in Europe the most prevalent TBD in humans is Lyme borreliosis, caused by different bacterial species belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and transmitted by the most important tick species in France, Ixodes ricinus. However, the diagnosis of Lyme disease is not always confirmed and unexplained syndromes occurring after tick bites have become an important issue. Recently, B. miyamotoi belonging to the relapsing fever group and transmitted by the same Ixodes species has been involved in human disease in Russia, the USA and the Netherlands. In the present study, we investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi along with other Lyme Borreliosis spirochetes, in ticks and possible animal reservoirs collected in France. We analyzed 268 ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and 72 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) collected and trapped in France for the presence of DNA from B. miyamotoi as well as from Lyme spirochetes using q-PCR and specific primers and probes. We then compared the French genotypes with those found in other European countries. We found that 3% of ticks and 5.55% of bank voles were found infected by the same B. miyamotoi genotype, while co-infection with other Lyme spirochetes (B. garinii) was identified in 12% of B. miyamotoi infected ticks. Sequencing showed that ticks and rodents carried the same genotype as those recently characterized in a sick person in the Netherlands. The genotype of B. miyamotoi circulating in ticks and bank voles in France is identical to those already described in ticks from Western Europe and to the genotype isolated from a sick person in The Netherlands. This results suggests that even though no human cases have been reported in France, surveillance has to be improved. Moreover, we showed that ticks could simultaneously carry B. miyamotoi and Lyme disease spirochetes, increasing the problem of co-infection in humans.

  16. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  17. Association of Borrelia and Rickettsia spp. and bacterial loads in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, Marie-Kristin; Jordan, Daniela; Fingerle, Volker; Strube, Christina

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of coinfections has increased as synergistic or antagonistic effects on interacting bacteria have been observed. To date, several reports on coinfections of ticks with Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. are available. However, associations are rarely described and studies are based on rather low sample sizes. In the present study, coinfections of Ixodes ricinus with these pathogens were investigated by determining their association in a meta-analysis. A total of 5079 tick samples examined for Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. via probe-based quantitative real-time PCR in previous prevalence studies or as submitted diagnostic material were included. In Borrelia-positive ticks, genospecies were determined by Reverse Line Blot. Determination of bacterial loads resulted in an increase between developmental tick stages with highest mean bacterial loads in female ticks (7.96×10 4 in Borrelia single-infected, 4.87×10 5 in Rickettsia single-infected and 3.22×10 5 in Borrelia-Rickettsia coinfected females). The determined Borrelia-Rickettsia tick coinfection rate was 12.3% (626/5079) with a significant difference to the expected coinfection rate of 9.0% (457/5079). A significant slight association as well as correlation between Borrelia and Rickettsia were determined. In addition, a significant interrelation of the bacterial load in coinfected ticks was shown. At the level of Borrelia genospecies, significant weak associations with Rickettsia spp. were detected for B. afzelii, B. garinii/bavariensis, B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae. The positive association provides evidence for interactions between Borrelia and Rickettsia spp. in the tick vector, presumably resulting in higher bacterial replication rates in the tick vector and possibly the reservoir host. However, coinfection may impact the vector negatively as indicated by an absent increase in coinfection rates from nymphs to adults. Future studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of

  18. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crowder, C. D.; Carolan, H. E.; Rounds, M. A.; Hönig, Václav; Mothes, B.; Haag, H.; Nolte, O.; Luft, B. J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Ecker, D. J.; Schutzer, S. E.; Eshoo, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2014), s. 1678-1682 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ionization mass spectrometry * polymerase chain reaction * Lyme disease * burgdorferi * spirochete * infection * vector * meningoencephalitis * identification * pathogens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases , Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.751, year: 2014

  19. Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Borrelia burgclorferi sensu lato complex isolated from rodents and a tick from the south-eastern USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2011), 381-383 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE-ANALYSIS * FRAGMENT-LENGTH-POLYMORPHISM * LYME -DISEASE * RIBOSOMAL-RNA * Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov. * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.268, year: 2011

  20. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  1. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Andel, van Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W.; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles

  2. Tick salivary gland extract-activated transmission of Borrelia afzelii spirochaetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechová, Jitka; Tresová, Gabriela; Kovář, Lubomír; Kopecký, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2002), s. 153ů159 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * salivary gland extract * Borrelia afzelii Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.515, year: 2002

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochete Borrelia microti, a potential agent of relapsing fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Bahramali, Golnaz; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2012-09-01

    We report a role for Borrelia microti as a cause of relapsing fever in Iran supported by robust epidemiological evidence. The molecular identity of this spirochete and its relation with other relapsing fever borreliae have, until now, been poorly delineated. We analyzed an isolate of B. microti, obtained from Ornithodoros erraticus ticks, by sequencing four loci (16S rRNA, flaB, glpQ, intragenic spacer [IGS]) and comparing these sequences with those of other relapsing fever borreliae. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of 16S rRNA, flaB, and glpQ grouped B. microti alongside three members of the African group, B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae, which are distinct from B. persica, the most prevalent established cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in Iran. The similarity values for 10 concatenated sequences totaling 2,437 nucleotides ranged from 92.11% to 99.84%, with the highest homologies being between B. duttonii and B. microti and between B. duttonii and B. recurrentis. Furthermore, the more discriminatory IGS sequence analysis corroborated the close similarity (97.76% to 99.56%) between B. microti and B. duttonii. These findings raise the possibility that both species may indeed be the same and further dispel the one-species, one-vector theory that has been the basis for classification of relapsing fever Borrelia for the last 100 years.

  4. Effect of tick saliva on immune interactions between Borrelia afzelii and murine dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, M.; Skallová, A.; Páleníková, J.; Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 12 (2011), 654-660 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cell * immune modulation * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.601, year: 2011

  5. Effect of tick saliva on mechanisms of innate immune response against Borrelia afzelii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kýčková, Kateřina; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2006), s. 1208-1214 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia afzelii * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2006

  6. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  7. Human pathogenic borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in natural and urban ecosystem (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Betášová, Lenka; Šikutová, Silvie; Jedličková, Petra; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 717-720 ISSN 1230-2821 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorgeri s.l. * genomic species * ixodid ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014

  8. Tick saliva suppresses IFN signalling in dendritic cells upon Borrelia afzelii infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2012), s. 32-39 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cells * interferon signalling * tick saliva Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2012

  9. First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the

  10. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  11. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  12. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKD u ). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKD u is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKD u in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  13. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  14. Reclassification of Borrelia spp. isolated in South Korea using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Jeoungyeon; Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Dayoung; Jang, Won-Jong

    2018-05-31

    Using Borrelia isolated from South Korea, we evaluated by MLST and three intergenic genes (16S rRNA, ospA, and 5S-23S IGS) typing to analyze the relationship between host and vector and molecular background. Using the MLST analysis, we identified B. afzelii, B. yangtzensis, B. garinii, and B. bavariensis. This study was first report of the identification of B. yangtzensis using the MLST in South Korea.

