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Sample records for borosilicate labs frit

  1. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-11-15

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  2. Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-30

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass made with Frit B and added PuO2 (the glass is referred to herein as Pu LaBS-B glass) to measure the dependence of the glass dissolution rate on pH and temperature. These results are compared with the dependencies used in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model that was developed to account for HLW glasses in total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations for the Yucca Mountain repository to determine if that model can also be used to represent the release of radionuclides from disposed Pu LaBS glass by using either the same parameter values that are used for HLW glasses or parameter values specific for Pu LaBS glass. Tests were conducted by immersing monolithic specimens of Pu LaBS-B glass in six solutions that imposed pH values between about pH 3.5 and pH 11, and then measuring the amounts of glass components released into solution. Tests were conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at low glass-surface-area-to-solution volume ratios. As intended, these test conditions maintained sufficiently dilute solutions that the impacts of solution feedback effects on the dissolution rates were negligible in most tests. The glass dissolution rates were determined from the concentrations of Si and B measured in the test solutions. The dissolution rates determined from the releases of Si and B were consistent with the 'V' shaped pH dependence that is commonly seen for borosilicate glasses and is included in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model. The rate equation in that model (using the coefficients determined for HLW glasses) provides values that are higher than the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution rates that were measured over the range of pH and temperature values that were studied (i.e., an upper bound). Separate coefficients for the rate expression in acidic and alkaline solutions were also determined from the test results to model Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution

  3. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 μm and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 μm. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 μm are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 μm but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 μm are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be

  4. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 μm and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 μm. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 μm are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 μm but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 μm are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be

  5. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSHILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-11-21

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  6. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  7. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  8. Analysis of frit by sodium peroxide fusion and flow injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.; Whitaker, M.

    1990-01-01

    Test runs for the immobilization of radioactive wastes in glass are now underway at the TNX Facility of the Savannah River Site. The wastes are immobilized by the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter System (IDMS) process. The IDMS makes a borosilicate glass. To make the glass, certain quantities of boron and silicate must be maintained in the melter. The silicate is added to the melter in a substance called frit. To determine the amount of frit to add, it is necessary to calculate the percent silicate in the frit. The present method of determining the silicate content of frit has yielded inconsistent results. The focus of this project was to develop and implement a new process for determining the silicate content of frit. The author chose to achieve this goal using a colormetric method

  9. Potter's Industries tests of spherical frit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.L.; Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Potter's Industries has been collaborating with Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) concerning application of glass beads in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Potter's has previously supplied SRL with 2000 lbs of spheroidized Frit 131 for experimental development. Representatives of Potter's Industries visited SRL recently to discuss results of blasting tests and pumpability tests comparing beads to frit. These tests were conducted at their laboratory facilities in New Jersey. Their blasting work suggested speed of cleaning was higher with frit media than with bead media; however, metal-to-oxide removal ratios were also higher with frit media. Fracture rate of beads used in dry blasting tests was excessive. Low fracture rates were found in -80 +200 mesh beads used in wet blasting tests. Blasting with bead media produced a shiny peened surface while frit media produced a dull matte surface. Some frit impregnation was noted in blasting with -20 +80 frit. Pumpability of bead/water slurries was superior to frit/water slurries at 40 wt % concentrations. 4 tables

  10. Errors of DWPF frit analysis: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Glass frit will be a major raw material for the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The frit will be controlled by certificate of conformance and a confirmatory analysis from a commercial analytical laboratory. The following effort provides additional quantitative information on the variability of frit chemical analyses at two commercial laboratories. Identical samples of IDMS Frit 202 were chemically analyzed at two commercial laboratories and at three different times over a period of four months. The SRL-ADS analyses, after correction with the reference standard and normalization, provided confirmatory information, but did not detect the low silica level in one of the frit samples. A methodology utilizing elliptical limits for confirming the certificate of conformance or confirmatory analysis was introduced and recommended for use when the analysis values are close but not within the specification limits. It was also suggested that the lithia specification limits might be reduced as long as CELS is used to confirm the analysis

  11. Method of manufacturing borosilicate glass solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tsuneya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain glass solidification products efficiently in a dry process from medium and high level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from PWR type reactors. Method: Boric acid-containing radioactive liquid wastes generated from primary coolants of PWR type reactors are evaporated to condensate as the pre-treatment. The concentrated liquid wastes are supplied to a drum type rotary kiln. While on the other hand, usual glass frits are introduced into the kiln. The liquid wastes are dried in the rotary kiln, as well as B 2 O 3 and the glass frits in the liquid wastes are combined into glass particles. In this case, since the kiln is rotated, no glass particles are deposited on the wall of the kiln. Then, the glass particles are introduced for melting into a high frequency melting furnace made of metal. The melting temperature is set to 1100 - 1150 deg C. The molten borosilicate glass is recovered from the bottom of the melting furance, contained in a canister and cooled for several hours, and then a cover is welded to the canister. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Rutherford backscattering investigation of the corrosion of borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Naramoto, H.; White, C.W.

    1981-10-01

    The RBS spectra from Frit 21 borosilicate glasses doped with 5 wt % UO 2 , SrO, or Cs 2 O show that: during the initial stages of leaching (0 to 3 h) there is a substantial (300 to 500%) enhancement in the concentration of U, Sr, Ca, and Ti in the outer surface layer and that this enhancement is accompanied by a large depletion of Na, Si, and Cs; and upon further leaching under static conditions (24 h) the leached surface layer composition is indistinguishable from the unleached surface. Other borosilicate glasses such as PNL 76-68 may eventually show the same behavior if the final equilibrium pH value is greater than 9. The technique of Rutherford backscattering depth profile analysis can be a powerful tool for investigating the initial stages of glass corrosion

  13. Frit screening for Rocky Flats ash and sand, slag, and crucible vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Li, Hong; Darab, J.G.

    1997-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing vitrified waste forms for plutonium-bearing ash and plutonium-bearing sand, slag, and crucible (SS ampersand C) materials from Rocky Flats. Waste forms are to meet product criteria (e.g., safeguard termination limits, storage criteria, and target plutonium loading) and processing constraints (e.g., upper temperature limits, processing time, and equipment compatibility). The target waste form for ash is an agglomerated product, while that for SS ampersand C is a fully encapsulated product. Laboratory scoping studies were conducted on glass formulations from six different glass families: (1) antimony vanadium phosphate, (2) iron vanadium phosphate, (3) tin zinc phosphate, (4) soda-lime silicate, (5) alkali borosilicate, and (6) alkali borate. Glass families were selected due to viscosity behavior in the temperature range of interest (< 800C). Scoping study tests included gradient furnace tests to determine processing range and sintering temperature, thermogravimetric analysis to determine weight loss as a function of temperature, and crucible tests to determine frit compositions tolerance to variations in processing temperature, waste loading, and waste type. The primary screening criterion for the selection of frits for future studies was processing temperature below 400C to minimize the potential for foaming in ash caused by the release of gases (main source of gas is combustion of carbon species) and to minimize processing cycle times. Based on this criterion, glass formulations from the tin zinc phosphate and alkali borosilicate families were selected for future variability testing. Variability testing will include final product evaluation, glass system tolerance to waste loading and composition variation, and identification of parameters impacting time/temperature profiles. Variability testing results will give a final frit formulation for ash and SS ampersand C, and identify key processing parameters

  14. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells

  15. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingfen, E-mail: lyf350857423@163.com; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  16. Sludge Batch Variability Study With Frit 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO 2 resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of

  17. The role of frit in nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Smith, P.A.; Dorn, D.A.; Hrma, P.

    1994-04-01

    Vitrification of nuclear waste requires additives which are often vitrified independently to form a frit. Frit composition is formulated to meet the needs of glass composition and processing. The effects of frit on melter feed and melt processing, glass acceptance, and waste loading is of practical interest in understanding the trade-offs associated with the competing demands placed on frit composition. Melter feed yield stress, viscosity and durability of frits and corresponding waste glasses as well as the kinetics of elementary melting processes have been measured. The results illustrate the competing requirements on frit. Four frits (FY91, FY93, HW39-4, and SR202) and simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) were used in this study. The experimental evidence shows that optimization of frit for one processing related property often results in poorer performance for the remaining properties. The difficulties associated with maximum waste loading and durability are elucidated for glasses which could be processed using technology available for the previously proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

  18. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  19. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  20. Lot No. 1 of Frit 202 for DWPF cold runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared at the end of 1992 and summarizes the evaluation of the first lot sample of DWPF Frit 202 from Cataphote Inc. Publication of this report was delayed until the results from the carbon analyses could be included. To avoid confusion the frit specifications presented in this report were those available at the end of 1992. The specifications were slightly modified early in 1993. The frit was received and evaluated for moisture, particle size distribution, organic-inorganic carbon and chemical composition. Moisture content and particle size distribution were determined on a representative sample at SRTC. These properties were within the DWPF specifications for Frit 202. A representative sample was submitted to Corning Engineering Laboratory Services for chemical analyses. The sample was split and two dissolutions prepared. Each dissolution was analyzed on two separate days. The results indicate that there is a high probability (>95%) that the silica content of this frit is below the specification limit of 77.0 ± 1.0 wt %. The average of the four analyzed values was 75.1 wt % with a standard deviation of 0.28 wt %. All other oxides were within the elliptical two sigma limits. Control standard frit samples were submitted and analyzed at the same time and the results were very similar to previous analyses of these materials

  1. Research on Glass Frit Deposition Based on the Electrospray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrospray technology is used to easily deposit the glass frit into patterns at a micro-scale level. First, far-field electrospray process was carried out with a mixture of glass frit in the presence of ethanol. A uniform, smooth, and dense glass frit film was obtained, verifying that the electrospray technology was feasible. Then, the distance between the nozzle and the substrate was reduced to 2 mm to carry out near-field electrospray. The experimental process was improved by setting the range of the feed rate of the substrate to match both the concentration and the flow rate of the solution. Spray diameter could be less at the voltage of 2 kV, in which the glass frit film was expected to reach the minimum line width. A uniform glass frit film with a line width within the range of 400–500 μm was prepared when the speed of the substrate was 25 mm/s. It indicates that electrospray is an efficient technique for the patterned deposition of glass frit in wafer-level hermetic encapsulation.

  2. Microcolumns with self-assembled particle frits for proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Yasushi; Rappsilber, Juri; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    LC-MS-MS experiments in proteomics are usually performed with packed microcolumns employing frits or outlets smaller than the particle diameter to retain the packing material. We have developed packed microcolumns using self-assembled particles (SAPs) as frits that are smaller than the size...... of the outlet. A five to one ratio of outlet size to particle diameter appears to be the upper maximum. In these situations the particles assembled into an arch over the outlet like the stones in a stone bridge. When 3 microm particles were packed into a tapered column with an 8 microm outlet, two particles...

  3. Special Frits for Direct-On Enamelling of Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdzenishvili, I.; Siradze, M.; Erokhin, V.; Kldiashvili, R.

    2010-01-01

    The compositions of low-melting zirconium-strontium frits have been developed for direct-on enamelling of pipes. Owing to the given combination of active cations, toxic fluorine and expensive nickel and lithium were eliminated from glass frit compositions. The enamels were subjected to firing by the induction method. In the synthesized enamels, the optimal complex of properties combining high corrosion-resistant and thermo-mechanic indices, adhesive strength and required specifications was realized. These enamels are recommended for testing on pipelines. (author)

  4. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  5. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product

  6. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, A.; Edwards, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass

  7. The borosilicate glass for 'PAMELA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiewer, E.

    1986-01-01

    The low enriched waste concentrate (LEWC) stored at Mol, Belgium, will be solidified in the vitrification plant 'PAMELA'. An alkali-borosilicate glass was developed by the Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin, which dissolves (11 +- 3)wt% waste oxides while providing sufficient flexibility for changes in the process parameters. The development of the glass labelled SM513LW11 is described. Important properties of the glass melt (viscosity, resistivity, formation of yellow phase) and of the glass (corrosion in aqueous solutions, crystallization) are reported. The corrosion data of this glass are similar to those of other HLW-glasses. Less than five wt% of crystalline material are produced upon cooling of large glass blocks. Crystallization does not affect the chemical durability. (Auth.)

  8. Sludge Batch 5 Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace Test with Frits 418 and 550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Donald; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Based on Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) testing for the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) projected composition and assessments of the potential frits with reasonable operating windows, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing with Frits 418 and 550. DWPF is currently using Frit 418 with SB5 based on SRNL's recommendation due to its ability to accommodate significant sodium variation in the sludge composition. However, experience with high boron containing frits in DWPF indicated a potential advantage for Frit 550 might exist. Therefore, SRNL performed SMRF testing to assess Frit 550's potential advantages. The results of SMRF testing with SB5 simulant indicate that there is no appreciable difference in melt rate between Frit 418 and Frit 550 at a targeted 34 weight % waste loading. Both batches exhibited comparable behavior when delivered through the feed tube by the peristaltic pump. Limited observation of the cold cap during both runs showed no indication of major cold cap mounding. MRF testing, performed after the SMRF runs due to time constraints, with the same two Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) dried products led to the same conclusion. Although visual observations of the cross-sectioned MRF beakers indicated differences in the appearance of the two systems, the measured melt rates were both ∼0.6 in/hr. Therefore, SRNL does not recommend a change from Frit 418 for the initial SB5 processing in DWPF. Once the actual SB5 composition is known and revised projections of SB5 after the neptunium stream addition and any decants is provided, SRNL will perform an additional compositional window assessment with Frit 418. If requested, SRNL can also include other potential frits in this assessment should processing of SB5 with Frit 418 result in less than desirable melter throughput in DWPF. The frits would then be subjected to melt rate testing at SRNL to determine any potential advantages

  9. Introduction - Acid decomposition of borosilicate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    The complex processing of mineral raw materials is an effective way for the extraction of valuable components. One of these raw materials are borosilicate ores from which the boric acid, aluminium and iron salts and building materials can be obtained. In the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan the flowsheets of the processing of borosilicate raw materials by acid and chloric methods were elaborated. The acid methods of decomposition of borosilicate ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit were considered in present monograph. The carried out researches on elaboration of physicochemical aspects and technological acid methods allowed to define the optimal ways of extraction of valuable products from borosilicate raw materials of Tajikistan.

  10. The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-10

    In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.

  11. Development of borosilicate glass compositions for the immobilisation of the UK's separated plutonium stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M. T.; Scales, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    The UK inventory of separated civil plutonium is expected to exceed 100 tonnes by 2010. Whilst the majority of this could be used in the manufacture of MOx (Mixed Oxide) fuel in future power generation scenarios, options for the disposal of surplus plutonium are currently being investigated by Nexia Solutions Ltd on behalf of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). One of the options being considered is immobilisation in a durable glass matrix followed by long term storage and subsequent final repository disposal. A preliminary experimental survey assessed a selection of potential glass systems on the basis of Pu-surrogate (cerium) loading, durability, and ease of processing. Following this, a number of borosilicate compositions have been taken forward into a more detailed investigation in order to fully qualify their potential for Pu-immobilisation. The selected compositions are lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS), alkali tin silicate (ATS) and high-lanthanide alkali borosilicate (modified-MW). For this second series of experiments, hafnium was selected as the Pu surrogate, and a study of the potential waste loading as a function of temperature for the three selected compositions is described in this paper. Furthermore, several variations of the LaBS composition were fabricated in order to investigate the effect of total lanthanide content on melting temperature. The benchmark of 10 wt% HfO 2 incorporation is achievable for all three glasses with temperatures of 1200, 1300 and 1400 deg. C required for ATS, modified-MW and LaBS respectively. (authors)

  12. Irradiation test of borosilicate glass burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingquan; Liao Zumin; Yang Mingjin; Lu Changlong; Huang Deyang; Zeng Wangchun; Zhao Xihou

    1991-08-01

    The irradiation test and post-irradiation examinations for borosilicate glass burnable poison are introduced. Examinations include visual examination, measurement of dimensions and density, and determination of He gas releasing and 10 B burnup. The corrosion and phenomenon of irradiation densification are also discussed. Two type glass samples have been irradiated with different levels of neutron flux. It proved that the GG-17 borosilicate glass can be used as burnable poison to replace the 10 B stainless steel in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, and it is safe, economical and reasonable

  13. Silica frit formulation for low temperature co-fired ceramic tapes (LTCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hayati Alias; Che Seman Mahmood

    2006-01-01

    Glassifier agents or so called fluxes could function to lower down the melting temperature of a ceramic material. Two types of silica based glass frits have been formulated to undergo vitrification at temperature lower than 1000 degree C. Frit A powder is composing of 11% Sodium Carbonate, 11% Calcium Oxide,15% Plumbum Oxide and 10% MgO while Frit B is composing of 12% Boron Oxide, 5% Ceria, 11% Sodium Carbonate and 2% Magnesium Oxide as glassifier agent in Silica powder. Two different ceramic slurries were made from a-alumina powder with addition of either Frit A or Frit B and also dispersant, binder and plasticizers, followed by casting into 0.04 mm thickness alumina green tapes. The tapes were then fired at temperature 1000 degree C to burn out plastic binder system and to vitrify the glass frits. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/EDX techniques were carried out to observe the changes in microstructure of the tape due to vitrication of glass frits. Comparisons were made with alumina green tapes without any glass frit component and with Commercial LTCC DuPont 951 tape. (Author)

  14. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO 2 by 5% of B 2 O 3 and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A 2 if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m - 2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol - 1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  15. Factors influencing the preparation of silver-coated glass frit with polyvinyl-pyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Feng; Gan, Weiping

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a new electroless silver plating method for the synthesis of silver-coated glass frit composite powders with good morphology has been proposed and the polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) was used the activating agent. It was found that the weight ratio of PVP to glass frit affected the distribution and number of silver nanoparticles. Moreover, the loading capacity of the glass frit, the pH value and reaction temperature could influence the size of the silver nanoparticles and morphology of silver on the surface of glass frit. The as-prepared silver-coated glass frit was used to prepare a silver paste using an optimized process to form silver nanoparticles with uniform size and high density. The silver paste with silver-coated glass frit increased the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by 0.271% compared with the silver paste prepared with pure glass frit. The silver nanoparticles can promoted the precipitation of Ag crystallites on the silicon wafer. Therefore, the silver-coated glass frit can further optimize and enhance the electrical performance of solar cells.

  16. Titanium impregnated borosilicate zeolites for epoxidation catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, Jan; Vitvarová, Dana; Lupínková, Lenka; Kubů, Martin; Čejka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 28-34 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0819 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : borosilicate * titanium impregnation * epoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  17. Topological Principles of Borosilicate Glass Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.; Youngman, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    and laboratory glassware to high-tech applications such as liquid crystal displays. In this paper, we investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR measurements, we present a two-state statistical...

  18. Effects of alpha radiation on hardness and toughness of the borosilicate glass applied to radioactive wastes immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Miguel Oscar; Bernasconi, Norma B. Messi de; Bevilacqua, Arturo Miguel; Arribere, Maria Angelica; Heredia, Arturo D.; Sanfilippo, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Borosilicate german glass SG7 samples, obtained by frit sintering, were irradiated with different fluences of thermal neutrons in the nucleus of a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, where the 10 B isotope is one of the natural glass components, was used to generate alpha particles throughout the glass volume. The maximum alpha disintegration per unit volume achieved was equivalent to that accumulated in a borosilicate glass with nuclear wastes after 3.8 million years. Through Vickers indentations values for microhardness, stress for 50% fracture probability (Weibull statistics) and estimation of the toughness were obtained as a function of alpha radiation dose. Two counterbalanced effects were found: that due to the disorder created by the alpha particles in the glass and that due to the annealing during irradiation (temperature below 240 deg C). Considering the alpha radiation effect, glasses tend decrease Vickers hardness, and to increase thr 50% fracture probability stress with the dose increase. (author)

  19. Glass-ceramics frits for high mechanical resistance glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wojczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The obtaining and application of glass-ceramics frits for glazes were discussed by many authors. This glazes are characterized by raised mechanical parameters and chemical resistance. Factors, that determines crystallization process are initial composition, heat treatment and nucleation agents. The kind of crystalline phases, crystal habit and the content of residual glass phase play the decisive role in the strengthening of the glaze. In this paper are shown results of investigation over controlled crystallization in the ternary systems; Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , with or without nucleation agents. (author)

  20. Relaxation of the lower frit loading constraint for DWPF process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    The lower limit on the frit loading parameter when measurement uncertainty is introduced has impacted DWPF performance during immobilization of Tank 42 Sludge; therefore, any defensible relaxation or omission of this constraint should correspondingly increase DWPF waste loading and efficiency. Waste loading should be increased because the addition of frit is the current remedy for exceeding the lower frit loading constraint. For example, frit was added to DWPF SME Batches 94, 97 and 98 to remedy these batches for low frit loading. Attempts were also made to add frit in addition to the optimum computed to assure the lower frit loading constraint would be satisfied; however, approximately half of the SME Batches produced after Batch 98 have violated the lower frit loading constraint. If the DWPF batches did not have to be remediated and additional frit added because of the lower frit loading limit, then both, the performance of the DWPF process and the waste loading in the glass produced would be increased. Before determining whether or not the lower frit loading limit can be relaxed or omitted, the origin of this and the other constraints related to durability prediction must be examined. The lower limit loading constraint results from the need to make highly durable glass in DWPF. It is required that DWPF demonstrate that the glass produced would have durability that is at least two standard deviations greater than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Glass durability cannot be measured in situ, it must be predicted from composition which can be measured. Fortunately, the leaching characteristics of homogeneous waste glasses is strongly related to the total molar free energy of the constituent species. Thus the waste acceptance specification has been translated into a requirement that the total molar free energy associated with the glass composition that would be produced from a DWPF melter feed batch be less than that of the EA glass accounting for

  1. Borosilicate glass for gamma irradiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydogan, N.; Tugrul, A. B.

    2012-11-01

    Four different types of silicate glass specimens were irradiated with gamma radiation using a Co-60 radioisotope. Glass specimens, with four different chemical compositions, were exposed to neutron and mixed neutron/gamma doses in the central thimble and tangential beam tube of the nuclear research reactor. Optical variations were determined in accordance with standardisation concept. Changes in the direct solar absorbance (αe) of borosilicate glass were examined using the increase in gamma absorbed dose, and results were compared with the changes in the direct solar absorbance of the three different type silicate glass specimens. Solar absorption decreased due to decrease of penetration with absorbed dose. αe of borosilicate increased considerably when compared with other glass types. Changes in optical density were evaluated as an approach to create dose estimation. Mixed/thermal neutron irradiation on glass caused to increse αe.

  2. Investigation on neptunium in a borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirot, I.

    1988-03-01

    The oxidization state and coordination of neptunium, introduced as dopant in borosilicate glasses were studied through optical, Mossbauer spectroscopies and magnetic measurements. The neptunium oxide, introduced previously as NpO 2 is reduced during the melting process of the glass. This leads to an equilibrium in which the ratio of Np 4+ to Np 3+ valences depends on experimental conditions. Spectroscopic analysises conduct to postulate the presence of different sites for each of the oxydation states of neptunium [fr

  3. Thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate gasses and metaborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Mitsuru

    1992-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses are the proposed solidifying material for storing high level radioactive wastes in deep underground strata. Those have low melting point, and can contain relatively large amount of high level radioactive wastes. When borosilicate glasses are used for this purpose, they must be sufficiently stable and highly reliable in the vitrification process, engineered storage and the disposal in deep underground strata. The main vaporizing components from borosilicate glasses are alkali elements and boron. In this report, as for the vaporizing behavior of alkali borosilicate glasses, the research on thermodynamic standpoint carried out by the authors is explained, and the thermodynamic properties of alkali metaborates of monomer and dimer which are the main evaporation gases are reported. The evaporation and the activity of alkali borosilicate glasses, the thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate glasses, gaseous alkali metaborates and alkali metaborate system solid solution and so on are described. (K.I.)

  4. Microwave melt and offgas analysis results from a Ferro Corporation reg-sign glass frit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Hoffman, C.R.; Knutson, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    In support of the Residue Treatment Technology (RTT) Microwave Solidification project, Waste Projects and Surface Water personnel conducted a series of experiments to determine the feasibility of encapsulating a surrogate sludge waste using the microwave melter. The surrogate waste was prepared by RTT and melted with five varying compositions of low melting glass frit supplied by the Ferro Corporation. Samples were melted using a 50% waste/50% glass frit and a 47.5% waste/47.5% glass frit/5% carbon powder. This was done to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon at reducing a sulfate-based surface scale which has been observed in previous experiments and in full-scale testing. These vitrified samples were subsequently submitted to Environmental Technology for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. Two of the five frits tested in this experiment merit further evaluation as raw materials for the microwave melter. Ferro frit 3110 with and without carbon powder produced a crystalline product which passed TCLP testing. The quality of the melt product could be improved by increasing the melting temperature from 900 degrees C to approximately 1150-1200 degrees C. Ferro frit 3249 produced the optimal quality of glass based on visual observations, but failed TCLP testing for silver when melted without carbon powder. This frit requires a slightly higher melting temperature (≥ 1200 degrees C) compared to frit 3110 and produces a superior product. In conjunction with this work, Surface Water personnel conducted offgas analyses using a Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometer (TDMS) on selected formulations. The offgas analyses identified and quantified water vapor (H 2 O), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon oxides (CO and CO 2 ), sulfur (S) and sulfur oxides (SO and SO 2 ), and nitrogen (N 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO 2 ) that volatilized during glass formation

  5. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Foreword - Acid decomposition of borosilicate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    The elaboration and development of technology of processing of mineral raw materials have an important role for the industry of Tajikistan. The results of researches of the staff of Institute of Chemistry and Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency of the Republic of Tajikistan were considered in present monograph. The physicochemical and technological aspects of processing of borosilicate raw materials of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan were considered. The necessary conditions of acid decomposition of raw materials were defined. The flowsheets for the processing of boron raw materials were proposed.

  7. Topological Principles of Borosilicate Glass Chemistry - An Invited Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Youngman, R. E.

    Borosilicate glasses display a rich complexity of chemical behavior depending on the details of their composition and thermal history. We investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR...

  8. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  9. The structure of leached sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Turner, G.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, solid state 29 Si, 11 B, 17 O, and 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate how the structures of sodium borosilicate glasses change during leaching in water at pH 1, 9, and 12. Results show that the random network structure present prior to leaching is transformed into a network of small condensed ring structures and/or colloidal silica particles. The restructuring of leached glass can be rationalised on the basis of simple hydrolysis (depolymerisation) and condensation (repolymerisation) reactions involving Si-O-Si and Si-O-B bonds. The structural changes that occur during leaching influence the properties of the leached layer, including leaching kinetics, crazing and spalling, and slow crack growth. (author)

  10. 57Fe Moessbauer effect in borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the valence state of iron and its co-ordination in borosilicate glasses, which are being investigated as possible solidification matrices for the immobilization of a simulated nuclear waste. 57 Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used as the experimental technique. The chemical compositions of glass samples and the experimental conditions for the preparation of these samples are given. Iron in the form of haematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) was used as doping material. Details of the experimental procedure have previously been described. Isomer shifts are calculated relative to α-iron. The results indicate a strong dependence of the valency of the iron and its coordination on the chemical composition of the glass and the Fe 2 O 3 content. The method of preparing the glasses also influences the state of the iron in oxide glasses. (Author)

  11. 11B nutation NMR study of powdered borosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ae Ja; Yang, Kyung Hwa; Han, Duk Young

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we applied the 1D 11 B nutation NMR method for the analysis of the local structural environments in powdered borosilicates (SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 ). Spin dynamics during a rf irradiation for spin I=3/2 was analytically calculated with a density matrix formalism. Spectral simulation programs were written in MATLAB on a PC. Two borosilicates prepared by the sol-gel process at different stabilization temperature were used for the 1D 11 B nutation NMR experiment. The 11 B NMR parameters, quadrupole coupling constants (e 2 qQ/h) and asymmetry parameters (η), for each borosilicate were extracted from the nonlinear least-squares fitting. The effects of heat treatments on the local structures of boron sites in borosilicates were discussed

  12. Surface chemistry and durability of borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Phillips, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    Important glass-water interactions are poorly understood for borosilicate glass radioactive waste forms. Preliminary results show that glass durability is dependent on reactions occurring at the glass-solution interface. CSG glass (18.2 wt. % Na 2 O, 5.97 wt. % CaO, 11.68 wt. % Al 2 O 3 , 8.43 wt. % B 2 O 3 , and 55.73 wt. % SiO 2 ) dissolution and net surface H + and OH - adsorption are minimal at near neutral pH. In the acid and alkaline pH regions, CSG glass dissolution rates are proportional to [H + ] adsorbed 2 and [OH - ] adsorbed 0.8 , respectively. In contrast, silica gel dissolution and net H + and OH - adsorption are minimal and independent of pH in acid to neutral solutions. In the alkaline pH region, silica gel dissolution is proportional to [OH - ] adsorbed 0.9 adsorbed . Although Na adsorption is significant for CSG glass and silica gel in the alkaline pH regions, it is not clear if it enhances dissolution, or is an artifact of depolymerization of the framework bonds

  13. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weiwei; Sun, Tao; Li, Xinping; Sun, Mian; Lu, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Borosilicate glass waste used as cement additive can improves its radiation shielding. • When content is 14.8%, the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm"−"1 after 28 d. • From 0 to 22.2%, linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm"−"1 after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  14. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Weiwei [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Sun, Tao, E-mail: sunt@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Roadway Bridge & Structure Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Li, Xinping [Key Laboratory of Roadway Bridge & Structure Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Sun, Mian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Lu, Yani [Urban Construction Institute, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Borosilicate glass waste used as cement additive can improves its radiation shielding. • When content is 14.8%, the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm{sup −1} after 28 d. • From 0 to 22.2%, linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm{sup −1} after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  15. Altitude Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Altitude Lab evaluates the performance of complete oxygen systems operated in individually controlled hypobaric chambers, which duplicate pressures that would be...

  16. Characterization of a glass frit free TiCuAg-thick film metallization applied on aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicher, R.; Smetana, W.; Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Gruber, U.

    1997-01-01

    The metallization of aluminium nitride substrates by glass frit free Ti CuAg-thick film pastes were investigated. Adhesion properties of the conductor paste were tested by measuring tensile strength and compared with commercial Cu-thick film pastes (within glass frit). Also numerical analysis of temperature-distribution and thermal extension of metallized aluminium nitride ceramic, induced by a continuous and a pulsed working electronic device were made with a finite element program. (author)

  17. PD Lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilow, Marcel; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Lichtenberg, Jos; Stoutjesdijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    PD Lab explores the applications of building sector related product development. PD lab investigates and tests digital production technologies like CNC milled wood connections. It will also act as a platform in its wider meaning to investigate the effects and influences of file to factory

  18. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  19. Utilization of borosilicate glass for transuranic waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Incinerated transuranic waste and other low-level residues have been successfully vitrified by mixing with boric acid and sodium carbonate and heating to 1050 0 C in a bench-scale continuous melter. The resulting borosilicate glass demonstrates excellent mechanical durability and chemical stability

  20. IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses. C R GAUTAM*, DEVENDRA KUMAR. † and OM PARKASH. †. Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India. †. Department of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 3 January ...

  1. Sintering-alkaline processing of borosilicate ores of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, F.A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study the processes of decomposition of boron-containing ore by sintering with NaOH, finding the optimal parameters of the decomposition process, studying the kinetics of processes and developing the technological foundations for ore processing. The processes of borosilicate ore processing were studied by sintering with NaOH. Possible mechanisms of chemical reactions of the process of sintering-alkaline decomposition of boron-containing ore are established, the results of which are substantiated by physicochemical methods of analysis. A principal technological scheme for processing of borosilicate ores by a sintering-alkaline method has been developed. In the first chapter, data on alkaline and caking processes for processing boron-containing and aluminium comprising raw materials are available in the literature. Based on this, the directions of our own research are outlined. The second chapter is devoted to the study of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of borosilicate ores and their concentrates with the help of X-ray phase and chemical analysis methods, the stoichiometric calculation of the formation of aluminum, iron, and boron salts has been carried out, and a thermodynamic analysis of the processes of sintering borosilicate ores with alkali has been considered. The third chapter presents the results of a study of sintering-alkaline method of processing of initial borosilicate ore of the Ak-Arkhar Deposit and its concentrate without calcination and after calcination. The kinetics of sintering of borosilicate ores with sodium hydroxide was studied. The optimal conditions of borosilicate ore sintering before and after the preliminary calcination with alkali were determined. Optimal parameters of the sintering process have been found: sintering temperature 800-8500 deg C, duration of the process - 60 minutes, mass ratio of NaOH to raw materials 2: 1. The conditions for sintering of borosilicate concentrate with alkali have been

  2. PD Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Bilow

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available PD Lab explores the applications of building sector related product development.  PD lab investigates and tests digital production technologies like CNC milled wood connections. It will also act as a platform in its wider meaning to investigate the effects and influences of file to factory production, to explore the potential in the field of sustainability, material use, logistics and the interaction of stakeholders within the chain of the building process.

  3. Radiation structurization borosilicates in the region of small dozes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhieva, N.N.; Melikova, S.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Borosilicates are one of perspective materials who are characterized by high thermal and radiating stability. Owing to these properties they are widely applied as constructional materials in reactor technologies. The structural condition of a bor in crystal compounds is characterized by two coordination numbers- three and and four. Change of this condition speaks also original properties borosilicate. Studying influence is actual γ-irradiations in the region of rather small dozes on ability change coordination of a B in borosilicate. In the given work results of IR-spectroscopic researches initial and radiation-structured borosilicates are presented. With this purpose were investigated borosilicates with maintenance B 2 O 3 in SiO 2 equal 0.5; 1; 1.5; 3; 5 and 10 mas.%, received by a method of sedimentation. Samples irradiated γ-quanta on an isotope source 60 Co with capacity of a doze dD γ /dt=0.80 Gy/s. The absorbed doze made D γ ∼0.5-50 kGy. IR-spectra of reflection initial and γ-irradiated tablets borosilicates measured on spectrophotometer Specord 71 IR (Carl Zeiss) at a room temperature. Optical density of the bands corresponding trigonal and tetrahedric - coordination atoms of a bor and their parity at the various mass maintenance of boric anhydride in SiO 2 before and after γ-irradiation. The absorption bands of asymmetric stretching vibration BO 3 and BO 4 groupings in structure of B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 have maxima at ν=1320 (ν as BO 3 ) and 980 cm -1 (ν as BO 4 ). Studying dose has shown dependences D 1320 /D 980 , that in the region of rather small dozes 0.5 γ 1320 /D 980 of optical densities trigonal and tetrahedric coordination a B it is established, that at the contain B 2 O 3 in SiO 2 /B 2 O 3 ∼1.5 mas.% maximal introduction B 3+ in a lattice oxide silicon is observed

  4. TELECOM LAB

    CERN Multimedia

    IT-CS-TEL Section

    2001-01-01

    The Telecom Lab is moving from Building 104 to Building 31 S-026, with its entrance via the ramp on the side facing Restaurant n°2. The help desk will thus be closed to users on Tuesday 8 May. On May 9, the Lab will only be able to deal with problems of a technical nature at the new address and it will not be able to process any new subscription requests throughout the week from 7 to 11 May. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

  5. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Oteo, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author) 30 refs.

  6. Influence of milling process in the surface energy of glass tile frits; Influencia de la molienda en la energia superficial de fritas para esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A.; Rubio, F.; Otero, J. L.; Rubio, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work has been studied the influence of the milling process of two ceramic frits used in the ceramic tile industry. Both glass frits were of similar chemical composition changing SiO{sub 2} by 5% of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both of them were water or dry milled. Glass frit surfaces were characterized by FT-IR, Karl-Fischer (K-F) titration and Inverse Gas Chromatography at Infinite Dilution (IGC-ID). By K-F titration it was observed that water milled frits presented 28 and 26 OH groups for 100 A{sup 2} if they do not contain or contain boron, respectively. These surface changes are also observed by IGC-ID. Thus, the glass frit without boron and dry milled presented the highest dispersive surface energy (44 mJ.m{sup -}2) and the less acidic constant (0.13 kJ.mol{sup -}1). Both glass frits are amphoteric with acidic and base surface active sites, and that frit without boron presents the higher basicity. Milling process influences in the acid-base surface characteristics of both frits by increasing the basicity for the one without boron and increasing for the other one. This has been assigned to the different location of hydroxyl groups where the higher interaction is the one that does not contain boron and dry milled as K-F results. (Author)

  7. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparison of fine particle colemanite and boron frit in concrete for time-strength relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, D.E.; Bussolini, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the element boron, when added to concrete, has proved effective in shielding neutron particles by absorbing the neutron and emitting a low-energy gamma ray. The various boron additives used with concrete can severely retard the set time and strength gain. An advantage to using small particle size boron is that the smaller grain size provides better boron disbursement within the concrete matrix to absorb neutrons. However, boron additives of powder consistency are usually not used due to the greater potential of forming chemical solutions that act as a retarder in the concrete. Research has shown that the amount of boron additives in concrete can be reduced significantly if fine grain particles can be successfully incorporated into the concrete matrix. The purpose of this study is to compare strength gain characteristics of concrete mixes containing various quantities of fine grain boron additive. The boron additive colemanite, a natural mineral, is compared with two brands of manufactured aggregate, boron frit. Concrete test cylinders are molded for testing the compressive strength of the mix after 4, 7, 28, and 56 days. Tested are five different quantities of colemanite as well as five comparable amounts of boron frit for each brand of the material. The test values are compared with a control concrete specimen containing no boron additive. Results of this study can be used to optimize the cost and effectiveness of boron additives in radiation shielding concrete

  9. Sulphate Incorporation in Borosilicate Glasses and Melts: a Kinetic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France); Grandjean, A. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, Laboratoire des Nanomateriaux Autoreparants, Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Dussossoy, J.L. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Neuville, D.R. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate departure in a sodium borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique allows the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry. To quantify the sulphate content obtained with Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 990 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Qn silica units on the basis of previous literature. Calibration curves were then determined for two different samples. An evaluation of the kinetics of departure of sulphate could thus be made as a function of the viscosity of the borosilicate glass, showing that the kinetics were controlled by the diffusion of sulphate and its volatilization from the melt. This experimental method allows in situ measurements of sulphate content at high temperature which cannot be obtained by any other simple technique. (authors)

  10. Assessment of Savannah River borosilicate glass in the repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-04-01

    Since 1973, borosilicate glass has been studied as a matrix for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In 1977, efforts began to develop and test the large-scale equipment necessary to convert the alkaline waste slurries at SRP into a durable borosilicate glass. A process has now been developed for the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which will annually produce approximately 500 canisters of SRP waste glass which will be stored on an interim basis on the Savannah River site. Current national policy calls for the permanent disposal of high-level waste in deep geologic repositories. In the repository environment, SRP waste glass will eventually be exposed to such stresses as lithostatic or hydrostatic pressures, radiation fields, and self-heating due to radioactive decay. In addition, producing and handling each canister of glass will also expose the glass to thermal and mechanical stresses. An important objective of the extensive glass characterization and testing programs of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has been to determine how these stresses affect the performance of SRP waste glass. The results of these programs indicate that: these stresses will not significantly affect the performance of borosilicate glass containing SRP waste; and SRP waste glass will effectively immobilize hazardous radionuclides in the repository environment

  11. Enhancement of thermal neutron shielding of cement mortar by using borosilicate glass powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-Kil; Lee, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2017-05-01

    Concrete has been used as a traditional biological shielding material. High hydrogen content in concrete also effectively attenuates high-energy fast neutrons. However, concrete does not have strong protection against thermal neutrons because of the lack of boron compound. In this research, boron was added in the form of borosilicate glass powder to increase the neutron shielding property of cement mortar. Borosilicate glass powder was chosen in order to have beneficial pozzolanic activity and to avoid deleterious expansion caused by an alkali-silica reaction. According to the experimental results, borosilicate glass powder with an average particle size of 13µm showed pozzolanic activity. The replacement of borosilicate glass powder with cement caused a slight increase in the 28-day compressive strength. However, the incorporation of borosilicate glass powder resulted in higher thermal neutron shielding capability. Thus, borosilicate glass powder can be used as a good mineral additive for various radiation shielding purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation response of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Ayelén; Alurralde, Martín; Luca, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    The radiation response has been studied of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films having different boron contents prepared using the block copolymer template Brij 58 and the dip coating technique. The degree of pore ordering of the films was analysed using low-angle X-ray diffraction and film thickness measured by X-ray reflectivity. For films calcined at 350 °C, the incorporation of boron resulted in a reproducible oscillatory variation in the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflection as a function of boron content. A clear peak was observed in the d-spacing at 5-10 mol% boron incorporation. For borosilicate films of a given composition an overall suppression of d-spacing was observed as a function of aging time relative to films that did not contain boron. This was ascribed to a slow condensation process. The films were irradiated in pile with neutrons and with iodine ions at energies of 180 keV and 70 MeV. Neutron irradiation of the silicate thin films for periods up to 30 days and aged for 400 days resulted in little reduction in either d-spacing or intensity of the primary low-angle X-ray reflection indicating that the films retained their mesopore ordering. In contrast borosilicate films for which the B (n, α) reaction was expected to result in enhanced displacement damage showed much larger variations in X-ray parameters. For these films short irradiation times resulted in a reduction of the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflections considerably beyond that observed through aging. It is concluded that prolonged neutron irradiation and internal α irradiation have only a small, although measurable, impact on mesoporous borosilicate thin films increasing the degree of condensation and increasing unit cell contraction. When these borosilicate films were irradiated with iodine ions, more profound changes occurred. The pore ordering of the films was significantly degraded when low energy ions were used. In some cases the degree

  13. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  14. Hvor frit er egentlig frit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierød, Lea Maria; Spang-Hanssen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    of these limits, in which the authors arrive at some percentages of the amount of rubato fl uctuations, which in many ways are surprisingly high. Not least, it is astonishing that a large majority of subjects preferred an unmusical rubato rather than a complete metronomic approach and that the average...

  15. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  16. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as processed at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The data was used to provide recommendations to the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) regarding blending and washing strategies in preparing SB5 based on acceptability of the glass compositions. These data were also used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of frits. Three composition projections for SB5 were developed using a model-based approach at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These compositions, referred to as SB5 Cases B, C and D, projected removal of 25, 50 and 75% (respectively) of the aluminum in Tank 51 through the low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The frits for this study (Frits 530 through 537) were selected based on their predicted operating windows (i.e., ranges of waste loadings over which the predicted properties of the glasses were acceptable) and their potential (based on historical trends) to provide acceptable melt rates for SB5. Six additional glasses were designed to evaluate alternatives for uranium in DWPF-type glasses used for variability studies and some scoping studies. Since special measures are necessary when working with uranium-containing glasses in the laboratory, it is desirable as a cost and time saving measure to find an alternative for uranium to support frit optimization efforts. Hafnium and neodymium were investigated as potential surrogates for uranium, and other glasses were made by simply excluding the radioactive components and renormalizing the glass composition. The study glasses were fabricated and characterized at SRNL. Chemical composition analyses suggested only minor difficulties in meeting the targeted compositions

  17. Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography with a glass-frit nebulizer interface for plasma emission detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Caruso, J.

    1985-01-01

    Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC) is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical separation tool for organometallic compounds. The use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as a detector for micro-HPLC is studied. Several miniaturized glass-frit nebulizers are investigated as interfaces between the output of the microbore column and the ICP torch. Their performance with aqueous and methanolic solutions is evaluated by direct nebulization and flow injection analysis. The most efficient of these nebulizers is used in the micro-HPLC/ICP study of some Cd, Pb, and Zn organometallic compounds. Detection limits of 1.92 ng of Pb for tetramethyllead and 5.01 ng of Pb for tetraethyllead are obtained and compared with regular HPLC/ICP of these same compounds. Approximately equivalent detection limits were obtained when using a microwave induced plasma as an alternate plasma source

  18. Projekt Frit Sind hjælper mennesker med social angst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutamid, Mina El

    2017-01-01

    Social angst er en almindelig, men overset lidelse, som ofte er forbundet med isolation. Mange fortæller ikke om den angst, de oplever, til andre og kommer til at leve et liv med begrænsninger, som de kunne være foruden, hvis de fik hjælp. Angsten betyder også, at det kan være svært at komme...... hjemmefra og opsøge hjælp hos SIND eller andre rådgivninger. Frit Sind er et nyt tilbud i København til disse mennesker og har fokus på de specifikke behov, mennesker med social angst har....

  19. Performance of carbon-based hot frit substrates: I, Low pressure helium and hydrogen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.; Powell, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    The performance of various carbon-based materials in flowing, high-temperature helium and hydrogen is described. These materials which are candidate hot frit substrates for possible application in a PBR include various grades of graphite, carbon-carbon and vitreous carbon. Vitreous carbon showed extremely good performance in helium, while that of the various graphite grades was quite variable and, in some cases, poor. Purified grades performed better than unpurified grades, but in all cases large sample-to-sample variations in weight loss were observed. For carbon-carbon samples, the performance was intermediate. Since the weight loss in these samples was in large measure due to the loss of the densification media, improvements in the performance of carbon-carbon may be possible. With respect to the performance in hydrogen, high weight losses were observed, re-enforcing the need for coating carbon-based materials for service in a flowing hydrogen environment

  20. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials were used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions. That

  1. Alteration of borosilicate glass under water saturated condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimura, K.; Matsuhisa, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Hirai, H.

    1991-01-01

    In the long term of the high-level nuclear waste disposal, the dissolving rates of radionuclides from the waste will be controlled by crystalline phases secondarily formed in the borosilicate glass by reaction with ground water. We have determined the crystalline phases formed from borosilicate glass in a hydrothermal experiment. Borosilicate glass powder (50 mg, Si 40 B 20 Al 4 Li 12 Na 14 K 3 Ca 2 Fe 5 O 140 ) and 200 ml of water were reacted at 300degC and 300 bars for 2 weeks with a cold-seal type hydrothermal high pressure apparatus. After the reaction the liquid phase was analyzed with atomic absorption spectroscopy and the solid phases with x-ray powder diffraction and analytical electron microscopy. The liquid phase contains 58 % of Na, 14 % of Li and 11 % of K but less than 1 % of Ca and Fe. The solid phases were found to be zeolite and smectite. The zeolite is isostructural with analcime Na 2 Al 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 · 2H 2 O or wairakite CaAl 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 · 2H 2 O and contains Ca and Si as major constituents but does not contain Al. Although no direct analytical evidence is available, logical induction of the experimental results indicates that the chemical composition of the zeolite is CaB 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 . The remaining x-ray powder diffraction peaks are same as those of smectite Na 06.7 (Al 3.33 Mg 0.67 )Si 8 O 20 (OH) 4 . However, since our starting material was free of Mg, and Na was not detected by AEM, the smectite may contain Fe instead of Mg, and Li instead of Na. (author)

  2. Gas gain stability of MSGCs on borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.D. van den; Daum, C.; Eijk, B. van; Hartjes, F.G.; Udo, F.; Zhukov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The gas gain stability in Micro Strip Gas Counters fabricated on borosilicate glass has been investigated for operation at high radiation fluxes up to 10 5 Hz/mm 2 in a X-ray set-up. We discuss effects of short and long term irradiation on the gain for different voltage settings and strip metalisations. The application of a high drift field and a back plane on positive potential provides good high rate operation up to 10 4 Hz/mm 2 . Ageing is observed to be strongly dependent on the stirp metalisation; gold and nickel perform better than aluminium and copper. (orig.)

  3. SLUDGE BATCH 4 BASELINE MELT RATE FURNACE AND SLURRY-FED MELT RATE FURNACE TESTS WITH FRITS 418 AND 510 (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D

    2007-01-01

    Several Slurry-Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) tests with earlier projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition have been performed.1,2 The first SB4 SMRF test used Frits 418 and 320, however it was found after the test that the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) correlation at that time did not have the proper oxidation state for manganese. Because the manganese level in the SB4 sludge was higher than previous sludge batches tested, the impact of the higher manganese oxidation state was greater. The glasses were highly oxidized and very foamy, and therefore the results were inconclusive. After resolving this REDOX issue, Frits 418, 425, and 503 were tested in the SMRF with the updated baseline SB4 projection. Based on dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests and the above mentioned SMRF tests, two previous frit recommendations were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for processing of SB4 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The first was Frit 503 based on the June 2006 composition projections.3 The recommendation was changed to Frit 418 as a result of the October 2006 composition projections (after the Tank 40 decant was implemented as part of the preparation plan). However, the start of SB4 processing was delayed due to the control room consolidation outage and the repair of the valve box in the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer line. These delays resulted in changes to the projected SB4 composition. Due to the slight change in composition and based on preliminary dry-fed MRF testing, SRNL believed that Frit 510 would increase throughput in processing SB4 in DWPF. Frit 418, which was used in processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), was a viable candidate and available in DWPF. Therefore, it was used during the initial SB4 processing. Due to the potential for higher melt rates with Frit 510, SMRF tests with the latest SB4 composition (1298 canisters) and Frits 510 and 418 were performed at a targeted waste loading (WL) of 35%. The '1298 canisters

  4. Low-Li2O Frits: Selecting Glasses that Support the Melt Rate Studies and Challenge the Current Durability Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    During the progressive development of the cold cap model (as it applies to a potential melt rate predictive tool), the formation of an Al-Li-silicate phase was identified as an intermediate reaction phase that could possibly hinder melt rate for SB4. To test this theory, six glasses were designed (using Frit 320's composition as the baseline) to maintain a constant 20 wt% sum of alkali content (in frit) by varying Na 2 O to Li 2 O ratios. The Li 2 O concentration ranged from 8 wt% down to 0% in either 2% or 1% increments with the differences being accounted for by an increase in Na 2 O concentration. Although the primary objective of the ''lower Li 2 O'' frits was to evaluate the potential for melt rate improvements, assessments of durability (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) were also performed. The results suggest that durable glasses can be produced with these ''lower Li 2 O'' frits should it be necessary to pursue this option for improving melt rate. In addition to the series of glasses to support melt rate assessments, a series of frits were also developed to challenge the current durability model based on the limits proposed by Edwards et al. (2004). Although the ''new'' limits allow access into compositional regions of interest (i.e., higher alkali systems) which can improve melt rate and/or waste loading, there may still be ''additional'' conservatism. In this report, two series of glasses were developed to challenge the ''new'' durability limits for the SB4 system. In the first series, the total alkali of the Frit 320-based glasses (designed to support the melt rate program) was increased from 20 wt% to 21 wt% (in the frit), but the series also evaluated the possible impact of various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratio differences. The second series pushed the alkali limit in the frit even further with frits containing either 22 or 24 wt% total alkali as well as various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratios. The results of the PCT evaluation indicated

  5. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Synthesis of TiCuAg thick film inks for glass frit free metallization of aluminium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlassnig, A.; Schuster, J. C.; Smetana, W.; Reicher, R.

    1997-01-01

    A glas frit free screen printing ink for metallization of AIN was developed. Bonding to the substrate is achieved by active metal additives. The metallic component consists of Cu and Ag powder synthesized from inorganic salts by the polyol process, and Cu-Ti powder synthesized by arc melting, milling and ultracentrifugation. This ternary powder mixture was introduced to a specifically developed organic vehicle and screen printed onto AIN. The detailed development process and the results will be presented. (author)

  7. Glass frit bonding with controlled width and height using a two-step wet silicon etching procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifang, Liu; Daner, Chen; Liwei, Lin; Gaofeng, Zheng; Jianyi, Zheng; Lingyun, Wang; Daoheng, Sun

    2016-03-01

    A simple and versatile two-step silicon wet etching technique for the control of the width and height of the glass frit bonding layer has been developed to improve bonding strength and reliability in wafer-level microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging processes. The height of the glass frit bonding layer is set by the design of a vertical reference wall which regulates the distance between the silicon wafer and the encapsulation capping substrate. On the other hand, the width of the bonding layer is constrained between two micro grooves which are used to accommodate the spillages of extra glass frit during the bonding process. An optimized thermal bonding process, including the formation of glass liquid, removal of gas bubbles under vacuum and the filling of voids under normal atmospheric condition has been developed to suppress the formation of the bubbles/voids. The stencil printing and pre-sintering processes for the glass frit have been characterized before the thermal bonding process under different magnitudes of bonding pressure. The bonding gap thickness is found to be equal to the height of the reference wall of 10 μm in the prototype design. The bubbles/voids are found to be suppressed effectively and the bonding strength increases from 10.2 to 19.1 MPa as compared with a conventional thermal annealing process in air. Experimentally, prototype samples are measured to have passed the high hermetic sealing leakage tests of 5  ×  10-8 atm cc s-1.

  8. Design and test of the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod for Qinshan nuclear power plant core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Sun Hanhong

    1988-08-01

    Material for the burnable poison of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant core is GG-17 borosilicate glass. The chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of GG-17 is very close to Pyrex-7740 glass used by Westinghouse. It is expected from the results of the experiments that the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod can be successfully used in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant due to good physical, mechanical, corrosion-resistant and irradiaton properties for both GG-17 glass and cold-worked stainless steel cladding. Change of material for burnable poison from boron-bearing stainless steel to borosilicate glass will bring about much more economic benefit to Qinshan Naclear Power Plant

  9. Stress corrosion in a borosilicate glass nuclear wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.; Willis, P.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss a typical borosilicate glass wasteform which, when exposed to water vapour and water for limited periods, exhibits evidence of stress corrosion cracking arising from the interaction of polar OH groups with stressed glass surfaces. Glass wasteforms may experience similar stress corrosion cracking when buried in a geological repository and exposed to groundwaters over an extended period. This would increase the effective surface areas available for leaching by groundwater and could decrease the lifetime of the wasteform. Conventional leach-testing methods are insensitive to the longer-term effects of stress corrosion cracking. It is suggested that specific fracture-mechanics tests designed to evaluate susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking should be used when evaluating the wasteforms for high-level nuclear wastes. (author)

  10. Electron irradiation induced nanocrystal formation in Cu-borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Mohammed Mohammed; Möbus, Günter, E-mail: g.moebus@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale writing of Cu nanoparticles in glasses is introduced using focused electron irradiation by transmission electron microscopy. Two types of copper borosilicate glasses, one with high and another with low Cu loading, have been tested at energies of 200–300 keV, and formation of Cu nanoparticles in a variety of shapes and sizes using different irradiation conditions is achieved. Electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis, combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, confirmed the irradiation-induced precipitated nanoparticles as metallic, while furnace annealing of the glass triggered dendrite-shaped particles of copper oxide. Unusual patterns of nanoparticle rings and chains under focused electron beam irradiation are also presented. Conclusively, electron beam patterning of Cu-loaded glasses is a promising alternative route to well-established femtosecond laser photoreduction of Cu ions in glass.

  11. Viscosity of melts in the sodium borosilicate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Mandolesi, D.L.; Rummens, H.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The viscosities of a series of glasses in the sodium borosilicate system (5-35Na 2 O, 5-35B 2 O 3 , 45-80SiO 2 mol%) have been determined between 950 and 1500 deg C, using a rotating bob viscometer. A simplex lattice experimental design was used to define a series of compositions suitable for numerical analysis of the data. The viscosity data were fitted using the Fulcher equation for each composition. Nonlinear regression analysis of the viscosities at constant temperatures gave expressions for the variation in viscosity as a function of composition. The results are displayed as isoviscosity contours on the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 composition diagram. The viscosity behaviour as a function of composition is discussed in terms of structural bonding in the melt. (author)

  12. Electrical conductivity and viscosity of borosilicate glasses and melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrt, Doris; Keding, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    , 0 to 62·5 mol% B2O3, and 25 to 85 mol% SiO2. The glass samples were characterised by different methods. Refractive indices, density and thermal expansion were measured. Phase separation effects were investigated by electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of glasses and melts were determined......Simple sodium borosilicate and silicate glasses were melted on a very large scale (35 l Pt crucible) to prepare model glasses of optical quality in order to investigate various properties depending on their structure. The composition of the glass samples varied in a wide range: 3 to 33·3 mol% Na2O...... by impedance measurements in a wide temperature range (250 to 1450°C). The activation energies were calculated by Arrhenius plots in various temperature regions: below the glass transition temperature, Tg, above the melting point, Tl, and between Tg and Tl. Viscosity measurements were carried out...

  13. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  14. The Impact of Waste Loading on Viscosity in the Frit 418-SB3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEELER, DAVID

    2004-01-01

    In this report, data are provided to gain insight into the potential impact of a lower viscosity glass on melter stability (i.e., pressure spikes, cold cap behavior) and/or pour stream stability. High temperature viscosity data are generated for the Frit 418-SB3 system as a function of waste loading (from 30 to 45 percent) and compared to similar data from other systems that have been (or are currently being) processed through the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. The data are presented in various formats to potentially align the viscosity data with physical observations at various points in the melter system or critical DWPF processing unit operations. The expectations is that the data will be provided adequate insight into the vitrification parameters which might evolve into working solutions as DWPF strives to maximize waste throughput. This report attempts to provide insight into a physical interpretation of the data from a DWPF perspective. The theories present ed are certainly not an all inclusive list and the order in which they are present does imply a ranking, probability, or likelihood that the proposed theory is even plausible. The intent of this discussion is to provide a forum in which the viscosity data can be discussed in relation to possible mechanisms which could potentially lead to a workable solution as discussed in relation to possible solution as higher overall attainment is striven for during processing of the current or future sludge batches

  15. Photon emission induced by brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sato, Yoshitaka [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kishi, Tetsuo [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Photon emission (PE) at wavelength ranges of 430–490 nm (B-PE), 500–600 nm (G-PE) and 610–680 nm (R-PE) caused by brittle fracture was simultaneously measured in the nanosecond-to-microsecond and millisecond time domains for two types of borosilicate glasses: Pyrex-type Tempax glass and BK7 glass. The results were compared to those for silica and soda lime glasses. The time dependence of the PE of Tempax glass was similar to that of silica glass, while the PE intensity was lower. Because Tempax glass contains both silica-rich and borate-rich amorphous phases, the PE must be mainly produced by the fracture of the silica-rich phase. Moreover, the proportion of B-PE of Tempax glass was higher than that of silica glass. This suggests that the measured B-PE might also include very weak PE caused by the fracture of the borate-rich phase. The PE time dependence of BK7 glass was similar to that of soda lime glass, which was different from the case for Tempax glass. The PE intensity of BK7 glass was slightly higher than that of soda lime glass, but much lower than that of Tempax glass. The result indicates that non-bridging oxygen in the glasses affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE. - Highlights: • Photon emission (PE) upon brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses was measured. • Pyrex-type Tempax and BK7 glasses showed different PE characteristics. • The rupture of Si–O bonds produces much stronger PE than that of B–O bonds. • Non-bridging oxygen in glass affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE.

  16. sup 1 sup 1 B nutation NMR study of powdered borosilicates

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, A J; Han, D Y

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we applied the 1D sup 1 sup 1 B nutation NMR method for the analysis of the local structural environments in powdered borosilicates (SiO sub 2 -B sub 2 O sub 3). Spin dynamics during a rf irradiation for spin I=3/2 was analytically calculated with a density matrix formalism. Spectral simulation programs were written in MATLAB on a PC. Two borosilicates prepared by the sol-gel process at different stabilization temperature were used for the 1D sup 1 sup 1 B nutation NMR experiment. The sup 1 sup 1 B NMR parameters, quadrupole coupling constants (e sup 2 qQ/h) and asymmetry parameters (eta), for each borosilicate were extracted from the nonlinear least-squares fitting. The effects of heat treatments on the local structures of boron sites in borosilicates were discussed.

  17. 1.2. X-ray phase analysis of borosilicate raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to X-ray phase analysis of borosilicate raw material. The thermo gram of initial borosilicate ore was considered. The X-ray pattern of initial danburite of Ak-Arhar Deposit was considered as well. The X-ray pattern of danburite of Ak-Arhar Deposit after pre-baking was studied. The X-ray pattern of initial danburite concentrate was studied as well.

  18. 3.6. The kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of calcined concentrate of borosilicate ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of calcined concentrate of borosilicate ore. The experimental data of kinetics of extraction of boron oxide from danburite at sulfuric acid decomposition were obtained at 20-90 deg C temperature range and process duration 15-90 minutes. The flowsheet of obtaining of boric acid from borosilicate ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit by sulfuric acid method was proposed.

  19. A novel low cost polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, B.R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Noori, Md.T. [Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghangrekar, M.M., E-mail: ghangrekar@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Composite membranes were developed from PVA-borosilicate (MP) and PVA-Nafion-borosilicate (MPN) for application in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, PBS uptake, oxygen diffusion and proton conductivity. Proton conductivity for MPN (0.07 Scm{sup −1}) was found to be higher as compared to that of MP (0.03 Scm{sup −1}). Oxygen diffusion coefficient for MPN was 1.47 fold lower than that for MP. As a result, MFC with PVA-Nafion-borosilicate membrane exhibited maximum power density of 6.8 Wm{sup −3}, which was 151% higher than the power produced by MFC having PVA-borosilicate membrane and it was comparable with MFC using Nafion 117 (7.1 Wm{sup −3}) membrane separator. This study demonstrates that borosilicate glass membrane incorporated with PVA-Nafion matrix can be a suitable alternative to costly polymeric membrane to increase power output of MFC. Using such membranes MFC can be fabricated at around 11 fold reduced cost as compared to Nafion 117. - Highlights: • Novel membranes using PVA and borosilicate composite were fabricated. • Proton diffusion for MPN was comparable with Nafion117. • MFC-PN produced power density comparable to MFC with Nafion 117 membrane. • MPN was fabricated at almost 11 times reduced cost than Nafion 117 membranes.

  20. Reconfirmation of frit 803 based on the January 2016 sludge batch 9 reprojection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-10

    On January 11, 2016, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) reprojection that was developed from the analyzed composition of a Tank 51 sample. This sample was collected after field washing had been completed in Tank 51 to support the alternate reductant task. Based on this reprojection, Frit 803 is still a viable option for the processing of SB9 under sludge-only operations and coupled (Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product with and without monosodium titanate (MST)) operations. The maximum projected volumes of ARP product that can be transferred from the Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batch and the resulting Na2O concentrations in the SRAT for coupled operations were determined. The Na2O concentrations in the SRAT resulting from the maximum projected ARP product transfer volumes are consistent with those from the previous assessments that were based on the August 2015 projections. Regardless of the presence or absence of MST in the ARP product, the contribution of Na2O to the resulting glass will be similar at the same waste loading (WL). These projected volumes of ARP product are not anticipated to be an issue for SB9. The actual transfer volumes from the PRFT to the SRAT are determined based upon the analyzed Na2O concentrations in the PRFT samples, which has resulted in larger transfer volumes than those allowed by the projections for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). An operating window of 32-40% WL around the nominal WL of 36% is achievable for both sludge-only and coupled operations; however, each of the glass systems studied does become limited by waste form affecting constraints (durability) at higher volumes of ARP product and WLs of 41-42%.

  1. Estudo colorimétrico de fritas feldspáticas Colorimetric study of feldsphatic frits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As fritas cerâmicas são materiais de natureza vítrea preparadas por fusão em temperaturas elevadas (~1500 ºC, a partir de uma mistura de matérias-primas minerais. Os vidrados preparados exclusivamente a partir de fritas são utilizados principalmente em peças cerâmicas nas quais a componente estética é mais importante que a componente técnica, como no caso de azulejos, objetos decorativos e em restaurações odontológicas. Para um efeito decorativo mais eficiente, é necessário que o revestimento cerâmico seja estável o suficiente para não alterar significativamente a cor apresentada pelo pigmento e, dessa forma, possibilitar uma reprodutibilidade da cor obtida. Nesse contexto, este trabalho mostra um estudo de cor desenvolvida por pigmentos cerâmicos em fritas transparentes, obtidas a partir de feldspato da região Borborema-Seridó (PB/RN. A análise química do feldspato evidenciou que este mineral cumpre os requisitos necessários à aplicação como cerâmica (ou vidrado de cobertura, pois apresenta teores mínimos de impurezas (minerais portadores de ferro e outros óxidos corantes que deterioram a qualidade da frita obtida. O mineral foi caracterizado ainda por difração de raios X (albita e monoclínio e quanto à granulometria (abaixo de 100 µm. A avaliação colorimétrica de acordo com os padrões CIElab e por medidas de refletância possibilitou caracterização da cor dos revestimentos obtidos em diferente fontes e iluminantes. Os resultados permitiram avaliar que o feldspato do Seridó apresenta potencial para aplicação como revestimento cerâmico colorido e futuramente poderia ser aplicado na área de restauração cerâmica odontológica, tendo em vista que esse mineral é um dos principais componentes das porcelanas odontológicas, porém, até o presente, todo material de restauração odontológica utilizado no Brasil é de origem estrangeira.Ceramic frits are vitreous materials prepared by melting of

  2. An Assessment of the Sulfate Solubility Limit for the FRIT 418 - Sludge Batch 2/3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEELER, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this report is to establish a ''single point'' sulfate solubility limit or constraint for the Frit 418 - Sludge Batch 2/3 (SB2/3) system. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the glass limit in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for the Frit 418 - SB2/3 system be set at 0.60 wt%. The new limit has been set based solely on sealed crucible scale data and does not take credit or account for potential volatilization that may occur in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Although the limit is established based on sealed crucible scale tests, supplementary testing using the Slurry-Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) provides a measure of confidence that applying the 0.6 wt% limit in PCCS will prevent the formation of a salt layer in the melter. The critical data point that was used to define the solubility limit for this system was from a ''spiked'' 30% waste loading (WL) glass targeting 0.65 wt%. The measured content in this glass was 0.62 wt%. Applying the Savannah River Technology Center - Mobile Laboratory (SRTCML) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) uncertainties to establish a solubility limit for the Frit 418 - SB2/3 system of 0.60 wt% (in glass) provides a ''single point'' limit that covers the anticipated WL interval of interest. It is noted that there are glasses above the 0.60 wt% limit that were homogeneous, thus reinforcing the theory of a compositional effect on solubility within this specific system. In general, higher solubilities were observed at higher targeted waste loadings

  3. Determination of the free enthalpies of formation of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This work contributes to the study of the thermochemical properties of nuclear waste glasses. Results are used to discuss mechanisms and parameters integrated in alteration models of conditioning materials. Glass is a disordered material defined thermodynamically as a non-equilibrium state. Taking into account one order parameter to characterise its configurational state, the metastable equilibrium for the glass was considered and the main thermochemical properties were determined. Calorimetric techniques were used to measure heat capacities and formation enthalpies of borosilicate glasses (from 3 to 8 constitutive oxides). Formation Entropies were measured too, using the entropy theory of relaxation processes proposed by Adam and Gibbs (1965). The configurational entropy contribution were determined from viscosity measurements. This set of data has allowed the calculation of Gibb's free energies of dissolution of glasses in pure water. By comparison with leaching experiments, it has been demonstrated that the decreasing of the dissolution rate at high reaction progress cannot be associated to the approach of an equilibrium between the sound glass and the aqueous solution. The composition changes of the reaction area at the glass surface need to be considered too. To achieve a complete description of the thermodynamic stability, the equilibrium between hydrated de-alkalinized glass and/or the gel layer with the aqueous solution should also be evaluated. (author)

  4. Composition-Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Borosilicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N.; Bechgaard, Tobias K.; Fuglsang, Søren D.; Pedersen, Rune H.; Tjell, Anders Ø.; Østergaard, Martin B.; Youngman, Randall E.; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-08-01

    Hot isostatic compression is an interesting method for modifying the structure and properties of bulk inorganic glasses. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not yet well understood. In this study, we report on the pressure and composition dependences of density and micromechanical properties (hardness, crack resistance, and brittleness) of five soda-lime borosilicate glasses with constant modifier content, covering the extremes from Na-Ca borate to Na-Ca silicate end members. Compression experiments are performed at pressures ≤1.0 GPa at the glass transition temperature in order to allow processing of large samples with relevance for industrial applications. In line with previous reports, we find an increasing fraction of tetrahedral boron, density, and hardness but a decreasing crack resistance and brittleness upon isostatic compression. Interestingly, a strong linear correlation between plastic (irreversible) compressibility and initial trigonal boron content is demonstrated, as the trigonal boron units are the ones most disposed for structural and topological rearrangements upon network compaction. A linear correlation is also found between plastic compressibility and the relative change in hardness with pressure, which could indicate that the overall network densification is responsible for the increase in hardness. Finally, we find that the micromechanical properties exhibit significantly different composition dependences before and after pressurization. The findings have important implications for tailoring microscopic and macroscopic structures of glassy materials and thus their properties through the hot isostatic compression method.

  5. Behaviour of ruthenium dioxide particles in borosilicate glasses and melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflieger, Rachel [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)], E-mail: rachel_pflieger@yahoo.fr; Lefebvre, Leila [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Malki, Mohammed [CNRS/CEMHTI-1D Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45701 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Polytech Orleans, Universite d' Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Allix, Mathieu [CNRS/CEMHTI-1D Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45701 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Grandjean, Agnes [DEN/DTCD-SCDV/CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257, Centre de Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium-glass systems are formed during the vitrification of nuclear waste. They are also widely used in micro-electronics because of their unique electrical properties. However, the interaction of this element with the glass matrix remains poorly understood. This work focuses on a RuO{sub 2} particles-nuclear alumino-borosilicate glass system in which the electrical conductivity is known to vary considerably with the RuO{sub 2} content and to become electronic above about 0.5-0.7 vol.% RuO{sub 2} [R. Pflieger, M. Malki, Y. Guari, J. Larionova, A. Grandjean, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., accepted for publication]. Some RuO{sub 2} segregation was observed in SEM/TEM investigations but no continuous chain of RuO{sub 2} particles could be seen. Electron relays between the particles are then necessary for a low-rate percolation, such as the nanoclusters suggested by Adachi et al. [K. Adachi, S. Iida, K. Hayashi, J. Mater. Res. 9 (7) (1994) 1866; K. Adachi, H. Kuno, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83 (10) (2000) 2441], which could consist in dissolved ruthenium. Indeed, several observations made here clearly indicate the presence of dissolved ruthenium in the glass matrix, like the modification of the glass density in presence of RuO{sub 2} particles or the diffusion-limited growth of RuO{sub 2} particles in the melt.

  6. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Depierre, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Angeli, F., E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frizon, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LP2C, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  7. Thorium reactions in borosilicate-glass/water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, D.; Hess, N.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Moore, D.A.; Yui, M.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the dissolution of Th-doped borosilicate glass, a complex assemblage of 24 different elements in various proportions, in a wide range of pH values (0.5 to 12) and carbonate (as high as 6.2 m) and bicarbonate (as high as 1.0 m) concentrations, and as a function of time to determine whether the observed thorium concentrations exhibit an equilibrium phenomenon and to ascertain whether existing thermodynamic data can be used to interpret these results. Measurable Th concentrations were observed in either the very acidic (pH 0.5 to 4) solutions or alkaline solutions containing relatively high carbonate/bicarbonate concentrations. Steady state Th concentrations were reached over time from both the oversaturation and undersaturation directions, indicating that Th concentrations are controlled by an equilibrium solubility phenomenon. The XRD, EXAFS, and thermodynamic analyses of solubility data failed to definitively identify the nature of the solubility-controlling solid in this complex system; however, the data suggests that the solubility-controlling solid most likely involves the Th-silicate phase and that the observed Th concentrations are up to many orders of magnitude lower than in equilibrium with ThO 2 (am). The solubility study also showed that existing thermodynamic data for carbonato complexes of Th can be used to reliably predict Th concentrations in relatively dilute to concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. (orig.)

  8. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage

  9. Alpha self irradiation effects in nuclear borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Deschanels, X.; Jegou, C.; Broudic, V.; Bart, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of actinide glasses are studied in the context of high-level waste management programs. Reprocessing high burnup fuels in particular will increase the minor actinide content in the glass package, resulting in higher cumulative alpha decay doses in the glass, and raising the question of the glass matrix behavior and especially its containment properties. The effect of alpha self-irradiation on the glass behavior is evaluated by doping the glass with a short-lived actinide ( 244 Cm) to reach in several years the alpha dose received by the future glass packages over several thousand years. 'R7T7' borosilicate glasses were doped with 3 different curium contents (0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 wt% 244 CmO 2 ). The density and mechanical properties of the curium-doped glasses were characterized up to 2. 10 18 α/g, revealing only a slight evolution of the macroscopic behavior of R7T7 glass in this range. The leaching behavior of curium-doped glass was also studied by Soxhlet tests. The results do not show any significant evolution of the initial alteration rate with the alpha dose. (authors)

  10. Selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules on mesoporous borosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Manidipa; Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous materials can play a pivotal role as a host material for delivery application to a specific part of a system. In this work we explore the selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules such as safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) on mesoporous borosilicate materials. The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and borosilicate materials (MBS) were prepared using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. After template removal the materials show high surface areas and in some cases ordered mesopores of dimensions ca. 6–7 nm. High surface area, mesoporosity and the presence of heteroatom (boron) help this mesoporous borosilicate material to adsorb high amount of cationic dye molecules at its surface from the respective aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the mesoporous borosilicate samples containing higher percentage adsorbed dyes show excellent release of ST or MG dye in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at physiological pH = 7.4 and temperature 310 K. The adsorption and release efficiency of mesoporous borosilicate samples are compared with reference boron-free mesoporous pure silica material to understand the nature of adsorbate–adsorbent interaction at the surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate materials have been synthesized by using Pluronic P123 as template. The materials show very good adsorption and release of organic cationic dye molecules under physiological conditions. Highlights: ► Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate. ► Nonionic Pluoronic P123 templated mesoporous material. ► Adsorption of organic dyes at the mesopore surface. ► Controlled release of dyes under physiological pH and temperature. ► Release of safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) dyes in simulated body fluids.

  11. Formulation of special glass frit and its use for decontamination of Joule melter employed for vitrification of high level and radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Mishra, P.K.; Thakur, D.A.; Ghongane, D.E.; Jayan, R.V.; Dani, U.; Sonavane, M.S.; Kulkarni, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced vitrification system at TWMP Tarapur was used for successful vitrification of large volume of HLW stored in waste tank farm. After completion of the operational life of the joule melter, dismantling was planned. Prior to the dismantling, the hold up inventory of active glass product from the melter was flushed out using specially formulated inactive glass frit to reduce the air activity buildup in the cell during dismantling operations. The properties of the special glass frit prepared are comparable with that of the regular product glass. More than 94% of holdup activity was flushed out from the joule melter prior to the dismantling of the melter. (author)

  12. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  13. Dynamic fracture and fragmentation patterns of borosilicate laminate glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez del Río, T.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour of laminate borosilicate glasses (BSG with polyvinylbutiral (PVB interfaces (0,38 mm located at different distances from the impact point have been studied and compared with monolithic glass. The mechanical behaviour under impact loads have been studied using a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. In these experiments, the stress-strain curves of the materials at high loading rates and the capability of transmitting and reflecting the impact energy have been determined. The influence of the position of the interface on the fragmentation statistics of the SHPB recovered fragments has also been considered and analysed according to the published theoretical models.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado los comportamientos dinámicos de un vidrio monolítico de borosilicato y varios laminados de cristal de borosilicato (BSG con intercaras de polyvinylbutiral (PVB (0,38 mm situados a diferentes distancias respecto del punto de impacto. Los resultados de las diferentes configuraciones de laminados se han comparado con el vidrio monolítico. El comportamiento mecánico bajo cargas de impacto se han estudiado realizando ensayos de compresión con una barra Hopkinson (SHPB. A partir de estos experimentos se obtienen las curvas tensión-deformación de los materiales a altas velocidades de carga y su capacidad de transmitir y reflejar la energía del impacto. La influencia de la posición de la interfaz en las estadísticas de la fragmentación de los fragmentos recuperados también se ha considerado y analizado de acuerdo a los modelos teóricos publicados.

  14. Borosilicate glass as a matrix for the immobilization of Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The reference waste form for immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste is borosilicate glass. In the reference process, waste is mixed with glass-forming chemicals and melted in a Joule-heated ceramic melter at 1150 0 C. Waste glass made with actual or simulated waste on a small scale and glass made with simulated waste on a large scale confirm that the current reference process and glass-former composition are able to accommodate all SRP waste compositions and can produce a glass with: high waste loading; low leach rates; good thermal stability; high resistance to radiation effects; and good impact resistance. Borosilicate glass has been studied as a matrix for the immobilization of SRP waste since 1974. This paper reviews the results of extensive characterization and performance testing of the glass product. These results show that borosilicate glass is a very suitable matrix for the immobilization of SRP waste. 18 references, 3 figures, 10 tables

  15. VARIABILITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF IMPURITIES IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING, LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Charles Crawford, C; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; James Marra, J

    2007-09-26

    This study focuses on the development of a compositional envelope that describes the retention of various impurities in lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass for vitrification and immobilization of excess, defense-related plutonium. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define types and concentrations of impurities in the LaBS glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. Sixty surrogate glass compositions were developed through a statistically designed approach to cover the anticipated ranges of concentrations for several impurity species expected in the plutonium feeds. An additional four glass compositions containing actual plutonium oxide were selected based on their targeted concentrations of metals and anions. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory and shielded cells facility to determine the degree of retention of the impurity components, the impact of the impurities on the durability of each glass, and the degree of crystallization that occurred, both upon quenching and slow cooling. Overall, the LaBS glass system appears to be very tolerant of most of the impurity types and concentrations projected in the plutonium waste stream. For the surrogate glasses, the measured CuO, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, NiO, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations fell very close to their target values across the ranges of concentrations targeted in this study for each of these components. The measured CaO and PbO concentrations were consistently higher than the targeted values. The measured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were very close to the targets except for the one highest targeted value for each of these components. A solubility limit may have been approached in this glass system for K{sub 2}O and MgO. The measured Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2

  16. Magnetic Media Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab specializes in tape certification and performance characterization of high density digital tape and isprepared to support the certification of standard size...

  17. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  18. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  19. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  20. Effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate glass, containing copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejnina, T.G.; Gutner, S.Kh.; Anan'in, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate (SBS) glass, containing copper is studied. It is stated that phase separation close to equilibrium one is attained under 12 hours of heat treatment of SBS glass containing copper

  1. X-ray tomography of feed-to-glass transition of simulated borosilicate waste glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harris, W.H.; Guillen, D.P.; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Pokorný, P.; Yano, T.; Lee, S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Hrma, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2017), s. 3883-3894 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : borosilicate glass * computed tomography * glass melting * morphology * nuclear waste * X-ray Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2016

  2. Evaluation of long-term leaching of borosilicate glass in pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to confirm the validity of the model of the dissolving sphere, a series of tests of leaching of borosilicate glasses has been performed. The leaching rate is followed by measurements of weight loss and analysis of the surface composition. An accumulation at the surface of the less soluble cations is observed

  3. X-ray irradiation induced reduction and nanoclustering of lead in borosilicate glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanley, H.B.; Banerjee, D.; Breemen, van L.C.A.; Ciston, J.; Liebscher, C.H.; Martis, V.; Merino, D.H.; Longo, A.; Pattison, P.; Peters, G.W.M.; Portale, G.; Sen, Sabyasachi; Bras, W.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the formation of nanoparticles in lead sulfide (PbS)-doped borosilicate glass subjected to a two-step nucleation and growth heat treatment using in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The microstructure produced was subsequently characterized using X-ray powder diffraction

  4. Chapter 1. The characteristics of borosilicate ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to characteristics of borosilicate ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan. The chemical composition of danburite ore of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was defined. The chemical composition of danburite ore concentrate of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was defined as well.