  15. Reptile-associated Borrelia species in the goanna tick (Bothriocroton undatum) from Sydney, Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Panetta, J. L.; Šíma, Radek; Calvani, N.E.D.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Chandra, S.; Panuccio, J.; Šlapeta, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 20 December (2017), č. článku 616. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-27393S; GA ČR GA17-27386S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * Bothriocroton undatum * Coxiella burnetii * DNA extraction * Goanna tick * Illumina * Ixodidae * MiSeq Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  16. Development and optimization of an in vitro cultivation protocol allows for isolation of Borrelia miyamotoi from patients with hard tick-borne relapsing fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsveld, Joris; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Wagemakers, Alex; Toporkova, Marina G.; Sarksyan, Denis S.; Oei, Anneke; Platonov, Alexander E.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Borrelia miyamotoi has been shown to infect humans in Eurasia and North America causing hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF). In vitro cultivation of B. miyamotoi was described recently; but clinical isolation of relapsing fever Borrelia is cumbersome. Our aim was to develop a

  17. A divergent spirochete strain isolated from a resident of the southeastern United States was identified by multilocus sequence typing as Borrelia bissettii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, K.; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 4 (2016), č. článku 68. ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * Borrelia bissettii * MLST analysis * live spirochete * divergent strain Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  18. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  19. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  20. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  1. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia species antibodies in patients with schizophrenia: a case-control study from western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Sibel; Celik, Merve; Akcali, Alper; Oyekcin, Demet Gulec; Sahin, Ozlem Oztürk; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-06-01

    We examined IgG antibody seroprevalence and risk factors for anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia sp. in schizophrenic patients. This case-control study included 30 schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy individuals. Serological analyses were identified by using ELISA technique. In the case group the Toxoplasma seropositivity was 33.3% and Borrelia seropositivity was 13.3%, while in the control group the Toxoplasma positivity was 21.7% and Borrelia seropositivity was 15.0%. There was no significant difference with regard to seroprevalence between the groups (P = 0.232; P = 0.832, respectively). There was statistically significant difference between case and control groups related to hand and kitchen utensil hygiene after dealing with raw meat (P = 0.001). Our data showed the rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was higher in the case group, while the rate of Borrelia antibodies was higher in the control group. In both groups the high rates of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia sp. is thought to be due to neglect of personal hygiene. The present study also is the first to examine the association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is an association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia or not.

  2. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  3. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Horká, Helena; Salát, Jiří; Andersen, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2010), s. 456-470 ISSN 0950-382X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960702; GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INVARIANT CHAIN FRAGMENT * EGG-WHITE CYSTATIN * CATHEPSIN-L * CYSTEINE PROTEINASES * SIALOSTATIN-L * ENDOPEPTIDASE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2010

  4. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto ospC Alleles Associated with Human Lyme Borreliosis Worldwide in Non-Human-Biting Tick Ixodes affinis and Rodent Hosts in Southeastern United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Hönig, Václav; Mallátová, N.; Krbková, L.; Mikulášek, P.; Fedorovova, N.; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lane, R. S.; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2013), s. 1444-1453 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : North America * disease spirochete * genetic diversity * Europe * transmission Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  5. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tick Thioester-Containing Proteins and Phagocytosis Do Not Affect Transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the Competent Vector Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, V.; Hajdušek, O.; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, R.; Kopáček, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR 16 (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku 73. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Borrelia * complement * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  7. Borrelia-induced cytokine production is mediated by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) but is Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 independent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, M.; Buffen, K.; Cheng, S.C.; Verschueren, I.C.; Koentgen, F.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is known that Borrelia species express sugar-like structures on their outer surface, not much is known about the role of these structures in immune recognition by host cells. Fungi, like Candida albicans, are mainly recognized by C-type lectin receptors, in specific Dectin-1 and

  8. Seroprevalence against Rickettsia and Borrelia Species in Patients with Uveitis: A Prospective Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B. Madsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and rickettsioses have been associated with ocular inflammation. Our aim was to study patients with diagnosed uveitis to evaluate serological signs of infection or exposure to these tick-borne agents. Forty-eight patients were prospectively examined with serology together with medical records and a questionnaire concerning previous exposure, diseases, and treatments. Seven patients (14.6% showed seroconversion to Rickettsia spp. between acute and convalescent phase sera, which provides support for a positive Rickettsia diagnosis according to guidelines. The specificity was confirmed by Western blot. Additional 28 patients had stationary titres of which eight (16.6% had 1 : 256 or higher titre in the first serum, and another 13 patients were seronegative. No epidemiological risk factor or marker could be identified. For Borrelia, only three patients showed moderate IgG titres. A control group of 100 blood donors, 60 patients with rheumatic disease, and 56 patients seeking medical care were tested of which 2.0–7.1% showed low anti-Rickettsia titres and 3.0–8.3% anti-Borrelia titres. The findings are indicative for an association between infection or exposure to Rickettsia spp. and uveitis with a seropositivity among patients with recurrent uveitis in concordance with the spread of rickettsial exposure in a tick-exposed population.

  9. Seroprevalence against Rickettsia and Borrelia Species in Patients with Uveitis: A Prospective Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kim B.; Wallménius, Katarina; Fridman, Åke; Påhlson, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and rickettsioses have been associated with ocular inflammation. Our aim was to study patients with diagnosed uveitis to evaluate serological signs of infection or exposure to these tick-borne agents. Forty-eight patients were prospectively examined with serology together with medical records and a questionnaire concerning previous exposure, diseases, and treatments. Seven patients (14.6%) showed seroconversion to Rickettsia spp. between acute and convalescent phase sera, which provides support for a positive Rickettsia diagnosis according to guidelines. The specificity was confirmed by Western blot. Additional 28 patients had stationary titres of which eight (16.6%) had 1 : 256 or higher titre in the first serum, and another 13 patients were seronegative. No epidemiological risk factor or marker could be identified. For Borrelia, only three patients showed moderate IgG titres. A control group of 100 blood donors, 60 patients with rheumatic disease, and 56 patients seeking medical care were tested of which 2.0–7.1% showed low anti-Rickettsia titres and 3.0–8.3% anti-Borrelia titres. The findings are indicative for an association between infection or exposure to Rickettsia spp. and uveitis with a seropositivity among patients with recurrent uveitis in concordance with the spread of rickettsial exposure in a tick-exposed population. PMID:29318041

  10. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  11. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  12. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  13. Serodiagnosis of Borrelia miyamotoi disease by measuring antibodies against GlpQ and variable major proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koetsveld, J.; Kolyasnikova, N. M.; Wagemakers, A.

    2018-01-01

    previously shown the differential expression of antigenic variable major proteins (Vmps) in B. miyamotoi, our aim was to study antibody responses against GlpQ and Vmps in PCR-proven BMD patients and controls. Methods: We assessed seroreactivity against GlpQ and four Vmps in a well-described, longitudinal......, and IgG between 21 and 50 days, after disease onset. Various combinations of GlpQ and Vmps increased sensitivity and/or specificity compared to single antigens. Notably, the GlpQ or variable large protein (Vlp)-15/16 combination yielded a sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI: 75.4–99.7) 11–20 days after disease......Objectives: Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging tick-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere. Serodiagnosis by measuring antibodies against glycerophosphodiester-phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) has been performed experimentally but has not been extensively clinically validated. Because we had...

  14. Borrelia miyamotoi, Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in Eastern Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Avery B; Rucinsky, Renee; Gaff, Holly D; Brinkerhoff, R Jory

    2017-12-01

    We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.

  15. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Effect of tick saliva on signalling pathways activated by TLR-2 ligand and Borrelia afzelii in dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 8-9 (2012), s. 421-429 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GAP302/12/2208 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * dendritic cells * tick saliva * Toll-like receptor signalling Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.208, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2012.01375.x/abstract

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-07-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-07-0067 ref|NP_212725.1| competence locus E, putative [Borrelia burgdorfe...ri B31] gb|AAB91516.1| competence locus E, putative [Borrelia burgdorferi B31] NP_212725.1 1e-04 22% ...

  18. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  19. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  20. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-06-02

    Jun 2, 1995 ... South Africa contains the majority of southern Africa's endemic mammals and hence is an important ... example of an archaic fauna that has undergone local radia- ... Indeed, only six of South Africa's endemic. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ..... of the endemic flora of this region is renowned (Cowling,.

  1. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  2. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, D.

    1983-09-12

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

  3. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, D.