  5. Modelling the evaporation of boron species. Part 1: Alkali-free borosilicate glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Cook, S.; O'Connor, R.; Simon, J.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been used to measure the boron evaporation rates from borosilicate glass melts. The impact of furnace atmosphere composition and glass melt composition on the temperature dependent boron evaporation rates has been investigated experimentally. In Part 1 of this paper

  6. Development of aluminosilicate and borosilicate glasses as matrices for CANDU high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.; McIntyre, N.S.; Taylor, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper covers the results of analyses of two radioactive nepheline syenite glass blocks recovered from in-ground leaching experiments at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Current research on borosilicate glasses for immobilization of high-level waste is also described

  7. Characterization of borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level radioactive wastes from PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, R.; Eguchi, K.; Yamanaka, H.

    1979-01-01

    The characterization of borosilicate glasses containing simulated HLW from PNC has been carried out. Phase separation of molybdates, volatilization, viscosity, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, chemical durability, and devitrification of these glasses have been measured, and the suitability of the glasses for the vitrified solidification processes is discussed from the viewpoint of safety

  8. Quantification of the boron speciation in alkali borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, D.S.; Yang, G.; Zhao, Y.Q.

    2015-01-01

    developed a method based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data acquisition and analyses, which enables determination of the boron speciation in a series of ternary alkali borosilicate glasses with constant molar ratios. A script for the fast acquisition of EELS has been designed, from which...

  9. Phase separation of cesium from lead borosilicate glass by heat treatment under a reducing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Cesium was phase separated from lead borosilicate glass under a reductive atmosphere. • The phase separation occurred on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas. • The leachability of cesium was enhanced by the phase separation. • The degree of such enhancement varied depending on the heat treatment conditions. - Abstract: A phase-separation technique for removing sodium from glass using a heat-treatment method under a reducing atmosphere was previously developed for sodium recovery from waste glass. In this study, this technique was applied to cesium-containing lead borosilicate glass to concentrate the cesium in phase-separated sodium-rich materials for efficient cesium extraction. The theoretical phase-separation temperature of the sodium-rich phase was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and was predicted to occur below 700 °C for lead borosilicate glass. Experimentally, a simulated lead borosilicate glass was melted at 1000 °C and subsequently annealed below 700 °C under a CO-containing reducing atmosphere. The phase separation of cesium was found to occur with sodium enrichment on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas phase, promoting cesium extraction from the treated glass using water. The cesium extraction efficiency was affected by the surface area of the treated glass that was in contact with water, and under the examined conditions, the cesium extraction efficiency was up to 66%. Phase separation using reductive heat treatment, combined with a water leaching technique, is suggested to be effective for extracting cesium incorporated in borosilicate glass waste.

  10. Reforming Cookbook Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Deconstructing cookbook labs to require the students to be more thoughtful could break down perceived teacher barriers to inquiry learning. Simple steps that remove or disrupt the direct transfer of step-by-step procedures in cookbook labs make students think more critically about their process. Through trials in the author's middle school…

  11. Payments to the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management the Lab Make payments for event registrations, sponsorships, insurance, travel, other fees. Contact Treasury Team (505) 667-4090 Email If you need to make a payment to the Lab for an event registration

  12. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    urban lab initiatives from five different European cities: Antwerp (B), Graz and Leoben (A), Maastricht (NL) and Malmö (S). We do not pretend that these guidelines touch upon all possible challenges an urban lab may be confronted with, but we have incorporated all those we encountered in our...

  13. Kinematic Labs with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-07-01

    This book provides 13 labs spanning the common topics in the first semester of university-level physics. Each lab is designed to use only the student's smartphone, laptop and items easily found in big-box stores or a hobby shop. Each lab contains theory, set-up instructions and basic analysis techniques. All of these labs can be performed outside of the traditional university lab setting and initial costs averaging less than 8 per student, per lab.

  14. Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Operating Window Assessments of Scenarios Leading Up to the Selected Preparation Plan for SB4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report is to document technical information that has been provided to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Closure Business Unit (CBU) personnel as part of the frit development support for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The information presented in this report includes projected operating windows (expressed in terms of waste loading) for various sludge blending and/or washing options coupled with candidate frits of interest. Although the Nominal Stage assessment serves as the primary tool for these evaluations, select systems were also evaluated using a Variation Stage assessment in which compositional variations were introduced. In addition, assessments of the impacts of nepheline formation potential and the SO 4 - solubility limit on the projected operating windows are also provided. Although this information was used as part of the technical basis leading to CBU's development of the preferred SB4 preparation plan, none of the options presented in this report was selected as the preferred plan. Therefore, the information is presented without significant interpretation of the resulting operating windows, but the projected windows are provided so additional insight can be explored if desired. Detailed assessments of the projected operating windows (using both Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) of the preferred sludge preparation plan with candidate frits are to be documented elsewhere. The information provided in this report is focused solely on model-based projections of the operating windows for various SB4 blending strategies of interest. Although nepheline formation potential is monitored via model predictions as a part of this assessment, experimental work investigating the impact of nepheline on glass quality is also being addressed in a parallel study. The results of this paper study and the experimental assessments of melt rate, SO 4 solubility, and/or nepheline formation potential are all critical components of the inputs into

  15. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  16. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  17. The Udall Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Udall lab is interested in genome evolution and cotton genomics.The cotton genus ( Gossypium) is an extraordinarily diverse group with approximately 50 species...

  18. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  19. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  20. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.

  1. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsot, In?s M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low te...

  2. Chemical durability of lead borosilicate glass matrix under simulated geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2002-03-01

    The lead borosilicate glass has been developed for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) stored at Trombay. This waste is contains especially high contents of sodium, uranium sulphate and iron. The glasses containing HLW are to be ultimately disposed into deep geological repositories. Long term leach rates under simulated geological conditions need to be evaluated for glass matrix. Studies were taken up to estimate the lead borosilicate glass WTR-62 matrix for chemical durability in presence of synthetic ground water. The leachant selected was based on composition of ground water sample near proposed repository site. In the first phase of these tests, the experiments were conducted for short duration of one and half month. The leaching experiments were conducted in presence of a) distilled water b) synthetic ground water c) synthetic ground water containing granite, bentonite and ferric oxide and d) synthetic ground water containing humic acid at 100 0 C. The leachate samples were analysed by pHmetry , ion chromatography and UV -VIS spectrophotometry. The normalised leach rates for lead borosilicate WTR- 62 glass matrix based on silica, boron and sulphate analyses of leachates were of the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 gms/cm 2 /day for 45 days test period in presence of synthetic ground water as well as in presence of other materials likely to be present along with synthetic ground water. These rates are comparable to those of sodium borsilicate glass matrices reported in literature. It is known that the leach rates of glass matrix decrease with longer test durations due to formation of leached layer on its surface. The observed leach rates of lead borosilicate WTR- 62 glass matrix for 45 day tests under simulated geological conditions were found to be sufficiently encouraging to take up long term tests for evaluating its performances under repository conditions. (author)

  3. Effect of ThO2 concentration on thermo-physical properties of barium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.; Munshi, A.K.; Kaushik, C.P.; Raj, Kanwar; Shobha, M.; Srikhande, V.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    An advanced heavy water reactor is being developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) India with an aim of utilizing thorium for power generation. The high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated from reprocessing of Th-based spent fuel is expected to contain Th as one of the main constituents other than fission products, corrosion products, actinides and added chemicals. Barium borosilicate (BBS) glass is being used for vitrification of the HLW generated at the reprocessing plant at BARC, Trombay, Mumbai

  4. Determination of occluded helium and oxygen in irradiated borosilicate glass samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Kulkarni, A.S.; Shrivastava, K.C.; Yadav, C.S.; Saxena, M.K.; Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Shah, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Occluded gases in irradiated borosilicate glass were determined at 573, 873 and 1273 K for understanding the radiation damage in glass matrix. Hot vacuum extraction coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer technique was employed for the measurements. Relative sensitivity factors of various gases in QMS system were also determined and used for gas composition calculations. At 573 K only helium was found to get released whereas at 873 and 1273 K both helium and oxygen were released with major fraction of oxygen. (author)

  5. Influence of Mo on the structure of borosilicate glass for the immobilization of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I.; Dimitriev, Y.; Kashchieva, E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the classic multi-borosilicate glass with concentration of MoO 3 has a low melting in the range of 1300 to 1400 ° C, but for achieving of complete homogenization and vitrification it is required temperature above 1400 ° C. Under this temperature in all tested samples areas of crystallization were observed, due to incomplete vitrification processes. It is understood that in all multicomponent borosilicate glass featuring MoO 3 , occur micro vitrification processes, and at a concentration of MoO 3 above 20% - macro segregation; It has been shown that the introduction of Nd in compound borosilicate glass featuring MoO 3 is observed crystallization of the phase Na 0.5 Nd 0.5 Mo, and it has been also found that the phase Na 0.5 Nd 0.5 Mo 4 can be synthesized either by solid phase reaction or supercooled melt. The results of surveys show that It is possible to prevent the occurrence of liquid phase separation in the studied multicomponent glass. From a structural point of view, the cause of liquid phase separation is the result of structural incompatibility of molybdenum units with structural units borosilicate network since not been established links Mo-O-B-O and Mo-Si. From a thermodynamic point of view in the lamination multi windows may be due to overlapping areas of delamination in component binary and triple systems. From the kinetic point of view of course the liquid phase by settling, and crystallization may be due to imbalances conditions the cooling process, in the course of which flow various processes of imbalances metastable settling, followed by crystallization of molybdate phases

  6. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation

  7. Proving the role of boron in the structure of fly-ash/borosilicate glass based geopolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taveri, Gianmarco; Toušek, J.; Bernardo, E.; Toniolo, N.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, AUG (2017), s. 105-108 ISSN 0167-577X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 642557 - CoACH Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fly-ash * Borosillicate * Geopolymerization * Spectroscopy * NMR * FTIR Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167577X1730650X

  8. Preliminary assessment of modified borosilicate glasses for chromium and ruthenium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, Osama M. [Reactors Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt); Centre of Nuclear Engineering (CNE), Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Abdel Rahman, R.O., E-mail: alaarehab@yahoo.com [Hot Laboratory Center, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    The feasibility of using modified alkali borosilicate glasses for ruthenium and chromium immobilization is preliminary assessed by investigating the immobilization system structure under normal conditions. Within this context, reference alkali borosilicate, and simulated Magnox-modified glasses were prepared and studied. The results indicate that ruthenium is immobilized in the vitreous structure as encapsulated RuO{sub 2} crystallites that act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of other crystalline phases. The presence of Zn, as modifier, has contributed to chromium immobilization in zincochromite spinel structure, whereas Ca is accommodated in the vitreous structure. Immobilization performance was evaluated by conducting conservative static leach test and studying the leached glass. Leached glass morphology was altered, where near surface reference glass is leached over 400 nm and simulated Magnox-modified sample is altered over 300 nm. Normalized release rates are within normal range for borosilicate material. For simulated Magnox-modified sample, Ca and alkali structural element, i.e. Na and Li, are leached via ion-exchange reaction. The ion-exchanged fraction equals 1.06 × 10{sup −8} mol/m{sup 2} s and chromium has slightly lower normalized release rate value than ruthenium. - Highlights: • The presence of modifiers and waste oxides led to localized de-vitrification. • Ruthenium is encapsulated within the vitreous glass network as RuO{sub 2} crystals. • Chromium is immobilized within the zincochromite spinel structure. • Pitting and cracks induced by leaching did not affect the immobilization performance.

  9. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.

  10. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses. Nature and properties of alteration layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, Laurent

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis addresses physical and chemical processes which occur during aqueous corrosion of silicates, and the study of the properties of their interfaces with solutions, and thus issues related to the fate of high activity nuclear wastes which are embedded in a vitreous matrix as the potential release of radionuclides towards the environment then depends on the glass parcel behaviour submitted to chemical attacks which could alter it, notably by aqueous corrosion. The objective is then to model the dissolution of nuclear glass over long periods of time, and to predict the behaviour of radionuclides. The author compared the corrosion and alteration layers of gradually more complex borosilicate glasses, from a ternary sodium borosilicate glass to a simulated nuclear glass (the French reference glass R7T7). Complexity is increased by adding oxides. After some theoretical recalls on the structure and corrosion of borosilicate glasses, the author presents the studied materials, the corrosion experiments, and analytical techniques used to study alteration layers. The mechanism of formation of altered layers is studied based on corrosion experiments performed at 90 C on the whole set of glasses. Alteration layers formed on corroded glasses are studied and compared by using various techniques: electronic microscopy, high energy ion beams, spectroscopy, infrared, photo-electron spectroscopy. Implications for underground storage of nuclear glasses are discussed

  11. Fabrication of Low Noise Borosilicate Glass Nanopores for Single Molecule Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh A Bafna

    Full Text Available We show low-cost fabrication and characterization of borosilicate glass nanopores for single molecule sensing. Nanopores with diameters of ~100 nm were fabricated in borosilicate glass capillaries using laser assisted glass puller. We further achieve controlled reduction and nanometer-size control in pore diameter by sculpting them under constant electron beam exposure. We successfully fabricate pore diameters down to 6 nm. We next show electrical characterization and low-noise behavior of these borosilicate nanopores and compare their taper geometries. We show, for the first time, a comprehensive characterization of glass nanopore conductance across six-orders of magnitude (1M-1μM of salt conditions, highlighting the role of buffer conditions. Finally, we demonstrate single molecule sensing capabilities of these devices with real-time translocation experiments of individual λ-DNA molecules. We observe distinct current blockage signatures of linear as well as folded DNA molecules as they undergo voltage-driven translocation through the glass nanopores. We find increased signal to noise for single molecule detection for higher trans-nanopore driving voltages. We propose these nanopores will expand the realm of applications for nanopore platform.

  12. High-level waste borosilicate glass a compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    Current plans call for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to start up facilities for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, in 1995; West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, in 1996; and at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, after the year 2000. The product from these facilities will be canistered HLW borosilicate glass, which will be stored, transported, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. The behavior of this glass waste product, under the range of likely service conditions, is the subject of considerable scientific and public interest. Over the past few decades, a large body of scientific information on borosilicate waste glass has been generated worldwide. The intent of this document is to consolidate information pertaining to our current understanding of waste glass corrosion behavior and radionuclide release. The objective, scope, and organization of the document are discussed in Section 1.1, and an overview of borosilicate glass corrosion is provided in Section 1.2. The history of glass as a waste form and the international experience with waste glass are summarized in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively

  13. Influence of Cu doping in borosilicate bioactive glass and the properties of its derived scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Xiao, Wei; Xue, Jingzhe; Shen, Youqu; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Deping

    2016-01-01

    Copper doped borosilicate glasses (BG-Cu) were studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopies to investigate the changes that appeared in the structure of borosilicate glass matrix by doping copper ions. Micro-fil and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied to study the angiogenesis of its derived scaffolds in vivo. Results indicated that the Cu ions significantly increased the B-O bond of BO4 groups at 980 cm(-1), while they decrease that of BO2O(-) groups at 1440-1470 cm(-1) as shown by Raman spectra. A negative shift was observed from (11)B and (29)Si NMR spectra. The (11)B NMR spectra exhibited a clear transformation from BO3 into BO4 groups, caused by the agglutination effect of the Cu ions and the charge balance of the agglomerate in the glass network, leading to a more stable glass network and lower ions release rate in the degradation process. Furthermore, the BG-Cu scaffolds significantly enhanced blood vessel formation in rat calvarial defects at 8 weeks post-implantation. Generally, it suggested that the introduction of Cu into borosilicate glass endowed glass and its derived scaffolds with good properties, and the cooperation of Cu with bioactive glass may pave a new way for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical behavior of cellular borosilicate glass with pressurized Ar-filled closed pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Matsumaru, Koji; Yang Jianfeng; Fu Zhengyi; Ishizaki, Kozo

    2012-01-01

    High strength borosilicate foams were fabricated by melting glass powder under high-pressure argon gas and subsequent heat treatment of the glass bulk at atmospheric pressure. In the first step, borosilicate glass powder was melted at 1100 °C for 1 h by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) under a high gas pressure of 10–70 MPa. Pressurized Ar-filled spherical pores were introduced into the glass, and argon atoms were dissolved in the glass network structure. The expansion of argon-filled pores and the release of the dissolved Ar gas resulted in the formation of pressurized Ar-filled closed pores by isothermal heat treatment at 800 °C for 10 min. A high porosity of up to 80% with a bimodal distribution of micro-size cells was obtained for the resultant cellular borosilicate glass. By increasing the total gas pressure from 10 to 70 MPa, the compressive strength and the Young’s modulus were increased considerably from 15 to 52 MPa and from 4.1 to 12.6 GPa, respectively, which can be substantially attributed to the high collapse stress from the high enclosed gas pressure. The cellular glass with a high porosity showed a large failure strain under uniaxial compression.

  15. Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites: The correlation between processing parameters and magnetic properties for high frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T., E-mail: t.gheiratmand@yahoo.com; Madaah Hosseini, H.R., E-mail: Madaah@sharif.edu; Seyed Reihani, S.M.

    2017-05-01

    Iron-borosilicate soft magnetic composites are suitable magnetic materials for high temperature and high frequency applications. In this research two different techniques have been applied to fabricate these composites: uniaxial pressing following by sintering and spark plasma sintering. Different processing parameters including the content of borosilicate, the amount of compaction pressure and the size of iron particles have been evaluated through the study of microstructure and magnetic properties. The microstructural observations showed that the borosilicate is distributed on the iron grain boundaries enhancing the resistivity and causing the loss of eddy currents. Increasing the compaction pressure was led to the decrease of electrical resistivity. By increasing the frequency both real and imaginary parts of permeability decreased. The use of higher content of borosilicate resulted in the lower decreasing slop of permeability. Best combination of density, permeability and electrical resistivity was obtained in the sample with 2 wt% of borosilicate. In addition, the densification of powders with fine particles was more difficult than coarse particles due to the inter particles friction and bridging effects. Furthermore, as the particles size increases the size of open porosities before sintering where the borosilicate could aggregate enhances. This could yields to the increase in the electrical resistivity. The high ratio of surface to the volume in the powders with fine particles results in the developing the demagnetizing fields and subsequently, decreasing the permeability. The highest relative density (99.99% of theoretical density) with best distribution of borosilicate was achieved in the composites produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The relaxation frequency, obtained from imaginary part of permeability, was found as 340 Hz in the composites made by SPS. - Highlights: • Iron-borosilicate SMC was produced for high temperature and frequency

  16. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  17. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    1999-01-01

    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  18. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  19. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  20. A Raman spectroscopy study on the effects of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on water molecules absorbed by borosilicate glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fabing; Li, Zhanlong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Shenghan; Wang, Xiaojun; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2018-05-01

    The structural forms of water/deuterated water molecules located on the surface of borosilicate capillaries have been first investigated in this study on the basis of the Raman spectral data obtained at different temperatures and under atmospheric pressure for molecules in bulk and also for molecules absorbed by borosilicate glass surface. The strongest two fundamental bands locating at 3063 cm-1 (2438 cm-1) in the recorded Raman spectra are assigned here to the Osbnd H (Osbnd D) bond stretching vibrations and they are compared with the corresponding bands observed at 3124 cm-1 (2325 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum of ice Ih. Our spectroscopic observations have indicated that the structure of water and deuterated water molecules on borosilicate surface is similar to that of ice Ih (hexagonal phase of ice). These observations have also indicated that water molecules locate on the borosilicate surface so as to construct a bilayer structure and that strong and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds are formed between water/deuterated molecules and silanol groups on borosilicate surface. In accordance with these findings, water and deuterated water molecules at the interface of capillary have a higher melting temperature.

  1. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte-Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte-Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  2. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-15

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  3. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-15

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  4. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte-Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte-Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  5. Advanced HVAC modeling with FemLab/Simulink/MatLab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The combined MatLab toolboxes FemLab and Simulink are evaluated as solvers for HVAC problems based on partial differential equations (PDEs). The FemLab software is designed to simulate systems of coupled PDEs, 1-D, 2-D or 3-D, nonlinear and time dependent. In order to show how the program works, a

  6. Advances in understanding the structure of borosilicate glasses: A Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manara, D.; Grandjean, A. [CEA Marcoule, Serv Confinement Deches and Vitrificat, DTCD, DEN - 30 (France); Neuville, D.R. [Institut Physique Globe, Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, CNRS, F-75252 Paris 05 (France)

    2009-05-15

    This study is focused on the behavior of ternary SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} borosilicate glasses at temperatures between 298 and 1800 K. Unpolarized Raman spectra were measured up to high temperature. SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass samples were prepared with different values of the ratio R [Na{sub 2}O]/[B{sub 2}O{sub 3}], while the ratio K = [SiO{sub 2}]/[B{sub 2}O{sub 3}] was kept constant and equal 2.12. Spectra were measured at room temperature in samples with 0.43 {<=} R {<=} 1.68, and the effect of the modifier content was clearly observed in these glasses, only in partial agreement with previous literature results. In particular, the formation in the glass of sodium-danburite units Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2SiO{sub 2} was postulated. This feature led to a new assessment of R{sup *}, the critical value of R above which every new alkali atom added to the system breaks a Fo-O-Fo (Fo=glass former) bridge causing depolymerization of the glass. A revised formula is proposed to obtain the value of R{sup *} as a function of K. Raman spectra measured at high temperature yielded important information about the temperature-dependent evolution of the borosilicate system. In particular, borate and borosilicate units including tetra-coordinated boron seem to be unstable at high temperature, where the formation of metaborate chains or rings is fostered. Above 1500 degrees C, evaporation of borate compounds is clearly observed, stemming from the small sample size. (authors)

  7. Influence of Cu doping in borosilicate bioactive glass and the properties of its derived scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 2001804 (China); Zhao, Shichang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Xiao, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0340 (United States); Xue, Jingzhe [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shen, Youqu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0340 (United States); Zhou, Jie; Huang, Wenhai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 2001804 (China); Rahaman, Mohamed N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0340 (United States); Zhang, Changqing, E-mail: shzhangchangqing@163.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang, Deping, E-mail: wdpshk@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 2001804 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Copper doped borosilicate glasses (BG–Cu) were studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, UV–vis and NMR spectroscopies to investigate the changes that appeared in the structure of borosilicate glass matrix by doping copper ions. Micro-fil and immunohistochemistry analysis were applied to study the angiogenesis of its derived scaffolds in vivo. Results indicated that the Cu ions significantly increased the B–O bond of BO{sub 4} groups at 980 cm{sup −1}, while they decrease that of BO{sub 2}O{sup −} groups at 1440–1470 cm{sup −1} as shown by Raman spectra. A negative shift was observed from {sup 11}B and {sup 29}Si NMR spectra. The {sup 11}B NMR spectra exhibited a clear transformation from BO{sub 3} into BO{sub 4} groups, caused by the agglutination effect of the Cu ions and the charge balance of the agglomerate in the glass network, leading to a more stable glass network and lower ions release rate in the degradation process. Furthermore, the BG–Cu scaffolds significantly enhanced blood vessel formation in rat calvarial defects at 8 weeks post-implantation. Generally, it suggested that the introduction of Cu into borosilicate glass endowed glass and its derived scaffolds with good properties, and the cooperation of Cu with bioactive glass may pave a new way for tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Agglutination effect of Cu{sup 2+} and charge balance of agglomerate lead to more stable glass. • Lower degradability and lower ions release were found in BG-Cu scaffolds. • Excellent angiogenesis and sustain Cu{sup 2+} release were endowed by doping Cu.

  8. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate to meet the standard for frit by a combination of using a screen plate electrostatic separator and other beneficiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Hung

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, researches on qualitative upgrade of zircon concentrate in order to meet the standard for frit were carried out by combinations of a screen plate type electrostatic separator with other physical beneficiation methods such as magnetic separation, flotation, gravity by air-table along with chemical treatment on laboratory scale was itself manufactured for studied scopes, after that zircon concentrate about 63.9-64.8% of ZrO 2 , less than 0.13% of TiO 2 and 0.128% of Fe 2 O 3 values were recovered. (NDH)

  9. New insight into nanoparticle precipitation by electron beams in borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M. M.; Möbus, G.

    2017-06-01

    Nanoprecipitation in different oxide glasses by means of electron irradiation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been compared in this study. Upon irradiation, groups or patterns of nanoparticles with various morphologies and sizes were formed in borosilicate glasses, loaded with zinc, copper, and silver. The study successfully includes loading ranges for the target metal from doping level (1%) over medium level (20%) to majority phase (60%). It is found that particle patterning resolution is affected by parallel processes of amorphous phase separation, glass ablation, and delocalised precipitation. In addition, via an in-situ study, it is confirmed that by heating alone without irradiation, no precipitate nanoparticles form.

  10. Photoelastic examination of borosilicate glass discs used in the insulating legs for the NSF tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, W.J.; Cundy, D.

    1981-04-01

    The results are presented of a photoelastic stress analysis carried out to establish the effect of re-annealing borosilicate glass discs used in the insulating legs of the 30 MV tandem van de Graaff accelerator of the NSF. The results show that re-annealing of the glass discs has no measurable effect on reducing the high stress at inclusions and re-emphasise the need to exercise great care in selecting suitable discs for use in the insulating legs. (U.K.)

  11. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  12. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II

  13. New insight into nanoparticle precipitation by electron beams in borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, M.M.; Moebus, G. [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Nanoprecipitation in different oxide glasses by means of electron irradiation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been compared in this study. Upon irradiation, groups or patterns of nanoparticles with various morphologies and sizes were formed in borosilicate glasses, loaded with zinc, copper, and silver. The study successfully includes loading ranges for the target metal from doping level (1%) over medium level (20%) to majority phase (60%). It is found that particle patterning resolution is affected by parallel processes of amorphous phase separation, glass ablation, and delocalised precipitation. In addition, via an in-situ study, it is confirmed that by heating alone without irradiation, no precipitate nanoparticles form. (orig.)

  14. Determination of boron in borosilicate glasses by neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Jr, J E; Lindstrom, R M

    1987-01-01

    Major levels of boron in borosilicate glasses were determined nondestructively by neutron activation analysis. The effects of neutron self-shielding by boron (1 to 8% by weight) are examined. Results of the analysis of a series of glasses with increasing boron composition are 1.150 +- .005% and 7.766 +- .035% for the low and high members of the series. Once analyzed, the glasses are useful as secondary standards for alpha track counting, and also ion and electron microprobe analyses of glasses. 12 refs.; 3 tables.

  15. A review of phase separation in borosilicate glasses, with reference to nuclear fuel waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-08-01

    This report reviews information on miscibility limits in borosilicate glass-forming systems. It includes both a literature survey and an account of experimental work performed within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Emphasis is placed on the measurement and depiction of miscibility limits in multicomponent (mainly quaternary) systems, and the effects of individual components on the occurrence of phase separation. The behaviour of the multicomponent system is related to that of simpler (binary and ternary) glass systems. The possible occurrence of phase separation, as well as its avoidance, during processing of nuclear waste glasses is discussed

  16. Influence of iron ions on the structural properties of Zn-borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gotic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of iron ions on the appearance of crystalline phases in Zn-borosilicate glasses, and to obtain information about valence state and coordination of iron ions. The systems Na 2 O-ZnO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 and ZnO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 were doped with α-Fe 2 O 3 . X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. (author) 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  18. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A., E-mail: davidm@vsl.cua.edu; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-15

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo{sup 6+}O{sub 4} with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V{sup 5+}O{sub 4} as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν{sub 1}) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm{sup −1} for glasses that change from Li{sup +} to Na{sup +} as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na{sup +} and Li{sup +}. Secondary ν{sub 1} frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm{sup −1}, were also observed with increasing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO{sub 4}-MoO{sub 4} and MoO{sub 4}-VO{sub 4} clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation. - Highlights: •Raman and XAS data indicate isolated MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra from the borosilicate network. •Mo-O stretch frequency is sensitive to network-modifying Li and Na concentrations. •Mo-O stretch frequency shifts were also seen with increasing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} content. •The Raman trends may indicate MoO{sub 4}-MoO{sub 4} and MoO{sub 4}-VO{sub 4} clustering in the glass. •V may stabilize Mo in the glass matrix avoiding yellow phase formation.

  19. Conversion of radwaste-loaded zeolites into a borosilicate glass to improve their properties for final disposal (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemian, H.; Ghannadi Maraghe, M.; Mallah, M.H.; Firooz Zare, M.; Kooshkestani, R.; Naghavi, S.Sh.

    2002-01-01

    Research was undertaken to fix radioisotopes from simulated nuclear waste streams into durable and stable borosilicate glass matrices based on the conversion of different type of zeolites. It was found that the selectivity of Iranian clinoptilolite and the relevant synthetic zeolite toward cesium and strontium were quite good whereas the leach resistance of the loaded zeolite was relatively poor. To improve the leach resistance of the used zeolites, conversion of the spent exchangers into borosilicate glass was investigated. Results obtained in the non active bench scale tests phase were promising. It is concluded that spent zeolites loaded with radioactive materials can be converted into a durable, high leach resistant borosilicate glass, a proper matrix for final disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  20. Digital Social Science Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...

  1. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning ho...... the result is inspiring and instructive for all those who want to wrap their minds around experimental co-creative approaches to urban governance and city development....

  2. Effect of the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey fraction on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debure, M.; Frugier, P.; GIN, S.; De Windt, L.; Michau, N.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In France, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is confined in a glass matrix packaged into stainless steel canister and carbon steel overpack. The HLW should be buried in a geological clay formation like, potentially, the Callovian-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone located in the north-eastern Parisian basin. The COx clay-stone contains minerals that can feed the near-field with soluble Mg. Such minerals are carbonates (ankerite, dolomite) as well as clay minerals (chlorite, illite, interstratified illite/smectite). Previous laboratory experiments have proved that aqueous solutions of Mg salts could significantly increase the alteration rate of nuclear glass (Jollivet et al., 2012). This motivated to go a step further by studying the alteration of nuclear glass put in contact with Mg minerals. A first set of experiments have revealed that the rate of glass dissolution was increased with hydro-magnesite (4MgCO 3 .Mg(OH) 2 .4H 2 O, a chemically simple model mineral) and dolomite. In both cases, Mg coming from carbonate dissolution reacts with Si, provided by the glass, in order to form Mg silicates (Debure et al., 2012). In that case, Si consumption sustains glass alteration. Mg silicate precipitation also consumes protons; therefore the interdiffusion of alkali within the glass alteration layer eventually becomes a driving force that sustains Mg silicate precipitation. The second set of experiments, presented here, aimed at better characterizing the role of the COx clayey fraction. The separation of the clayey phases of the COx clay-stone has been made in collaboration with the LEM lab (Nancy, France) by a sequence of sieving, acidic dissolution of carbonates, NaCl washing and sedimentation (Rivard, 2011). According to XRD and infrared analyses, the clayey fraction was mainly composed of kaolinite, illite, interstratified illite/smectite and chlorite (plus a little residual amount of quartz). This first step aimed to remove

  3. Performance of borosilicate glass, Synroc and spent fuel as nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Grambow, B.; Ewing, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, there are three prominent waste forms under consideration for the disposal of high-level waste: Borosilicate glass and Synroc for high-level radioactive waste from fuel reprocessing and spent fuel as the waste form for non-reprocessed fuel. Using the present experimental data base, one may compare the performance of these three waste forms under repository relevant conditions. In low water flow regimes and at temperatures less than 100 degree C, the fractional release rates of all three waste forms are low, on the order of 10-7/d or less and may decrease with time. Under these conditions the three waste forms behave similarly. At elevated temperatures or in high flow regimes, the durability of borosilicate glass will be much less than that of Synroc, and thus, for certain disposal schemes (e.g., deep burial) Synroc is preferable. All predictions of the long-term behavior are based on the extrapolation of short term experimental data, we point out that appropriate and useful natural analogues are available for each of these waste forms and should be used in the performance assessment of each waste form's long-term behavior. 14 refs

  4. Optical and structural investigation on sodium borosilicate glasses doped with Cr2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, E.; Rezvani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, Sodium borosilicate glasses with chemical composition of 60% SiO2-20% B2O3-20%Na2O doped with different contents of Cr2O3 were prepared by melting-quenching method. Physical, structural and optical properties of glasses were investigated by studying density and molar volume, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectra and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in density of glasses with the increase of Cr2O3 that can be due to addition of oxide with high molar mass. The optical absorption spectra of un-doped glass reveals UV absorption due to trace iron impurities with no visible band however Cr2O3 doped glasses shows absorption in visible range that are characteristic. Increasing of Cr3 + ions in the glassy microstructure of samples provides a semiconducting character to Sodium borosilicate glass by reducing the direct and indirect optical band gaps of glass samples from 3.79 to 2.59 (ev) and 3.36 to 2.09 (ev), respectively. These changes could be attributed to the role of Cr3 + ions as the network former which asserts improvement of semiconducting behavior in presence of Cr2O3.

  5. Chemical durability of borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level nuclear wastes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigeo; Terai, Ryohei; Yamanaka, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    The Soxhlet-type leaching test apparatus has been developed to evaluate the chemical durability of some borosilicate glasses containing simulated High-Level nuclear Wastes, HLW. After the leaching over the temperature range of 50 0 -95 0 C, the weight loss of specimens with time was determined on both the samples of blocks and grains, and various components dissolved into water were analyzed by atomic absorption and colorimetry technique. It was found that Soxhlet-type test method was more useful than JIS test method, because the specimens in Soxhlet type apparatus were forced always to react with pure water and the mechanism of leaching could be evaluate accurately. The chemical durability of commercial glasses decreases generally with increasing of alkali contents in glasses. In the case of these borosilicate glasses containing HLW, however, the leachability was apparently independent on the alkali contents because of the complexity of these glass compositions. The variation of leaching rate with temperature suggests that dissolution mechanism changes with temperature. (author)

  6. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananuruksawong, R.; Jinawath, S.; Padipatvuthikul, P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si3N4 ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si3N4 was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si3N4 ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si3N4 specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (tube furnace between 1000-1200°C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100°C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98×10-6 °C-1, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  7. Dielectric behaviour of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 perovskite borosilicate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Avadhesh Kumar; Gautam, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Various perovskite (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 borosilicate glasses were prepared by rapid melt-quench technique in the glass system ((Ba 1-x Sr x ).TiO 3 )-(2SiO 2 .B 2 O 3 )-(K 2 O)-(La 2 O 3 ). On the basis of differential thermal analysis results, glasses were converted into glass ceramic samples by regulated heat treatment schedules. The dielectric behaviour of crystallized barium strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic samples shows diffuse phase transition. The study depicts the dielectric behaviour of glass ceramic sample BST5K1L0.2S814. The double relaxation was observed in glass ceramic samples corresponding 80/20% Ba/Sr due to change in crystal structure from orthorhombic to tetragonal and tetragonal to cubic with variation of temperature. The highest value of dielectric constant was found to be 48289 for the glass ceramic sample BST5K1L0.2S814. The high value of dielectric constant attributed to space charge polarization between the glassy phase and perovskite phase. Due to very high value of dielectric constant, such glass ceramics are used for high energy storage devices. La 2 O 3 acts as nucleating agent for crystallization of glass to glass ceramics and enhances the dielectric constant and retarded dielectric loss. Such glass ceramics can be used in high energy storage devices such as barrier layer capacitors, multilayer capacitors etc. (author)

  8. Rhenium solubility in borosilicate nuclear waste glass: implications for the processing and immobilization of technetium-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloy, John S; Riley, Brian J; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Hrma, Pavel; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W; Kruger, Albert A

    2012-11-20

    The immobilization of technetium-99 ((99)Tc) in a suitable host matrix has proven to be a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. In this context, the present work reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, in a sodium borosilicate glass. Glasses containing target Re concentrations from 0 to 10,000 ppm [by mass, added as KReO(4) (Re(7+))] were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampules to minimize the loss of Re from volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found as Re(7+) in all of the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure. The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. At higher rhenium concentrations, additional rhenium was retained in the glasses as crystalline inclusions of alkali perrhenates detected with X-ray diffraction. Since (99)Tc concentrations in a glass waste form are predicted to be wastes, assuming Tc as Tc(7+) and similarities between Re(7+) and Tc(7+) behavior in this glass system.

  9. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wananuruksawong, R; Jinawath, S; Wasanapiarnpong, T; Padipatvuthikul, P

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si 3 N 4 ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si 3 N 4 was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si 3 N 4 ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si 3 N 4 specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder ( 2 O 3 - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si 3 N 4 specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200 deg. C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100 deg. C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98x10 -6 deg. C -1 , rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  10. Er3+-Al2O3 nanoparticles doping of borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Koponen, Joona; Glorieux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Novel borosilicate glasses were developed by adding in the glass batch Er 3+ -Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles synthetized by using a soft chemical method. A similar nanoparticle doping with modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) process was developed to increase the efficiency of the amplifying silica fibre in comparison to using MCVD and solution doping. It was shown that with the melt quench technique, a Er 3+ -Al 2 O 3 nanoparticle doping neither leads to an increase in the Er 3+ luminescence properties nor allows one to control the rare-earth chemical environment in a borosilicate glass. The site of Er 3+ in the Er 3+ -Al 2 O 3 nanoparticle containing glass seems to be similar as in glasses with the same composition prepared using standard raw materials. We suspect the Er 3+ ions to diffuse from the nanoparticles into the glass matrix. There was no clear evidence of the presence of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles in the glasses after melting. (author)

  11. Understanding the structural drivers governing glass-water interactions in borosilicate based model bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Weiss, Nicholas; Pierce, Eric M; Youngman, Randall E; Gulbiten, Ozgur; Smith, Nicholas J; Du, Jincheng; Goel, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach. Therefore, a paradigm shift from the "trial-and-error" approach to "materials-by-design" approach is required to develop new-generations of bioactive glasses with controlled release of functional ions tailored for specific patients and disease states, whereby material functions and properties can be predicted from first principles. Realizing this goal, however, requires a thorough understanding of the complex sequence of reactions that control the dissolution kinetics of bioactive glasses and the structural drivers that govern them. While there is a considerable amount of literature published on chemical dissolution behavior and apatite-forming ability of potentially bioactive glasses, the majority of this literature has been produced on silicate glass chemistries using different experimental and measurement protocols. It follows that inter-comparison of different datasets reveals inconsistencies between experimental groups. There are also some major experimental challenges or choices that need to be carefully navigated to unearth the mechanisms governing the chemical degradation behavior and kinetics of boron-containing bioactive glasses, and to accurately determine the composition-structure-property relationships. In order to address these challenges, a simplified

  12. A kinetic approach of sulphur behaviour in borosilicate glasses and melts: implications for sulphate incorporation in nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, Marion [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Grandjean, Agnes [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate decomposition in a borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique permits the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe WDS (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry). In order to quantify the content of sulphate obtained by Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 985 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Q{sup n} silica units on the basis of previous literature. Viscosities of some borosilicate glasses are also presented here in order to study the kinetics of sulphate decomposition as a function of the viscosity of the melt. This underlines the importance of variations in viscosity depending on the composition of the melt and thus shows that viscosity is an important parameter governing the kinetics of decomposition of sulphate in borosilicate glasses. (authors)

  13. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-14

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Q n distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3 B and 4 B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  14. Effects of system size and cooling rate on the structure and properties of sodium borosilicate glasses from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Du, Jincheng

    2018-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses form an important glass forming system in both glass science and technologies. The structure and property changes of borosilicate glasses as a function of thermal history in terms of cooling rate during glass formation and simulation system sizes used in classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were investigated with recently developed composition dependent partial charge potentials. Short and medium range structural features such as boron coordination, Si and B Qn distributions, and ring size distributions were analyzed to elucidate the effects of cooling rate and simulation system size on these structure features and selected glass properties such as glass transition temperature, vibration density of states, and mechanical properties. Neutron structure factors, neutron broadened pair distribution functions, and vibrational density of states were calculated and compared with results from experiments as well as ab initio calculations to validate the structure models. The results clearly indicate that both cooling rate and system size play an important role on the structures of these glasses, mainly by affecting the 3B and 4B distributions and consequently properties of the glasses. It was also found that different structure features and properties converge at different sizes or cooling rates; thus convergence tests are needed in simulations of the borosilicate glasses depending on the targeted properties. The results also shed light on the complex thermal history dependence on structure and properties in borosilicate glasses and the protocols in MD simulations of these and other glass materials.

  15. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms

  16. ERLN Technical Support for Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network provides policies and guidance on lab and data requirements, Standardized Analytical Methods, and technical support for water and radiological sampling and analysis

  17. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  18. Lab at Home: Hardware Kits for a Digital Design Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J. P.; Haim, F.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative laboratory methodology for an introductory digital design course is presented. Instead of having traditional lab experiences, where students have to come to school classrooms, a "lab at home" concept is proposed. Students perform real experiments in their own homes, using hardware kits specially developed for this purpose. They…

  19. RemoteLabs Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Crabeel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a first step towards the implementation of a framework for remote experimentation of electric machines – the RemoteLabs platform. This project was focused on the development of two main modules: the user Web-based and the electric machines interfaces. The Web application provides the user with a front-end and interacts with the back-end – the user and experiment persistent data. The electric machines interface is implemented as a distributed client server application where the clients, launched by the Web application, interact with the server modules located in platforms physically connected the electric machines drives. Users can register and authenticate, schedule, specify and run experiments and obtain results in the form of CSV, XML and PDF files. These functionalities were successfully tested with real data, but still without including the electric machines. This inclusion is part of another project scheduled to start soon.

  20. The lab of fame

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    For a third time, CERN is organising the Swiss heat of Famelab, the world’s leading science communication competition that has already gathered over 5,000 young and talented scientists and engineers from all across the planet.   Besides their degrees, the scientists who participate in Famelab have another thing in common: their passion for communicating science. Coming from a variety of scientific fields, from medicine to particle physics and microbiology, the contestants have three minutes to present a science, technology, mathematics or engineering-based talk using only the props he or she can carry onto the stage; PowerPoint presentations are not permitted. The contestants are then judged by a panel of three judges who evaluate the content, clarity and charisma of their talks. What's unique about FameLab is the fact that content is an important aspect of the performance. At the end of their presentation, contestants are often questioned about the scientific relevance of...

  1. Operating Range for High Temperature Borosilicate Waste Glasses: (Simulated Hanford Enveloped)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, J.; Ramsey, W. G.; Toghiani, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    The following results are a part of an independent thesis study conducted at Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory-Mississippi State University. A series of small-scale borosilicate glass melts from high-level waste simulant were produced with waste loadings ranging from 20% to 55% (by mass). Crushed glass was allowed to react in an aqueous environment under static conditions for 7 days. The data obtained from the chemical analysis of the leachate solutions were used to test the durability of the resulting glasses. Studies were performed to determine the qualitative effects of increasing the B2O3 content on the overall waste glass leaching behavior. Structural changes in a glass arising due to B2O3 were detected indirectly by its chemical durability, which is a strong function of composition and structure. Modeling was performed to predict glass durability quantitatively in an aqueous environment as a direct function of oxide composition

  2. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  3. Effect of MoO3 addition on phase separation in borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hajimu; Yamanaka, Hiroshi; Terai, Ryohei; Fukumoto, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of MoO 3 addition on the phase separation of sodium borosilicate glasses has been studied by electron microscopic observation and electrical conductivity measurement. With increasing MoO 3 addition, the immiscibility temperatures rose, the growth rate of phase separation increased, and the immiscibility region in the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system extended. When MoO 3 more than 5 mol% was added to the glasses, two stages of phase separation appeared ; one is metastable immiscibility, which takes place below the liquidus temperature, and the other is stable immiscibility, occurring above the liquidus temperature. The present experiment confirmed that the conductivity measurement of molten glasses is usefull to detect phase separation in the glasses, giving some suggestions for preventing the separation of molybdates in nuclear waste glasses and also for controlling the micro-pore sizes of porous glasses. (author)

  4. Heat accumulation during high repetition rate ultrafast laser interaction: Waveguide writing in borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    During high repetition rate (>200 kHz) ultrafast laser waveguide writing, visible heat modified zones surrounding the formed waveguide occur as a result of heat accumulation. The radii of the heat-modified zones increase with the laser net fluence, and were found to correlate with the formation of low-loss and cylindrically symmetric optical waveguides. A numerical thermal model based on the finite difference method is applied here to account for cumulative heating and diffusion effects. The model successfully shows that heat propagation and accumulation accurately predict the radius of the 'heat modified' zones observed in borosilicate glass waveguides formed across a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Such modelling promises better control of thermal effects for optimizing the fabrication and performance of three-dimensional optical devices in transparent materials

  5. Energy transfer and cross-relaxation in Tb3+-doped borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Sol, Jung Sik

    1990-01-01

    Energy transfer in Tb 3+ -doped borosilicate glasses has been studied by the analysis of fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 states as a function of Tb 3+ concentration. It is shown that as the Tb 3+ concentration is increased the cross-relaxation produces high population of the 5 D 4 state at the expense of 5 D 3 . It is also found that this interaction is predominantly dipole-dipole transition with critical distance of 13 A. The critical distance for energy transfer 5 D 4 5 D 3 which is responsible for the quenching of 5 D 4 emission at high concentration of Tb 3+ ions is 4.5 A. (Author)

  6. Determination of iron redox ratio in borosilicate glasses and melts from Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochain, B. [SCDV-Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex05 (France); Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P. [Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex05 (France); Henderson, G.S. [Dept of Geology, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto (Canada); Pinet, O. [SCDV-Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    A method is presented to determine the redox ratio of iron in borosilicate glasses and melts relevant to nuclear waste storage from an analysis of Raman spectra recorded at room or high temperature. The basis of this method is the strong variation of the spectral feature observed between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, in which it is possible to assign a band to vibrational modes involving ferric iron in tetrahedral coordination whose intensity increases with iron content and iron oxidation. After baseline correction and normalization, fits to the Raman spectra made with Gaussian bands enable us to determine the proportion of ferric iron provided the redox ratio is known independently for at least two redox states for a given glass composition. This method is particularly useful for in situ determinations of the kinetics and mechanisms of redox reactions. (authors)

  7. Electrical characterization of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramics system with bismuth oxide addition using impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, O.P.; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Pandey, Lakshman

    2003-01-01

    The ac electrical data, measured in the frequency range 0.1 kHz-1 MHz, were used to study the electrical response of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic system with bismuth oxide addition. Complex plane plots from these electrical data for various glass ceramic samples reveal contributions from simultaneously operating polarization mechanisms to overall dielectric behavior. The complex modulus (M * ) representation of electrical data for various glass ceramic samples were found to be more informative. Equivalent circuit models, which represent the electrical behavior of glass ceramic samples, were determined using complex non-linear least square (CNLS) fitting. An attempt has been made to understand the dielectric behavior of various glass ceramics in terms of contributions arising from different polarization processes occurring at glassy matrix, crystalline phases, glass to crystal interface region and blocking electrodes. Glass ceramics containing SrTiO 3 and TiO 2 (rutile) phases show thermally stable dielectric behavior

  8. Determination of iron redox ratio in borosilicate glasses and melts from Raman spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.; Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P.; Henderson, G.S.; Pinet, O.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to determine the redox ratio of iron in borosilicate glasses and melts relevant to nuclear waste storage from an analysis of Raman spectra recorded at room or high temperature. The basis of this method is the strong variation of the spectral feature observed between 800 and 1200 cm -1 , in which it is possible to assign a band to vibrational modes involving ferric iron in tetrahedral coordination whose intensity increases with iron content and iron oxidation. After baseline correction and normalization, fits to the Raman spectra made with Gaussian bands enable us to determine the proportion of ferric iron provided the redox ratio is known independently for at least two redox states for a given glass composition. This method is particularly useful for in situ determinations of the kinetics and mechanisms of redox reactions. (authors)

  9. Development of Composite Materials Under Ecological Aspects as Recycling Concept For Borosilicate Glass Containing Iron Slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.K.; Bossert, J.; Aly, H.F.; Bossert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Composite concept in materials science can be conveniently applied in the waste treatment technology to construct specific t ailor made c omposite materials, in which at least one of the phases is built by the waste material. In this work the applicability of this concept for the fixation and recycling of slags wastes is done, whereby different mixtures of blast furnace slags are mixed with two different borosilicate glasses, which serve as matrix material. Thermal behaviour of the produced compacts were studied. Both melting and powder technology are applied for the fabrication of dense products. The microstructure of sintered samples is investigated by electron microscopy. The mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness are determined by a Vickers technique. An improvement of the fracture toughness of more than 50% over the value for the original glass VG 98 is achieved by slag addition

  10. Influence of Some Nuclear Waste on The Durability and Mechanical Properties of Borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Alaily, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Various glass systems have been shown to be suitable for producing waste glass forms that are thermally and mechanically stable and exhibit good chemical durability. In this study borosilicate glass containing sodium oxide and aluminum oxide was prepared as a host for high level nuclear waste. The glass durability when the samples were immersed either in distilled water or ground water at 70 degree was studied. The density, porosity and mechanical properties were also investigated. The effects of exposing the samples immersed in groundwater to gamma rays in the glass durability and all other mentioned properties were also studied. The results showed that immersing the glass in ground water causing a decrease in the glass durability. The exposure of the glass immersed in ground water to the gamma rays increases the durability of the glass. The mechanical properties of the prepared glass were good. Although these properties decrease for the corroded glass but they were still good

  11. Corrosion of inconel in high-temperature borosilicate glass melts containing simulant nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianhe; Yuan, Xiaoning; Brigden, Clive T.; Tao, Jun; Hyatt, Neil C.; Miekina, Michal

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Inconel 601 in the borosilicate glass (MW glass) containing 25 wt.% of simulant Magnox waste, and in ZnO, Mn2O3 and Fe2O3 modified Mg/Ca borosilicate glasses (MZMF and CZMF glasses) containing 15 wt.% of simulant POCO waste, were evaluated by dimensional changes, the formation of internal defects and changes in alloy composition near corrosion surfaces. In all three kinds of glass melts, Cr at the inconel surface forms a protective Cr2O3 scale between the metal surface and the glass, and alumina precipitates penetrate from the metal surface or formed in-situ. The corrosion depths of inconel 601 in MW waste glass melt are greater than those in the other two glass melts. In MW glass, the Cr2O3 layer between inconel and glass is fragmented because of the reaction between MgO and Cr2O3, which forms the crystal phase MgCr2O4. In MZMF and CZMF waste glasses the layers are continuous and a thin (Zn, Fe, Ni, B)-containing layer forms on the surface of the chromium oxide layer and prevents Cr2O3 from reacting with MgO or other constituents. MgCr2O4 was observed in the XRD analysis of the bulk MW waste glass after the corrosion test, and ZrSiO4 in the MZMF waste glass, and ZrSiO4 and CaMoO4 in the CZMF waste glass.

  12. Comparison of radiation and quenching rate effects on the structure of a sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuget, Sylvain; Maugeri, Emilio-Andrea; Mendoza, Clement; Fares, Toby; Bouty, Olivier; Jegou, Christophe; Charpentier, Thibault; Moskura, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The effects of quenching rate and irradiation on the structure of a sodium borosilicate glass were compared using 29 Si, 11 B, and 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy. Quenching rate ranging from 0.1 to 3 * 10 4 K min -1 was studied. Various irradiation conditions were performed, i.e. gold-ion irradiation in a multi-energy mode (from 1 to 6.75 MeV), and Kr and Xe ion irradiations with energy of 74 and 92 MeV, respectively. In pile irradiation with thermal neutron flux was performed as well, to study the effect of alpha radiation from the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li. Both irradiation and high quenching rate induce similar local order modification of the glass structure, mainly a decrease of the mean boron coordination and an increase of Q 3 units. Nevertheless, the variations observed under irradiation are more pronounced than the ones induced by the quenching rate. Moreover, some important modifications of the glass medium range order, i.e. the emergence of the D2 band associated to three members silica rings and a modification of the Si-O-Si angle distribution were only noticed after irradiation. These results suggest that the irradiated structure is certainly not exactly the one obtained by a rapidly quenched equilibrated melt, but rather a more disordered structure that was weakly relaxed during the very rapid quenching phase following the energy deposition step. Raman spectroscopy showed a similar irradiated structure whereas the glass evolutions were controlled by the electronic energy loss in the ion track formation regime for Kr-ion irradiation or by the nuclear energy loss for Au and OSIRIS irradiation. The similar irradiated structure despite different irradiation routes, suggests that the final structural state of this sodium borosilicate glass is mainly controlled by the glass reconstruction after the energy deposition step. (authors)

  13. Wetspun poly-L-(lactic acid)-borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for guided bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, João S., E-mail: joao.fernandes@dep.uminho.pt [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal); Reis, Rui L. [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal); Pires, Ricardo A., E-mail: rpires@dep.uminho.pt [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal)

    2017-02-01

    We developed a porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. Porous PLLA-BBG fibre mesh scaffolds were successfully prepared by the combination of wet spinning and fibre bonding techniques. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈ 25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100 μm. Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7 days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~ 1.7). Cellular in vitro studies with human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) showed that PLLA-BBGs are not cytotoxic to cells, while demonstrating their capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. - Highlights: • We prepared borosilicate glasses and their PLLA composites in the form of fibres. • These glasses imparted bioactivity and controlled degradability to the fibres. • The prepared fibres did not elicit cytotoxicity. • hASCs attached and proliferated in the surface and inner sections of the scaffolds. • The composites present appropriate properties to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  14. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledieu, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  15. The Dissolution Behavior of Borosilicate Glasses in Far-From Equilibrium Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin PG; Ryan, Joseph V.; Asmussen, Robert M.

    2018-02-10

    In far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this paper is to study effects of these variables on three model waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). To do this, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH(RT) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. The results from these tests were then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on transition state theory. Both the absolute dissolution rates and the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Discrepancies in the absolute dissolution rates as compared to those obtained using other test methods are discussed. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies. The results were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), which is capable of providing a robust uncertainty analysis. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values could possibly be obtained. This would allow for the possibility of predicting the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition

  16. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledieu, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  17. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wananuruksawong, R; Jinawath, S; Wasanapiarnpong, T [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Padipatvuthikul, P, E-mail: raayaa_chula@hotmail.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (<150 micrometer, Pyrex) with 5 wt% of zirconia powder (3 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200 deg. C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100 deg. C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98x10{sup -6} deg. C{sup -1}, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  18. Wetspun poly-L-(lactic acid)-borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for guided bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, João S.; Reis, Rui L.; Pires, Ricardo A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed a porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. Porous PLLA-BBG fibre mesh scaffolds were successfully prepared by the combination of wet spinning and fibre bonding techniques. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈ 25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100 μm. Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7 days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~ 1.7). Cellular in vitro studies with human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) showed that PLLA-BBGs are not cytotoxic to cells, while demonstrating their capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. - Highlights: • We prepared borosilicate glasses and their PLLA composites in the form of fibres. • These glasses imparted bioactivity and controlled degradability to the fibres. • The prepared fibres did not elicit cytotoxicity. • hASCs attached and proliferated in the surface and inner sections of the scaffolds. • The composites present appropriate properties to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Intrinsic dosimetry. Properties and mechanisms of thermoluminescence in commercial borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering the total absorbed dose received by a container in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within that container, this method has the potential to provide enhanced pathway information regarding the history of the container and its radioactive contents. The latest in a series of experiments designed to validate and demonstrate this newly developed tool are reported. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure dose effects on raw stock borosilicate container glass up to 70 days after gamma ray, x-ray, beta particle or ultraviolet irradiations at doses from 0.15 to 20 Gy. The TL glow curve when irradiated with 60Co was separated into five peaks: two relatively unstable peaks centered near 120 and 165°C, and three relatively stable peaks centered near 225, 285, and 360°C. Depending on the borosilicate glass source, the minimum measurable dose using this technique is 0.15-0.5 Gy, which is roughly equivalent to a 24 hr irradiation at 1 cm from a 50-165 ng source of 60Co. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for the glasses from different geographical origins. These differences can be explained by changes in the intensities of the five peaks. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and multivariate statistical methods were used to relate the TL intensity and peaks to electron/hole traps and compositional variations.

  20. GitLab repository management

    CERN Document Server

    Hethey, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, easy to understand tutorial guide on how to build teams and efficiently use version control, using GitLab.If you are a system administrator in a company that writes software or are in charge of an infrastructure, this book will show you the most important features of GitLab, including how to speed up the overall process

  1. Report from the banding lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Tautin reported on the seemingly everchanging structure of biological science units within the Interior Department. Current Congressional proposals would either change the name of the Bird Banding Lab's parent agency or make it part of the Geological Survey. The current Congress has not looked favorably on science budgets within the Interior Department, and the Banding Lab's budget is being squeezed ever tighter.

  2. Ntal/Lab/Lat2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaki, Shoko; Jensen, Bettina M; Gilfillan, Alasdair M

    2007-01-01

    T cells. As demonstrated in monocytes and B cells, phosphorylated NTAL/LAB/LAT2 recruits signaling molecules such as Grb2, Gab1 and c-Cbl into receptor-signaling complexes. Although gene knock out and knock down studies have indicated that NTAL/LAB/LAT2 may function as both a positive and negative...

  3. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass for the solidification of high level radioactive fission product solutions (HLW). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, L.; Ruiz-Lopez, M.C.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1982-04-01

    In the 'Institut fuer Nuklare Entsorgungstechnik' the borosilicate glass VG 98/12 has been developed for the solidification of the high level radioactive waste (HLW). This borosilicate glass can be used in a direct heated ceramic melter and forms together with the HLW the borosilicate glass product GP 98/12. This borosilicate glass product has been examined in detail both in liquid and solid state. The elements contained in the HLW can be incorporated without problems. Only in a few exceptions the concentration must be kept below certain limits to exclude the formation of a second phase ('yellow phase') by separation. No spontaneous crystallization and no crystallization over a long time could be observed as long as the temperature of the borosilicate glass product is kept below its transformation area. Simulating accidental conditions in the final storage, samples had been leached at temperatures up to 200 0 C and pressures up to 130 bar with saturated rock salt brine and saturated quinary salt brine. The leaching process seems to be stopped by the formed 'leached layer' on the surface of the borosilicate glass product after a limited leaching time. Detailed investigations have been started to explain this phenomenon. (orig.) [de

  4. Studies on the accelerated chemical durability test and its impact on structural changes in borosilicate glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Vidya S.; Kadam, P.S.; Mishra, R.K.; Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, C.P.; Sudarsan, V.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium borosilicate glass used for the immobilisation of high level nuclear waste with tentative compositions (SiO 2 ) 0.477 (B 2 O 3 ) 0.239 (Na 2 O) 0.170 (TiO 2 ) 0.02 )3 (CaO) 0.068 (Al 2 O 3 ) 0.023 was evaluated for its long term stability in the repository conditions where it may be exposed to high temperature and pressure. 29 Si MAS NMR studies have confirmed that, upon leaching, sodium borosilicate glass undergoes congruent crystallization leading to the formation of an aluminosilicate phase, Na 6 Al 6 Si 10 O 32 . Further the residual glass structure in the composite sample is identical with that of the un-leached glass. Boron structural units are unaffected in the glass compositions upon leaching

  5. High-level waste glass compendium; what it tells us concerning the durability of borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Allison, J.

    1993-01-01

    Facilities for vitrification of high-level nuclear waste in the United States are scheduled for startup in the next few years. It is, therefore, appropriate to examine the current scientific basis for understanding the corrosion of high-level waste borosilicate glass for the range of service conditions to which the glass products from these facilities may be exposed. To this end, a document has been prepared which compiles worldwide information on borosilicate waste glass corrosion. Based on the content of this document, the acceptability of canistered waste glass for geological disposal is addressed. Waste glass corrosion in a geologic repository may be due to groundwater and/or water vapor contact. The important processes that determine the glass corrosion kinetics under these conditions are discussed based on experimental evidence from laboratory testing. Testing data together with understanding of the long-term corrosion kinetics are used to estimate radionuclide release rates. These rates are discussed in terms of regulatory performance standards

  6. 4.2. The kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit. The dependence of nitric acid decomposition of calcined boric raw material for extraction of boron oxide on temperature (20-100 deg C) and process duration (15-60 minutes) was defined. It was defined that at temperature increasing the extraction rate of boron oxide increases from 20.8 to 78.6%.

  7. Entrapment of 137Cs vapour generated during vitrification and casting of cesium borosilicate glass by inorganic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Gandhi, Shyamala; Dash, A.; Varma, R.N.

    2003-01-01

    Efficiency of different inorganic materials like zirconium antimonate (ZrA), ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), synthetic zeolites, activated charcoal, glass wool etc, towards the entrapment of 137 Cs vapour escaping during vitrification and casting of cesium borosilicate glass required for the preparation of 137 Cs sources for medical and industrial applications have been determined. The recovery of entrapped cesium using dilute acids for subsequent recycling has also been explored. (author)

  8. Barium borosilicate glass - a potential matrix for immobilization of sulfate bearing high-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Sengupta, P.; Kumar, Amar; Das, D.; Kale, G.B.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Borosilicate glass formulations adopted worldwide for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is not suitable for sulphate bearing HLW, because of its low solubility in such glass. A suitable glass matrix based on barium borosilicate has been developed for immobilization of sulphate bearing HLW. Various compositions based on different glass formulations were made to examine compatibility with waste oxide with around 10 wt% sulfate content. The vitrified waste product obtained from barium borosilicate glass matrix was extensively evaluated for its characteristic properties like homogeneity, chemical durability, glass transition temperature, thermal conductivity, impact strength, etc. using appropriate techniques. Process parameters like melt viscosity and pour temperature were also determined. It is found that SB-44 glass composition (SiO 2 : 30.5 wt%, B 2 O 3 : 20.0 wt%, Na 2 O: 9.5 wt% and BaO: 19.0 wt%) can be safely loaded with 21 wt% waste oxide without any phase separation. The other product qualities of SB-44 waste glass are also found to be on a par with internationally adopted waste glass matrices. This formulation has been successfully implemented in plant scale

  9. The dissolution behavior of borosilicate glasses in far-from equilibrium conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeway, James J.; Rieke, Peter C.; Parruzot, Benjamin P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Asmussen, R. Matthew

    2018-04-01

    An area of agreement in the waste glass corrosion community is that, at far-from-equilibrium conditions, the dissolution of borosilicate glasses used to immobilize nuclear waste is known to be a function of both temperature and pH. The aim of this work is to study the effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate of three model nuclear waste glasses (SON68, ISG, AFCI). The dissolution rate data are then used to parameterize a kinetic rate model based on Transition State Theory that has been developed to model glass corrosion behavior in dilute conditions. To do this, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 23, 40, 70, and 90 °C and pH (22 °C) values of 9, 10, 11, and 12 with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method. Both the absolute dissolution rates and the rate model parameters are compared with previous results. Rate model parameters for the three glasses studied here are nearly equivalent within error and in relative agreement with previous studies though quantifiable differences exist. The glass dissolution rates were analyzed with a linear multivariate regression (LMR) and a nonlinear multivariate regression performed with the use of the Glass Corrosion Modeling Tool (GCMT), with which a robust uncertainty analysis is performed. This robust analysis highlights the high degree of correlation of various parameters in the kinetic rate model. As more data are obtained on borosilicate glasses with varying compositions, a mathematical description of the effect of glass composition on the rate parameter values should be possible. This would allow for the possibility of calculating the forward dissolution rate of glass based solely on composition. In addition, the method of determination of parameter uncertainty and correlation provides a framework for other rate models that describe the dissolution rates of other amorphous and crystalline materials in a wide range of chemical conditions. The higher level of uncertainty analysis would provide

  10. Structure and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass–ceramics containing zirconolite and titanite crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Wu, Lang; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the solubility of actinides in the glass matrix, the effects of CaO, TiO 2 , and ZrSiO 4 addition (abbreviated as CTZ, in the mole ratio of 2:2:1) on crystalline phases, microstructure, and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass–ceramics were investigated. The results show that the samples possess both zirconolite-2M and titanite phase when the CTZ content is greater than or equal to 45 wt.%. For the glass–ceramics with 45 wt.% CTZ (CTZ-45), only zirconolite-2M phase is observed after annealing at 680–740 °C for 2 h. The CTZ-45 possess zirconolite-2M and titanite phases after annealing at 700 °C first, and then annealing at 900–1050 °C for 2 h. Furthermore, the zirconolite-2M and titanite grains show a strip and brick shape, respectively. The CTZ-45 annealing at 950 °C shows the lower normalized leaching rates of B, Na and Nd when compared to that of CTZ-0 and CTZ-55. - Highlights: • CaO, TiO 2 , ZrSiO 4 (CTZ) as nucleating agents were added to barium borosilicate glass. • The samples with 45–55 wt% CTZ possess CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M and CaTiSiO 5 crystalline phases. • CTZ-45 (45wt% CTZ) possesses only CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M phase after annealing at 680–740 °C. • CTZ-45 possesses CaZrTi 2 O 7 -2M and CaTiSiO 5 phases after annealing at 900–1050 °C. • CTZ-45 annealing at 950 °C shows the lower leaching rates of B, Na and Nd than CTZ-0 and CTZ-55.

  11. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  12. An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussheim, Joan Yares

    1980-01-01

    A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)

  13. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  14. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  15. There Is Still Room for Improvement: Presentation of a Neutral Borosilicate Glass with Improved Chemical Stability for Parenteral Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltres, Bettine; Tratzky, Stephan; Kass, Christof; Eichholz, Rainer; Naß, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For pharmaceutical parenteral packaging the glass compositions have always been either Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. As both the compositions and certain chemical and physical properties are mandated by international standards, there has not been room for any changes. However, by applying only minor adjustments, a borosilicate glass was developed that showed improved chemical stability. The chemical composition is still in the range of currently used borosilicate glasses, which makes it a Type I glass according to all current pharmacopeia. A study was performed on glass vials comparing the new glass with the standard FIOLAX(®) and two other publicly available glasses. In an extraction study with water at 121 °C the new glass showed the highest chemical stability with the lowest amount of extractables. In an accelerated ageing study, which was done with water, phosphate, and carbonate buffer at 40 °C for 12 months, the new glass also proved to have the lowest amount of leachables. In this article the new glass and the results from the studies are presented, showing the reader how much of an effect can be attained with only minor adjustments if the scientific fundamentals are clear. The pharmaceutical market has been quite constant and risk-oriented due to the high impact on the safety of the patient. As any change necessitates a complicated change process, this has, in consequence, lead the industry to resist changing the parenteral primary packaging material for decades. The main glasses have either been Type I borosilicate or Type III soda-lime glass. On the other hand, a combination of improved inspection systems and the development of more sensitive biologically based drugs has elevated the standards for parental packaging materials. For example, the measurement of extractables and leachables from the packaging material steadily came into focus. In this article, a new glass is presented that still belongs to the group of Type I borosilicate

  16. Effects of solution chemistry and atmosphere on leaching of alkali borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Christensen, H.; Clark, D.E.; Werme, L.

    1983-01-01

    The leaching behavior of two alkali-borosilicate glasses containing 9 wt % simulated fission products and 1.6 wt % uranium oxide has been studied. Samples were exposed to one of eight types of leachants including doubly distilled water, simulated ground silicate water, a brine solution, and solutions containing various concentrations of iron, aluminum or sodium maintained at either 25 0 C, 40 0 C or 90 0 C for up to 182 days. The most aggressive leachants were the solutions containing sodium (excluding brine) and simulated ground silicate water. These solutions increased the extent of leaching by a factor of 2 to 3 over that for distilled water for one of the glasses. A partially protective surface film rich in magnesium, potassium, and chlorine was formed on the glasses exposed to the brine solution. In order to evaluate the effects of atmosphere on leaching, samples were also immersed in doubly distilled water over which the relative concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide were varied. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration from 0 to 50% resulted in a factor of 3 increase in the leaching rate

  17. Leach behavior of high-level borosilicate glasses under deep geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in high-level radioactive waste glass which is considered as the most practicable form of waste, and also is intended to be used in the disposal of national high-level radioactive waste in future. Leach theory of waste glass and the leach effects of ground water, metal barrier, buffer materials and rocks on the waste glass were reviewed. The leach of waste glass was affected by various factors such as composition, pH and Eh of ground water, temperature, pressure, radiation and humic acid. The crystallization, crack, weathering and the formation of altered phases of waste glass which is expected to occur in real disposal site were reviewed. The results of leaching in laboratory and in-situ were compared. The behaviors of radioactive elements leached from waste glass and the use of basalt glass for the long-term natural analogue of waste glass were also written in this report. The appraisal of durability of borosilicate waste glass as a waste media was performed from the known results of leach test and international in-situ tests were introduced. (author). 134 refs., 15 tabs., 24 figs

  18. Physical and optical properties of lithium borosilicate glasses doped with Dy3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, D. D.; Gedam, R. S.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The borosilicate glasses with Dy3+ ions were prepared by the melt quench technique with varying concentration of Dy2O3. The glasses were characterized by the density calculation, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurements. Density and molar volume of the glasses increases with increase in Dy3+ ions in the glass matrix. This behavior is correlated with the higher molecular weight and larger ionic radius of Dy3+ ion compared to the other constituents of glass matrix. Emission of Dy3+ doped glasses showed three bands at 482, 573 and at 665 nm which correspond to 6H15/2 (blue), 6H13/2 (yellow) and 6H11/2 (red) transitions. The emission spectra of glasses with different concentration of Dy3+ ions shows that, glasses with 0.5 mol% of Dy2O3 shows highest emission and decreases with further doping. CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showed that the emission of these glasses was in the white region. Photographs of these glasses under 349 nm Light emitting diode excitation also confirmed the white light emission from these glasses.

  19. Direct conversion of plutonium-containing materials to borosilicate glass for storage or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    A new process, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), has been invented for the direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, and residue into borosilicate glass. The glass should be acceptable for either the long-term storage or disposition of plutonium. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into homogeneous glass (1) simplifies safeguards and security; (2) creates a stable chemical form that meets health, safety, and environmental concerns; (3) provides an easy storage form; (4) may lower storage costs; and (5) allows for future disposition options. In the GMODS process, mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids containing plutonium are fed directly into a glass melter where they are directly converted to glass. Conventional glass melters can accept materials only in oxide form; thus, it is its ability to accept materials in multiple chemical forms that makes GMODS a unique glass making process. Initial proof-of-principle experiments have converted cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials to glass. Significant technical uncertainties remain because of the early nature of process development

  20. Study of Structural Properties of Mesoporous Carbon From Fructose with Zinc Borosilicate Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Setianingsih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural properties, including pore structure, functional group of carbon surface, and crystal structure of carbon built by zinc borosilicate (ZBS and ZnCl2 (Z have been investigated in this work. Physically, ZBS and ZnCl2 may act as template of carbon, whereas the Zn(II cation act as chemical activator of carbonization. All precursors of ZBS (silicagel, boric acid, and ZnCl2 may act as catalysts of caramelization. The caramelization was conducted hydrothermally at 85oC and thermally 130oC. The carbonization was conducted at 450oC. The resulted carbons were washed by using HF 48% solution, 1M HCl solution, and aquadest respectively. The solid products were characterized by using nitrogen gas adsorption, infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and Transmition Electron Microscopy. Result of research showed that ZBS built larger mesopore volume, larger pore domination of pore size, more hydrophobic carbon, and more amorf than ZnCl2.

  1. Influence of processing conditions on the glass-crystal transition into borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanels, X.; Cachia, J.N.; Lopez, C.; Peuget, S. [CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The precipitation of a crystalline phase in glass is observed when one element exceeds its loading limit (i.e.: solubility limit). In this work we have studied the solubility of different actinides and surrogates (lanthanides and hafnium) in borosilicate glass used for the immobilization of the high-level nuclear waste (HLW glasses). The results obtained show an increase of the solubility limits of these elements with the processing temperature and the redox potential of the melt. The elements at the oxidation state (III) exhibit a higher solubility than the element at oxidation state (IV). In this framework, cerium is an interesting element because its oxidation state tunes from (IV) to (III) as a function of the processing conditions. It is shown that the solubility of cerium can be multiplied by a factor of 20 at 1100 C. degrees. In order to have a better understanding of the mechanisms that underline the evolution of the solubility, XAFS and NMR investigation has been undertaken. Trivalent elements present the characteristics of network-modified cations while tetravalent elements look like network-former cations.

  2. Deformation mechanisms during nanoindentation of sodium borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilymis, D. A.; Delaye, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.delaye@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD, Service d’Etude et Comportement des Matériaux de Conditionnement, BP17171 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-07-07

    In this paper we analyze results of Molecular Dynamics simulations of Vickers nanoindentation, performed for sodium borosilicate glasses of interest in the nuclear industry. Three glasses have been studied in their pristine form, as well as a disordered one that is analogous to the real irradiated glass. We focused in the behavior of the glass during the nanoindentation in order to reveal the mechanisms of deformation and how they are affected by microstructural characteristics. Results have shown a strong dependence on the SiO{sub 2} content of the glass, which promotes densification due to the open structure of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra and also due to the strength of Si-O bonds. Densification for the glasses is primarily expressed by the relative decrease of the Si-O-Si and Si-O-B angles, indicating rotation of the structural units and decrease of free volume. The increase of alkali content on the other hand results to higher plasticity of the matrix and increased shear flow. The most important effect on the deformation mechanism of the disordered glasses is that of the highly depolymerized network that will also induce shear flow and, in combination with the increased free volume, will result in the decreased hardness of these glasses, as has been previously observed.

  3. Deformation mechanisms during nanoindentation of sodium borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilymis, D A; Delaye, J-M

    2014-07-07

    In this paper we analyze results of Molecular Dynamics simulations of Vickers nanoindentation, performed for sodium borosilicate glasses of interest in the nuclear industry. Three glasses have been studied in their pristine form, as well as a disordered one that is analogous to the real irradiated glass. We focused in the behavior of the glass during the nanoindentation in order to reveal the mechanisms of deformation and how they are affected by microstructural characteristics. Results have shown a strong dependence on the SiO2 content of the glass, which promotes densification due to the open structure of SiO4 tetrahedra and also due to the strength of Si-O bonds. Densification for the glasses is primarily expressed by the relative decrease of the Si-O-Si and Si-O-B angles, indicating rotation of the structural units and decrease of free volume. The increase of alkali content on the other hand results to higher plasticity of the matrix and increased shear flow. The most important effect on the deformation mechanism of the disordered glasses is that of the highly depolymerized network that will also induce shear flow and, in combination with the increased free volume, will result in the decreased hardness of these glasses, as has been previously observed.

  4. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses for photonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jaidass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Dy3+ ions doped lithium zinc borosilicate glasses of chemical composition (30-x B2O3 - 25 SiO2 -10 Al2O3 -30 LiF - 5 ZnO - x Dy2O3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol% were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared glasses were investigated through X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements. Intensities of absorption bands expressed in terms of oscillator strengths (f were used to determine the Judd-Ofelt (J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4 and 6. The evaluated J-O parameters were used to determine the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (AR, total transition probability rate (AT, radiative lifetime (τR and branching ratios (βR for the excited 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ions. The chromaticity coordinates determined from the emission spectra were found to be located in the white light region of CIE chromaticity diagram. Keywords: Condensed matter physics, Engineering, Materials science

  5. Tc and Re Behavior in Borosilicate Waste Glass Vapor Hydration Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Pegg, Ian L.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium (Tc), found in some nuclear wastes, is of particular concern with regard to long-term storage, because of its long-lived radioactivity and high mobility in the environment. Tc and rhenium (Re), commonly used as a non-radioactive surrogate for Tc, were studied to assess their behavior in borosilicate glass under hydrothermal conditions in the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were made on the original Tc- and Re-containing glasses and their corresponding VHT samples, and show different behavior for Tc and Re under VHT conditions. XAS indicates that, despite starting with different Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) distributions in each glass, the VHT samples have 100% Tc(IV)O 6 environments. SEM shows complete alteration of the original glass, Tc enrichment near the sample surface, and Tc depletion in the center. Perrhenate (Re(VII)O 4 - ) is dominant in both Re-containing samples before and after the VHT, where Re is depleted near the VHT sample surface and more concentrated toward the center. (authors)

  6. Processing and optical characterization of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, C. R.; Das, Sangeeta; Gautam, S. S.; Madheshiya, Abhishek; Singh, Anod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, various compositions of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with a fixed amount of germanium were synthesized using the rapid melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the synthesized glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The structural and optical properties were deduced using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of borate groups in triangular and tetrahedral coordination. Infrared and Raman analyses detected the vibrational bonds of Gesbnd Osbnd Ge, Bsbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, and Pbsbnd Osbnd Ge. The energy band gaps were evaluated for the prepared glass samples based on Tauc plots of the UV-Vis spectra. The calculated values of the optical band gap decreased from 2.91 to 2.85 eV as the PbO content increased from x = 0.0 to x = 0.7. Furthermore, the Urbach energy was studied based on the UV-Vis results to confirm the disordered structure of the glass. The calculated densities of the glass samples (1.5835 g/cm3 to 3.9184 g/cm3) increased as the concentration of PbO increased, whereas they decreased with the molar volume.

  7. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste

  8. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  9. Effect of various lead species on the leaching behavior of borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.L.; Kuchinski, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    A borosilicate nuclear waste glass was static leached in pure water, silicate water, and brine solution. Three different forms of lead were included in specified corrosion cells to assess the extent to which various lead species alter the leaching behavior of the glass. Weight loss data indicated that Pb/sub m/ amd PbO greatly reduce the weight loss of glass when leached in pure water, and similar effects were noted in silicate and brine. Si concentrations, which were substantial in the glass-alone leachate, were reduced to below detection limits in all pure water cells containing a lead form. Lead concentration levels in the leachate were controlled by lead form solubility and appeared to be a significant factor in influencing apparent leaching behavior. Surface analysis revealed surface crystals, which probably formed when soluble lead in the leachate reacted with dissolved or activated silica at the glass surface. The net effect was to reduce the lease of some glass constituents to the leachate, although it was not clear whether the actual corrosion of the glass surface was reduced. Significantly different corrosion inhibiting effects were noted among lead metal and two forms of lead oxide. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Volatilization from borosilicate glass melts of simulated Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilds, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory scale studies determined the rates at which the semivolatile components sodium, boron, lithium, cesium, and ruthenium volatilized from borosilicate glass melts that contained simulated Savannah River Plant waste sludge. Sodium and boric oxides volatilize as the thermally stable compound sodium metaborate, and accounted for approx. 90% of the semivolatiles that evolved. The amounts of semivolatiles that evolved increased linearly with the logarithm of the sodium content of the glass-forming mixture. Cesium volatility was slightly suppressed when titanium dioxide was added to the melt, but was unaffected when cesium was added to the melt as a cesium-loaded zeolite rather than as a cesium carbonate solution. Volatility of ruthenium was not suppressed when the glass melt was blanketed with a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Trace quantities of mercury were removed from vapor streams by adsorption onto a silver-exchanged zeolite. A bed containing silver in the ionic state removed more than 99.9% of the mercury and had a high chemisorption capacity. Beds of lead-, copper-, and copper sulfide-exchanged zeolite-X and also an unexchanged zeolite-X were tested. None of these latter beds had high removal efficiency and high chemisorption capacity

  11. Volatilization from borosilicate glass melts of simulated Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilds, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory scale studies determined the rates at which the semivolatile components sodium, boron, lithium, cesium, and ruthenium volatilized from borosilicate glass melts that contained simulated Savannah River Plant waste sludge. Sodium and boric oxides volatilize as the thermally stable compound sodium metaborate, and accounted for approx. 90% of the semivolatiles that evolved. The amounts of semivolatiles that evolved increased linearly with the logarithm of the sodium content of the glass-forming mixture. Cesium volatility was slightly suppressed when titanium dioxide was added to the melt, but was unaffected when cesium was added to the melt as a cesium-loaded zeolite rather than as a cesium carbonate solution. Volatility of ruthenium was not suppressed when the glass melt was blanketed with a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Trace quantities of mercury were removed from vapor streams by adsorption onto a silver-exchanged zeolite. A bed containing silver in the ionic state removed more than 99.9% of the mercury and had a high chemisorption capacity. Beds of lead-, copper-, and copper sulfide-exchanged zeolite-X and also an unexchanged zeolite-X were tested. None of these latter beds had high removal efficiency and high chemisorption capacity

  12. 3 and 4 oxidation state element solubilities in borosilicate glasses. Implement to actinides in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachia, J.N.