    1983-01-01

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.) [de

  4. Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Audun; Hajdusek, Ondrej; Øines, Øivind; Quarsten, Hanne; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Herstad, Tove K; Kjelland, Vivian; Sima, Radek; Jalovecka, Marie; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Aaberge, Ingeborg S

    2016-01-01

    A modified microscopy protocol (the LM-method) was used to demonstrate what was interpreted as Borrelia spirochetes and later also Babesia sp., in peripheral blood from patients. The method gained much publicity, but was not validated prior to publication, which became the purpose of this study using appropriate scientific methodology, including a control group. Blood from 21 patients previously interpreted as positive for Borrelia and/or Babesia infection by the LM-method and 41 healthy controls without known history of tick bite were collected, blinded and analysed for these pathogens by microscopy in two laboratories by the LM-method and conventional method, respectively, by PCR methods in five laboratories and by serology in one laboratory. Microscopy by the LM-method identified structures claimed to be Borrelia- and/or Babesia in 66% of the blood samples of the patient group and in 85% in the healthy control group. Microscopy by the conventional method for Babesia only did not identify Babesia in any samples. PCR analysis detected Borrelia DNA in one sample of the patient group and in eight samples of the control group; whereas Babesia DNA was not detected in any of the blood samples using molecular methods. The structures interpreted as Borrelia and Babesia by the LM-method could not be verified by PCR. The method was, thus, falsified. This study underlines the importance of doing proper test validation before new or modified assays are introduced.

  5. Characterisation of silent and active genes for a variable large protein of Borrelia recurrentis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Ian G

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the characterisation of the variable large protein (vlp gene expressed by clinical isolate A1 of Borrelia recurrentis; the agent of the life-threatening disease louse-borne relapsing fever. Methods The major vlp protein of this isolate was characterised and a DNA probe created. Use of this together with standard molecular methods was used to determine the location of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene in both this and other isolates. Results This isolate was found to carry silent and expressed copies of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene on plasmids of 54 kbp and 24 kbp respectively, whereas a different isolate, A17, had only the silent vlp1B. recurrentis A17 on a 54 kbp plasmid. Silent and expressed vlp1 have identical mature protein coding regions but have different 5' regions, both containing different potential lipoprotein leader sequences. Only one form of vlp1 is transcribed in the A1 isolate of B. recurrentis, yet both 5' upstream sequences of this vlp1 gene possess features of bacterial promoters. Conclusion Taken together these results suggest that antigenic variation in B. recurrentis may result from recombination of variable large and small protein genes at the junction between lipoprotein leader sequence and mature protein coding region. However, this hypothetical model needs to be validated by further identification of expressed and silent variant protein genes in other B. recurrentis isolates.

  6. Inefficient co-feeding transmission of Borrelia afzelii in two common European songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Sprong, Hein; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Van Houtte, Natalie; Genné, Dolores; Gomez-Chamorro, Andrea; van Oers, Kees; Voordouw, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    The spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii is the most common cause of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. This tick-borne pathogen can establish systemic infections in rodents but not in birds. However, several field studies have recovered larval Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with B. afzelii from songbirds suggesting successful transmission of B. afzelii. We reviewed the literature to determine which songbird species were the most frequent carriers of B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus larvae and nymphs. We tested experimentally whether B. afzelii is capable of co-feeding transmission on two common European bird species, the blackbird (Turdus merula) and the great tit (Parus major). For each bird species, four naïve individuals were infested with B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphal ticks and pathogen-free larval ticks. None of the co-feeding larvae tested positive for B. afzelii in blackbirds, but a low percentage of infected larvae (3.33%) was observed in great tits. Transstadial transmission of B. afzelii DNA from the engorged nymphs to the adult ticks was observed in both bird species. However, BSK culture found that these spirochetes were not viable. Our study suggests that co-feeding transmission of B. afzelii is not efficient in these two songbird species. PMID:28054584

  7. The first case of imported Borrelia miyamotoi disease concurrent with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Rentaro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Sekikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hongo, Igen; Sato, Kozue; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2017-05-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging infectious disease caused by B. miyamotoi. Although BMD has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Japan, no case of imported BMD has been described in the world. Here, we report a 63-year-old American man living in Japan who presented with malaise, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. We suspected Lyme disease because of his travel history to Minnesota and presence of erythema migrans. Serologic analysis supported our diagnosis, and doxycycline was administered for 14 days. However, we also suspected coinfection with BMD because of his fever, elevated liver function test results and his travel history. The patient was seropositive for the immunoglobulin M antibody to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, and was diagnosed with coinfection with BMD. This case suggests that BMD should be considered in febrile travelers returning from the Northeastern and Midwestern regions of the United States, and that BMD and Lyme disease coinfection should be considered to detect cases of imported BMD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and functional characterisation of Complement Regulator Acquiring Surface Protein-1 of serum resistant Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burgel, Nathalie D.; Kraiczy, Peter; Schuijt, Tim J.; Zipfel, Peter F.; van Dam, Alje P.

    2010-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) is the etiological agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. Spirochetes have adapted themselves to the human immune system in many distinct ways. One important immune escape mechanism for evading complement activation is the binding of complement regulators Factor H (CFH)

  9. Tick thioester-containing proteins and phagocytosis do not affect transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the competent vector ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Kopáček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR (2017), č. článku 73. ISSN 2235-2988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-12006Y; GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GA17-27386S; GA ČR GA17-27393S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * complement * Ixodes * phagocytosis * thioester-containing proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  10. Molecular detection of Borrelia bissettii DNA in serum samples from patients in the Czech Republic with suspected borreliosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Růžek, Daniel; Piskunova, N.; Mallátová, N.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 2 (2009), s. 274-281 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia bissettii in human serum * causative agent * co-infection * co-detection of different species * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2009

  11. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  12. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  14. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  15. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, A. P.; van Gool, T.; Wetsteyn, J. C.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from

  17. IrC2/Bf - A yeast and Borrelia responsive component of the complement system from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, V.; Hajdušek, O.; Šíma, R.; Franta, Z.; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Grunclová, L.; Bartošová-Sojková, P.; Jalovecká, M.; Kopáček, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 76, FEB 2018 (2018), s. 86-94 ISSN 0145-305X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Borrelia * C3-complement convertase * Factor B Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  18. Co-inoculation of Borrelia afzelii with tick salivary gland extract influences distribution of immunocompetent cells in the skin and lymph nodes of mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severinová, Jana; Salát, Jiří; Kročová, Z.; Řezníčková, Jana; Demová, Hana; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2005), s. 457-463 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : tick salivary gland extract * inflammation * Borrelia Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  19. Polymorphisms at the innate immune receptor TLR2 are associated with Borrelia infection in a wild rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Andersson, Martin; Scherman, Kristin; Westerdahl, Helena; Mittl, Peer R E; Råberg, Lars

    2013-05-22

    The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionized our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease susceptibility in natural populations. Here, we assessed the extent of naturally occurring polymorphisms at TLR2 in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and tested for associations between TLR2 variants and infection with Borrelia afzelii, a common tick-transmitted pathogen in rodents and one of the causative agents of human Lyme disease. Bank voles in our population had 15 different TLR2 haplotypes (10 different haplotypes at the amino acid level), which grouped in three well-separated clusters. In a large-scale capture-mark-recapture study, we show that voles carrying TLR2 haplotypes of one particular cluster (TLR2c2) were almost three times less likely to be Borrelia infected than animals carrying other haplotypes. Moreover, neutrality tests suggested that TLR2 has been under positive selection. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of an association between TLR polymorphism and parasitism in wildlife, and a striking example that genetic variation at innate immune receptors can have a large impact on host resistance.

  20. Evaluation of BSK-H Complete Medium Supplemented with Rabbit Serum and Sodium Bicarbonate for the Growth of Borrelia anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Aslam, Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood and Ahrar Khan1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the effect of 3 formulations Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK medium on the growth of Borrelia (B. anserina, the causative agent of avian borreliosis. Three different formulations of BSK medium (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete medium were prepared. For the isolation of B. anserina, Argas ticks were inoculated in all the three (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete formulations of BSK medium. All the samples were also observed for the impact of BSK medium on the growth (Generation time, Growth per hour, Specific growth rate of B. anserina. Phase contrast microscopy was performed for the observation of viable B. anserina cells, and additional confirmation of all the isolates was done by performing indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. BSK-H complete medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum and sodium bicarbonate was found best when compared to two other formulations of BSK medium with respect to the isolation, generation time and growth rate of Borrelia spirochetes.