    2005-12-01

    In order to ensure optimal radionuclides containment, the knowledge of the actinide loading limits in nuclear waste glasses and also the comprehension of the solubilization mechanisms of these elements are essential. A first part of this manuscript deals with the study of the differences in solubility of the tri and tetravalent elements (actinides and surrogates) particularly in function of the melting temperature. The results obtained indicate that trivalent elements (La, Gd, Nd, Am, Cm) exhibit a higher solubility than tetravalent elements (Hf, Th, Pu). Consequently, it was planned to reduce plutonium at the oxidation state (III), the later being essentially tetravalent in borosilicate glasses. An innovating reduction process of multi-valent elements (cerium, plutonium) using silicon nitride has been developed in a second part of this work. Reduced plutonium-bearing glasses synthesized by Si 3 N 4 addition made it possible to double the plutonium solubility from 2 to 4 wt% at 1200 deg C. A structural approach to investigate the differences between tri and tetravalent elements was finally undertaken. These investigations were carried out by X-rays Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS) and NMR. Trivalent rare earth and actinide elements seem to behave as network modifiers while tetravalent elements rather present true intermediaries' behaviour. (author)

  13. Characteristics of borosilicate waste glass form for high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    Basic data, required for the design and the performance assessment of a repository of HLW, suchas the chemical composition and the characteristics of the borosilicate waste glass have been identified according to the burn-ups of spent PWR fuels. The diemnsion of waste canister is 430mm in diameter and 1135mm in length, and the canister should hold less than 2kwatts of heat from their decay of radionuclides contained in the HLW. Based on the reprocessing of 5 years-cooled spent fuel, one canister could hold about 11.5wt.% and 10.8wt.% of oxidized HLW corresponding to their burn-ups of 45,000MWD/MTU and 55,000MWD/MTU, respectively. These waste forms have been recommanded as the reference waste forms of HLW. The characteristics of these wastes as a function of decay time been evaluated. However, after a specific waste form and a specific site for the disposal would be selected, the characteristics of the waste should be reevaluated under the consideration of solidification period, loaded waste, storage condition and duration, site circumstances for the repository system and its performance assessment.

  14. Development of an Alternative Glass Formulation for Vitrification of Excess Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARRA, JAMES

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (La 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (LaBS))-Frit B) was developed and testing with the LaBS Frit B composition is underway to provide data to support the Yucca Mountain License Application process. The objective of this task was to investigate alternative frit compositions and/or processing conditions that may improve the performance of the reference Frit B-LaBS glass in the repository. The current LaBS Frit B composition was used as the baseline for alternative glass formulation development efforts. A review of the literature and past high actinide concentration glass development efforts was conducted to formulate candidate compositions for testing. Glass science principles were also utilized to determine candidate frit components that may meet task objectives. Additionally, glass processing methods (e.g. slow cooling or induced heat treatment) were investigated as potential means to improve the glass durability and/or minimize fissile material and neutron absorber separation. Based on these analyses, a series of candidate surrogate glasses were fabricated and analyzed. One composition was then selected for fabrication with PuO 2 and subsequently analyzed. A phase equilibrium approach, developed from the assessment of previous high lanthanide glass formulations, was used to recommend modifications to the SRNL Frit B composition. A specific recommendation to increase Ln 2 O 3 content with concurrent reduction of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 content proved to be successful in improving the melting behavior and component solubility of the glass. This change moved the formulation from a

  15. Potentiality of a frit waste from ceramic sector as raw material to glass-ceramic material production; Potencialidad de un residuo de frita procedente del sector ceramico como materia prima para la produccion de material vitroceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Albert, E.; Llop Pla, J.; Notari Abad, M. D.; Carda Castello, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    This work consists of studying the devitrification capacity of a residue from sodium-calcium frit, using the vitreous powder sintering method, which follows the traditional ceramic processing route, including a specific heat treatment to generate the appearance of crystals from the original glass phase. Initially the frit residue has been characterized by instrumental techniques such as XRF, XRD and DTA/TG. Furthermore, the chemical analysis (XRF) has allowed the prediction of devitrification potentiality of this residue by theoretical approaches represented by Gingsberg, Raschin-Tschetverikov and Lebedeva ternary diagrams. Then, this residue was subjected to traditional ceramic method, by changing the grinding time, the pressing pressure and prepared samples were obtained at different temperatures. In this part, the techniques for measuring particle size by laser diffraction and XRD and SEM to evaluate the generated crystalline phases, were applied. Finally, it has been found that this frit residue works as glass-ceramic precursor, devitrifying in wollastonite crystals as majority phase and without being subjected to the melting step of the glass-ceramic typical method. (Author)

  16. Investigation of U3O8 immobilization in the GP-91 borosilicate glass by induction melter with a cold crucible (CCIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyunin, Y.I.; Demin, A.V.; Smelova, T.V.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Lapina, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most promising and intensively developed methods for the solidification of high-level wastes is their vitrification with the use of a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), which offers a number of advantages over ceramic melter. This work is concerned with comparison studies on the behavior of uranium in vitreous borosilicate materials synthesized by the traditional technique (melting in muffle furnaces) and CCIM method. The incorporation of uranium oxide U 3 O 8 into the GP-91 borosilicate glass with the use of CCIM technology is investigated. The limiting solubility of uranium in the GP-91 borosilicate glass is evaluated. The phase composition of precipitated dispersed particles based on uranium is determined. Some physicochemical properties of synthesized materials are explored. Investigations into the behavior of uranium in borosilicate glass prepared in the CCIM show a feasibility to synthesize the X-ray amorphous homogeneous borosilicate glasses incorporating as much as 25 - 28 wt% uranium, which is 4 - 5 times larger than that in glasses obtained by the traditional method. (author)

  17. Lab-on-fiber technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Andrea; Crescitelli, Alessio; Ricciardi, Armando

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on a research field that is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising ones for the global optics and photonics community: the "lab-on-fiber" technology. Inspired by the well-established 'lab on-a-chip' concept, this new technology essentially envisages novel and highly functionalized devices completely integrated into a single optical fiber for both communication and sensing applications.Based on the R&D experience of some of the world's leading authorities in the fields of optics, photonics, nanotechnology, and material science, this book provides a broad and accurate de

  18. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  19. Laser-assisted fabrication of gold nanoparticle-composed structures embedded in borosilicate glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nedyalkov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results on laser-assisted formation of two- and three-dimensional structures comprised of gold nanoparticles in glass. The sample material was gold-ion-doped borosilicate glass prepared by conventional melt quenching. The nanoparticle growth technique consisted of two steps – laser-induced defect formation and annealing. The first step was realized by irradiating the glass by nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses over a wide range of fluences and number of applied pulses. The irradiation by nanosecond laser pulses (emitted by a Nd:YAG laser system induced defect formation, expressed by brown coloration of the glass sample, only at a wavelength of 266 nm. At 355, 532 and 1064 nm, no coloration of the sample was observed. The femtosecond laser irradiation at 800 nm also induced defects, again observed as brown coloration. The absorbance spectra indicated that this coloration was related to the formation of oxygen deficiency defects. After annealing, the color of the irradiated areas changed to pink, with a corresponding well-defined peak in the absorbance spectrum. We relate this effect to the formation of gold nanoparticles with optical properties defined by plasmon excitation. Their presence was confirmed by high-resolution TEM analysis. No nanoparticle formation was observed in the samples irradiated by nanosecond pulses at 355, 532 and 1064 nm. The optical properties of the irradiated areas were found to depend on the laser processing parameters; these properties were studied based on Mie theory, which was also used to correlate the experimental optical spectra and the characteristics of the nanoparticles formed. We also discuss the influence of the processing conditions on the characteristics of the particles formed and the mechanism of their formation and demonstrate the fabrication of structures composed of nanoparticles inside the glass sample. This technique can be used for the preparation of 3D nanoparticle systems

  20. Leaching of the simulated borosilicate waste glasses and spent nuclear fuel under a repository condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung; Suh, Hang Suk

    2002-12-01

    Leaching behaviors of simulated waste glass and spent fuel, contacted on bentonite blocks, in synthetic granitic groundwater were investigated in this study. The leach rate of boron from borosilicate waste glass between the compacted bentonite blocks reached about 0.03 gm-2day-1 at 1500 days, like as that of molybdenum. However, the concentration of uranium in leachate pass through bentonite blocks was less than their detection limits of 2 μg/L and whose yellow amorphous compound was found on the surface of glass contacted with the bentonite blocks. The leaching mechanism of waste glasses differed with their composition. The release rate of cesium from PWR spent fuel in the simulated granitic water without bentonite was leas than $1.0x10 -5 fraction/day after 300 days. The retardation factor of cesium by a 10 -mm thickness of bentonite block was more than 100 for 4-years leaching time. The cumulative release fraction of uranium for 954 days was 0.016% (1.7x10 -7 fraction/day) in granitic water without bentonite. The gap inventory of cesium for spent fuel G23-J11 was 0.15∼0.2%. However, the release of cesium from C15-I08 was 0.9% until 60 days and has being continued after that. Gap inventories of strontium and iodine in G23-J11 were 0.033% and below 0.2%, respectively. The sum of fraction of cesium in gap and grain boundary of G23-J11 was suggested below 3% and less

  1. An enhanced resolution of the structural environment of zirconium in borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jollivet, P.; Angeli, F.; Bergeron, B.; Gin, S.; Calas, G.; Galoisy, L.; Ruffoni, M.P.; Trcera, N.

    2013-01-01

    The short- and medium-range local environment of zirconium was determined by Zr L 2,3 -edge and K-edge XANES and by Zr K-edge EXAFS in borosilicate glasses with 1 to 8 mol% ZrO 2 . Regardless of the ZrO 2 content of the glass, Zr is six-coordinated in octahedra with Zr-O distances of 2.09 Angstroms. In the glasses containing 8 mol% ZrO 2 , the octahedra are more distorted than at lower ZrO 2 content. Enhanced resolution in the real space is achieved by recording Zr K-edge EXAFS spectra over a broad energy range, enabling to get access k-values up to 20 Angstroems -1 with a high signal to noise ratio. This allows discriminate between the various second neighbor contributions. A correct fit is based on four Si and two B. This local structure around Zr derived from that of zircono-silicates such as elpidite, in which two Si are replaced by two B. The Zr-Si distances increase from 3.63 ± 0.02 to 3.67 ± 0.01 Angstroms, as Zr-B distances remain constant within uncertainties, as ZrO 2 content increases. Two Na are situated at 3.64 ± 0.03 Angstroms from Zr, ensuring charge compensation of the ZrO 6 sites. Increasing the CaO content from 4 to 8 mol% does not lead to any structural change around Zr. (authors)

  2. The influence of ZnO incorporation on the aqueous leaching characteristics of a borosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, E. R.; Gregg, D. J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Griffiths, G. J.; Olufson, K.; Rees, Gregory J.; Hanna, John V.

    2017-10-01

    With increasing ZnO content, short term aqueous durability enhancement of all elements in borosilicate glasses containing 1.0 and 3.85 wt% ZnO was evident in 7-day PCT-B tests. In 14-day MCC-1 type leach tests conducted at 90 °C, surface alteration was very clear in the undoped glass via the formation of strongly altered amorphous material which tended to spall off the surface. No sign of crystallinity was detected by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction or electron microscopy of the surface layers and the surface material was very rich in silica. For the ZnO-bearing glasses, significant growth of particles following PCT leaching for 7 days was observed, due to a build-up of surface ZnO-containing Si-rich material and possible agglomeration. This alteration layer was also observed in MCC-1 type experiments in which cross-section SEM-EDS data were obtained. Raman, infrared and 11B and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy showed only slight changes in boron speciation on the addition of up to 9.1 wt% ZnO. Bulk positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PALS) of glasses containing 0-3.85 wt% ZnO could be analysed with three distinct lifetimes and also showed only slight differences. These results indicate that the basic glass structure was essentially not influenced by the ZnO content and that the passivation of the alteration layer is promoted by ZnO content.

  3. Structural and crystallisation study of a rare earth alumino borosilicate glass designed for nuclear waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintas, A.

    2007-09-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a rare earth alumino borosilicate glass, which molar composition is 61,81 SiO 2 - 3,05 Al 2 O 3 - 8,94 B 2 O 3 - 14,41 Na 2 O - 6,33 CaO - 1,90 ZrO 2 - 3,56 Nd 2 O 3 , and envisaged for the immobilization of nuclear wastes originating from the reprocessing of high discharge burn up spent fuel. From a structural viewpoint, we investigated the role of the modifier cations on the arrangement of the glass network through different modifications of the glass composition: variation of the Na/Ca ratio and modification of the nature of the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The NMR and Raman spectroscopic techniques were useful to determine the distribution of modifier cations among the glass network and also to cast light on the competition phenomena occurring between alkali and alkaline earth cations for charge compensation of [AlO 4 ] - and [BO 4 ] - species. The neodymium local environment could be probed by optical absorption and EXAFS spectroscopies which enabled to better understand the insertion mode of Nd 3+ ions among the silicate domains of the glass network. Concerning the crystallization behavior we were interested in how the glass composition may influence the crystallization processes and especially the formation of the apatite phase of composition Ca 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 . In particular, this work underlined the important role of both alkaline earth and rare earth cations on the crystallization of the apatite phase. (author)

  4. Synthesis, electrical and magnetic properties of sodium borosilicate glasses containing Co-ferrites nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom 32511, Menoufia (Egypt); Eltabey, M.M. [Department of Basic Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Menoufia (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); Ibrahim, Samia E.; El-Deen, L.M. Sharaf; Elkholy, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom 32511, Menoufia (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    Co-ferrites nanoparticles that have been prepared by the co-precipitation method were added to sodium borosilicate (Na{sub 2}O–B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}) glass matrix by the solid solution method and they were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and magnetization measurements. (XRD) revealed the formation of the Co-ferrite magnetic crystalline phase embedded in an amorphous matrix in all the samples. The investigated samples by (TEM) showed the formation of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with a spherical shape and highly monodispersed with an average size about 13 nm. IR data revealed that the BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} are the main structural units of these samples network. IR spectra of the investigated samples showed the characteristic vibration bands of Co-ferrite. Composition and frequency dependent dielectric properties of the prepared samples were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 100–100 kHz. The conductivity was found to increase with increasing cobalt ferrite content. The variations of conductivity and dielectric properties with frequency and composition were discussed. Magnetic hysteresis loops were traced at room temperature using VSM and values of saturation magnetization M{sub S} and coercive field H{sub C} were determined. The obtained results revealed that a ferrimagnetic behavior were observed and as Co-ferrite concentration increases the values of M{sub S} and H{sub C} increase from 2.84 to 8.79 (emu/g) and from 88.4 to 736.3 Oe, respectively.

  5. Borosilicate glass as a matrix for immobilization of SRP high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 22 million gallons of high-level radioactive defense waste are currently being stored in large underground tanks located on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site in Aiken, South Carolina. One option now being considered for long-term management of this waste involves removing the waste from the tanks, chemically processing the waste, and immobilizing the potentially harmful radionuclides in the waste into a borosilicate glass matrix. The technology for producing waste glass forms is well developed and has been demonstrated on various scales using simulated as well as radioactive SRP waste. Recently, full-scale prototypical equipment has been made operational at SRP. This includes both a joule-heated ceramic melter and an in-can melter. These melters are a part of an integrated vitrification system which is under evaluation and includes a spray calciner, direct liquid feed apparatus, and various elements of an off-gas system. Two of the most important properties of the waste glass are mechanical integrity and leachability. Programs are in progress at SRL aimed at minimizing thermally induced cracking by carefully controlling cooling cycles and using ceramic liners or coatings. The leachability of SRP waste glass has been studied under many different conditions and consistently found to be low. For example, the leachability of actual SRP waste glass was found to be 10 -6 to 10 -5 g/(cm 2 )(day) initially and decreasing to 10 -9 to 10 -8 g/(cm 2 )(day) after 100 days. Waste glass is also being studied under anticipated storage conditions. In brine at 90 0 C, the leachability is about 5 x 10 -8 g/(cm 2 )(day) after 60 days. The effects of other geological media including granite, basalt, shale, and tuff are also being studied as part of the multibarrier isolation system

  6. Quantitative estimation of electro-osmosis force on charged particles inside a borosilicate resistive-pulse sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Mostafa; Yuqian Zhang; Rana, Ankit; Esfahani, Ehsan T; Esfandiari, Leyla

    2016-08-01

    Nano and micron-scale pore sensors have been widely used for biomolecular sensing application due to its sensitive, label-free and potentially cost-effective criteria. Electrophoretic and electroosmosis are major forces which play significant roles on the sensor's performance. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model based on experimental and simulation results of negatively charged particles passing through a 2μm diameter solid-state borosilicate pore under a constant applied electric field. The mathematical model has estimated the ratio of electroosmosis force to electrophoretic force on particles to be 77.5%.

  7. A Simple, Successful Capacitor Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, William

    2011-01-01

    Capacitors are a fundamental component of modern electronics. They appear in myriad devices and in an enormous range of sizes. Although our students are taught the function and analysis of capacitors, few have the opportunity to use them in our labs.

  8. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  9. Diffusion of cesium in sodium-borosilicate glasses for nuclear waste immobilisation. Diffusie van cesium in natrium borosilicaat glazen voor het immobiliseren van radioaktief afval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Sengers, E.G.F. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Waal, H. de (TPD-TNO-Glass technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands))

    1989-09-26

    Diffusion of cesium in borosilicate glass for high-level radioactive waste is discussed. For this purpose model glasses with non-radioactive elements are being made, in accordance with the specifications of the reprocessing plants, from which concentration couples are composed. A concentration couple consists of two cylinders of borosilicate glass which contain different amounts of cesium. After heat treatment the couples are studied by means of the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. The model study will provide a basis for predictions of the containment achieved over a longer period of time. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs.

  10. Gamma ray shielding study of barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses as transparent shielding materials using MCNP-4C code, XCOM program, and available experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Reza; Yousefinia, Hassan [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School (NFCRS), Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Alireza Khorrami [Radiology Department, Paramedical Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this work, linear and mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density, mean free paths, and half value layer and 10th value layer values of barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses were obtained for 662 keV, 1,173 keV, and 1,332 keV gamma ray energies using MCNP-4C code and XCOM program. Then obtained data were compared with available experimental data. The MCNP-4C code and XCOM program results were in good agreement with the experimental data. Barium-bismuth-borosilicate glasses have good gamma ray shielding properties from the shielding point of view.

  11. Gamma Ray Shielding Study of Barium–Bismuth–Borosilicate Glasses as Transparent Shielding Materials using MCNP-4C Code, XCOM Program, and Available Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear and mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density, mean free paths, and half value layer and 10th value layer values of barium–bismuth–borosilicate glasses were obtained for 662 keV, 1,173 keV, and 1,332 keV gamma ray energies using MCNP-4C code and XCOM program. Then obtained data were compared with available experimental data. The MCNP-4C code and XCOM program results were in good agreement with the experimental data. Barium–bismuth–borosilicate glasses have good gamma ray shielding properties from the shielding point of view.

  12. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  13. Glass Frit Dissolution Influenced by Material Composition and the Water Content in Iodide/Triiodide Electrolyte of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Flarup Jensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs and modules, a hermetic sealing is required. This research investigates the chemical stability of I-/I3- redox electrolyte and four different glass frits (GFs. Sintered GF layers were openly exposed to nonaqueous redox electrolyte and redox electrolyte with 1, 5, and 10 wt% H2O in thin, encapsulated cells. The change in I3− absorbance was assigned to a reaction between the GF and I-/I3- electrolyte and was used to evaluate the chemical stability of the different GFs. The I3− absorbance change was monitored over 100 days. Two out of the four GFs were unstable when H2O was added to the redox electrolyte. The H2O caused metal ion leaching which was determined from EDX analysis of the inorganic remains of electrolyte samples. A GF based on Bi2O3–SiO2–B2O3 with low bond strength leached bismuth into electrolyte and formed the BiI3- complex. A ZnO–SiO2–Al2O3-based GF also became unstable when H2O was added to the redox electrolyte. Leaching of zinc ions due to exchange with H+ resulted in the formation of a zinc-iodine compound which caused I3− depletion. By applying the test design to different types of GFs, the material suitability in the DSC working environment was investigated.

  14. The determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air with free hanging filters as passive samplers, and a new calibration method using fritted bubblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Paul; Setiawan, Rineksa; Krol, Maarten Cornelis; Adema, Eduard Hilbrand

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes two new methods for the determination of NO(2) in the ambient air. The first method consists of free hanging filters with a diameter of 2.5 cm as passive samplers. The filters are impregnated with triethanolamine to bind NO(2). With standard colorimetrical analysis, the amount of NO(2) on the filters is determined. The second method is performed with fritted bubblers filled with Saltzman reagent, where, with a special procedure the absorption efficiencies of the bubblers are determined using ambient air, without the use of standard gases and electronic analytical instruments. The results of the bubblers are used to calibrate the free hanging filters. The two methods were applied simultaneously in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The methods are inexpensive and very well suited for use in low-budget situations. A characteristic of the free filter is the Sampling Volume, SV. This is the ratio of the amount of NO(2) on the filter and the ambient concentration. With the filter used in this study, the amount of triethanolamine and exposure time, the SV is 0.0166 m(3). The sampling rate (SR) of the filter, 4.6 cm(3)/s, is high. Hourly averaged measurements are performed for 15 hours per day in four busy streets. The measured amounts of NO(2) on the filters varied between 0.57 and 2.02 microg NO(2), at ambient air concentrations of 32 to 141 microg/m(3) NO(2). During the experiments the wind velocity was between 0.2 and 2.0 m/s, the relative humidity between 24 and 83 % and the temperature between 295 K and 311 K. These variations in weather conditions have no influence on the uptake of NO(2).

  15. X-ray absorption studies of chlorine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.; Stolte, W.C.; Demchenko, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a constituent of certain types of nuclear wastes and its presence can affect the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts and glasses developed for the immobilization of such wastes. Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were collected and analyzed to characterize the unknown Cl environments in borosilicate waste glass formulations, ranging in Cl-content from 0.23 to 0.94 wt.%. Both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data for the glasses show trends dependent on calcium (Ca) content. Near-edge data for the Ca-rich glasses are most similar to the Cl XANES of CaCl 2 , where Cl - is coordinated to three Ca atoms, while the XANES for the Ca-poor glasses are more similar to the mineral davyne, where Cl is most commonly coordinated to two Ca in one site, as well as Cl and oxygen nearest-neighbors in other sites. With increasing Ca content in the glass, Cl XANES for the glasses approach that for CaCl 2 , indicating more Ca nearest-neighbors around Cl. Reliable structural information obtained from the EXAFS data for the glasses is limited, however, to Cl-Cl, Cl-O, and Cl-Na distances; Cl-Ca contributions could not be fit to the glass data, due to the narrow k-space range available for analysis. Structural models that best fit the glass EXAFS data include Cl-Cl, Cl-O, and Cl-Na correlations, where Cl-O and Cl-Na distances decrease by approximately 0.16 A as glass Ca content increases. XAS for the glasses indicates Cl - is found in multiple sites where most Cl-sites have Ca neighbors, with oxygen, and possibly, Na second-nearest neighbors. EXAFS analyses suggest that Cl-Cl environments may also exist in the glasses in minor amounts. These results are generally consistent with earlier findings for silicate glasses, where Cl - was associated with Ca 2+ and Na + in network modifier sites.

  16. Optical properties of 3d transition metal ion-doped sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hongli; Tanner, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Photographs of undoped (SiO 2 ) 50 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 (SiNaB) glass and transition metal ion-doped (TM) 0.5 (SiO 2 ) 49.5 (Na 2 O) 25 (B 2 O 3 ) 25 glass samples. - Highlights: • 3d transition metal ion (from Ti to Zn) doped SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses. • Optical properties of doped glasses investigated. • V(IV,V); Cr(III, VI); Mn(II,III); Fe(II,III); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II) by XANES, DRS. • Strong visible absorption but only vanadium ion gives strong emission in glass. - Abstract: SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses doped with 3d-transition metal species from Ti to Zn were prepared by the melting-quenching technique and their optical properties were investigated. The X-ray absorption near edge spectra of V, Cr, and Mn-doped glasses indicate that the oxidation states of V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI) and Mn(II, III) exist in the studied glasses. The oxidation states revealed from the diffuse reflectance spectra of the glasses are V(IV, V), Cr(III, VI), Mn(III), Fe(II, III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II). Most of the 3d transition element ions exhibit strong absorption in the visible spectral region in the glass. Under ultraviolet excitation, the undoped sodium borosilicate glass produces weak and broad emission, while doping of vanadium introduces strong and broad emission due to the V(V) charge transfer transition. Only weak emission is observed from Ti(IV), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II), partly resulting from the strong electron–phonon coupling of the 3d-electrons and the relatively high phonon energy of the studied glass host, with the former leading to dominant nonradiative relaxation based on multiphonon processes for most of the 3d excited states

  17. Optical absorption and gamma-radiation-shielding parameter studies of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Sayyed, M. I.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Dong, M. G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations (0.1‒2.0 mol%) of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses with 10 mol% Li2O (alkali) or MgO (alkaline) have been synthesized and their optical absorption and radiation shielding features were studied. For both Li2O and MgO series 0.5 mol% Tm3+-doped glass samples, the evaluated Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4, and 6) Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from experimental oscillator strengths were used in estimating the radiative transition probabilities ( A R), branching ratios ( β R), and radiative lifetimes ( τ R) for several emission transitions. Using the XCOM software, the mass attenuation coefficients ( µ/ ρ) for all the fabricated glasses were evaluated within the 0.015‒10 MeV energy range. Also, the ( µ/ ρ) values were calculated at 0.356, 0.662, 1.173, and 1.33 MeV photon energies by MCNP5 simulation code and the results were compared with those obtained by XCOM. The ( µ/ ρ) values for Li2O, as well as MgO series glasses, increase with the addition of Tm2O3 and these values for MgO series glasses are slightly higher with respect to Li2O series glasses. From the ( µ/ ρ) values, effective atomic number ( Z eff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) were calculated and the HVL and MFP results revealed that high-energy photons have more penetration into a glass sample compared to low-energy photons. Further, geometric progression (GP) fitting method was utilized to calculate the exposure buildup factor (EBF) within the 0.015‒15 MeV energy range. The 2.0 mol% Tm2O3-doped glasses show a better ability to attenuate gamma-rays in comparison to other glass samples, so the addition of Tm2O3 content leads to improvement of the shielding efficiency of the prepared glasses.

  18. Investigation of local environment around rare earths (La and Eu) by fluorescence line narrowing during borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molières, Estelle; Panczer, Gérard; Guyot, Yannick; Jollivet, Patrick; Majérus, Odile; Aschehoug, Patrick; Barboux, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Angeli, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The local environment of europium in soda-lime borosilicate glasses with a range of La 2 O 3 content was probed by continuous luminescence and Fluorescence Line Narrowing (FLN) to investigate the local environment of rare earth elements in pristine and leached glass. After aqueous leaching at 90 °C at pH 7 and 9.5, rare earths were fully retained and homogeneously distributed in the amorphous alteration layer (commonly called gel). Two separate silicate environments were observed in pristine and leached glasses regardless of the lanthanum content and the leaching conditions. A borate environment surrounding europium was not observed in pristine and leached glasses. During glass alteration, OH groups were located around the europium environment, which became more organized (higher symmetry) in the first coordination shell. -- Highlights: • No borate environment surrounding europium was detected in pristine borosilicate glasses. • Up to 12 mol% of REE2O3 in glass, local environment of europium does not significantly change. • Europium environment becomes more ordered and symmetric in gels than in pristine glasses. • Two distinct silicate sites were observed, as well in pristine glass as in gels (leached glasses). • In altered glasses, OH groups were located around europium

  19. Investigation of local environment around rare earths (La and Eu) by fluorescence line narrowing during borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molières, Estelle [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Panczer, Gérard; Guyot, Yannick [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Jollivet, Patrick [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Majérus, Odile; Aschehoug, Patrick; Barboux, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7574, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP Chimie-ParisTech), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Gin, Stéphane [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Angeli, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    The local environment of europium in soda-lime borosilicate glasses with a range of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was probed by continuous luminescence and Fluorescence Line Narrowing (FLN) to investigate the local environment of rare earth elements in pristine and leached glass. After aqueous leaching at 90 °C at pH 7 and 9.5, rare earths were fully retained and homogeneously distributed in the amorphous alteration layer (commonly called gel). Two separate silicate environments were observed in pristine and leached glasses regardless of the lanthanum content and the leaching conditions. A borate environment surrounding europium was not observed in pristine and leached glasses. During glass alteration, OH groups were located around the europium environment, which became more organized (higher symmetry) in the first coordination shell. -- Highlights: • No borate environment surrounding europium was detected in pristine borosilicate glasses. • Up to 12 mol% of REE2O3 in glass, local environment of europium does not significantly change. • Europium environment becomes more ordered and symmetric in gels than in pristine glasses. • Two distinct silicate sites were observed, as well in pristine glass as in gels (leached glasses). • In altered glasses, OH groups were located around europium.

  20. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass matrix for the incorporation of high level radioactive waste (HAW). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guber, W.; Hussain, M.; Kahl, L.; Ondracek, G.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1979-08-01

    On the basis of laboratory and technical experience with the preparation and the characterization of borosilicate glasses as solidification matrix for high level radioactive waste solution (HAW), a borosilicate glass composition with optimum properties has been developed. Keeping in view the technical and final storage requirements, a number of glass compositions with varying proportions of influential components as Al, Mg, Na were prepared and thoroughly investigated for certain parameters as specific gravity, thermal conductivity, impact resistance, thermal expansion, viscosity, characteristic temperature points, specific heat, evaporation losses from the melt, electrical conductivity, leach resistance, tendency toward recrystallization and second phase formation. All the compositions (some with different amounts of Gd 2 O 3 , an expected neutron poision) contained 15 wt. % simulated HAW oxides. Samples for investigation were fabricated very close to the actual process conditions of vitrification. Two glass products GP12 and GP26 (3.7% Gd 2 O 3 ) have been selected out of 25 glasses as the optimised products for further thorough investigations. Leach resistance, viscosity at 1420 K, tendency towards recrystallization and second phase formation were the most important deciding factors. (orig.) [de

  1. Incorporating lab experience into computer security courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Bhuse, V.; Lilien, L.T.

    2013-01-01

    We describe our experience with teaching computer security labs at two different universities. We report on the hardware and software lab setups, summarize lab assignments, present the challenges encountered, and discuss the lessons learned. We agree with and emphasize the viewpoint that security

  2. Safety Protocols at MAT Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadawale, A.; Chopade, S.; Chaudhury, K.; Pal, M.K.; Kushwah, N.; Shah, A.Y.; Kedarnath, G.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Jain, V.K.

    2017-01-01

    MAT Lab of Chemistry Division, BARC (A Class 10000 Clean room laboratory) has been in operation since 2004 for process development of ultra-purification of several strategically important materials (Ga, As, Sb, In, CsI and Ge) and synthesis of their organometallic compounds. Of these, work related to purification of As, Sb, and In, has been discontinued. Due to high toxicity and pyrophoric nature of some of the compounds, stringent safety regulations were formulated and subsequently implemented by the division

  3. Designing inquiry learning spaces for online labs in the Go-Lab platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ton; Gillet, Dennis; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Agogi, Ellinogermaniki; Zacharia, Zacharias

    2015-01-01

    The Go-Lab project (http://www.go-lab-project.eu/) aims to enable the integration of online labs through inquiry-based learning approaches into science classrooms. Through the use of an advanced plug and play technological solution the Go-Lab project opens up remote science laboratories, data

  4. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  5. Structure, thermal stability and resistance under external irradiation of rare earths and molybdenum-rich alumino-borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouard, N.

    2011-01-01

    In France, the highly radioactive nuclear liquid wastes arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing (fission products + minor actinides (FPA)) are currently immobilized in an alumino-borosilicate glass called 'R7T7'. In the future, the opportunity of using new alumino-borosilicate glass compositions (HTC glasses) is considered in order to increase the waste loading in glasses and thus significantly decrease the number of glass canisters. However, the increase of the concentration of FPA could lead to the crystallization of rare-earth-rich phases (Ca 2 RE 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 ) or molybdenum-rich phases (CaMoO 4 , Na 2 MoO 4 ) during melt cooling, which can modify the confinement properties of the glass (chemical durability, self-irradiation resistance..), particularly if they can incorporate radionuclides α or β in their structure. This thesis can be divided into two parts: The first part deals with studying the relationship that can occur between the composition, the structure and the crystallization tendency of simplified seven oxides glasses, belonging to the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-CaO-MoO 3 -Nd 2 O 3 system and derived from the composition of the HTC glass at 22,5 wt. % in FPA. The impact of the presence of platinoid elements (RuO 2 in our case) on the crystallization of the different phases is also studied. The second part deals with the effect of actinides α decays and more particularly of nuclear interactions essentially coming from recoil nuclei (simulated here by heavy ions external irradiations) on the behaviour under irradiation of an alumino-borosilicate glass containing apatite Ca 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 crystals, that can incorporate actinides in their structure. Two samples containing apatite crystals with different size are studied, in order to understand the impact of microstructure on the irradiation resistance of this kind of material. (author) [fr

  6. Lab, Field, Gallery and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Koskinen, Ilpo; Redström, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Over the last ten years we have seen a growing number of researchers integrating design experiments in their research inquiries. Initially, this work borrowed heavily from neighboring fields, employing a dual strategy in which design experiments and their evaluation were largely treated as separate...... processes that were often carried out by different people. More recently, design researchers have developed several approaches that integrate design-specific work methods to research. This paper takes a methodological look at three such established approaches that we call Lab, Field, and Gallery. We...

  7. Double success for neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "The Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy is celebrating two key developments in the field of neutrino physics. Number one is the first ever detection, by the OPERA experiement, of possible tau neutrino that has switched its identity from a muon neutrino as it travelled form its origins at CERN in Switzerland to the Italian lab. Number two is the successful start-up of the ICARUS detector, which, like OPERA, is designed to study neutrinos that "oscillate" between types" (0.5 pages)

  8. A green chemistry lab course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, J.; Lenoir, D.; Bahadir, M.; Koning, B.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional course content of chemistry classes must change to achieve better awareness of the important issues of sustainability in chemistry within the next generation of professional chemists. To provide the necessary material for the organic chemistry teaching lab course, which is part of almost all study programs in chemistry, material was developed and collected (http://www.oc-praktikum.de/en) that allows students and teachers to assess reactions beyond the experimental set up, reaction mechanism and chemical yield. Additional parameters like atom economy of chemical transformations, energy efficiency, and questions of waste, renewable feed stocks, toxicity and ecotoxicity, as well as the safety measures for the chemicals used are discussed. (author)

  9. Laser safety in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Barat, Ken L

    2012-01-01

    There is no more challenging setting for laser use than a research environment. In almost every other setting the laser controls count on engineering controls, and human exposure is kept to a minimum. In research, however, the user often manipulates the optical layout and thereby places him or herself in peril, but this does not mean that accidents and injury are unavoidable. On the contrary, laser accidents can be avoided by following a number of simple approaches. [i]Laser Safety in the Lab[/i] provides the laser user and laser safety officer with practical guidelines from housekeeping to ey

  10. Remote Lab for Robotics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Jiménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a remote lab environment used to test and training sessions for robotics tasks. This environment is made up of the components and devices based on two robotic arms, a network link, Arduino card and Arduino shield for Ethernet, as well as an IP camera. The remote laboratory is implemented to perform remote control of the robotic arms with visual feedback by camera, of the robots actions, where, with a group of test users, it was possible to obtain performance ranges in tasks of telecontrol of up to 92%.

  11. Digital media labs in libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Families share stories with each other and veterans reconnect with their comrades, while teens edit music videos and then upload them to the web: all this and more can happen in the digital media lab (DML), a gathering of equipment with which people create digital content or convert content that is in analog formats. Enabling community members to create digital content was identified by The Edge Initiative, a national coalition of leading library and local government organizations, as a library technology benchmark. Surveying academic and public libraries in a variety of settings and sharing a

  12. Standardization of a PIGE methodology for simultaneous quantification of low Z elements in barium borosilicate glass samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhillar, S.; Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Mishra, R.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    In order to standardize particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methodology for simultaneous quantification of light elements, analytical sensitivities of Li, F, B, Na, Al and Si were evaluated using 4 MeV proton beam ( ∼ 10 nA current) using 3 MV Pelletron at IOP, Bhubaneswar. The PIGE method was validated by determining all six elements in a synthetic sample in graphite matrix and applied to two barium borosilicate glass (BaBSG) samples. The prompt γ-rays emitted from inelastic scattering or nuclear reactions of corresponding isotopes were measured using a 60% HPGe coupled to MCA and the current normalized count rates were used for concentration calculation. (author)

  13. Local structure near actinides and nucleating elements in borosilicate glass for nuclear industry: Results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Maire, D.

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities and limits of X-ray absorption spectroscopy for cation site description in silicate glasses and possible applications for complex glasses, like glass for fission product containment, are examined. In borosilicate glasses two types of sites are evidenced for actinides at the valence 4: Coordinance 6 sites with a narrow radial distribution for the distance An-0; higher coordination (7, 8 or more) with a wider and asymmetrical radial distribution. Proportion of low coordinance sites increases when cation size decreases (Th > Np). U and Np VI and V are characterized as actinyles with a chain 0-An-0 practically linear, coordinance in a plane perpendicular to this complex is probably 5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy allows an accurate description of actinide sites in fission product glasses [fr

  14. Color-converted remote phosphor prototype of a multiwavelength excitable borosilicate glass for white light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hua; Qiu Kun; Song Jun; Wang Da-Jian; Liu Ji-Wen

    2012-01-01

    We report a unique red light-emitting Eu-doped borosilicate glass to convert color for warm white light-emitting diodes. This glass can be excited from 394 nm-peaked near ultraviolet light, 466 nm-peaked blue light, to 534 nm-peaked green light to emit the desired red light with an excellent transmission in the wavelength range of 400–700 nm which makes this glass suitable for color conversion without a great cost of luminous power loss. In particular, when assembling this glass for commercial white light-emitting diodes, the tested results show that the color rendering index is improved to 84 with a loss of luminous power by 12 percent at average, making this variety of glass promising for inorganic “remote-phosphor” color conversion

  15. A kinetic model for borosilicate glass dissolution based on the dissolution affinity of a surface alteration layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Peiffer, D.W.; Knauss, K.G.; McKeegan, K.D.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    A kinetic model for the dissolution of borosilicate glass is used to predict the dissolution rate of a nuclear waste glass. In the model, the glass dissolution rate is controlled by the rate of dissolution of an alkali-depleted amorphous surface (gel) layer. Our model predicts that all components concentrated in the surface layer, affect glass dissolution rates. The good agreement between predicted and observed elemental dissolution rates suggests that the dissolution rate of the gel layer limits the overall rate of glass dissolution. The model predicts that the long-term rate of glass dissolution will depend mainly on ion concentrations in solution, and therefore on the secondary phases which precipitate and control ion concentrations. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Investigating the effect of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition on sodium barium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Rumu, E-mail: rumuhalder24feb@gmail.com; Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G. K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India); Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India); Kaushik, C. P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-700 085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped sodium barium borosilicate glasses were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The glass remains homogeneous for lower concentration of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} but a phase separation is observed when V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doping is increased beyond 5 mol%. Detailed microanalysis reveals that the phase separated glass consists of a phase containing V, Ba and Si and a separate Si rich phase within the glass matrix. The luminescence study demonstrated that at low concentration the vanadium mainly interacts with the structural units of B/Si while at higher concentrations, V-O-V/ V-O{sup −} Na{sup +}/Ba{sup 2+} linkages are formed.