  1. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  2. Bursting endemic bubbles in an adaptive network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherborne, N.; Blyuss, K. B.; Kiss, I. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The spread of an infectious disease is known to change people's behavior, which in turn affects the spread of disease. Adaptive network models that account for both epidemic and behavioral change have found oscillations, but in an extremely narrow region of the parameter space, which contrasts with intuition and available data. In this paper we propose a simple susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on an adaptive network with time-delayed rewiring, and show that oscillatory solutions are now present in a wide region of the parameter space. Altering the transmission or rewiring rates reveals the presence of an endemic bubble—an enclosed region of the parameter space where oscillations are observed.

  3. ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Partono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

  4. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  5. Features of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas. Adults (>15 years) do not suffer from the disease. Concomitant presence of low levels of P. falciparum in immune persons. This immunity is lost within 6-12 months if a person moves out of endemic area. Antibodies mediate protection for the asexual stages of P. falciparum.

  6. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  7. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  9. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  10. Stem loop sequences specific to transposable element IS605 are found linked to lipoprotein genes in Borrelia plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Delihas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmids of Borrelia species are dynamic structures that contain a large number of repetitive genes, gene fragments, and gene fusions. In addition, the transposable element IS605/200 family, as well as degenerate forms of this IS element, are prevalent. In Helicobacter pylori, flanking regions of the IS605 transposase gene contain sequences that fold into identical small stem loops. These function in transposition at the single-stranded DNA level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In work reported here, bioinformatics techniques were used to scan Borrelia plasmid genomes for IS605 transposable element specific stem loop sequences. Two variant stem loop motifs are found in the left and right flanking regions of the transposase gene. Both motifs appear to have dispersed in plasmid genomes and are found "free-standing" and phylogenetically conserved without the associated IS605 transposase gene or the adjacent flanking sequence. Importantly, IS605 specific stem loop sequences are also found at the 3' ends of lipoprotein genes (PFam12 and PFam60, however the left and right sequences appear to develop their own evolutionary patterns. The lipoprotein gene-linked left stem loop sequences maintain the IS605 stem loop motif in orthologs but only at the RNA level. These show mutations whereby variants fold into phylogenetically conserved RNA-type stem loops that contain the wobble non-Watson-Crick G-U base-pairing. The right flanking sequence is associated with the family lipoprotein-1 genes. A comparison of homologs shows that the IS605 stem loop motif rapidly dissipates, but a more elaborate secondary structure appears to develop in its place. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stem loop sequences specific to the transposable element IS605 are present in plasmid regions devoid of a transposase gene and significantly, are found linked to lipoprotein genes in Borrelia plasmids. These sequences are evolutionarily conserved and/or structurally developed in

  11. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  12. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Reason, Iara J de Messias

    2010-03-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  13. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  14. [Safety threshold of fluorine in endemic fluorosis regions in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Hou, Shaofan

    2002-07-01

    Four endemic fluorosis regions in China and their environmental epidemiological characteristics were summarized in this paper. It shows that the epidemiology of endemic fluorosis is closely related to geochemical parameters of local environment. The food-web and dose-effect relationship of fluoride from environment to human body in different types of endemic fluorosis regions were studied. And the safety threshold of fluoride in different regions was determined. The results have provided a scientific basis for environmental risk assessment of fluoride in China.

  15. A tick mannose-binding lectin inhibits the vertebrate complement cascade to enhance transmission of the Lyme disease agent

    OpenAIRE

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Coumou, Jeroen; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; DePonte, Kathleen; Wouters, Diana; Brouwer, Mieke; Oei, Anneke; Roelofs, Joris J.T.H.; van Dam, Alje P.; van der Poll, Tom; van ’t Veer, Cornelis; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is primarily transmitted to vertebrates by Ixodes ticks. The classical and alternative complement pathways are important in Borrelia eradication by the vertebrate host. We recently identified a tick salivary protein, designated P8 that reduced complement-mediated killing of Borrelia. We now discover that P8 interferes with the human lectin complement cascade resulting in impaired neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and diminished Borrelia lysi...

  16. The Presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, A Relapsing Fever Spirochaete, in Questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochez, C; Heyman, P; Heylen, D; Fonville, M; Hengeveld, P; Takken, W; Simons, L; Sprong, H

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. miyamotoi in flagged Ixodes ricinus from Belgium and the Netherlands. B. miyamotoi was detected in nine of thirteen, and three of five locations from the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively. These outcomes indicate that B. miyamotoi is more spread than previously thought. The mean infection rate B. miyamotoi was 1.14% for Belgium and 3.84% for the Netherlands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Infection history of the blood-meal host dictates pathogenic potential of the Lyme disease spirochete within the feeding tick vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Bhatia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease in humans is caused by several genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex of spirochetal bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. These bacteria exist in nature as obligate parasites in an enzootic cycle between small vertebrate hosts and Ixodid tick vectors, with humans representing incidental hosts. During the natural enzootic cycle, infected ticks in endemic areas feed not only upon naïve hosts, but also upon seropositive infected hosts. In the current study, we considered this environmental parameter and assessed the impact of the immune status of the blood-meal host on the phenotype of the Lyme disease spirochete within the tick vector. We found that blood from a seropositive host profoundly attenuates the infectivity (>104 fold of homologous spirochetes within the tick vector without killing them. This dramatic neutralization of vector-borne spirochetes was not observed, however, when ticks and blood-meal hosts carried heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains, or when mice lacking humoral immunity replaced wild-type mice as blood-meal hosts in similar experiments. Mechanistically, serum-mediated neutralization does not block induction of host-adapted OspC+ spirochetes during tick feeding, nor require tick midgut components. Significantly, this study demonstrates that strain-specific antibodies elicited by B. burgdorferi s.l. infection neutralize homologous bacteria within feeding ticks, before the Lyme disease spirochetes enter a host. The blood meal ingested from an infected host thereby prevents super-infection by homologous spirochetes, while facilitating transmission of heterologous B. burgdorferi s.l. strains. This finding suggests that Lyme disease spirochete diversity is stably maintained within endemic populations in local geographic regions through frequency-dependent selection of rare alleles of dominant polymorphic surface antigens.

  18. Evaluation of recomBead Borrelia. Quantitative analysis using 13 antigens for IgM and IgG. Do Borrelia IgM antibodies have diagnostic use in Northern Scandinavia? - A comparison of sero-reactivity of samples from Åland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    Evaluering af recomBead borrelia. Ny multiplex metode. Der blev præsenteret overvejelser om hvordan man skal score den den store mængde resultater for at opnå optimal diagnostisk diskriminations evne. Disse metode overvejelser er var vigtige, da det samme kit afprøves både to steder i Sverige ogs...

  19. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars of endemic trachoma had been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The serovars that we identified from Japanese infants and pregnant women ... Once Japan was thought to be belong to an endemic area of trachoma as other Asian countries.

  1. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, G.A.

    2001-10-01

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R 0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R 0 exceeds 1. R 0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R 0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R 0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  2. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  3. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, endemic plants, plant extract. INTRODUCTION ..... The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. ... Origanum solymicum and Origanum bilgeri from Turkey. Afr. J. Trad.

  4. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  5. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk.High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are

  6. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the

  7. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  8. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  9. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Imported from West Africa: Diagnosis by Quantitative Buffy Coat Analysis and In Vitro Culture of Borrelia crocidurae

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, Alje P.; van Gool, Tom; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Dankert, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In v...

  10. Detection of Borrelia bissetii in the South Bohemia region of the Czech Republic: cases of single and multiple infections in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Piskunova, N.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, S7 (2008), S109-S110 ISSN 1198-743X. [ECCMID /18./. 19.04.2008-22.04.2008, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease * Borrelia bissettii * causative agent * human samples Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Detection of Borrelia bissettii in cardiac valve tissue of a patient with endocarditis and aortic valve stenosis in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Mokráček, A.; Piskunova, N.; Růžek, Daniel; Mallátová, N.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 10 (2008), s. 3540-3543 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease * Borrelia bissettii * carditis * causative agent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.945, year: 2008

  12. 北海道におけるBorrelia spp.の伝播に対する鹿の役割 [全文の要約

    OpenAIRE

    李, 景利

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to describe the role of deer in the transmission of different species of Borrelia spp. Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) are the hosts of ticks of various species and stages in Hokkaido. Deer overpopulation has caused problems with forestry and agricultural production. The potential of deer involvement in zoonoses is also being watched. In this study, deer caught in the nuisance control scheme and ticks collected from deer and the field were tested to detect ...

  13. Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Maciej; Bukowska, Alicja; Michalak, Michał; Bura, Aleksandra; Nawrocki, Mariusz J; Karczewski, Marek; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2018-03-13

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV exposure markers in FRs from a single forest district in Greater Poland in relation to anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) IgG, and anti-Borrelia spp. IgM and IgG antibodies. In total, 138 participants (48 FRs and 90 blood donors - BDs) were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and 96 individuals (48 FRs and 48 BDs) were tested for anti-HAV IgG (ARCHITECT immunoassays, Abbott Laboratories, Wiesbaden, Germany); anti-Borrelia IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN kits) were assessed in FRs only. Anti-HEV markers were detected in 3 participants (2.2%; IgM in 1 FR, IgG in 2 BDs), less frequently than anti-HAV (16 out of 96 individuals, about 17%; FRs 19% vs BDs 15%) or anti-Borrelia antibodies (18 out of 48 individuals, 37.5%) (p < 0.0001 for both). Older study participants (≥45 years of age) were more frequently HAV-seropositive (29% vs 4% of the younger individuals; p = 0.0012). We failed to unequivocally prove HEV exposure in FRs. The HAV seroprevalence in this study paralleled the situation in the general population. Exposure to Borrelia spp. in FRs was common.

  14. FOLIAR ANATOMY OF ENDEMICS SPECIES OF Cattleya (ORCHIDACEAE ENDEMIC FROM GUIANA SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Tomaz Carneiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was characterize the leaf's anatomical aspects of Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe and e C. lawrenceana Rchb. f., describing its anatomical structures in order to increase the knowledge of this endemic species from the region of the Guiana Shield. Besides, it also intended to identify foliar characters to assist in the anatomical comparison of these species. For anatomical study, the material was fixed in FAA and to make the slides we used the usual cut freehand technique and stained with double staining from Safranin with Blue Astra (Safrablau. C. jenmanii and C. lawrenceana has fleshy leaves covered with a thick cuticle. The mesophyll presented dorsiventral with collateral vascular bundles. A large number of bundles of smaller caliber fibers are distributed in the mesophyll poles. Only the presence of a subepidermal layer of fibers differed C. lawrenceana from C. jenmanii. Keyword: Roraima; Guiana Shield; Cattleya; Amazon Basin.

  15. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  16. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Crevits, I.; Baert, A.L.; Casteels-Van Daele, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia...

  18. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  19. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  20. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  1. Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born in winter and spring is considered one of the most robust epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia. The aetiology and exact timing of this birth excess, however, has remained elusive so far. Since during phylogeny, Borrelia DNA has led to multiple germ-line mutations within the CB1 candidate gene for schizophrenia, a meta analysis has been performed of all papers on schizophrenic birth excesses with no less than 3000 cases each. All published numerical data were then plotted against the seasonal distributions of Ixodes ticks worldwide. Results In the United States, Europe and Japan the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodes ticks nine months earlier at the time of conception. South of the Wallace Line, which limits the spread of Ixodes ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi into Australia, seasonal trends are less significant, and in Singapore, being non-endemic for Ixodes ticks and Lyme disease, schizophrenic birth excesses are absent. Conclusion At present, it cannot be excluded that prenatal infection by B. burgdorferi is harmful to the implanting human blastocyst. The epidemiological clustering of sporadic schizophrenia by season and locality rather emphasises the risk to the unborn of developing a congenital, yet preventable brain disorder later in life.

  2. A treasure of endemic fauna of Mauritius and Rodrigues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This publication deals with the endemic species of the Indian ocean islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The author describes the extinct and extant birds and animals in word and art. The book is illustrated with the authors drawings and paintings. Full colour.

  3. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  4. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism cOincide with those of species rich- ness. However, Red ... species richness hotspot in the Succulent Karoo contains no existing reserves, whereas all Red Data Book spe- ... conserve all aspects of biodiversity, but of historical ad hoc decisions ...

  5. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  6. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of these endemics are small mammals and many are listed in the Red Data Book, especially those restricted to the Nama-and Succulent Karoo. This is of concern, as both areas are inadequately protected by the existing protected areas. The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly ...

  7. Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  9. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  10. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  11. The endemicity of dracunculiasis, transmission pattern and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the endemicity of dracunculiasis, it's transmission pattern and ecology of cyclopoid copepods in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria were carried out between January and December 2001. Of the 2226 persons examined in eight communities, 426 (19.1%) were infected. This included 24 ...

  12. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  13. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  14. Genetic variability in the population of the endemic bee Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and spatial genetic population structure of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata Walker 1871, a species endemic to St Katherine Protectorate, were studied by RAPD markers in seven wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. High levels of genetic diversity were found, mostly within ...

  15. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  16. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the target species is highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism coincide with those of species richness. However, Red Data Book species hotspots are confined to the north-eastern parts of the country. One species richness hotspol in the Succulent Karoo contains no ...

  17. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  18. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  19. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  20. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  1. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  2. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  3. Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, M. P. M.; Goorhuis, A.; van Kinschot, C. M. J.; Crobach, M. J. T.; Harmanus, C.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in an endemic setting. In a 34-month prospective case-control study, we compared the risk factors and clinical characteristics of all consecutively diagnosed hospitalised CDI patients (n = 93) with

  4. Conservation assessment of the endemic plants from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaku Fadil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen endemic plant taxa were selected from Kosovo, according to the IUCN standards and for each taxon the risk assessment and threat category has been assigned. The taxa were compared with their previous status from fifteen years ago. From sixteen plant taxa, which were included in this work, four are Balkan endemics, whereas, eight of them are local endemics and four of the taxa are stenoendemics. Six of the taxa are grown exclusively on serpentine soils, five of them on limestone substrate, four of them in carbonate substrate, yet only one in silicate substrate. The work has been done based on the standard working methodologies of the IUCN (Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria – Version 8.1. The most threatened plant taxa is Solenanthus krasniqii – which after its observance has only 20 mature individuals. As a result of the wild collection of the medicinal and aromatic plants, from the local population, Sideritis scardica is about to be completely go extinct. The aim of this study was to assess the state of endemics in the threats possessed to them during the previous times, present and predicting the trends for the upcoming years.

  5. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  6. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  7. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  8. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  9. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  10. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Núncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal.

  12. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after

  13. Field Studies on Lyme Disease in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Piesman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern and central North America is Ixodes dammini; in western North America, Ixodes pacificus. Searching for the appropriate vector is the first step in determining whether a region is endemic and enzootic for the spirochete B burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, followed by examination of the ticks (questing or already attached to hosts and wildlife for the spirochete. Questing ticks can be collected through a variety of methods. The two major animal hosts for I dammini are the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus and the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Sampling strategies should consider habitat and season. All three life stages of the vector tick should be located, indicating a self-sustaining population. Although B burgdorferi can be detected in many ways, there is no substitute for isolating the spirochete in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II medium for definitive proof of the presence of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  14. Spitting Image: Tick Saliva Assists the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease in Evading Host Skin's Innate Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through ticks. Inhibition of host skin's innate immune response might be instrumental to both tick feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission. The article by Marchal et al. describes how tick saliva suppresses B.