  17. Phase evolution and dielectric properties of MgTi2O5 ceramic sintered with lithium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyunho; Shin, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Cho, Seo-Yong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2005-01-01

    Phase evolution, densification, and dielectric properties of MgTi 2 O 5 dielectric ceramic, sintered with lithium borosilicate (LBS) glass, were studied. Reaction between LBS glass and MgTi 2 O 5 was significant in forming secondary phases such as TiO 2 and (Mg,Ti) 2 (BO 3 )O. The glass addition was not necessarily deleterious to the dielectric properties due to the formation of TiO 2 : permittivity increased and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency could be tuned to zero with the addition of LBS glass, although the inevitable glass-induced decrease of quality factor was not retarded by the formation of TiO 2 . The sintered specimen with 10 wt% LBS fired at 950 deg. C for 2 h showed permittivity of 19.3, quality factor of 6800 GHz, and τ f of -16 ppm/ deg. C

  18. Effect of composition and temperature on viscosity and electrical conductivity of borosilicate glasses for Hanford nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.; Piepel, G.F.; Smith, D.E.; Redgate, P.E.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Viscosity and electrical conductivity of 79 simulated borosilicate glasses in the expected range of compositions to be produced in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant were measured within the temperature span from 950 to 1250 degree C. The nine major oxide components were SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Li 2 O, Na 2 O, CaO, MgO, Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , and ZrO 2 . The test compositions were generated statistically. The data were fitted by Fulcher and Arrhenius equations with temperature coefficients being multilinear functions of the mass fractions of the oxide components. Mixture models were also developed for the natural logarithm of viscosity and that of electrical conductivity at 1150 degree C. Least squares regression was used to obtain component coefficients for all the models

  19. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  20. Basaltic glasses from Iceland and the deep sea: Natural analogues to borosilicate nuclear waste-form glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jercinovic, M.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    The report provides a detailed analysis of the alteration process and products for natural basaltic glasses. Information of specific applicability to the JSS project include: * The identification of typical alteration products which should be expected during the long-term corrosion process of low-silica glasses. The leached layers contain a relatively high proportion of crystalline phases, mostly in the form of smectite-type clays. Channels through the layer provide immediate access of solutions to the fresh glass/alteration layer interface. Thus, glasses are not 'protected' from further corrosion by the surface layer. * Corrosion proceeds with two rates - an initial rate in silica-undersaturated environments and a long-term rate in silica-saturated environments. This demonstrates that there is no unexpected change in corrosion rate over long periods of time. The long-term corrosion rate is consistent with that of borosilicate glasses. * Precipitation of silica-containing phases can result in increased alteration of the glass as manifested by greater alteration layer thicknesses. This emphasizes the importance of being able to predict which phases form during the reaction sequence. * For natural basaltic glasses the flow rate of water and surface area of exposed glass are critical parameters in minimizing glass alteration over long periods of time. The long-term stability of basalt glasses is enhanced when silica concentrations in solution are increased. In summary, there is considerable agreement between corrosion phenomena observed for borosilicate glasses in the laboratory and those observed for natural basalt glasses of great age. (With 121 refs.) (authors)

  1. Utilization of Cs137 to generate a radiation barrier for weapons grade plutonium immobilized in borosilicate glass canisters. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Armantrout, G.A.; Collins, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    One of the ways recommended by a recent National Academy of Sciences study to dispose of excess weapons-grade plutonium is to encapsulate the plutonium in a glass in combination with high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) to generate an intense radiation dose rate field. The objective is to render the plutonium as difficult to access as the plutonium contained in existing US commercial spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel until it can be disposed of in a permanent geological repository. A radiation dose rate from a sealed canister of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years after fabrication was assumed in this paper to be a radiation dose comparable to spent LWR fuel. This can be achieved by encapsulating the plutonium in a borosilicate glass with an adequate amount of a single fission product in the HLWS, namely radioactive Cs 137 . One hundred thousand curies of Cs 137 will generate a dose rate of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years when imbedded into canisters of the size proposed for the Savannah River Site's vitrified high-level wastes. The United States has a current inventory of 54 MCi of CS 137 that has been separated from defense HLWs and is in sealed capsules. This single curie inventory is sufficient to spike 50 metric tons of excess weapons-grade plutonium if plutonium can be loaded at 5.5 wt% in glass, or 540 canisters. Additional CS 137 inventories exist in the United States' HLWs from past reprocessing operations, should additional curies be required. Using only one fission product, CS 137 , rather than the multiple chemical elements and compounds in HLWs to generate a high radiation dose rate from a glass canister greatly simplifies the processing engineering retirement for encapsulating plutonium in a borosilicate glass

  2. Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of hydrothermally altered alkali-borosilicate nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A., E-mail: davidm@vsl.cua.ed [Vitreous State Laboratory, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., N.E., Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Buechele, Andrew C.; Viragh, Carol; Pegg, Ian L. [Vitreous State Laboratory, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., N.E., Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are used to characterize structural changes that took place in hydrothermally altered (Na,K)-alumina-borosilicate glasses with different Na/K ratios, formulated as part of a durability study to investigate the behavior of glasses for nuclear waste storage. The hydrothermal experiments, or vapor hydration tests (VHT), were performed on each glass for 3 and 20 days at 200 deg. C to accelerate and approximate long-term alteration processes that may occur in a nuclear waste repository. Results found for both glasses and their VHT altered counterparts show little, if any, structural influence from the different starting Na/K ratios. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the altered samples are mostly amorphous with small amounts of analcime-like and leucite-like crystals within 200 mum of the sample surface and contain up to 9.7 wt.% water or OH. The Raman data are nearly identical for the amorphous portions of all altered VHT samples investigated, and indicate that two glass structural changes took place during alteration: one, partial depolymerization of the alumina-borosilicate network, and two, introduction of water or OH. Al and Si XAS data indicate tetrahedral AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} environments in the original glasses as well as in the altered samples. Small energy shifts of the Si K-edge also show that the altered VHT samples have less polymerized networks than the original glass. Na XAS data indicate expanded Na environments in the VHT samples with longer Na-O distances and more nearest-neighbor oxygen atoms, compared with the original glasses, which may be due to hydrous species introduced into the expanding Na-sites.

  3. Reinforcement of poly-l-lactic acid electrospun membranes with strontium borosilicate bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João S; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Martins, Margarida; Neves, Nuno M; Miller, Cheryl; Crawford, Aileen; Pires, Ricardo A; Hatton, Paul; Reis, Rui L

    2016-10-15

    Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) demonstrated that PLLA-BBG-Sr membranes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the cells as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic gene expression (Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap) in relation to PLLA alone. These results strongly suggest that the composite PLLA membranes reinforced with the BBG-Sr glass particles have potential as an effective biomaterial capable of promoting bone regeneration. PLLA membranes were reinforced with 10% (w/w) of strontium-bioactive borosilicate glass microparticles, and their capacity to induce the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was evaluated. These membranes presented an increased: degradability, water uptake, Young modulus and tensile strength. We also demonstrated that these membranes are non-cytotoxic and promote the attachment of BM-MSCs. The addition of the glass microparticles into the PLLA membranes promoted the increase of ALP activity (under osteogenic conditions), as well as the BM-MSCs osteogenic differentiation as shown by the upregulation of Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap gene expression. Overall, we demonstrated that the reinforcement of PLLA with glass microparticles results in a biomaterial with the appropriate properties for the regeneration of bone tissue. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha radiation and in-pile annealing effects on the fracture properties of a sintered alumino borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Prado, Miguel O.; Messi de Bernasconi, Norma B.; Heredia, Arturo D.; Sanfilippo, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    The alpha radiation and the in-pile during irradiation effects on the hardness, the crack nucleation and the fracture toughness of the German alumino borosilicate glass SG7 were investigated by using the Vickers indentation. Cold pressed and sintered samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons, in the Argentine nuclear reactors RA-3 and RA-6, to produce alpha particles in the whole volume of the glass by means of the (n, alpha)-reaction with B-10. The Vickers hardness, the crack nucleation, as 50 percent fracture probability load, plotted as the Weibull's fracture probability distribution function and the fracture toughness, as critical stress intensity factor K Ic , were correlated to the four cumulative disintegration values. It was ascertained that: a) the Vickers hardness decreases from 5.6 GPa for the non-irradiated sample up to 4.7 GPa for the sample irradiated 70 h at the lower neutron flux (4.0 x 10 - sup 18 - alpha disintegration per cm - sup 3 -), b) the 50 % fracture probability load increases from 1.4 N for the non-irradiated sample up to 4.7 g for the sample irradiated 22 h at the higher flux (6.8 x 10 - sup 18 - alpha disintegration per cm - sup 3 -), and c) the stress intensity factor increases from 0.80 MPa.m - sup 1/2 - for the non irradiated sample up to 0.86 MPa.m - sup 1/2 - for the sample mentioned in b). The in-pile annealing was analyzed by comparing the crack nucleation after irradiation with data obtained by heavy ion irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Results for the SG7 glass were compared to those for soda-lime and borosilicate glasses. (author)

  5. Upconversion studies of Er3+/Yb3+ doped SrO.TiO2 borosilicate glass ceramic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, Aditya; Om Prakash; Kumar, Devendra; Rai, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion behaviour has been studied in various matrices and fine powders of SrTiO 3 by previous workers. In present work, Er 3+ /Yb 3+ were doped in appropriate ratio in SrO.TiO 2 borosilicate glass ceramic system to study the upconversion phenomenon. Dielectric properties of this class of glass ceramic system have been extensively investigated by Thakur et al. It has been observed that both upconversion efficiency and dielectric constant increases with transformation of glass into glass ceramic. Therefore, present investigation is based upon the study of optical as well as the electrical properties of same glass ceramic system. In order to prepare different crystalline matrices, two different Er 3+ /Yb 3+ :SrO.TiO 2 borosilicate glasses with same amount of Er 2 O 3 and Yb 2 O 3 were prepared by melt quench method. Glasses were transparent with light-wine colour. Glass ceramics were prepared from the glasses by heat treatment based on DTA (Differential thermal analysis) results. Glass ceramics were fully opaque with brownish-cream colour. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that two different crystalline matrices, Sr 3 Ti 2 O 7 , Ti 10 O 19 and SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 were present in two glass ceramic samples respectively. Luminescence properties of glass and glass ceramic samples with 976nm laser irradiation showed that the intensities of the green and red emission increased multiple times in glass ceramic than that of the glass. Possible mechanisms responsible for upconversion eg. Energy Transfer (ET) and Excited State Absorption (ESA), were studied through laser pumping power log dependence

  6. Jefferson Lab, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab; formerly known as CEBAF), operates a 4 GeV, 200 microA continuous wave (CW) electron accelerator that re-circulates the beam five times through two superconducting 400 MeV linacs. Electrons can be extracted from any of the five recirculation passes and beam can be simultaneously delivered to the three experimental halls. As the commissioning stage nears completion, the accelerator is becoming a fully operational machine. Experiments in Hall C have been underway since November 1995 with beam powers of over 300 kW at various energies. Hall A has received beam for spectrometer commissioning, while Hall B is expected to receive its first beam in the fall of 1996. Accelerator availability of greater than 70% during physics runs and excellent beam quality have contributed to making Jefferson Lab a world class laboratory for accelerator-based electromagnetic nuclear physics. With the high performance of the superconducting RF cavities, machine upgrades to 6 GeV, and eventually 8 to 10 GeV are now in the planning stages. Operational and commissioning details concerning all aspects of the machine will be discussed

  7. Jefferson Lab, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab; formerly known as CEBAF), operates a 4 GeV, 200 μA continuous wave (CW) electron accelerator that re-circulates the beam five times through two superconducting 400 MeV linacs. Electrons can be extracted from any of the five recirculation passes and beam can be simultaneously delivered to the three experimental halls. As the commissioning stage nears completion, the accelerator is becoming a fully operational machine. Experiments in Hall C have been underway since November 1995 with beam powers of over 300 kW at various energies. Hall A has received beam for spectrometer commissioning, while Hall B is expected to receive its first beam in the fall of 1996. Accelerator availability of greater than 70% during physics runs and excellent beam quality have contributed to making Jefferson Lab a world class laboratory for accelerator-based electromagnetic nuclear physics. With the high performance of the superconducting RF cavities, machine upgrades to 6 GeV, and eventually 8 to 10 GeV are now in the planning stages. Operational and commissioning details concerning all aspects of the machine will be discussed. (author)

  8. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  9. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  10. GeneLab: Open Science For Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazka, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The NASA GeneLab project capitalizes on multi-omic technologies to maximize the return on spaceflight experiments. The GeneLab project houses spaceflight and spaceflight-relevant multi-omics data in a publicly accessible data commons, and collaborates with NASA-funded principal investigators to maximize the omics data from spaceflight and spaceflight-relevant experiments. I will discuss the current status of GeneLab and give specific examples of how the GeneLab data system has been used to gain insight into how biology responds to spaceflight conditions.

  11. Acquisition of rheological and calorimetric properties of borosilicate glass to determine the free energy of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Y.; Advocat, Th.

    2000-01-01

    No fundamental thermodynamic data, such as the entropy Δ f S T) and enthalpy Δ f H T) of formation are currently available for nuclear borosilicate glasses. They are necessary to assess the glass thermodynamic stability in water, one of the most important potential long-term glass alteration vectors. Three glass composition ranges were investigated: - 8 compositions ranging from a ternary B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 --Na 2 O (BSN) glass to the simulated SON 68 industrial glass for containment of high active nuclear wastes after reprocessing spent uranium oxide fuel from light water reactors. The basic BSN glass was gradually modified with the additives: Al 2 O 3 , CaO, ZrO 2 , Ce 2 O 3 , Li 2 O and Fe 2 O 3 , and non-radioactive surrogate fission product oxides. - A second using another BSN ternary glass to which Al 2 O 3 , MgO and a group of non-radioactive surrogate fission product oxides, representative of natural uranium GCR fuel, were added. - A third range consisting of various BSN ternary glass compositions. All the glass specimens were fabricated by melting the oxides, carbonates anal nitrates at 1273 to 1473 K in a platinum crucible. Experimental methods based on calorimetry and viscosimetry techniques were used to determine the heat capacity Cp of each glass composition, a necessary parameter in addition to the known heat capacities of the basic glass component oxides, for calculating Δ f S T) and Δ f S T). The heat capacity Cp was measured between 273 K and 1480 K through a combination of three experimental devices: a low-temperature adiabatic calorimeter, a differential scanning calorimeter, and an ice calorimeter. The glass configuration entropy S conf (T g ) necessary to obtain the glass entropy of formation (Eqn.(3)) was determined from tile glass rheological properties. A low-temperature viscosimeter was used to measure the strain ε of a glass specimen subjected to a given uniaxial stress σ to determine the viscosity η. A Couette viscosimeter was used to

  12. Innovations in STEM education: the Go-Lab federation of online labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Gillet, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The Go-Lab federation of online labs opens up virtual laboratories (simulation), remote laboratories (real equipment accessible at distance) and data sets from physical laboratory experiments (together called “online labs”) for large-scale use in education. In this way, Go-Lab enables inquiry-based

  13. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…

  14. Hydrogel Beads: The New Slime Lab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Debra; Libera, Matthew; Welner, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Creating slime fascinates students. Unfortunately, though intrigue is at its peak, the educational aspect of this activity is often minimal. This article describes a chemistry lab that closely relates to the slime lab and allows high school students to explore the concepts of chemical bonding, properties, and replacement reactions. It involves the…

  15. Innovation - A view from the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Ag Lab in Peoria helps bridge the gap between agricultural producers and commercial manufacturers. In 2015, the Ag Lab, officially known as the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), is celebrating 75 years of research in Peoria. T...

  16. mQoL smart lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Masi, Alexandre; Ciman, Matteo; Gustarini, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    serve quality research in all of them. In this paper, we present own "mQoL Smart Lab" for interdisciplinary research efforts on individuals' "Quality of Life" improvement. We present an evolution of our current in-house living lab platform enabling continuous, pervasive data collection from individuals...

  17. Programming Arduino with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    If you already have some experience with LabVIEW and want to apply your skills to control physical objects and make measurements using the Arduino sensor, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Arduino and LabVIEW is essential to fully understand the projects detailed in this book.

  18. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  19. Exploring linear algebra labs and projects with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Arangala, Crista

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Operations Lab 0: An Introduction to Mathematica Lab 1: Matrix Basics and Operations Lab 2: A Matrix Representation of Linear Systems Lab 3: Powers, Inverses, and Special Matrices Lab 4: Graph Theory and Adjacency Matrices Lab 5: Permutations and Determinants Lab 6: 4 x 4 Determinants and Beyond Project Set 1 Invertibility Lab 7: Singular or Nonsingular? Why Singularity Matters Lab 8: Mod It Out, Matrices with Entries in ZpLab 9: It's a Complex World Lab 10: Declaring Independence: Is It Linear? Project Set 2 Vector Spaces Lab 11: Vector Spaces and SubspacesLab 12: Basing It All on Just a Few Vectors Lab 13: Linear Transformations Lab 14: Eigenvalues and Eigenspaces Lab 15: Markov Chains, An Application of Eigenvalues Project Set 3 Orthogonality Lab 16: Inner Product Spaces Lab 17: The Geometry of Vector and Inner Product SpacesLab 18: Orthogonal Matrices, QR Decomposition, and Least Squares Regression Lab 19: Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms Project Set 4 Matrix Decomposition with Applications L...

  20. RHENIUM SOLUBILITY IN BOROSILICATE NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROCESSING AND IMMOBILIZATION OF TECHNETIUM-99 (AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION WITH GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AA KRUGER; A GOEL; CP RODRIGUEZ; JS MCCLOY; MJ SCHWEIGER; WW LUKENS; JR, BJ RILEY; D KIM; M LIEZERS; P HRMA

    2012-08-13

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved a challenging task for researchers in the nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State in the U.S., the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is {approx} 1,300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility and retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW sodium borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of previously established similarities in ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing target Re concentrations varying from 0 to10,000 ppm by mass were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 DC. The rhenium was found to be present predominantly as Re7 + in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be {approx}3,000 ppm (by mass) using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of alkali perrhenate crystalline inclusions detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Assuming justifiably substantial similarities between Re7 + and Tc 7+ behavior in this glass system, these results implied that the processing and immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes should not be limited by the solubility of 99Tc in borosilicate LAW glasses.

  1. Linear thermal expansion coefficient (at temperatures from 130 to 800 K) of borosilicate glasses applicable for coupling with silicon in microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Sinev, Leonid S.; Petrov, Ivan D.

    2017-01-01

    Processing results of measurements of linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of two brands of borosilicate glasses --- LK5 and Borofloat 33 --- are presented. The linear thermal expansion of glass samples have been determined in the temperature range 130 to 800 K (minus 143 to 526 $\\deg$C) using thermomechanical analyzer TMA7100. Relative imprecision of indirectly measured linear thermal expansion coefficients and linear thermal expansion of both glass brands is le...

  2. Infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on sodium borosilicate glass interacted with thermally oxidized aluminides formed on alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufali, C.; Dutta, R.S.; Dey, G.K.; Kshirsagar, R.J.; Jagannath; Mishra, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Thermally oxidized aluminides formed on Ni-Cr-Fe based superalloy 690 substrates were subjected to interaction with sodium borosilicate melt (used as matrices for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste) at 1248 K for 192 hours. After the interaction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of glass samples indicated the incorporation of Al in the glass network. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of glass specimens revealed modified glass structure. (author)

  3. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eights of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist

  4. Determination of the free enthalpies of formation of borosilicate glasses; Determination des enthalpies libres de formation des verres borosilicates. Application a l'etude de l'alteration des verres de confinement de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Y

    2000-07-01

    This work contributes to the study of the thermochemical properties of nuclear waste glasses. Results are used to discuss mechanisms and parameters integrated in alteration models of conditioning materials. Glass is a disordered material defined thermodynamically as a non-equilibrium state. Taking into account one order parameter to characterise its configurational state, the metastable equilibrium for the glass was considered and the main thermochemical properties were determined. Calorimetric techniques were used to measure heat capacities and formation enthalpies of borosilicate glasses (from 3 to 8 constitutive oxides). Formation Entropies were measured too, using the entropy theory of relaxation processes proposed by Adam and Gibbs (1965). The configurational entropy contribution were determined from viscosity measurements. This set of data has allowed the calculation of Gibb's free energies of dissolution of glasses in pure water. By comparison with leaching experiments, it has been demonstrated that the decreasing of the dissolution rate at high reaction progress cannot be associated to the approach of an equilibrium between the sound glass and the aqueous solution. The composition changes of the reaction area at the glass surface need to be considered too. To achieve a complete description of the thermodynamic stability, the equilibrium between hydrated de-alkalinized glass and/or the gel layer with the aqueous solution should also be evaluated. (author)

  5. 3 and 4 oxidation state element solubilities in borosilicate glasses. Implement to actinides in nuclear glasses; Solubilite des elements aux degres d'oxydation (3) et (4) dans les verres de borosilicate. Application aux actinides dans les verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachia, J.N

    2005-12-15

    In order to ensure optimal radionuclides containment, the knowledge of the actinide loading limits in nuclear waste glasses and also the comprehension of the solubilization mechanisms of these elements are essential. A first part of this manuscript deals with the study of the differences in solubility of the tri and tetravalent elements (actinides and surrogates) particularly in function of the melting temperature. The results obtained indicate that trivalent elements (La, Gd, Nd, Am, Cm) exhibit a higher solubility than tetravalent elements (Hf, Th, Pu). Consequently, it was planned to reduce plutonium at the oxidation state (III), the later being essentially tetravalent in borosilicate glasses. An innovating reduction process of multi-valent elements (cerium, plutonium) using silicon nitride has been developed in a second part of this work. Reduced plutonium-bearing glasses synthesized by Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition made it possible to double the plutonium solubility from 2 to 4 wt% at 1200 deg C. A structural approach to investigate the differences between tri and tetravalent elements was finally undertaken. These investigations were carried out by X-rays Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS) and NMR. Trivalent rare earth and actinide elements seem to behave as network modifiers while tetravalent elements rather present true intermediaries' behaviour. (author)

  6. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  7. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in The Physics Teacher, available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in Physics of Baseball & Softball). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that investigates many of these phenomena. The lab uses inexpensive, readily available equipment such as wooden baseball bats, baseballs, and actual Major League Baseball data. By the end of the lab, students have revisited many concepts they learned earlier in the semester and come away with an understanding of how to put seemingly disparate ideas together to analyze a fun sport.

  8. Recovery of palladium, cesium, and selenium from heavy metal alkali borosilicate glass by combination of heat treatment and leaching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A separation technique of both noble and less noble metal from glass is studied. • Via reductive heat treatment, 80% of palladium is extracted in liquid bismuth. • Sodium–potassium-rich materials with cesium and selenium are phase separated. • From the materials, over 80% of cesium and selenium are extracted in water. - Abstract: Reductive heat-treatment and leaching process were applied to a simulated lead or bismuth soda-potash-borosilicate glass with palladium, cesium, and selenium to separate these elements. In the reductive heat treatment, palladium is extracted in liquid heavy metal phase generated by the reduction of the heavy metal oxides, whereas cesium and selenium are concentrated in phase separated Na–K-rich materials on the glass surface. From the materials, cesium and selenium can be extracted in water, and the selenium extraction was higher in the treatment of the bismuth containing glass. The chemical forms of palladium in the glass affected the extraction efficiencies of cesium and selenium. Among the examined conditions, in the bismuth glass treatment, the cesium and selenium extraction efficiencies in water were over 80%, and that of palladium in liquid bismuth was over 80%.

  9. Effects of magnesium minerals representative of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stone on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debure, M.

    2012-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses dissolution has been studied in presence of magnesium minerals. Those minerals (dolomite, illite, smectite...) belong to the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-stone layer, studied in France as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal. Such minerals contain magnesium, an element able to sustain glass alteration when it is available in solution. In the confined media of the wastes disposal, the solids reactivity controls the solution composition and can be the driving force of nuclear glass alteration. Experiments show that magnesium carbonates (hydro-magnesite and dolomite) increase in the glass alteration: the precipitation of magnesium silicates consumes silicon which slows down the formation of the glass passivating layer. The lower the magnesium mineral solubility, the lower the glass alteration. The purified clay phases (illite, smectite...) from the COx layer increase the glass alteration. Half the magnesium was replaced by sodium during the purification process. In such conditions, the effect of clay phases on glass alteration is in part due to the acidic pH-buffering effect of the clay fraction. The GRAAL model implemented in the geochemical transport code HYTEC has confirmed and quantified the mechanisms put in evidence in the experiments. Cells diffusion experiments where the two solids were separated by an inert diffusion barrier allow to valid reactive transport modelling. Such experiments are more representative of the glass package which will be separated from the COx by corrosion products. They show that glass alteration rate is reduced when solids are not close. (author) [fr

  10. The Effect of Caramelization and Carbonization Temperatures toward Structural Properties of Mesoporous Carbon from Fructose with Zinc Borosilicate Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Setianingsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous carbon was prepared from fructose using zinc borosilicate (ZBS activator. The synthesis involves caramelization and carbonization processes. The effect of both process temperature toward porosity and functional group of carbon surface are investigated in this research. The caramelization was conducted hydrothermally at 85 and 100 °C, followed by thermally 130 °C. The carbonization was conducted at various temperatures (450–750 °C. The carbon-ZBS composite were washed by using HF 48% solution, 1M HCl solution, and aquadest respectively to remove ZBS from the carbon. The carbon products were characterized with nitrogen gas adsorption-desorption method, FTIR spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The highest mesopore characteristics is achieved at 100 °C (caramelization and 450 °C (carbonization, including Vmeso about 2.21 cm3/g (pore cage and 2.32 cm3/g (pore window with pore uniformity centered at 300 Å (pore cage and 200 Å (pore window, containing the surface functional groups of C=O and OH, degree of graphitization about 57% and aromaticity fraction about 0.68.

  11. A dynamic fatigue study of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses using small scale indentation flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, T.P.; Lawn, B.R.; Kelly, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic fatigue characteristics of two glasses, soda-lime silicate and borosilicate, in water have been studied using a controlled indentation flaw technique. It is argued that the indentation approach offers several advantages over more conventional fatigue testing procedures: (i) the reproducibility of data is relatively high, eliminating statistics as a basis of analysis: (ii) the flaw ultimately responsible for failure is well defined and may be conveniently characterised before and after (and during, if necessary) the strength test; (iii) via adjustment of the indentation load, the size of the flaw can be suitably predetermined. Particular attention is devoted to the third point because of the facility it provides for systematic investigation of the range of flaw sizes over which macroscopic crack behaviour remains applicable. The first part of the paper summarises the essential fracture mechanics theory of the extension of an indentation flaw to failure. In the next part of the paper the results of dynamic fatigue tests on glass rods in distilled water are described. Data are obtained for Vickers indentation loads in the range 0.05 to 100 N, corresponding to contact dimensions of 2 to 100 μm. Finally, the implications of the results in relation to the response of 'natural' flaws are discussed. (author)

  12. Enhanced mechanical properties of single walled carbon nanotube-borosilicate glass composite due to cushioning effect and localized plastic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Ghosh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A borosilicate glass composite has been fabricated incorporating Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT in the glass matrix by melt-quench technique. Hardness and the fracture toughness of the composite, were found to increase moderately with respect to the base glass. Interestingly one can observe accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack zone though no such accumulation was observed in the crack free indentation zone. The enhanced hardness of the composite was discussed by correlating the cushioning as well as toughening behavior of the agglomerated SWCNT bundles. On the other hand enhanced plastic flow was proposed to be the prime reason for the accumulation of SWCNT bundles around the crack, which increases the toughness of the composite by reducing the crack length. Moreover to ascertain the enhanced plasticity of the composite than that of the glass we calculated the recovery resistance of glass and the composite where recovery resistance of composite was found to be higher than that of the glass.

  13. Chemical durability of alkali-borosilicate glasses studied by analytical SEM, IBA, isotopic-tracing and SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocellier, P.; Djanarthany, S.; Chêne, J.; Haddi, A.; Brass, A. M.; Poissonnet, S.; Farges, F.

    2005-10-01

    Simple and complex alkali-borosilicate glasses were submitted to aqueous corrosion at room temperature, 60 and 90 °C in solutions with pH ranging between 0 and 12. Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, isotopic tracing and secondary ion mass-depth profiling (SIMS) have been used to investigate the variations of the surface composition of glass. In acidic medium, the glass surface is generally covered by a thick hydrated silica layer, mobile elements like Li, Na and B and transition elements (Fe, Zr, Mo, etc.) are strongly depleted. Near pH 7, relative enrichments of aluminium, iron and rare earths are shown together with strong Li, Na and B depletions. In basic medium, the glass surface exhibits relative enrichments of the major part of transition metals (from Cr to U) whereas mobile elements seem to be kept close to their nominal concentration level at the glass surface and Si is severely impoverished. Hydrogen incorporated at the glass surface after leaching is much more immobile in neutral and basic media than in acid medium.

  14. Irradiations effects on the structure of boro-silicated glasses: long term behaviour of nuclear waste glassy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfils, J. de

    2007-09-01

    This work deals with the long term behaviour of R7T7-type nuclear waste glasses and more particularly of non-active boro-silicated glasses made up of 3 or 5 oxides. Radioactivity of active glasses is simulated by multi energies ions implantations which reproduce the same defects. The damages due to the alpha particles are simulated by helium ions implantations and those corresponding to the recoil nucleus are obtained with gold ions ones. Minor actinides, stemming from the used fuel, is simulated by trivalent rare-earths (Eu 3+ and Nd 3+ ). In a first part, we have shown by macroscopic experiments (Vickers hardness - swelling) and optical spectroscopies (Raman - ATR-IR) that the structure of the glassy matrices is modified under implantations until a dose of 2,3.10 13 at.cm -2 , which corresponds to a R7T7 storage time estimated at 300 years. Beyond this dose, no additional modifications have been observed. The second part concerns the local environment of the rare-earth ions in glasses. Two different environments were found and identified as follows: one is a silicate rich one and the other is attributed to a borate rich one. (author)

  15. In Vitro Degradation of Borosilicate Bioactive Glass and Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Tainio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite scaffolds were obtained by mixing various amounts (10, 30 and 50 weight % [wt %] of borosilicate bioactive glass and poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL copolymer. The composites were foamed using supercritical CO2. An increase in the glass content led to a decrease in the pore size and density. In vitro dissolution/reaction test was performed in simulated body fluid. As a function of immersion time, the solution pH increased due to the glass dissolution. This was further supported by the increasing amount of Ca in the immersing solution with increasing immersion time and glass content. Furthermore, the change in scaffold mass was significantly greater with increasing the glass content in the scaffold. However, only the scaffolds containing 30 and 50 wt % of glasses exhibited significant hydroxyapatite (HA formation at 72 h of immersion. The compression strength of the samples was also measured. The Young’s modulus was similar for the 10 and 30 wt % glass-containing scaffolds whereas it increased to 90 MPa for the 50 wt % glass containing scaffold. Upon immersion up to 72 h, the Young’s modulus increased and then remained constant for longer immersion times. The scaffold prepared could have great potential for bone and cartilage regeneration.

  16. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; WindischJr., Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bovaird, Chase C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate relationships between structure and rates of dissolution of silicate glasses in aqueous media, sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O xB2O3 (3 x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. Results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. The Q3 fractionwas found to increase with increasing Na2O content, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, this contributed to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity, and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. Results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  17. White-Beam X-ray Diffraction and Radiography Studies on High-Boron Containing Borosilicate Glass at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Kathryn; Vohra, Yogesh; Kono, Yoshio; Wereszczak, Andrew; Patel, Parimal

    Multi-angle energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction studies and white-beam x-ray radiography were conducted with a cylindrically shaped (1 mm diameter and 0.7 mm high) high-boron content borosilicate glass sample (17.6% B2O3) to a pressure of 13.7 GPa using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The measured structure factor S(q) to large q = 19 Å-1, is used to determine information about the internuclear bond distances between various species of atoms within the glass sample. Sample pressure was determined with gold as a pressure standard. The sample height as measured by radiography showed an overall uniaxial compression of 22.5 % at 13.7 GPa with 10.6% permanent compaction after decompression to ambient conditions. The reduced pair distribution function G(r) was extracted and Si-O, O-O, and Si-Si bond distances were measured as a function of pressure. Raman spectroscopy of pressure recovered sample as compared to starting material showed blue-shift and changes in intensity and widths of Raman bands associated with silicate and B3O6 boroxol rings. US Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0614.

  18. Effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the strength-related internal structure of the borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafe, Arven I.; Liamzon, Angelie J.

    2011-03-01

    Borosilicate glass in the form of glass slides (1.Omm in thickness and cut into 12.5mm x 55.Omm surface area) was examined to determine the reusability or recyclability and strength of glass apparatuses or compartments after exposing to gamma irradiation from Co-60 source. After knowing the initial parameters using EDXRF under six secondary targets, glass specimens prepared was subjected to gamma radiation for doses 3kGy, 6kGy, 15kGy, 25kGy, and 100kGy. Results of characterization under FTIR provides information about the occurred extension of B-O-Si and B-O-B linkages for lower doses (3-25kGy), while destruction of Si-O bonds for higher dose (100kGy). It shows direct relationship on the observed color change from clear ransparent to deep brown corresponding to the change in optical densities as irradiation dose increases. Ability to fade the induced deep brown color was also observed for a certain time interval which satisfies that this type of glass exhibits self healing property. Although, average energy of about 1.25MeV causes rearrangement of atoms within the glass, according to the XRD result, it remained to be an amorphous solid even in higher dose applied which satisfies that remanufacturing and recycling is possible. (author)

  19. Effects of Sb2O3 on the Mechanical Properties of the Borosilicate Foam Glasses Sintered at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and microstructure of a new kind of borosilicate foam glasses with different Sb2O3 doping content are comprehensively investigated. The experimental results show that appropriate addition of Sb2O3 has positive impact on the bulk porosity and compressive strength of the foam glass. It is more suitable in this work to introduce 0.9 wt.% Sb2O3 into the Na2O-K2O-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 basic foam glass component and sinter at 775°C. And the obtained foam glasses present much more uniform microstructure, large pore size, and smooth cell walls, which bring them with better performance including a lower bulk density, low water absorption, and an appreciable compressive strength. The microstructure analysis indicates that, with the increase of the content of Sb2O3 additives, the cell size tends to increase at first and then decreases. Larger amounts of Sb2O3 do not change the crystalline phase of foam glass but increase its vitrification. It is meaningful to prepare the foam glass at a relatively low temperature for reducing the heat energy consumption.

  20. Chemical durability of alkali-borosilicate glasses studied by analytical SEM, IBA, isotopic-tracing and SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocellier, P.; Djanarthany, S.; Chene, J.; Haddi, A.; Brass, A.M.; Poissonnet, S.; Farges, F.

    2005-01-01

    Simple and complex alkali-borosilicate glasses were submitted to aqueous corrosion at room temperature, 60 and 90 deg. C in solutions with pH ranging between 0 and 12. Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, isotopic tracing and secondary ion mass-depth profiling (SIMS) have been used to investigate the variations of the surface composition of glass. In acidic medium, the glass surface is generally covered by a thick hydrated silica layer, mobile elements like Li, Na and B and transition elements (Fe, Zr, Mo, etc.) are strongly depleted. Near pH 7, relative enrichments of aluminium, iron and rare earths are shown together with strong Li, Na and B depletions. In basic medium, the glass surface exhibits relative enrichments of the major part of transition metals (from Cr to U) whereas mobile elements seem to be kept close to their nominal concentration level at the glass surface and Si is severely impoverished. Hydrogen incorporated at the glass surface after leaching is much more immobile in neutral and basic media than in acid medium

  1. Impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiscoul, D.; Bruguier, F.; Gin, S.; Magnin, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition and particularly the effect of charge compensators such Ca and Na and, of network formers such Si and Zr, on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration were investigated. Two non-destructive techniques were combined: the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection geometry to precise the predominant alteration mechanisms and assess the water structure in altered zone and the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry to determine the thickness of the altered glass zone allowing to calculate the water diffusion coefficients through the glasses. The results of glass alteration at pH = 3 and 30 degrees C have shown that hydrolysis was the predominant mechanism after few seconds for glass having a high amount of non-binding oxygen. For the other glasses, which for the diffusion was the limiting reaction, the calculated water diffusion coefficients were comprised between 10 -21 and 10 -19 m 2 .s -1 and vary as a function of glass composition. An activation energy of 76.9 kJ.mol -1 was calculated and appears to be higher than inert gas diffusion through the glass highlighting that water molecules strongly interact with the glass matrix. (authors)

  2. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale

  3. Teachers' Perspectives on Online Virtual Labs vs. Hands-On Labs in High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Teresa M.

    This study of online science teachers' opinions addressed the use of virtual labs in online courses. A growing number of schools use virtual labs that must meet mandated laboratory standards to ensure they provide learning experiences comparable to hands-on labs, which are an integral part of science curricula. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs. The theoretical foundation was constructivism, as labs provide student-centered activities for problem solving, inquiry, and exploration of phenomena. The research questions focused on experienced teachers' perceptions of the quality of virtual vs. hands-on labs. Data were collected through survey questions derived from the lab objectives of The Next Generation Science Standards . Eighteen teachers rated the degree of importance of each objective and also rated how they felt virtual labs met these objectives; these ratings were reported using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were few and served to illustrate the numerical results. Many teachers stated that virtual labs are valuable supplements but could not completely replace hands-on experiences. Studies on the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs are limited despite widespread use. Comprehensive studies will ensure that online students have equal access to quality labs. School districts need to define lab requirements, and colleges need to specify the lab experience they require. This study has potential to inspire positive social change by assisting science educators, including those in the local school district, in evaluating and selecting courseware designed to promote higher order thinking skills, real-world problem solving, and development of strong inquiry skills, thereby improving science instruction for all high school students.

  4. Labs not in a lab: A case study of instructor and student perceptions of an online biology lab class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Jessica Boyce

    Distance learning is not a new phenomenon but with the advancement in technology, the different ways of delivering an education have increased. Today, many universities and colleges offer their students the option of taking courses online instead of sitting in a classroom on campus. In general students like online classes because they allow for flexibility, the comfort of sitting at home, and the potential to save money. Even though there are advantages to taking online classes, many students and instructors still debate the effectiveness and quality of education in a distant learning environment. Many universities and colleges are receiving pressure from students to offer more and more classes online. Research argues for both the advantages and disadvantages of online classes and stresses the importance of colleges and universities weighing both sides before deciding to adopt an online class. Certain classes may not be suitable for online instruction and not all instructors are suitable to teach online classes. The literature also reveals that there is a need for more research on online biology lab classes. With the lack of information on online biology labs needed by science educators who face the increasing demand for online biology labs, this case study hopes to provide insight into the use of online biology lab classes and the how students and an instructor at a community college in Virginia perceive their online biology lab experience as well as the effectiveness of the online labs.

  5. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform...

  6. Microspectroscopy At Beamline 73 MAX-lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of some projects at the infrared microspectroscopy experimental station at beamline 73 MAX-lab. Among the subjects are found identification of organic residues in fossil material and examination of the chemistry in an old oak wood wreck.