  15. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  16. Antibodies against a tick protein, Salp15, protect mice from the Lyme disease agent

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jianfeng; Wang, Penghua; Adusumilli, Sarojini; Booth, Carmen J.; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Anguita, Juan; Fikrig, Erol

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines directly target a pathogen or microbial toxin. Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a tick-borne illness for which a human vaccine is not currently available. B. burgdorferi binds a tick salivary protein, Salp15, during transmission from the vector, and this interaction facilitates infection of mice. We now show that Salp15-antiserum significantly protected mice from B. burgdorferi infection. Salp15-antiserum also markedly enhanced the protective capacity o...

  17. A tick mannose-binding lectin inhibitor interferes with the vertebrate complement cascade to enhance transmission of the lyme disease agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Coumou, Jeroen; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Dai, Jianfeng; Deponte, Kathleen; Wouters, Diana; Brouwer, Mieke; Oei, Anneke; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van Dam, Alje P.; van der Poll, Tom; van't Veer, Cornelis; Hovius, Joppe W.; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi is primarily transmitted to vertebrates by Ixodes ticks. The classical and alternative complement pathways are important in Borrelia eradication by the vertebrate host. We recently identified a tick salivary protein, designated P8, which reduced

  18. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Rocha, Luiz A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.

  19. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Laureano; Watanabe, Tomas; El Tamer, Elias; Varela, Amalia; Moran, Dardo; Rinaudo, Antonio; Staneloni, Luis; Degrossi, O.J.

    1978-12-01

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author) [es

  20. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  1. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  2. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  4. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  5. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  6. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  7. Disagreement between the results from three commercial tests for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies in the Netherlands associated with antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis: a retrospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, T; Kremer, K; Voet, W; Notermans, D W; Vlaminckx, B J M; Sankatsing, S U C; Thijsen, S F T

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is challenging because of the often non-specific symptoms and persisting antibodies after infection. We investigated the diagnostic characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an immunoblot for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum

  8. Crystal Structure of Borrelia turicatae protein, BTA121, a differentially regulated  gene in the tick-mammalian transmission cycle of relapsing fever spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhipu; Kelleher, Alan J.; Darwiche, Rabih; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Shittu, Oluwatosin K.; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; Schneiter, Roger; Lopez, Job E.; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A. (Baylor); (Fribourg); (NCI)

    2017-11-10

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (RF) borreliosis is a neglected disease that is often misdiagnosed. RF species circulating in the United States include Borrelia turicatae, which is transmitted by argasid ticks. Environmental adaptation by RF Borrelia is poorly understood, however our previous studies indicated differential regulation of B. turicatae genes localized on the 150 kb linear megaplasmid during the tick-mammalian transmission cycle, including bta121. This gene is up-regulated by B. turicatae in the tick versus the mammal, and the encoded protein (BTA121) is predicted to be surface localized. The structure of BTA121 was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) using selenomethionine-derivative protein. The topology of BTA121 is unique with four helical domains organized into two helical bundles. Due to the sequence similarity of several genes on the megaplasmid, BTA121 can serve as a model for their tertiary structures. BTA121 has large interconnected tunnels and cavities that can accommodate ligands, notably long parallel helices, which have a large hydrophobic central pocket. Preliminary in-vitro studies suggest that BTA121 binds lipids, notably palmitate with a similar order of binding affinity as tablysin-15, a known palmitate-binding protein. The reported data will guide mechanistic studies to determine the role of BTA121 in the tick-mammalian transmission cycle of B. turicatae.

  9. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  10. Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between sporadic schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.

  11. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2013), s. 1403-1406 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease * genetic diversity * scapularis tick * Acari * North Carolina * heterogenity * polymorphism * cultivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  12. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van

    2014-01-01

    -replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management

  13. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  14. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  15. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  16. Is the endemic Maltese Top-shell Gibbula nivosa extinct?

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.; Borg, Joseph A.; Deidun, Alan; Knittweis, Leyla; Mellado Lopez, T.

    2007-01-01

    The trochid gastropod Gibbula nivosa, endemic to the Maltese Islands, has recently only been found in two Maltese bays, where it occurred on seagrass leaves and under stones at depths of 1-4m. Intensive sampling of Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica meadows, sediment and pebbles at depths of 2-12m, carried out in 2000 and 2002, resulted only in empty shells but no live animals, suggesting that the species is extinct from these localities where previously good populations were found. Howe...

  17. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  18. Endemic Sexual Violence and Abuse: Contexts and Dispositions

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    Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.

  19. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  20. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  1. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Smith, David L; Guerra, Carlos A; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I

    2011-12-20

    Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) and the basic reproductive number (PfR). Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG) prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The maps presented here contribute to a rational basis for control and

  2. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  3. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  4. Sternoclavicular Arthritis as a Clinical Presentation for Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Rosenkranz, Margalit; Nowalk, Andrew J; Zuckerbraun, Noel S

    2018-04-01

    Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and can lead to dermatologic, neurologic, cardiac, and musculoskeletal manifestations. The arthritis of Lyme disease is typically monoarticular, with the knee being most commonly involved. Lyme arthritis of small joints has not previously been well described. We report 3 children who presented with sternoclavicular joint swelling and who were found to have Lyme disease based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. This description of sternoclavicular Lyme arthritis highlights the importance of considering Lyme disease in the differential and diagnostic workup of new onset, small joint arthritis in patients presenting from or with travel to Lyme endemic regions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Monaghan, Andrew; Mead, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The timing of the peak and duration of the LD season were also associated with cumulative growing degree days, saturation deficit, and cumulative precipitation, but no meteorological predictors adequately explained the timing of the end of the LD season. PMID:24470565

  6. Amplification of the flgE gene provides evidence for the existence of a Brazilian borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mantovani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of Brazilian borreliosis resemble the clinical manifestations of Lyme disease (LD. However, there are differences between the two in terms of epidemiological and laboratory findings. Primers usually employed to diagnose LD have failed to detect Borrelia strains in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the Brazilian Borrelia using a conserved gene that synthesizes the flagellar hook (flgE of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. METHOD: Three patients presenting with erythema migrans and positive epidemiological histories were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected, and the DNA was extracted by commercial kits. RESULTS: The gene flgE was amplified from DNA of all selected patients. Upon sequencing, these positive samples revealed 99% homology to B. burgdorferi flgE. CONCLUSION: These results support the existence of borreliosis in Brazil. However, it is unclear whether this borreliosis is caused by a genetically modified B. burgdorferi sensu stricto or by a new species of Borrelia spp.

  7. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.E. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK))

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75/sup 0/C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environment, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles.

  8. Exoemission of Ethiopian soils and the endemicity of non-filarial elephantiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Non-filarial elephantiasis is an endemic disease in the bare-footed population of Ethiopia. The distribution of this condition is linked with that of local red clay soil. Recently, thermoluminescence has been successfully used to distinguish between endemic and non-endemic soils. Instrinsic lattice defects, frozen in during cooling of volcanic material, are considered to be responsible for characteristic thermoluminescence signals. However, the biological reactivity of the absorbed soil particles will depend upon their surface properties. Exoemission has therefore been studied in samples from both endemic (5 samples) and non-endemic (4 samples) areas. All samples from endemic areas, on first heating, demonstrate an emission peak at 75 0 C. Post-irradiation storage of samples in a moist atmosphere tends to decrease emissivity while wetting irreversibly reduces the response to irradiation. In an hydrated biological environement, this surface reactivity may be linked to the pathogenicity of the soil particles. (author)

  9. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity.

  10. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Achra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  11. Lyme disease: clinical diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchette, TF; Davis, I; Johnston, BL

    2014-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is an emerging zoonotic infection in Canada. As the Ixodes tick expands its range, more Canadians will be exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Objective To review the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease for front-line clinicians. Methods A literature search using PubMed and restricted to articles published in English between 1977 and 2014. Results Individuals in Lyme-endemic areas are at greatest risk, but not all tick bites transmit Lyme disease. The diagnosis is predominantly clinical. Patients with Lyme disease may present with early disease that is characterized by a “bull’s eye rash”, fever and myalgias or with early disseminated disease that can manifest with arthralgias, cardiac conduction abnormalities or neurologic symptoms. Late Lyme disease in North America typically manifests with oligoarticular arthritis but can present with a subacute encephalopathy. Antibiotic treatment is effective against Lyme disease and works best when given early in the infection. Prophylaxis with doxycyline may be indicated in certain circumstances. While a minority of patients may have persistent symptoms, evidence does not demonstrate that prolonged courses of antibiotics improve outcome. Conclusion Clinicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease. Knowing the regions where Borrelia infection is endemic in North America is important for recognizing patients at risk and informing the need for treatment. PMID:29769842

  12. Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, A P; van Gool, T; Wetsteyn, J C; Dankert, J

    1999-06-01

    West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In vitro experiments showed that QBC analysis may be as much as 100-fold more sensitive than thick smear. Spirochetes were also cultured from blood samples from both patients in modified Kelly's medium and were identified as B. crocidurae by partial sequencing of the PCR-amplified rrs gene.

  13. Some heavy metals levels in drinking water and social characteristics in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie West district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh-Agbozo, Francis

    2009-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by mycobacterium ulcerans(MU). It is often associated with slow flowing or stagnant water and increase in the incidence of disease is also associated with the ecological transformation. Several risk factors have been identified and a number of transmission mechanisms suggested. However, the exact mechanism of transmission and development of Buruli ulcer through water related human activities are unknown. A study was carried out to compare concentrations of cadmium, lead and aluminium in drinking water samples and some social characteristics from endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie- West District of Ghana. Ninety-six drinking water sources were sampled from boreholes and hand-dug wells in the study area. The analysis of the samples showed that the average concentration of cadmium was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities even though all the values were below the WHO guideline values of 0.003mg/L. The average concentration of Lead and Aluminium were lower in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities, but the differences between the average concentrations were not statistically significant ( p≥ 0.95 for Lead, p≥ 0.30 for Aluminium). Aluminium concentrations in all the samples were however lower than the WHO recommended guideline value of 0.1mg/L, whilst the concentration of lead was higher than the recommended guideline value of several communities. It was therefore concluded that Cadmium, Lead and Aluminium may not contribute to the occurrence and transmission of BU. In relation to the social characteristics, the educational level was generally poorer in endemic areas than in the non-endemic areas. The endemic communities used poorer source of water which include streams and hand-dug wells, unlike non-endemic communities which had better sources of water- boreholes and pipe-borne water only. Field observation showed that people in the endemic

  14. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Ahmad, B.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  15. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-10-19

    Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients

  16. Vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa numerically redefines a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sandun J; ProcheŞ, Şerban; Ratnayake-Perera, Dayani; Ramdhani, Syd

    2018-02-20

    We use numerical methods to explore patterns of vertebrate endemism in south-eastern Africa, refining the boundaries of the intuitively-defined Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot, also proposing a zoogeographic regionalisation. An incidence matrix of 300 vertebrate species endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu lato in 37 operational geographic units were used in (a) phenetic cluster analysis (PCA) using the algorithm of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (phenetic approach), and (b) parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE; parsimony approach), in order to numerically evaluate the bioregional delimitations. The analyses provide a valid biogeographical entity 37% larger than the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot, but substantially (131%) higher in vertebrate endemicity viz. the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of vertebrate endemism. South-east Africa is recognised as a dominion in the global zoogeographical area hierarchy, with subordinate units including the GMPA province. Various spatially-based measures of endemism were mapped for vertebrate species restricted to the dominion, i.e. endemic to south-eastern Africa sensu stricto. Areas and centres of endemism detected respectively from PAE and PCA, within the south-east Africa dominion also support the refined boundary of the GMPA region of endemism, which provides a better spatial conservation priority compared to the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. Reptiles and amphibians are found to be the main drivers of the overall pattern of endemism, while the pattern in freshwater fish is the most distinctive. Our analyses also indicate a good congruence of the centres of endemism across different terrestrial vertebrate taxa.

  17. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

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    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  18. Endemic malaria in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetsouvanh, R; Vythilingam, I; Sivadong, B; Hakim, S Lokman; Chan, S T; Phompida, S

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in four villages in Attapeu Province, Lao PDR in 2002 to determine malaria endemicity. The study villages were Mixay, Beng Phoukham, Phou Vong and Pier Geo. Mass blood surveys were conducted in May, August, and October. Finger prick blood was collected for thick and thin blood film as well as for dipstick. The slide positivity rate was highest in Phou Hom in October (41.7%). Plasmodium falciparum was the dominant species comprising more than 80% of the cases. As a whole, the distribution of malaria was similar among males and females. Children below 15 years accounted for a large percentage of the cases. The sensitivity of the optimal dipstick was 62.36 and the specificity was 61.7. Microscopy was taken as the gold standard. Anopheles dirus was found to be the main vector and the vectorial capacity correlated well with the cases.

  19. Zika virus: Endemic and epidemic ranges of Aedes mosquito transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Attaway

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round. Aedes mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika and other viruses are likely to live year-round across many tropical areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Our map provides an enhanced global projection of where vector control initiatives may be most valuable for reducing the risk of Zika virus and other Aedes-borne infections. Keywords: Geographic information systems, Geographic information science, Risk mapping, Zika, Aedes modeling

  20. Zika virus: Endemic and epidemic ranges of Aedes mosquito transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaway, David F; Waters, Nigel M; Geraghty, Estella M; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round. Aedes mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika and other viruses are likely to live year-round across many tropical areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Our map provides an enhanced global projection of where vector control initiatives may be most valuable for reducing the risk of Zika virus and other Aedes-borne infections. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic generalized linear models for monitoring endemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, Dan; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to use a Dynamic Generalized Linear Model (DGLM) based on abinomial distribution with a linear trend, for monitoring the PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome sero-prevalence in Danish swine herds. The DGLM was described and its performance for monitoring control...... and eradication programmes based on changes in PRRS sero-prevalence was explored. Results showed a declining trend in PRRS sero-prevalence between 2007 and 2014 suggesting that Danish herds are slowly eradicating PRRS. The simulation study demonstrated the flexibility of DGLMs in adapting to changes intrends...... in sero-prevalence. Based on this, it was possible to detect variations in the growth model component. This study is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the use of DGLMs for monitoring endemic diseases. In addition, the principles stated might be useful in general research on monitoring and surveillance...

  3. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis in Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas and non Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas: A status survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, QuanQuan; Liu, Yun Qi; Sun, Li Yan; Deng, Qing; Wang, Shao Ping; Cao, Yan Hong; Zhang, Xue Ying; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Lv, Hong Yan; Duan, Li Bin; Yu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees. A total of 1673 cases were collected, 1446 cases were analyzed after removing the KBD patients (227). The overall hand OA and knee OA detection rates were 33.3% (481/1446) and 56.6% (818/1446), respectively. After being standardized by age, the detection rate of hand OA in the KBD endemic areas was significantly higher than that in the non-endemic endemic areas. Differently, there was no significant difference in the detection rates of knee OA between the KBD endemic areas and the non-endemic area. The correlation coefficient between the severity of OA and the severity of knee OA was 0.358 and 0.197 in the KBD and non-KBD endemic areas, respectively. Where the KBD historical prevalence level was higher, the severity of the residents’ hand OA was more serious. The detection rates of hand OA and knee OA increased with age. The detection rate of knee OA increased with the increase in body mass index. The prevalence of hand OA was closely related to the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease, and the prevalence of knee OA had no significant correlation with KBD pathogenic factors. PMID:29320581

  4. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A multifactorial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncheva, Draga; Dimitrov, Tzvetan; Stojanova, Stiliana