  7. LAB building a home for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Fishman, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are both monasteries and space stations, redolent of the great ideas of generations past and of technologies to propel the future. Yet standard lab design has changed only little over recent years. Here Mark Fishman describes how to build labs as homes for scientists, to accommodate not just their fancy tools, but also their personalities. This richly illustrated book explores the roles of labs through history, from the alchemists of the Middle Ages to the chemists of the 19th and 20th centuries, and to the geneticists and structural biologists of today, and then turns to the special features of the laboratories Fishman helped to design in Cambridge, Shanghai, and Basel. Anyone who works in, or plans to build a lab, will enjoy this book, which will encourage them to think about how this special environment drives or impedes their important work.

  8. Airborne Low-Frequency Sonar (ALFS) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ALFS lab is dedicated to support acoustic data analysis and processing software support to the AN/AQS-22 dipping sonar system. It includes stand-alone Software...

  9. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  10. Cockle Temperature Exposure Lab Experiment (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We carried out a lab experiment in which we exposed cockles to a range of air temperatures to simulate the physiological rigors of exposure to sunlight and air at...

  11. Los Alamos National Lab: National Security Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKIP TO PAGE CONTENT Los Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect Museum New Hires Publications Research Library Mission Science & Innovation Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Lab Organizations Science Programs

  12. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  13. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  14. Generator Inspection Report: Bio - Lab, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains report from Georgia Department of Natural Resources of July 21, 1999 inspection of the Bio - Lab Incorporated Plant 4 in Conyers, Rockdale County, Georgia, reporting that no violations were observed.

  15. Online labs and the MARVEL experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Mueller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available MARVEL is a Leonardo da Vinci project that provides a framework to analyse the pedagogic effectiveness of online labs in various heterogeneous areas that include solar energy, robotics, electronics and electro-pneumatics. It is also used as a test bench to compare the implementation of purely remote labs, where all devices are real, versus mixed-reality environments, where real devices work together with simulation models. This paper describes the basic concepts underlying the implementation of such online labs and presents two case studies (which are openly available to the public. A final section discusses the main pedagogical implications of online labs and presents the research directions that are being considered as a follow-up from this project.

  16. Virtual labs in Leonardo da Vinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Nagy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of virtual lab capabilities in the e-learning. Using combination of web conferencing and "virtual labs" capabilities, a new quality distance learning teaching is now in preparation and will be included in the course teaching to produce interactive, online simulations for the natural gas engineering studies. The activities are designed to enhance the existing curriculum and to include online assessments. A special care is devoted to the security problem between a server and a client computer. Several examples of the virtual labs related to the PVT thermodynamics, fluid flow, the natural gas well-testing, and thev gas network flow are prepared and tested. A major challenge for the 'CELGAS' system is in managing the delicate balance between the student collaboration and the isolation. Students may be encouraged to collaborate and work with each other, simulating their exploration of the lab material.

  17. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  18. Technology Roadmap: Lab-on-a-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Pattharaporn Suntharasaj; Tugrul U Daim

    2010-01-01

    With the integration of microfluidic and MEMS technologies, biochips such as the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices are at the brink of revolutionizing the medical disease diagnostics industries. Remarkable advancements in the biochips industry are making products resembling Star Trek.s "tricorder" and handheld medical scanners a reality. Soon, doctors can screen for cancer at the molecular level without costly and cumbersome equipments, and discuss treatment plans based on immediate lab results. Th...

  19. German lab wins linear collider contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Particle physicists have chosen to base the proposed International Linear Collider on superconducting technology developed by an international collaboration centred on the DESY lab in Germany. The superconducting approach was chosen by an internatinal panel ahead of a rival technology developed at Stanford in the US and the KEK lab in Japan. The eagerly-awaited decision was announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Beijing today (½ page)

  20. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  1. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  2. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  3. LabVIEW Support at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2009, due to the CERN restructuring, LabVIEW support moved from the IT to the EN department, joining the Industrial Controls and Electronics Group (ICE). LabVIEW support has been merged with the Measurement, Test and Analysis (MTA) section which, using LabVIEW, has developed most of the measurement systems to qualify the LHC magnets and components over the past 10 years. The post mortem analysis for the LHC hardware commissioning has also been fully implemented using LabVIEW, customised into a framework, called RADE, for CERN needs. The MTA section has started with a proactive approach sharing its tools and experience with the CERN LabVIEW community. Its framework (RADE) for CERN integrated application development has been made available to the users. Courses on RADE have been integrated into the standard National Instruments training program at CERN. RADE and LabVIEW support were merged together in 2010 on a single email address:labview.support@cern.ch For more information please...

  4. A comparative study on real lab and simulation lab in communication engineering from students' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Woods, P. C.

    2013-05-01

    Over the years, rapid development in computer technology has engendered simulation-based laboratory (lab) in addition to the traditional hands-on (physical) lab. Many higher education institutions adopt simulation lab, replacing some existing physical lab experiments. The creation of new systems for conducting engineering lab activities has raised concerns among educators on the merits and shortcomings of both physical and simulation labs; at the same time, many arguments have been raised on the differences of both labs. Investigating the effectiveness of both labs is complicated, as there are multiple factors that should be considered. In view of this challenge, a study on students' perspectives on their experience related to key aspects on engineering laboratory exercise was conducted. In this study, the Visual Auditory Read and Kinetic model was utilised to measure the students' cognitive styles. The investigation was done through a survey among participants from Multimedia University, Malaysia. The findings revealed that there are significant differences for most of the aspects in physical and simulation labs.

  5. RoboLab and virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A useful adjunct to the manned space station would be a self-contained free-flying laboratory (RoboLab). This laboratory would have a robot operated under telepresence from the space station or ground. Long duration experiments aboard RoboLab could be performed by astronauts or scientists using telepresence to operate equipment and perform experiments. Operating the lab by telepresence would eliminate the need for life support such as food, water and air. The robot would be capable of motion in three dimensions, have binocular vision TV cameras, and two arms with manipulators to simulate hands. The robot would move along a two-dimensional grid and have a rotating, telescoping periscope section for extension in the third dimension. The remote operator would wear a virtual reality type headset to allow the superposition of computer displays over the real-time video of the lab. The operators would wear exoskeleton type arms to facilitate the movement of objects and equipment operation. The combination of video displays, motion, and the exoskeleton arms would provide a high degree of telepresence, especially for novice users such as scientists doing short-term experiments. The RoboLab could be resupplied and samples removed on other space shuttle flights. A self-contained RoboLab module would be designed to fit within the cargo bay of the space shuttle. Different modules could be designed for specific applications, i.e., crystal-growing, medicine, life sciences, chemistry, etc. This paper describes a RoboLab simulation using virtual reality (VR). VR provides an ideal simulation of telepresence before the actual robot and laboratory modules are constructed. The easy simulation of different telepresence designs will produce a highly optimum design before construction rather than the more expensive and time consuming hardware changes afterwards.

  6. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  7. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Pierce, Eric M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bovaird, Chase C.

    2011-03-24

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate the relationships between structural variations in silicate glasses and rates of glass dissolution in aqueous media, molecular structures present in sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O.xB2O3.(3-x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. The results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. Increasing Na2O was found to raise the fraction of Q3 units in the glasses systematically, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, contribute to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. The finding was obtained across more than one series of silica-rich glasses prepared for independent dissolution studies. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. The results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  8. Are Virtual Labs as Effective as Hands-on Labs for Undergraduate Physics? A Comparative Study at Two Major Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Marjorie; Humbert, Roxann; Finstein, Jeanne; Simon, Marllin; Hopkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Most physics professors would agree that the lab experiences students have in introductory physics are central to the learning of the concepts in the course. It is also true that these physics labs require time and money for upkeep, not to mention the hours spent setting up and taking down labs. Virtual physics lab experiences can provide an…

  9. Transfer of tracers and pesticides in lab scale wetland systems: the role of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, R.; Imfeld, G.; Lange, J.

    2012-04-01

    Surface wetlands can collect contaminated runoff from urban or agricultural catchments and have intrinsic physical, chemical and biological retention and removal processes useful for mitigating contaminants, including pesticides, and thus limiting the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Yet little is known about the transfer of pesticides between wetlands collecting pesticides runoff and groundwater, and the subsequent threat of groundwater contamination. In particular, the influence of wetland vegetation and related processes during pesticide transfer is largely unknown. Here we evaluate the transfer of the widely used herbicide Isoproturon (IPU) and the fungicide Metalaxyl (MTX) with that of Uranine (UR) and Sulphorhodamine (SRB) in a vegetated and a non-vegetated lab-scale wetland. UR and SRB had successfully served as a reference for pesticides in surface wetlands. We filled two 65 cm long and 15 cm diameter borosilicate columns with sediment cores from a wetland, one without and one with vegetation (Phragmites australis, Cav.). When a constant flow-through rate of 0.33 ml min-1 was reached, tracers and pesticides were injected simultaneously and continuously. The hydrological mass balance and tracer concentrations were measured daily at the outlet of the lab-scale wetland. Samples for pesticides and hydrochemical analyses were collected biweekly. The lab-scale wetlands were covered to limit evaporation and light decay of injected compounds. The reactive transfer of compounds in the vegetated and non-vegetated lab-scale wetland was compared based on breakthrough curves (BTC's) and model parameters of the lumped parameter model CXTFIT. The hydrologic balance revealed that the intensity of transpiration and hence plant activity in the lab-scale wetlands progressively decreased and then apparently ceased after about eight days following continuous pesticide injection. In this first phase, no significant difference in the hydrologic balances could be observed

  10. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  11. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-05-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass.

  12. Effects of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation damage and heat treatment on the electro-mechanical properties of some related lithium alumino-borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Sekkina, M.M.; Gohar, I.A.; Megahed, A.A. (Al-Azhar Univ., Tanta (Egypt). Faculty of Science; Cairo Univ., El Mansura (Egypt). Faculty of Science)

    1985-01-01

    Various samples of pure lithium alumino-borosilicate glasses have been prepared and annealed. Data have been taken on the temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity and the activation energy for conduction was evaluated in each case. Vickers hardness data have also been obtained as a function of tempering temperature and time for all glass compositions. Co-ordinated explanations of the DC conductivity and Vickers hardness induced by ionizing radiation are put forward and the activation energy for the process of carrier liberation are evaluated for the first time.

  13. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  14. A Moodle extension to book online labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Cardoso

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The social constructivist philosophy of Moodle makes it an excellent choice to deliver e-learning contents that require collaborative activities, such as those that are associated with online labs. In the case of online labs that enable web access to real devices (remote workbenches, access time should be reserved beforehand. A booking tool will avoid access conflicts and at the same time will help the students to organise their time and activities. This paper presents a Moodle extension that was developed within the Leonardo da Vinci MARVEL project, with the objective of meeting this requirement. The booking tool presented enables resource sharing in general and may be used to organise access to any type of scarce resources, such as to online labs and to the videoconferencing rooms that are needed to support collaborative activities.

  15. eComLab: remote laboratory platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontual, Murillo; Melkonyan, Arsen; Gampe, Andreas; Huang, Grant; Akopian, David

    2011-06-01

    Hands-on experiments with electronic devices have been recognized as an important element in the field of engineering to help students get familiar with theoretical concepts and practical tasks. The continuing increase the student number, costly laboratory equipment, and laboratory maintenance slow down the physical lab efficiency. As information technology continues to evolve, the Internet has become a common media in modern education. Internetbased remote laboratory can solve a lot of restrictions, providing hands-on training as they can be flexible in time and the same equipment can be shared between different students. This article describes an on-going remote hands-on experimental radio modulation, network and mobile applications lab project "eComLab". Its main component is a remote laboratory infrastructure and server management system featuring various online media familiar with modern students, such as chat rooms and video streaming.

  16. Environment monitoring using LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtree, J.

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for electronically recording and monitoring temperature, humidity, and other environmental variables at the Silicon Detector Facility located in Lab D. The data is collected by LabVIEW software, which runs in the background on an Apple Macintosh. The software is completely portable between Macintosh, MS Windows, and Sun platforms. The hardware includes a Macintosh with 8 MB of RAM; an external ADC-1 analog-to-digital converter that uses a serial port; LabVIEW software; temperature sensors; humidity sensors; and other voltage/current sensing devices. ADC values are converted to ASCII strings and entered into files which are read over Ethernet. Advantages include automatic logging, automatic recovery after power interruptions, and the availability of stand-alone applications for other locations with inexpensive software and hardware

  17. Study Labs Kortlægningsrapport UCSJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Hestbech, Astrid Margrethe; Gynther, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten er en delleverance i det regionale forprojekt S​tudy Labs,​der udføres som et samarbejde mellem Holbæk, Odsherred og Kalundborg kommune og University College Sjælland (UCSJ). Samarbejdet er delvist medfinansieret af Region Sjælland. Rapporten behandler projektets etableringsfase...... for at nå de kommunale målsætninger. De potentielle målgrupper er blevet kortlagt. Samtidig er undersøgelser i brugergrupperne blevet gjort håndgribelige i form af Personaer. Kommunerne har, faciliteret af Educationlab, gennemført designworkshops og er fremkommet med designs for Study Labs, der som...

  18. Digital Design with KP-Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ponta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available KP-Lab is an EU Integrated Project envisioning a learning system that facilitates innovative practices of sharing, creating and working with knowledge in education and workplaces. The project exploits a novel pedagogical view, the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. According to such “trialogical” approach, cognition arises through collaborative work in systematically developing shared “knowledge artefacts”, such as concepts, plans, material products, or social practices. The paper presents the plan of a pilot course to test the KP-Lab methodologies and tools in the field of Digital Design.

  19. The Portuguese Contribution for lab2go - pt.lab2go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online experimentation provides innovative and valuable tools for use in academy, in high schools, in industry and in medical areas. It has also become a precious tool for educational and training purposes in any of those areas. Looking at online experimentation as a pure distance learning tool it represents a very efficient way of sharing hands-on capabilities, for example with developing countries. In Portugal a new consortium of online experimentation was created for fostering the national potential, using the Portuguese version of lab2go web platform, pt.lab2go. The authors pretend to demonstrate some of capabilities of the consortium in sharing online labs.

  20. Improving the Quality of Lab Reports by Using Them as Lab Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen-Schuetzenhoefer, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Lab exercises are quite popular in teaching science. Teachers have numerous goals in mind when teaching science laboratories. Nevertheless, empirical research draws a heterogeneous picture of the benefits of lab work. Research has shown that it does not necessarily contribute to the enhancement of practical abilities or content knowledge. Lab activities are frequently based on recipe-like, step-by-step instructions ("cookbook style"), which do not motivate students to engage cognitively. Consequently, students put the emphasis on "task completion" or "manipulating equipment."2

  1. Calcium-borosilicate glass-ceramics wasteforms to immobilize rare-earth oxide wastes from pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miae [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jong, E-mail: jheo@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Adama Science and Technology University (ASTU), PO Box 1888, Adama (Ethiopia)

    2015-12-15

    Glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) oxide silicate [Ca{sub 2}Nd{sub 8-x}Ce{sub x}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}] crystals were fabricated for the immobilization of radioactive wastes that contain large portions of rare-earth ions. Controlled crystallization of alkali borosilicate glasses by heating at T ≥ 750 °C for 3 h formed hexagonal Ca–silicate crystals. Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca–silicate crystals compared to the glass matrix; the rare-earth wastes are efficiently immobilized inside the crystalline phases. The concentrations of Ce and Nd ions released in a material characterization center-type 1 test were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Normalized release values performed by a product consistency test were 2.64·10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Ce ion and 2.19·10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Nd ion. Results suggest that glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) silicate crystals are good candidate wasteforms for immobilization of lanthanide wastes generated by pyro-processing. - Highlights: • Glass-ceramic wasteforms containing Ca{sub 2}Nd{sub 8-x}Ce{sub x}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} crystals were synthesized to immobilize lanthanide wastes. • Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. • Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca–Nd–silicate crystals compared to glass matrix. • Amounts of Ce and Nd ions released in the material characterization center-type 1 were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb). • Normalized release values performed by a PCT were 2.64• 10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Ce ions and 2.19• 10{sup −6} g m{sup −2} for Nd ions.

  2. The effects of sulfate content on crystalline phase, microstructure, and chemical durability of zirconolite−barium borosilicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lang, E-mail: lang.wu@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xin; Li, Huidong; Teng, Yuancheng [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Peng, Long [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The effects of sulfate content on structure and chemical durability of barium borosilicate glass-ceramics were studied. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3} possess mainly CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M phase along with a small amount of CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T and ZrO{sub 2} phases. The hexagonal CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T crystals crystallize on the surface of glass-ceramics. For the samples with 1.24–1.55 mol% SO{sub 3}, the main crystalline phases are CaTiSiO{sub 5} and CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M in the bulk, while a separate sulfate layer containing Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and BaSO{sub 4} is observed on the surface. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicates that about 2/3 of the SO{sub 3} originally added has been lost by volatility. The normalized mass loss (NL{sub i}) for Na, B, Ca elements remains almost unchanged (∼10{sup −2} g/m{sup 2}) after 7 days for the samples with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3}. The NL{sub i} for both Na and B increases gradually after 7 days when the SO{sub 3} content is 1.24 mol%. - Highlights: • Strip-shaped CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-2M and plate-like CaTiSiO{sub 5} crystals crystallize in the bulk. • CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-3T crystals crystallize on the surface for samples with 0–1.10 mol% SO{sub 3}. • A separate sulfate layer crystallizes on the surface when SO{sub 3} exceeds solubility.

  3. Study of phase separation and crystallization phenomena in soda-lime borosilicate glass enriched in MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, M.

    2009-09-01

    Molybdenum oxide immobilization (MoO 3 , as fission product) is one of the major challenges in the nuclear glass formulation issues for high level waste solutions conditioning since many years, these solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Phase separation and crystallisation processes may arise in molten glass when the MoO 3 content is higher than its solubility limit that may depend on glass composition. Molybdenum combined with other elements such as alkali and alkaline-earth may form crystalline molybdates, known as 'yellow phases' in nuclear glasses which may decrease the glass durability. In order to confine high level wastes (HLW) such as the fission product solutions arising from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX-type nuclear spent fuels, a new glass composition (HLW glass) is being optimized. This work is devoted to the study of the origin and the mechanism of phase separation and crystallization phenomena induced by molybdenum oxide incorporation in the HLW glass. From microstructural and structural point of view, the molybdenum oxide behavior was studied in glass compositions belonging to the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O-CaO simplified system which constituted basis for the HLW glass formulation. The structural role of molybdenum oxide in borosilicate network explaining the phase separation and crystallization tendency was studied through the coupling of structural ( 95 Mo, 29 Si, 11 B, 23 Na MAS NMR, XRD) and microstructural (SEM, HRTEM) analysis techniques. The determination of phase separation (critical temperature) and crystallization (liquidus temperature) appearance temperatures by in situ viscosimetry and Raman spectroscopy experiments allowed us to propose a transformation scenario during melt cooling. These processes and the nature of the crystalline phases formed (CaMoO 4 , Na 2 MoO 4 ) that depend on the evolution of MoO 3 , CaO and B 2 O 3 contents were correlated with changes of sodium and calcium cations proportions in the

  4. A container closure system that allows for greater recovery of radiolabeled peptide compared to the standard borosilicate glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leece, Alicia K.; Heidari, Pedram; Yokell, Daniel L.; Mahmood, Umar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Often peptides used in synthesis of radiopharmaceutical PET tracers are lipophilic and adhere to the walls of container closure systems (CCS) such that costly peptide and product are not fully recoverable after synthesis occurs. This investigation compares a standard United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Type I borosilicate glass CCS to a cyclic polyolefin copolymer Crystal Zenith ® (CZ) CCS, for 68 Ga-chloride and 68 Ga-DOTATOC ([ 68 Ga] Ga-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide) retention in the reaction vial after labeling. Methods: 68 Gallium labeling of DOTATOC was conducted by adding 68 Ga-chloride, 2 M HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid) or 0.75 M sodium acetate, and 1–30 µg of DOTATOC into the CZ or glass CCS. The reaction mixture was heated for 15 min and cooled to room temperature. The crude reaction mixture was then withdrawn via syringe, for final processing. The CCS was then assayed using a dose calibrator to determine the amount of retained 68 Ga-DOTATOC. Statistical significance was assessed using an unpaired Student's t-test. Results: In all experiments (n=72) with various amounts of peptide and different buffering systems, the CZ CCS retained less activity than the glass CCS. Using 2 M HEPES and 15 µg or 30 µg of DOTATOC, the CZ CCS retained approximately 10% less of the labeled DOTATOC compared to the glass CCS (p 68 Ga-chloride. Conclusion: For applications involving the labeling of peptides such as 68 Ga-DOTATOC, the CZ CCS compared to the glass CCS, results in an improved recovery of product. - Highlights: • We examined the adhesion of 68 Ga-DOTATOC to glass and CZ CCS. • The adhesion of the 68 Ga-DOTATOC was 10% less in CZ CCS compared to glass CCS. • Overall recovery of 68 Ga-DOTATOC reaction solution is higher in CZ CCS than glass CCS. • Adhesion to the CCS is due to 68 Ga-DOTATOC, not 68 Ga-chloride

  5. The structure of phosphate and borosilicate glasses and their structural evolution at high temperatures as studied with solid state NMR spectroscopy: Phase separation, crystallisation and dynamic species exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, S.; Van Wullen, L.; Tricot, G.; Tricot, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present an in-depth study of the network structure of different phosphate based and borosilicate glasses and its evolution at high temperatures. Employing a range of advanced solid state NMR methodologies, complemented by the results of XPS, the structural motifs on short and intermediate length scales are identified. For the phosphate based glasses, at temperatures above the glass transition temperature Tg, structural relaxation processes and the devitrification of the glasses were monitored in situ employing MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dynamic species exchange involving rapid P-O-P and P-O-Al bond breaking and reforming was observed employing in situ 27 Al and 31 P MAS NMR spectroscopy and could be linked to viscous flow. For the borosilicate glasses, an atomic scale investigation of the phase separation processes was possible in a combined effort of ex situ NMR studies on glass samples with different thermal histories and in situ NMR studies using high temperature MAS NMR spectroscopy including 11 B MAS, 29 Si MAS and in situ 29 Si{ 11 B} REAPDOR NMR spectroscopy. (authors)

  6. Coordination Environments of Highly Charged Cations (Ti, Cr, and Light REE's) in Borosilicate Glass/Melts to 1120C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    The local environments around Ti, Cr, and several light rare-earth elements (La, Ce, and Nd) were investigated by in-situ XANES spectroscopy in a number of complex borosilicate glasses and melts (to 1120 C) that are used for nuclear waste storage. Examination of the high-resolution XANES spectra at the Ti K-edge shows that the average coordination of Ti changes from {approx}5 to {approx}4.5. Cr is dominantly trivalent in the melts studied. However, its average coordination is probably lower in the melt (tetrahedral ?) as revealed by the more intense Cr-K pre-edge feature. Ce also changes its average valence from dominantly +4 to +3.5 upon glass melting. These changes are reversible at T{sub g}, the glass transition temperature ({approx}500-550 C for these glasses). In contrast, the local environments of Nd, Pr, and La are unaffected by melting. Therefore, structural reorganization of these borosilicate glass/melts above T{sub g} is variable, not only in terms of valence (as for Ce) but also speciation (Ti and Cr). Both the ability of B to adopt various coordination geometries (triangular and tetrahedral) and the chemical complexity of the glass/melts explain these changes.

  7. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  8. Design Lab 2005 : pilk steriilsesse elektrotulevikku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Design Lab kutsub disainereid ja üliõpilasi üle terve maailma tegelema kaugemale tulevikku suunatud visioonidega. 2005. a. konkurss otsis nutikaid ja säästlikke lahendusi, mis võiksid 2020. a. kodudes olla juba juurdunud, keskenduti kodutehnikale

  9. Map Your Way to a Better Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1990-01-01

    The use of concept maps, Vee diagrams, flow charts, and productive questions to increase student understanding of laboratory exercises and to improve student attitudes toward lab classes is discussed. Examples of each are provided. Student responses to these teaching methods are described. (CW)

  10. A New Twist on Torque Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional introductory-level meterstick-balancing lab assumes that students already know what torque is and that they readily identify it as a physical quantity of interest. We propose a modified version of this activity in which students qualitatively and quantitatively measure the amount of force required to keep the meterstick level. The…

  11. Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyster, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

  12. Folding Inquiry into Cookbook Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Cookbook labs have been a part of science programs for years, even though they serve little purpose other than to verify phenomena that have been previously presented by means other than through investigations. Cookbook science activities follow a linear path to a known outcome, telling students what procedures to follow, which materials to use,…

  13. Laboratory Accreditation Bureau (L-A-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    to all Technical Advisors. Must agree with code of conduct, confidentiality and our mission DoD ELAP Program  ISO / IEC 17025 :2005 and DoD QSM...Additional DoD QSM requirements fit well in current 17025 process … just much, much more. Sector Specific. Outcome (L-A-B case)  83

  14. Information at a Cost: A Lab Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Robalo (Pedro); R.S. Sayag (Rei)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it

  15. FameLab - Swiss Semi Finals

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-two young scientists participated in the FameLab semi-final at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 February, supported by a large audience and by more than 100 fans following via webcast. A panel of judges chose Lemmer and four other candidates to join five other semi-finalists at the national finals in Zurich on 30 March.

  16. Baseball Physics: A New Mechanics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kasey; Flanagan, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The game of baseball provides an interesting laboratory for experimenting with mechanical phenomena (there are many good examples in "The Physics Teacher," available on Professor Alan Nathan's website, and discussed in "Physics of Baseball & Softball"). We have developed a lab, for an introductory-level physics course, that…

  17. A Hardware Lab Anywhere At Any Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific technical courses are an important component in any student's education. These courses are usually characterised by the fact that the students execute experiments in special laboratories. This leads to extremely high costs and a reduction in the maximum number of possible participants. From this traditional point of view, it doesn't seem possible to realise the concepts of a Virtual University in the context of sophisticated technical courses since the students must be "on the spot". In this paper we introduce the so-called Mobile Hardware Lab which makes student participation possible at any time and from any place. This lab nevertheless transfers a feeling of being present in a laboratory. This is accomplished with a special Learning Management System in combination with hardware components which correspond to a fully equipped laboratory workstation that are lent out to the students for the duration of the lab. The experiments are performed and solved at home, then handed in electronically. Judging and marking are also both performed electronically. Since 2003 the Mobile Hardware Lab is now offered in a completely web based form.

  18. Library-Labs-for-Science Literacy Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.; Engeldinger, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes two library-lab exercises the authors have incorporated into their college chemistry course. The first exercise introduces students to scientific information and familiarizes them with the tools for accessing it. The second provides a framework for evaluating the reliability of that information and addresses the criteria that should be…

  19. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  20. A "Language Lab" for Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Arch; And Others

    This paper discusses a "language lab" strategy in which traditional studio learning may be supplemented by language lessons using computer graphics techniques to teach architectural grammar, a body of elements and principles that govern the design of buildings belonging to a particular architectural theory or style. Two methods of…

  1. Carleton to oversee $40 million lab grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Singer, Zev

    2003-01-01

    "Carleton University got a major gift yesterday, as the federal government announced the university will oversee a $40-million grant to run the world's deepest underground lab at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Five other universities are partners in the project" (1/2 page).

  2. Virtual Lab for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PICOVICI, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article details an experimental system developed to enhance the education and research in the area of wireless networks technologies. The system referred, as Virtual Lab (VL is primarily targeting first time users or users with limited experience in programming and using wireless sensor networks. The VL enables a set of predefined sensor networks to be remotely accessible and controlled for constructive and time-efficient experimentation. In order to facilitate the user's wireless sensor applications, the VL is using three main components: a a Virtual Lab Motes (VLM, representing the wireless sensor, b a Virtual Lab Client (VLC, representing the user's tool to interact with the VLM and c a Virtual Lab Server (VLS representing the software link between the VLM and VLC. The concept has been proven using the moteiv produced Tmote Sky modules. Initial experimental use clearly demonstrates that the VL approach reduces dramatically the learning curve involved in programming and using the associated wireless sensor nodes. In addition the VL allows the user's focus to be directed towards the experiment and not towards the software programming challenges.

  3. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  4. Awakening interest in the natural sciences - BASF's Kids' Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Cinthia

    2012-01-01

    At BASF's Ludwigshafen headquarters, kids and young adults in grades 1-13 can learn about chemistry in the Kids' Labs. Different programs exist for different levels of knowledge. In the two 'Hands-on Lab H(2)O & Co.' Kids' Labs, students from grades 1-6 explore the secrets of chemistry. BASF Kids' Labs have now been set up in over 30 countries. In Switzerland alone, almost 2,000 students have taken part in the 'Water Loves Chemistry' Kids' Lab since it was started in 2011. In Alsace, 600 students have participated to date. In the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Middle School', middle school students explore five different programs with the themes 'substance labyrinth', 'nutrition', 'coffee, caffeine & co.', 'cosmetics' and 'energy'. Biotechnological methods are the focus of the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Biotech' for students taking basic and advanced biology courses. In the 'Xplore High School' Teens' Lab, chemistry teachers present their own experimental lab instruction for students in basic and advanced chemistry courses. The Virtual Lab has been expanding the offerings of the BASF Kids' Labs since 2011. The online lab was developed by the company for the International Year Of Chemistry and gives kids and young adults the opportunity to do interactive experiments outside of the lab.

  5. Living Lab voor Informatiemanagement in Agri-Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, J.

    2010-01-01

    Het Living Lab is een specifieke open innovatie aanpak waarbij in feite het laboratorium naar de praktijk wordt gebracht. het Agri-Food Living lab is een informatiemanagementsysteem specifiek voor de agri-food sector.

  6. CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Specht, M. (2011). CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training. Presentation given in Workshop at CELSTEC Learning Lab for Bluetea. February, 21, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  7. Jefferson Lab: A Long Decade of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 and started operating in about 1996. 2011 is an appropriate time to try to take a look at the results that have appeared, what has been learned, and what has been exciting for our scientific community. Rather than attempt to construct a coherent view with a single author or at least a small number, we have, instead, invited small groups of people who have been intimately involved in the work itself to make contributions. These people are accelerator experts, experimentalists and theorists, staff and users. We have, in the main, sought reviews of the actual sub-fields. The primary exception is the first paper, which sets the scene as it was, in one person's view, at the beginning of Jefferson Lab. In reviewing the material as it appeared, I was impressed by the breadth of the material. Major advances are documented from form factors to structure functions, from spectroscopy to physics beyond the standard model of nuclear and particle physics. Recognition of the part played by spin, the helicities of the beams, the polarizations of the targets, and the polarizations of final state particles, is inescapable. Access to the weak interaction amplitudes through measurements of the parity violating asymmetries has led to quantification of the strange content of the nucleon and the neutron radius of lead, and to measurements of the electroweak mixing angle. Lattice QCD calculations flourished and are setting the platform for understanding of the spectroscopy of baryons and mesons. But the star of the game was the accelerator. Its performance enabled the physics and also the use of the technology to generate a powerful free electron laser. These important pieces of Jefferson Lab physics are given their place. As the third Director of Jefferson Lab, and on behalf of the other physicists and others presently associated with the lab, I would like to express my admiration and gratitude for the efforts of the directors, chief scientists

  8. Towards a Manifesto for Living Lab Co-creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Brandtzæg, Petter Bae; Gulliksen, Jan; Börjeson, Mikael; Näkki, Pirjo

    There is a growing interest in Living Labs for innovation and development in the field of information and communication technology. In particular there seem to be a tendency that current Living Labs aim to involve users for co-creative purposes. However, the current literature on Living Lab co-creation is severely limited. Therefore an Interact workshop is arranged as a first step towards a manifesto for Living Lab co-creation.

  9. Cassandra - WP400 - final report of living lab 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engler, M.; Klievink, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This CASSANDRA LL2 final deliverable contains all information regarding the CASSANDRA Living Lab Europe – USA via Bremerhaven including information from two intermediate reports (CASSANDRA D4.21 and D4.22) about the very same Living Lab handed in during runtime of the Living Lab. CASSANDRA Living

  10. Constructing the Components of a Lab Report Using Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David E.; Fawkes, Kelli L.

    2010-01-01

    A protocol that emphasizes lab report writing using a piecemeal approach coupled with peer review is described. As the lab course progresses, the focus of the report writing changes sequentially through the abstract and introduction, the discussion, and the procedure. Two styles of lab programs are presented. One style rotates the students through…

  11. Experiential Learning of Digital Communication Using LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Porter, Jay R.; Morgan, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of laboratories and course projects using LabVIEW in an instrumentation course. The pedagogical challenge is to enhance students' learning of digital communication using LabVIEW. LabVIEW was extensively used in the laboratory sessions, which better prepared students for the course projects. Two…

  12. The Dynamics and Facilitation of a Living Lab Construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade Living Labs have established itself as an attractive innovation approach. Living Labs are an interesting construction because it offers a collaboration platform for dynamic interaction with users in all the project phases. Living Labs frame knowledge about actors in their o...

  13. Introduction to Computing: Lab Manual. Faculty Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Joseph W.

    This lab manual is designed to accompany a college course introducing students to computing. The exercises are designed to be completed by the average student in a supervised 2-hour block of time at a computer lab over 15 weeks. The intent of each lab session is to introduce a topic and have the student feel comfortable with the use of the machine…

  14. Implementation of a Mobile Accessible Remote Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garbi Zutin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the proposed research is to designand implement a LabVIEW-based remote lab client to runon a TCP/IP enabled PDA (Personal Digital Assistantdevice, thus teaching using this wireless m-learning systemwill not be limited by time and location. In addition,resources and equipments can be integrated and shared tothe extent that critically events can be monitored andhandled in time. An environment will be created to trainstudents to handle factory automation, data acquisition,data management, and manufacturing processes usingmobile devices. Furthermore, the integration and sharing oflab equipments via the Internet is a kind of teachingenvironment which promotes learning interests andefficiency using mobile devices.

  15. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes

  16. Bringing optics to Fab Labs in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aurèle; Zuidwijk, Thim; Urbach, Paul

    2017-08-01

    The Optics Group of Delft University of Technology plays a major role in teaching optics to bachelor and master students. In addition, the group has a long record of introducing, demonstrating and teaching optics to quite diverse groups of people from outside of the university. We will describe some of these activities and focus on a recently started project funded by the European Commission called Phablabs 4.0, which aims to bring photonics to European Fab labs.

  17. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics

  18. Chemical engineering and thermodynamics using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Heon; Kim, Moon Gap; Lee, Hak Yeong; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Ham, Seong Won

    2002-02-01

    This book consists of twelve chapters and four appendixes about chemical engineering and thermodynamics using Mat lab, which deals with introduction, energy budget, entropy, thermodynamics process, generalization on any fluid, engineering equation of state for PVT properties, deviation of the function, phase equilibrium of pure fluid, basic of multicomponent, phase equilibrium of compound by state equation, activity model and reaction system. The appendixes is about summary of computer program, related mathematical formula and material property of pure component.

  19. Electronics lab instructors' approaches to troubleshooting instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study, we describe instructors' self-reported practices for teaching and assessing students' ability to troubleshoot in electronics lab courses. We collected audio data from interviews with 20 electronics instructors from 18 institutions that varied by size, selectivity, and other factors. In addition to describing participants' instructional practices, we characterize their perceptions about the role of troubleshooting in electronics, the importance of the ability to troubleshoot more generally, and what it means for students to be competent troubleshooters. One major finding of this work is that, while almost all instructors in our study said that troubleshooting is an important learning outcome for students in electronics lab courses, only half of instructors said they directly assessed students' ability to troubleshoot. Based on our findings, we argue that there is a need for research-based instructional materials that attend to both cognitive and noncognitive aspects of troubleshooting proficiency. We also identify several areas for future investigation related to troubleshooting instruction in electronics lab courses.

  20. Tele-Lab IT-Security: an Architecture for an online virtual IT Security Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Meinel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Awareness Creation in terms of IT security has become a big thing – not only for enterprises. Campaigns for pupils try to highlight the importance of IT security even in the user’s early years. Common practices in security education – as seen in computer science courses at universities – mainly consist of literature and lecturing. In the best case, the teaching facility offers practical courses in a dedicated isolated computer lab. Additionally, there are some more or less interactive e-learning applications around. Most existing offers can do nothing more than impart theoretical knowledge or basic information. They all lack of possibilities to provide practical experience with security software or even hacker tools in a realistic environment. The only exceptions are the expensive and hard-to-maintain dedicated computer security labs. Those can only be provided by very few organizations. Tele-Lab IT-Security was designed to offer hands-on experience exercises in IT security without the need of additional hardware or maintenance expenses. The existing implementation of Tele-Lab even provides access to the learning environment over the Internet – and thus can be used anytime and anywhere. The present paper describes the extended architecture on which the current version of the Tele-Lab server is built.

  1. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60 Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60 Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass. - Highlights: ► All the three types of irradiation induce the same types of color centers. ► Calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox. ► Mott and Davis's theory on band gap cannot be adopted in the irradiated glass

  2. Kinetic Rate Law Parameter Measurements on a Borosilicate Waste Glass: Effect of Temperature, pH, and Solution Composition on Alkali Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B PETER.; Icenhower, J P.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of glass is controlled by matrix dissolution and ion exchange (IEX). Dissolution of an alkali-rich simulated borosilicate waste glass was investigated using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments. Experiments were conducted as a function of temperature, pH, and solution composition by varying the SiO 2 (aq) activity in the influent solution. Results showed that under dilute conditions matrix dissolution increased with increasing pH and temperature, and decreased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. IEX rates decreased with increasing pH and temperature, and increased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. Over the solution composition range interrogated in this study the dominant dissolution mechanism changed from matrix dissolution to IEX. These results suggest that ''secondary'' reactions may become dominant under certain environmental conditions and emphasize the need to incorporate these reactions into dissolution rate models

  3. Elaboration and experimental study of the Borosilicate glass GP 98/12 for the vitrification of the radioactive wastes of KfKarlsruhe Centre (R.F.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezal, A.

    1987-09-01

    The transformation into a vitrified block of highly radioactive liquid wastes is actually the best solution for the storage in long run. In West Germany, the research institute in the field of nuclear energy (KfK) has been oriented in this way by developing industrial processes of vitrification and by following studies on the behaviour of the final products. For the fission products, the chosen glasses present good stability characteristics and are used as a first barrier during confinement. Our work, which is part of the research program on radioactive waste vitrification, consists of preparing borosilicate glass GP 98/12 and studying physical and chemical characteristics. We have also contributed to the development and the realization of glass blocks sampling system prepared at pilot scale

  4. Beyond Classroom, Lab, Studio and Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J. L.; Brey, J. A.; DeMuynck, E.; Weglarz, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    When the arts work in tandem with the sciences, the insights of these disciplines can be easily shared and teaching and learning are enriched. Our shared experiences in classroom/lab/studio instruction and in art and science based exhibitions reward all involved. Our individual disciplines cover a wide range of content- Art, Biology, Geography, Geology- yet we connect on aspects that link to the others'. We easily move from lab to studio and back again as we teach—as do our students as they learn! Art and science education can take place outside labs and studios through study abroad, international workshops, museum or gallery spaces, and in forums like the National Academies' programs. We can reach our neighbors at local public gatherings, nature centers and libraries. Our reach is extended in printed publications and in conferences. We will describe some of our activities listed above, with special focus on exhibitions: "Layers: Places in Peril"; "small problems, BIG TROUBLE" and the in-progress "River Bookends: Headwaters, Delta and the Volume of Stories In Between". Through these, learning and edification take place between the show and gallery visitors and is extended via class visits and related assignments, field trips for child and adult learners, interviews, films and panel presentations. These exhibitions offer the important opportunities for exhibit- participating scientists to find common ground with each other about their varied work. We will highlight a recent collaborative show opening a new university-based environmental research center and the rewarding activities there with art and science students and professors. We will talk about the learning enhancement added through a project that brought together a physical geography and a painting class. We will explore how students shared the form and content of their research projects with each other and then, became the educators through paintings and text of their geoscience topics on gallery walls.