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is of great clinical importance in the restricted areas of Bulgaria, Rumania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. So far, studies on the etiological factors for BEN have not discovered any single environmental causative agent of this puzzling disease. These data reject the possibility of a purely environmental causation of BEN. The pattern of BEN transmission in the risk families is not typical for single gene disorders. Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies disclose characteristics of multifactorial (polygenic) inheritance of BEN. The evidences of 'familial tendency', variation of the risk for BEN depending on the number of sick parents and the degree of relatedness; the development of BEN in individuals from at-risk families who were born in non-endemic areas; the data that disease is not found in the gypsy population and the expressions of 3q25 cytogenetic marker suggest that the genetic factors play an important role as causative factors in BEN development. The possible impact of environmental triggers on individuals genetically predisposed to BEN could be supposed by the following data: the cytogenetic results of the increased frequency of folate sensitive Fra sites, spontaneous or radiation-induced aberrations in several bands in BEN patients, the data from the detailed analysis of breaks in BEN patients and controls that generate structural chromosome aberrations; the occurrence of BEN in immigrants. Genetical epidemiological approaches to etiology and prevention of BEN are proposed. The predisposing genes for BEN could be genes localized in a region between 3q25-3q26; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), genetic heterogeneity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; defects in the host's immune system. The predisposing genes for BEN patients with urinary tract tumors could be germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and acquired somatic mutations in oncogenes

  5. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  6. Roles of OspA, OspB, and flagellin in protective immunity to Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Fikrig, E; Barthold, S W; Marcantonio, N; Deponte, K; Kantor, F S; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefor...

  7. Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...

  8. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  9. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  10. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  11. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  12. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  13. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BAIKALIAN ENDEMIC PROSOBRANCH GASTROPODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstorf, PETER; Healy, JOHN M.; Riedel, FRANK; Sitnikova, TATIANA Y.

    2002-05-01

    Mature euspermatozoan ultrastructure is described for seven species of the rissooidean family Baicaliidae (endemic to Lake Baikal, Russia)-Liobaicalia stiedae, Teratobaikalia ciliata, T. macrostoma, Baicalia carinata, Pseudobaikalia pulla, Maackia bythiniopsis, M. variesculpta, and M. herderiana. For comparison with these species and previously investigated Rissooidea, two species of the Lake Baikal endemic genus Benedictia (B. cf. fragilis and B. baicalensis; Hydrobiidae: Benedictiinae of some authors, Benedictiidae of other authors) in addition to Lithoglyphus naticoides (Hydrobiidae: Lithoglyphinae) and Bythinella austriaca (Hydrobiidae: Bythinellinae) were also investigated. Paraspermatozoa were not observed in any of the species examined, supporting the view that these cells are probably absent in the Rissooidea. In general, the euspermatozoa of all species examined resemble those of many other caenogastropods (basally invaginated acrosomal vesicle, mid-piece with 7-13 helical mitochondria, an annulus, glycogen piece with nine peri-axonemal tracts of granules). However, the presence of a completely flattened acrosomal vesicle and a specialized peri-axonemal membranous sheath (a scroll-like arrangement of 4-6 double membranes) at the termination of the mid-piece, clearly indicates a close relationship between the Baicaliidae and other rissooidean families possessing these features (Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Pyrgulidae, and Stenothyridae). Euspermatozoa of Benedictia, Lithoglyphus, Bythinella, and Pyrgula all have a solid nucleus, which exhibits a short, posterior invagination (housing the centriolar complex and proximal portion of the axoneme). Among the Rissooidea, this form of nucleus is known to occur in the Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Truncatellidae, Pyrgulidae, Iravadiidae, Pomatiopsidae, and Stenothyridae. In contrast, the euspermatozoa of the Baicaliidae all have a long, tubular nucleus, housing not only the centriolar derivative, but also a substantial

  14. Identification and functional characterisation of Complement Regulator Acquiring Surface Protein-1 of serum resistant Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipfel Peter F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl is the etiological agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. Spirochetes have adapted themselves to the human immune system in many distinct ways. One important immune escape mechanism for evading complement activation is the binding of complement regulators Factor H (CFH or Factor H-like protein1 (FHL-1 to Complement Regulator-Acquiring Surface Proteins (CRASPs. Results We demonstrate that B. garinii OspA serotype 4 (ST4 PBi resist complement-mediated killing by binding of FHL-1. To identify the primary ligands of FHL-1 four CspA orthologs from B. garinii ST4 PBi were cloned and tested for binding to human CFH and FHL-1. Orthologs BGA66 and BGA71 were found to be able to bind both complement regulators but with different intensities. In addition, all CspA orthologs were tested for binding to mammalian and avian CFH. Distinct orthologs were able to bind to CFH of different animal origins. Conclusions B. garinii ST4 PBi is able to evade complement killing and it can bind FHL-1 to membrane expressed proteins. Recombinant proteins BGA66 can bind FHL-1 and human CFH, while BGA71 can bind only FHL-1. All recombinant CspA orthologs from B. garinii ST4 PBi can bind CFH from different animal origins. This partly explains the wide variety of animals that can be infected by B. garinii.

  15. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  16. Endemic Acinetobacter baumannii in a New York hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Weisenberg

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly multidrug-resistant (MDR cause of hospital-acquired infections, often associated with limited therapeutic options. We investigated A. baumannii isolates at a New York hospital to characterize genetic relatedness.Thirty A. baumannii isolates from geographically-dispersed nursing units within the hospital were studied. Isolate relatedness was assessed by repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR. The presence and characteristics of integrons were assessed by PCR. Metabolomic profiles of a subset of a prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were characterized and compared.We detected a hospital-wide group of closely related carbapenem resistant MDR A. baumannii isolates. Compared with sporadic isolates, the prevalent strain isolates were more likely to be MDR (p = 0.001. Isolates from the prevalent strain carried a novel Class I integron sequence. Metabolomic profiles of selected prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were similar.The A. baumannii population at our hospital represents a prevalent strain of related MDR isolates that contain a novel integron cassette. Prevalent strain and sporadic isolates did not segregate by metabolomic profiles. Further study of environmental, host, and bacterial factors associated with the persistence of prevalent endemic A. baumannii strains is needed to develop effective prevention strategies.

  17. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Abate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%, in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL, we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF. We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  18. The genome of the Antarctic-endemic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sung Gu; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Min, Gi-Sik; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The Antarctic intertidal zone is continuously subjected to extremely fluctuating biotic and abiotic stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapidly warming region on Earth. Organisms living in Antarctic intertidal pools are therefore interesting for research into evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments and the effects of climate change. We report the whole genome sequence of the Antarctic-endemic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus kingsejongensi . The 37 Gb raw DNA sequence was generated using the Illumina Miseq platform. Libraries were prepared with 65-fold coverage and a total length of 295 Mb. The final assembly consists of 48 368 contigs with an N50 contig length of 17.5 kb, and 27 823 scaffolds with an N50 contig length of 159.2 kb. A total of 12 772 coding genes were inferred using the MAKER annotation pipeline. Comparative genome analysis revealed that T. kingsejongensis -specific genes are enriched in transport and metabolism processes. Furthermore, rapidly evolving genes related to energy metabolism showed positive selection signatures. The T. kingsejongensis genome provides an interesting example of an evolutionary strategy for Antarctic cold adaptation, and offers new genetic insights into Antarctic intertidal biota. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Gene Expression Signature in Endemic Osteoarthritis by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR algorithm and support vector machine (SVM algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD.

  20. Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA MOURA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation actionplans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solutions in shoot development. It was possible to produce clean shoots from cuttings using a forcing solution with 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS, 2% sucrose and no growth regulators addition. Shoot development results obtained with apical and sub-apical cuttings indicate that V. treleasei possessesapical dominance and deep endodormancy. Apical semihardwood cuttings in autumn or airlayered branches in autumn and winter with 2 or 5% (w/w of IBA produced excellent rooting results which will allow reinforcing depleted populations of V. treleasei efficientlyand at reduced costs.