  5. E-Labs - Learning with Authentic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, Marjorie G. [Fermilab; Wayne, Mitchell [Notre Dame U.

    2016-01-01

    the success teachers have had providing an opportunity for students to: • Organize and conduct authentic research. • Experience the environment of scientific collaborations. • Possibly make real contributions to a burgeoning scientific field. We've created projects that are problem-based, student driven and technology dependent. Students reach beyond classroom walls to explore data with other students and experts and share results, publishing original work to a worldwide audience. Students can discover and extend the research of other students, modeling the processes of modern, large-scale research projects. From start to finish e-Labs are student-led, teacher-guided projects. Students need only a Web browser to access computing techniques employed by professional researchers. A Project Map with milestones allows students to set the research plan rather than follow a step-by-step process common in other online projects. Most importantly, e-Labs build the learning experience around the students' own questions and let them use the very tools that scientists use. Students contribute to and access shared data, most derived from professional research databases. They use common analysis tools, store their work and use metadata to discover, replicate and confirm the research of others. This is where real scientific collaboration begins. Using online tools, students correspond with other research groups, post comments and questions, prepare summary reports, and in general participate in the part of scientific research that is often left out of classroom experiments. Teaching tools such as student and teacher logbooks, pre- and post-tests and an assessment rubric aligned with learner outcomes help teachers guide student work. Constraints on interface designs and administrative tools such as registration databases give teachers the "one-stop-shopping" they seek for multiple e-Labs. Teaching and administrative tools also allow us to track usage and assess the

  6. DOSAR/CalLab Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program Calibration Laboratory (CalLab), referred to formerly as the Radiation Calibration Laboratory. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments

  7. Charpy V, an application in Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo M, J.A.; Torres V, M.

    2003-01-01

    The obtained results with the system Charpy V V 1 designed in Mat lab for the estimate of parameters of three mathematical models are shown. The adjustment of data is used to determine the fracture energy, the lateral expansion and the percentage of ductility of steels coming from the reactor vessels of Laguna Verde, Veracruz. The data come from test tubes type Charpy V of irradiated material and not irradiated. To verify our results they were compared with those obtained by General Electric of data coming from the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. (Author)

  8. Future Scientific Opportunities At Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear physics requires at least one major facility world-wide which is capable of fully exploiting the properties of the electro-weak force to investigate precisely the structure of strongly interacting systems. At its current maximum energy of 6 GeV Jefferson Lab has provided a wealth of important information on the structure of nucleons and nuclei. However, the plans to double the energy over the next seven years promise to open new frontiers in nuclear and particle physics. We briefly describe the plans for the 12 GeV Upgrade and the associated physics opportunities.

  9. Recent skyshine calculations at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarenko, P.

    1997-01-01

    New calculations of the skyshine dose distribution of neutrons and secondary photons have been performed at Jefferson Lab using the Monte Carlo method. The dose dependence on neutron energy, distance to the neutron source, polar angle of a source neutron, and azimuthal angle between the observation point and the momentum direction of a source neutron have been studied. The azimuthally asymmetric term in the skyshine dose distribution is shown to be important in the dose calculations around high-energy accelerator facilities. A parameterization formula and corresponding computer code have been developed which can be used for detailed calculations of the skyshine dose maps

  10. CompTIA Network+ Lab Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Skandier, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Gain street-smart skills in network administration Think of the most common and challenging tasks that network administrators face, then read this book and find out how to perform those tasks, step by step. CompTIA Network + Lab Manual provides an inside look into the field of network administration as though you were actually on the job. You'll find a variety of scenarios and potential roadblocks, as well as clearly mapped sections to help you prepare for the CompTIA Network+ Exam N10-005. Learn how to design, implement, configure, maintain, secure, and troubleshoot a network with this street

  11. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus and other LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    that of the others, with the two Streptococcus species having the shortest genomes. The widest distribution in genome content was observed for Lactobacillus. The number of tRNA and rRNA gene copies varied considerably, with exceptional high numbers observed for Lb. delbrueckii, while these numbers were relatively......The genomes of 66 LABs, belonging to five different genera, were compared for genome size and gene content. The analyzed genomes included 37 Lactobacillus genomes of 17 species, six Lactococcus lactis genomes, four Leuconostoc genomes of three species, six Streptococcus genomes of two species...

  12. Lab RTVE. Transmedia Storytelling in fiction series

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars-Nicolás, Begoña; Zaragoza-Fuster, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    El creciente consumo multipantalla de contenidos de ficción es clave en la transformación de los medios audiovisuales. La búsqueda de estrategias de comunicación no lineal para captar la audiencia a través de múltiples plataformas fomenta el mensaje transmedia. La transmedialidad no se limita a la forma de narrar, sino también al modo de producir y difundir una historia. El Laboratorio de Radio Televisión Española, Lab RTVE, destaca en España por su impulso innovador en la producción de conte...

  13. ScalaLab and GroovyLab: Comparing Scala and Groovy for Scientific Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Papadimitriou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ScalaLab and GroovyLab are both MATLAB-like environments for the Java Virtual Machine. ScalaLab is based on the Scala programming language and GroovyLab is based on the Groovy programming language. They present similar user interfaces and functionality to the user. They also share the same set of Java scientific libraries and of native code libraries. From the programmer's point of view though, they have significant differences. This paper compares some aspects of the two environments and highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of Scala versus Groovy for scientific computing. The discussion also examines some aspects of the dilemma of using dynamic typing versus static typing for scientific programming. The performance of the Java platform is continuously improved at a fast pace. Today Java can effectively support demanding high-performance computing and scales well on multicore platforms. Thus, both systems can challenge the performance of the traditional C/C++/Fortran scientific code with an easier to use and more productive programming environment.

  14. OpenLabNotes – An Electronic Laboratory Notebook Extension for OpenLabFramework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    List Markus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs are more accessible and reliable than their paper based alternatives and thus find widespread adoption. While a large number of commercial products is available, small- to mid-sized laboratories can often not afford the costs or are concerned about the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also be advantageous if an ELN was integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to OpenLabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively closes the gap between research documentation and sample management, thus making Open- LabFramework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management.

  15. A Well-Maintained Lab Is a Safer Lab. Safety Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, William H.; Strimel, Greg J.

    2018-01-01

    Administration and funding can cause Engineering/Technology Education (ETE) programs to thrive or die. To administrators, the production/prototyping equipment and laboratory setting are often viewed as the features that set ETE apart from other school subjects. A lab is a unique gift as well as a responsibility. If an administrator can see that…

  16. The Design of NetSecLab: A Small Competition-Based Network Security Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. P.; Uluagac, A. S.; Fairbanks, K. D.; Copeland, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a competition-style of exercise to teach system and network security and to reinforce themes taught in class. The exercise, called NetSecLab, is conducted on a closed network with student-formed teams, each with their own Linux system to defend and from which to launch attacks. Students are expected to learn how to: 1) install…

  17. OpenLabNotes--An Electronic Laboratory Notebook Extension for OpenLabFramework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua; Mollenhauer, Jan; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-10-06

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) are more accessible and reliable than their paper based alternatives and thus find widespread adoption. While a large number of commercial products is available, small- to mid-sized laboratories can often not afford the costs or are concerned about the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also be advantageous if an ELN was integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to OpenLabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively closes the gap between research documentation and sample management, thus making Open-LabFramework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management.

  18. OpenLabNotes - An Electronic Laboratory Notebook Extension for OpenLabFramework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua; Mollenhauer, Jan; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) are more accessible and reliable than their paper based alternatives and thus find widespread adoption. While a large number of commercial products is available, small- to mid-sized laboratories can often not afford the costs or are concerned about the longevity of the providers. Turning towards free alternatives, however, raises questions about data protection, which are not sufficiently addressed by available solutions. To serve as legal documents, ELNs must prevent scientific fraud through technical means such as digital signatures. It would also be advantageous if an ELN was integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to OpenLabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively closes the gap between research documentation and sample management, thus making Open- LabFramework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management.

  19. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jianxun; Allison, Trent; Witherspoon, Sue; Cuffe, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  20. New GPIB Control Software at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Bickley; Pavel Chevtsov

    2005-01-01

    The control of GPIB devices at Jefferson Lab is based on the GPIB device/driver library. The library is a part of the device/driver development framework. It is activated with the use of the device configuration files that define all hardware components used in the control system to communicate with GPIB devices. As soon as the software is activated, it is ready to handle any device connected to these components and only needs to know the set of commands that the device can understand. The old GPIB control software at Jefferson Lab requires the definition of these commands in the form of a device control software module written in C for each device. Though such modules are relatively simple, they have to be created, successfully compiled, and supported for all control computer platforms. In the new version of GPIB control software all device communication commands are defined in device protocol (ASCII text) files. This makes the support of GPIB devices in the control system much easier

  1. The evolution of Jefferson Lab's control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. S. White; M. Bickley; W. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (Jefferson Lab) accelerator controls were initially implemented as a proprietary in-house system. During machine commissioning, problems were encountered leading to a decision to migrate to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls System (EPICS). Since then, the accelerator and all other laboratory controls have been successfully converted. In addition to implementing Jefferson Lab's controls using EPICS, new data visualization tools have been developed and existing programs have been enhanced with new capabilities. In order to provide a more generic interface for high level applications development, a device abstraction layer, called Common DEVice (CDEV), was implemented. These additions have been made available to other laboratories and are in use at many sites, including some that do not use EPICS. Control System development is not limited to computer scientists; operators, engineers and physicists frequently add capabilities using EPICS, CDEV, Tel/tk, and other tools. These contributions have tailored the control system for many different types of customers. For the future, the authors envision more intelligent processing and more capable tools for data storage, retrieval and visualization

  2. Temperature quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, A.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); Hans, S.; Yeh, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Devision, Upton, NY (United States); Junghans, A.R.; Koegler, T.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krosigk, B. v. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lozza, V. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2018-01-15

    The effect of temperature changes on the light output of LAB based liquid scintillator is investigated in a range from -5 to 30 C with α-particles and electrons in a small scale setup. Two PMTs observe the scintillator liquid inside a cylindrically shaped aluminum cuvette that is heated or cooled and the temperature dependent PMT sensitivity is monitored and corrected. The α-emitting isotopes in dissolved radon gas and in natural Samarium (bound to a LAB solution) excite the liquid scintillator mixtures and changes in light output with temperature variation are observed by fitting light output spectra. Furthermore, also changes in light output by compton electrons, which are generated from external calibration γ-ray sources, is analysed with varying temperature. Assuming a linear behaviour, a combined negative temperature coefficient of (-0.29 ± 0.01)%/ C is found. Considering hints for a particle type dependency, electrons show (-0.17 ± 0.02)%/ C, whereas the temperature dependency seems stronger for α-particles, with (-0.35 ± 0.03)%/ C. Due to a high sampling rate, a pulse shape analysis can be performed and shows an enhanced slow decay component at lower temperatures, pointing to reduced non-radiative triplet state de-excitations. (orig.)

  3. On my association with Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, M. Mohan

    2004-05-01

    I joined the Acoustics Research department at Bell Labs in 1962, just eight days before AT&T launched the first communications satellite, Telstar. During the 39 years between 1962 and my retirement in 2001, I worked on several problems related in one way or another to the processing of speech signals. Schroeder and Flanagan are presenting talks from a broad perspective in this session, so I will confine this talk to just my own contributions and collaborations for some of the topics on which I worked, e.g., echo cancellation, inverse problems in acoustics, speech analysis, synthesis, and recognition. I will tell you about one of these contributions that fortunately turned out to yield considerable profits to AT&T. To give you a flavor of the spirit of free inquiry at Bell Labs during that period, I will tell you about the contribution that I am most proud of (which was supported for several years even though it had no monetary value). And I will also mention the contribution that is most often cited of all my papers (which was in collaboration with two mathematicians, and had nothing at all to do with acoustics).

  4. Control system reliability at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, K.S.; Areti, H.; Garza, O.

    1997-01-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the availability of the control system is crucial to the operation of the accelerator for experimental programs. Jefferson Lab's control system, uses 68040 based microprocessors running VxWorks, Unix workstations, and a variety of VME, CAMAC. GPIB, and serial devices. The software consists of control system toolkit software, commercial packages, and over 200 custom and generic applications, some of which are highly complex. The challenge is to keep this highly diverse and still growing system, with over 162,000 control points, operating reliably, while managing changes and upgrades to both the hardware and software. Downtime attributable to the control system includes the time to troubleshoot and repair problems and the time to restore the machine to operation of the scheduled program. This paper describes the availability of the control system during the last year, the heaviest contributors to downtime and the response to problems. Strategies for improving the robustness of the control system am detailed and include changes in hardware, software, procedures and processes. The improvements range from the routine preventive hardware maintenance, to improving their ability to detect, predict and prevent problems. This paper also describes the software tools used to assist in control system troubleshooting, maintenance and failure recovery processes

  5. Quality of Lab Appliances in Orthodontic Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzansky, D P; Park, J H

    Lab appliances are an integral part of orthodontics, from active treatment to retention. The quality and fit of an appliance can affect the treatment result and stability. This study aims to determine common points of failure in orthodontic appliances, and suggest methods to reduce this rate. A survey consisting of 23 questions was distributed to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) via Survey Monkey. The most common appliance to need an adjustment was the wrap-around retainer, with the Hawley retainer as a close second. The least common appliance needing adjustment was the Essix/clear retainer. Respondents were asked which component of each appliance was most commonly responsible for an ill-fit. For Hawley and wrap-around retainers, clasps were the most common problem at 50%, whereas spring aligners had two components - clasps and labial bows, both at 38%. Ill-fitting Essix/clear retainers had gingival impingement (52%) closely followed by poor posterior seating (43%). Communication between the orthodontist and lab technician can be improved by establishing a quality assurance protocol for outgoing and incoming cases. The labial bow of Hawley's, wrap-arounds and spring aligners should be clearly demarcated on the casts. Impressions should be free of distortion and casts should be inspected for accuracy. Clear retainers and positioner should be trimmed to avoid gingival impingement. The type of clasp should be selected based on the anatomy of the teeth, and bands should be checked for accuracy of fit.

  6. Size effect of added LaB6 particles on optical properties of LaB6/Polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yifei; Zhang Lin; Hu Lijie; Wang Wei; Min Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    Modified LaB 6 particles with sizes ranging from 50 nm to 400 nm were added into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix in order to investigate the effect of added LaB 6 particles on optical properties of LaB 6 /PMMA composites. Method of in-situ polymerization was applied to prepare PMMA from raw material—methyl methacrylate (MMA), a process during which LaB 6 particles were dispersed in MMA. Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–vis–NIR) absorption spectrum was used to study optical properties of the as-prepared materials. The difference in particle size could apparently affect the composites' absorption of visible light around wavelength of 600 nm. Added LaB 6 particles with size of about 70 nm resulted in the best optical properties among these groups of composites. - Graphical abstract: 70 nm LaB 6 particles resulted in the best performance on absorption of VIS and NIR, which could not be apparently achieved by LaB 6 particles beyond nano-scale. Highlights: ► LaB 6 /PMMA composites were prepared using the method of in-situ polymerization. ► LaB 6 particles added in MMA prolonged the time needed for its pre-polymerization. ► Nanosized LaB 6 particles could obviously absorb much NIR but little VIS.

  7. Innovative Educational Practice: Using Virtual Labs in the Secondary Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Satsky Kerr, PhD

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies investigated the effectiveness of teaching science labs online to secondary students. Study 1 compared achievement among students instructed using hands-on Chemistry labs versus those instructed using virtual Chemistry labs (eLabs. Study 2 compared the same groups of students again while both teachers instructed using hands-on Chemistry labs to determine whether teacher or student characteristics may have affected Study 1’s findings. Participants were high school Chemistry students from a Central Texas Independent School District. Results indicated that: students learn science effectively online, schools may experience cost savings from delivering labs online, and students gain valuable technology skills needed later in college and in the workplace.

  8. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  9. ALT Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT); p. 31. Lab ...

  10. Blood in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Hemoglobin, Urine; p. 325. Lab Tests ...

  11. Ferritin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Ferritin, Serum; 296 p. Lab Tests ...

  12. The History of Science and Technology at Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2008-03-01

    Over the last 80 years, Bell Labs has been one of the most scientifically and technologically productive research labs in the world. Inventions such as the transistor, laser, cell phone, solar cell, negative feedback amplifier, communications satellite and many others were made there. Scientific breakthroughs such as discovery of the Big Bang, the wave nature of the electron, electron localization and the fractional quantum hall effect were also made there making Bell Labs almost unique in terms of large impacts in both science and technology. In my talk, I will discuss the history of the lab, talk about the present and give some suggestions for how I see it evolving into the future.

  13. The SPARC-LAB Thomson source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarezza, C.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M.P.; Bacci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Bellaveglia, M.; Cardarelli, P.; Cardelli, F.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Delogu, P.; Giovenale, D. Di; Domenico, G. Di; Pirro, G. Di; Drebot, I.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.

    2016-01-01

    The SPARC-LAB Thomson source is a compact X-ray source based on the Thomson backscattering process presently under its second phase of commissioning at the LNF. The electron beam energy ranges between 30 and 150 MeV, the electrons collide head-on with the Ti:Sapphire FLAME laser pulse the energy of which ranges between 1 and 5 J with pulse lengths in the 25 fs–10 ps range, this provides an X-ray energy tunability in the range of 20–500 keV, with the further capability to generate strongly non-linear phenomena and to drive diffusion processes due to multiple and plural scattering effects. The experimental results of the obtained X-ray radiation are presented.

  14. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  15. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  16. Peers at work: Evidence from the lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Hessel; Sonnemans, Joep

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a lab experiment designed to study the role of observability for peer effects in the setting of a simple production task. In our experiment, participants in the role of workers engage in a team real-effort task. We vary whether they can observe, or be observed by, one of their co-workers. In contrast to earlier findings from the field, we find no evidence that low-productivity workers perform better when they are observed by high-productivity co-workers. Instead, our results imply that peer effects in our experiment are heterogeneous, with some workers reciprocating a high-productivity co-worker but others taking the opportunity to free ride. PMID:29408863

  17. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  18. Making the Case for Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is a personal account of the initial planning and competition for a new laboratory, which eventually became known as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, with the official nickname 'Jefferson Lab'. The period covered starts as far back as 1964, with the introduction of quarks, and extends up to the late 1980s after the initial team was assembled, the superconducting design was in place, and construction was well underway. I describe some of the major experiments that were proposed to justify the laboratory, reflect on the present status of those initially proposed experiments, and very briefly outline some of the new ideas that emerged after the laboratory was constructed. The science is presented in a simple manner intended for a lay audience, with some of the ideas illustrated by cartoons that were often used in popular lectures given during this period.

  19. Flow lab.: flow visualization and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chung Kyun; Cho, Won Jin; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    The experimental setups for flow visualization and processes identification in laboratory scale (so called Flow Lab.) has developed to get ideas and answer fundamental questions of flow and migration in geologic media. The setup was made of a granite block of 50x50cm scale and a transparent acrylate plate. The tracers used in this experiments were tritiated water, anions, and sorbing cations as well as an organic dye, eosine, to visualize migration paths. The migration plumes were taken with a digital camera as a function of time and stored as digital images. A migration model was also developed to describe and identify the transport processes. Computer simulation was carried out not only for the hydraulic behavior such as distributions of pressure and flow vectors in the fracture but also for the migration plume and the elution curves

  20. Tough Times Ahead for Government Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Stephen; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Cheeks, Nona; Funsten, Herbert; Hawsey, Robert; Lane, Monya; Whitlow, Woodrow Jr.; Studt, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Many government R and D laboratory executives face a tough couple of months ahead. These anxieties are fueled by (1) possible management, technical direction, and budgetary changes in their agencies due to changes in the federal administration; (2) frozen operating budgets until March 2009 due to the Continuing Resolution (CR) attachment to the recent banking bailout bill; and (3) the financial fallout from the economic downturn. These and other pertinent questions regarding their R and D operations were addressed in R and D Magazine's 9th Annual Government R and D Executive Roundtable held on Oct. 16, 2008, in conjunction with the 46th Annual R and D 100 Awards at Chicago's Navy Pier. Most members of this year's government executive panel were hesitant to speculate on the changes that might occur in their labs as a result of the new administration. The exception to this stand was the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Robert Hawsey. ''No matter who wins (the Roundtable was held before the Nov. 4th Presidential election), we expect to see continued support,'' says Hawsey. ''All of our cooperative research facilities are over-subscribed and we're looking at how we can expand them.'' Obviously, renewable energy is a hot button in the administration and likely to get increased financial backing to help meet our country's energy independence goals. When pressed, the panel was mostly optimistic about their future support, stating that external threats to the U.S. have not changed, and research work associated with homeland security and national defense is unlikely to see drastic change. ''We have a strong portfolio in life science and don't expect any changes,'' says Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Michelle Buchanan. Ongoing federally funded work at the national labs that was started before the Oct. 1st start of the FY2009 fiscal year will continue without any changes - those funds are unaffected by the CR action. This applies as well to any

  1. The SPARC-LAB Thomson source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccarezza, C., E-mail: cristina.vaccarezza@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Alesini, D.; Anania, M.P. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bacci, A. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Bisesto, F.; Bellaveglia, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Cardarelli, P. [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Cardelli, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Chiadroni, E.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Delogu, P. [University of Pisa and INFN-PI, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giovenale, D. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Domenico, G. Di [University of Ferrara and INFN-FE, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pirro, G. Di [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Drebot, I. [INFN-MI, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Filippi, F. [University La Sapienza and INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-09-01

    The SPARC-LAB Thomson source is a compact X-ray source based on the Thomson backscattering process presently under its second phase of commissioning at the LNF. The electron beam energy ranges between 30 and 150 MeV, the electrons collide head-on with the Ti:Sapphire FLAME laser pulse the energy of which ranges between 1 and 5 J with pulse lengths in the 25 fs–10 ps range, this provides an X-ray energy tunability in the range of 20–500 keV, with the further capability to generate strongly non-linear phenomena and to drive diffusion processes due to multiple and plural scattering effects. The experimental results of the obtained X-ray radiation are presented.

  2. Peers at work: Evidence from the lab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel van Veldhuizen

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a lab experiment designed to study the role of observability for peer effects in the setting of a simple production task. In our experiment, participants in the role of workers engage in a team real-effort task. We vary whether they can observe, or be observed by, one of their co-workers. In contrast to earlier findings from the field, we find no evidence that low-productivity workers perform better when they are observed by high-productivity co-workers. Instead, our results imply that peer effects in our experiment are heterogeneous, with some workers reciprocating a high-productivity co-worker but others taking the opportunity to free ride.

  3. Replacing textbook problems with lab experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    End-of-the-chapter textbook problems are often the bread and butter of any traditional physics classroom. However, research strongly suggests that students be given the opportunity to apply their knowledge in multiple contexts as well as be provided with opportunities to do the process of science through laboratory experiences. Little correlation has been shown linking the number of textbook problems solved with conceptual understanding of topics in mechanics. Furthermore, textbook problems as the primary source of practice for students robs them of the joy and productive struggle of learning how to think like an experimental physicist. Methods such as Modeling Instruction tackle this problem head-on by starting each instructional unit with an inquiry-based lab aimed at establishing the important concepts and equations for the unit, and this article will discuss ideas and experiences for how to carry that philosophy throughout a unit.

  4. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Hussain, Rehan; Elbashir, Nimir

    2015-01-01

    , detergent, etc.). It has interface to identify workflow/data-flow for the inter-related activities between knowledge-based system and model-based calculation procedures to systematically, efficiently and robustly solve various types of product design-analysis problems. The application of the software......In this paper, the development of a systematic model-based framework for product design, implemented in the new product design software called VPPD-Lab is presented. This framework employs its in-house knowledge-based system to design and evaluate chemical products. The built-in libraries...... of product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  5. Lab-on a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  6. LAB bacteriocin applications in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Rocío López-Cuellar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the expectations about bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LABs were aimed at food applications. However, the effectiveness of bacteriocins against undesirable micro-organisms opened endless possibilities for innovative research. In the present review, we collected a database including 429 published papers and 245 granted patents (from 2004 to 2015. Based on bibliometric analysis, the progress of bacteriocin research in the last 11 years was discussed in detail. It was found that 164 patents were granted in 2010–2015, which is equivalent to 60% in comparison with previous years (i.e. only 81 patents were granted in 2004–2009. Currently, the research on bacteriocins is still gaining importance. In the realm of therapeutic strategies, about a 37% of the published research was focused on biomedical applications in the last decade. This vein of research is currently seeking for alternative solutions to problems such as cancer, systemic infections, oral-care, vaginal infections, contraception and skincare. On the other hand, food preservation, bio-nanomaterial and veterinary applications represent 29%, 25% and 9%, respectively. All this technology is being applied and will surely grow in the future, since about 31% of the patents granted since 2004 are focused on the biomedical area, 29% on food preservation, 5% on veterinary use; whereas 13% and 16% correspond to patents granted on production–purification systems and recombinant proteins or molecular modifications in the producer strains. This review contributes to the analysis of recent LAB bacteriocin applications and their role in safety, quality and improvement of human health.

  7. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  8. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F; Celi, L A; Fialho, A S; Vieira, S M; Reti, S R; Sousa, J M C; Finkelstein, S N

    2013-05-01

    To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1-3]. Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the likely information to be gained from proposed future

  9. Computer-based Astronomy Labs for Non-science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. B. E.; Murray, S. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1998-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate two laboratory exercises, Kepler's Third Law and Stellar Structure, which are being developed for use in an astronomy laboratory class aimed at non-science majors. The labs run with Microsoft's Excel 98 (Macintosh) or Excel 97 (Windows). They can be run in a classroom setting or in an independent learning environment. The intent of the labs is twofold; first and foremost, students learn the subject matter through a series of informational frames. Next, students enhance their understanding by applying their knowledge in lab procedures, while also gaining familiarity with the use and power of a widely-used software package and scientific tool. No mathematical knowledge beyond basic algebra is required to complete the labs or to understand the computations in the spreadsheets, although the students are exposed to the concepts of numerical integration. The labs are contained in Excel workbook files. In the files are multiple spreadsheets, which contain either a frame with information on how to run the lab, material on the subject, or one or more procedures. Excel's VBA macro language is used to automate the labs. The macros are accessed through button interfaces positioned on the spreadsheets. This is done intentionally so that students can focus on learning the subject matter and the basic spreadsheet features without having to learn advanced Excel features all at once. Students open the file and progress through the informational frames to the procedures. After each procedure, student comments and data are automatically recorded in a preformatted Lab Report spreadsheet. Once all procedures have been completed, the student is prompted for a filename in which to save their Lab Report. The lab reports can then be printed or emailed to the instructor. The files will have full worksheet and workbook protection, and will have a "redo" feature at the end of the lab for students who want to repeat a procedure.

  10. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F.; Celi, L.A.; Fialho, A.S.; Vieira, S.M.; Reti, S.R.; Sousa, J.M.C.; Finkelstein, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Design Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Patients Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Main results Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1–3]. Conclusions Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the

  11. Glassceramics frits attainment from industrial solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Matheus Chianca

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the residue obtained from the process of aluminum metal extraction activities, a great interest process, because of Brazil own some of the biggest bauxite mineral reserves in all the world. As a useful choice for no residue generation, and a support for environmentally friendly technologies, this work studies the white dross residue (WDR), from the process of aluminum metal reduction by thermal plasma. The phase equilibrium diagram of Al 2 O 3 -Ca O-SiO 2 system was used to calculate the compositions. The WDR were incorporated in a ceramic product without modifying its principal characteristics. The fusion and devitrification treatments were studied. XRD (X-ray diffractometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (transformed Fourier infrared) were used to investigate the glass and glassceramic samples. These techniques showed that is possible to get glassceramic with up to 30 mass% of WDR after molten at 1300 deg C and annealed at 900 deg C. In addition, the WDR showed to be a promising material in attainment of crystalline phases in less times of heat treatment for annealing. (author)

  12. Ontology: A Support Structure for a V-Labs Network: Euronet-Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Cordeiro Correia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our propose is to build a network of virtual laboratories, based in a Virtual Closet that will contain all the elements and parts that are needed to build the various experiences available in a v-labs network (that we call Euronet-Lab. To build this complex network we need to find a system that supports effectively this structure. This probably will be a enormous database of v-labs and independent elements, where will be possible sometimes to “recycle” some of the elements. This means “re-use” the same element several times in many experiences. To do this is necessary to have a structure that allows us to have several instances of the same element. It’s important that in our structure and virtual environment we can create several “images” of the same reality and this images can be used simultaneously in different circuits/experiments. This means that we can create several instances of the same element, to be used in different experiences and exercises.

  13. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  14. Living Labs as boundary-spanners between Triple Helix actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Living labs are an increasingly popular methodology to enhance innovation. Living labs aim to span boundaries between different organizations, among others Triple helix actors, by acting as a network organization typically in a real-life environment to foster co-creation by user-groups. This paper

  15. European labs brace for German cuts: international collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, D

    1996-01-01

    Germany, the largest contributor to international European research labs, announced plans to reduce its contributions an average of 8% in the nation's latest budget. CERN and other labs are worried that the cuts will endanger ongoing projects and that other countries may follow Germany's lead.

  16. Creative Science Teaching Labs: New Dimensions in CPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Kerry; Craft, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers analysis and evaluation of "Creative Science Teaching (CST) Labs III", a unique and immersive approach to science teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) designed and run by a London-based organisation, Performing Arts Labs (PAL), involving specialists from the arts, science and technology as integral. Articulating…

  17. Living Labs als een Vehikel voor (Onderwijs)innovatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen Sjoer

    2014-01-01

    Wereldwijd schieten ze als paddenstoelen uit de grond: living labs. Deze ‘levende laboratoria’ zijn er in alle soorten en maten. Meestal wordt het lab gezien als een onderzoeks- en ontwikkelomgeving om een probleem met verschillende partijen op een innovatieve manier op te lossen. De thema’s van de

  18. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  19. What Is LAB and Why Was It Renormed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Muriel

    A report on the Language Assessment Battery (LAB) explains, in question-and-answer form, the causes and results of some changes made in the test norms. The LAB is a test of communicative language competence, written in English and Spanish versions and used for student placement in the New York City Public Schools. The report describes the test…

  20. Aerial view of the water reservoirs for Lab II

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Two large reservoirs (5000 m3 each) were built on the Swiss part of the site (Lab I is on the left). The water was drawn from the pumping station at Le Vengeron on Lac Léman, through a 10 km long pipe to be distributed over all Lab II.

  1. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab | Fateen | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those patients were classified as: 722 patients (69.4%) with lysosomal storage disorders, 302 patients (29%) with amino acid disorders and 17 patients (1.6%) with galactosemia. Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder ...

  2. Crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics for immobilization of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Jizong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang; Liao, Qilong

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics with different content (0-30 wt %) of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste (HLLW) were evaluated. The sulfate phase segregation in vitrification process was also investigated. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0-20 wt% of HLLW possess mainly zirconolite phase along with a small amount baddeleyite phase. The amount of perovskite crystals increases while the amount of zirconolite crystals decreases when the HLLW content increases from 20 to 30 wt%. For the samples with 20-30 wt% HLLW, yellow phase was observed during the vitrification process and it disappeared after melting at 1150 °C for 2 h. The viscosity of the sample with 16 wt% HLLW (HLLW-16) is about 27 dPa·s at 1150 °C. The addition of a certain amount (≤20 wt %) of HLLW has no significant change on the aqueous stability of glass-ceramic waste forms. After 28 days, the 90 °C PCT-type normalized leaching rates of Na, B, Si, and La of the sample HLLW-16 are 7.23 × 10-3, 1.57 × 10-3, 8.06 × 10-4, and 1.23 × 10-4 g·m-2·d-1, respectively.

  3. Lanthanide-activated Na5Gd9F32 nanocrystals precipitated from a borosilicate glass: Phase-separation-controlled crystallization and optical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Daqin; Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yan; Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Zhenguo; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics were fabricated for the first time. • Such glass ceramics were achieved by phase-separation-controlled crystallization. • Elemental mapping evidenced the segregation of activators into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice. • Luminescent color could be tuned by controlling glass crystallization temperature. - Abstract: Lanthanide-activated cubic Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 nanocrystals were precipitated from a borosilicate glass with a specifically designed composition. The precursor glass is already phase-separated after melt-quenching, which is beneficial to the realization of the controllable glass crystallization for affording desirable size, morphology and activator partition. Elemental mapping in the scanning transmission electron microscopy evidenced that the segregation of lanthanide ions into the Na 5 Gd 9 F 32 lattice was in situ formed without the requirement of long-range ionic diffusion. Impressively, such fabricated glass ceramic co-doped with Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions exhibited intense upconversion luminescence, which was about 500 times higher than that of the precursor glass, and its luminescent color could be easily tuned from red to green by controlling glass crystallization temperature. It is anticipated that such phase-separation synthesis strategy with precise control over nanostructure of glass ceramics offer a great opportunity to design other highly transparent nanocomposites with a wide range of tunable optical properties

  4. A Comparison of Modifications Induced by Li3+ and Ag14+ Ion Beam in Spectroscopic Properties of Bismuth Alumino-Borosilicate Glass Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion irradiation effects on the glass network and structural units have been studied by irradiating borosilicate glass thin film samples with 50 MeV Li3+ and 180 MeV Ag14+ swift heavy ions (SHI at different fluence rates ranging from 1012 ions/cm2 to 1014 ions/cm2. Glass of the composition (65-x Bi2O3-10Al2O3-(65-y B2O3-25SiO2 (x = 45, 40; y = 20, 25 has been prepared by melt quench technique. To study the effects of ionizing radiation, the glass thin films have been prepared from these glasses and characterized using XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. IR spectra are used to study the structural arrangements in the glass before and after irradiation. The values of optical band gap, Urbach energy, and refractive index have been calculated from the UV-Vis measurements. The variation in optical parameters with increasing Bi2O3 content has been analyzed and discussed in terms of changes occurring in the glass network. A comparative study of the influence of Li3+ ion beam on structural and optical properties of the either glass system with Ag14+ ion is done. The results have been explained in the light of the interaction that SHI undergo on entering the material.

  5. Properties of sodium borosilicate glasses/Al2O3 sintered composites containing fluorides. Gan Fukkabutsu hokei san natoriumu garasu to alumina fukugo shoketsutai no bussei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Bonggi; Yasui, I [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science

    1993-06-01

    Glass/alumina sintered composites were synthesized from sodium borosilicate glass powder containing fluorides like AlF3 and NaF3, and Al2O3, and change in material properties was examined. Glass compositions of B2O3 and Na2O greatly affected the crystal phase and material properties. Nephelin crystal phase was extracted by the reaction of Na2O, NaF2, SiO2 and Al2O3 when B/Na<1. Coefficient of thermal expansion increased with the increase of Na/Si ratio. The residual amount of fluorides of sintered materials in nitrogen atmosphere was higher than that of air, and differed with the type of fluoride. The F[sup -] of NaF is bonded with Si of glass network and forms quiet stable glass structure, whereas, F[sup -] of AlF3 reacts with Si[sup 4+] forming SiF4 which is vaporized. Sintering temperature and dielectric constant of sintered materials containing fluoride was lower than the sintered materials without fluorides addition, however, at a sintering temperature range of 100 to 150[degree]C, it was inferred that this was because of the increase in voids due to SiF4 formed in the reaction. 16 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Learning by Viewing - Nobel Labs 360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    First of all, my thanks to the Nobel Lindau Foundation for their inspiration and leadership in sharing the excitement of scientific discovery with the public and with future scientists! I have had the pleasure of participating twice in the Lindau meetings, and recently worked with the Nobel Labs 360 project to show how we are building the world's greatest telescope yet, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). For the future, I see the greatest challenges for all the sciences in continued public outreach and inspiration. Outreach, so the public knows why we are doing what we are doing, and what difference it makes for them today and in the long-term future. Who knows what our destiny may be? It could be glorious, or not, depending on how we all behave. Inspiration, so that the most creative and inquisitive minds can pursue the scientific and engineering discoveries that are at the heart of so much of human prosperity, health, and progress. And, of course, national and local security depend on those discoveries too; scientists have been working with "the government" throughout recorded history. For the Lindau Nobel experiment, we have a truly abundant supply of knowledge and excitement, through the interactions of young scientists with the Nobelists, and through the lectures and the video recordings we can now share with the whole world across the Internet. But the challenge is always to draw attention! With 7 billion inhabitants on Earth, trying to earn a living and have some fun, there are plenty of competing opportunities and demands on us all. So what will draw attention to our efforts at Lindau? These days, word of mouth has become word of (computer) mouse, and ideas propagate as viruses ( or memes) across the Internet according to the interests of the participants. So our challenge is to find and match those interests, so that the efforts of our scientists, photographers, moviemakers, and writers are rewarded by our public. The world changes every day, so there

  7. UniSchooLabs Toolkit: Tools and Methodologies to Support the Adoption of Universities’ Remote and Virtual Labs in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Chioccariello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The UniSchooLabs project aims at creating an infrastructure supporting web access to remote/virtual labs and associated educational resources to engage learners with hands-on and minds-on activities in science, technology and math in schools. The UniSchooLabs tool-kit supports the teacher in selecting a remote or virtual lab and developing a lab activity based on an inquiry model template. While working with the toolkit the teacher has access to three main features: a a catalogue of available online laboratories; b an archive of activities created by other users; c a tool for creating new activities or reusing existing ones.

  8. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  9. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-07-01

    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  10. Featured Image: Making Dust in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    This remarkable photograph (which spans only 10 m across; click for a full view) reveals what happens when you form dust grains in a laboratory under conditions similar to those of interstellar space. The cosmic life cycle of dust grains is not well understood we know that in the interstellar medium (ISM), dust is destroyed at a higher rate than it is produced by stellar sources. Since the amount of dust in the ISM stays constant, however, there must be additional sources of dust production besides stars. A team of scientists led by Daniele Fulvio (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena) have now studied formation mechanisms of dust grains in the lab by mimicking low-temperature ISM conditions and exploring how, under these conditions, carbonaceous materials condense from gas phase to form dust grains. To read more about their results and see additional images, check out the paper below.CitationDaniele Fulvio et al 2017 ApJS 233 14. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa9224

  11. Electronic lab notebooks: can they replace paper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanza, Samantha; Willoughby, Cerys; Gibbins, Nicholas; Whitby, Richard; Frey, Jeremy Graham; Erjavec, Jana; Zupančič, Klemen; Hren, Matjaž; Kovač, Katarina

    2017-05-24

    Despite the increasingly digital nature of society there are some areas of research that remain firmly rooted in the past; in this case the laboratory notebook, the last remaining paper component of an experiment. Countless electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) have been created in an attempt to digitise record keeping processes in the lab, but none of them have become a 'key player' in the ELN market, due to the many adoption barriers that have been identified in previous research and further explored in the user studies presented here. The main issues identified are the cost of the current available ELNs, their ease of use (or lack of it) and their accessibility issues across different devices and operating systems. Evidence suggests that whilst scientists willingly make use of generic notebooking software, spreadsheets and other general office and scientific tools to aid their work, current ELNs are lacking in the required functionality to meet the needs of the researchers. In this paper we present our extensive research and user study results to propose an ELN built upon a pre-existing cloud notebook platform that makes use of accessible popular scientific software and semantic web technologies to help overcome the identified barriers to adoption.

  12. A new LabVIEW interface for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; De Marchi, E.; Mandelli, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integration object oriented data access layer in LabVIEW. ► A new component of the MDSplus data acquisition package. ► A new approach in the graphical presentation of data acquisition systems. -- Abstract: The paper presents a new interface providing full integration of MDSplus in LabVIEW, based on the recent features of MDSplus, in particular, data streaming, multithreading and Object Oriented interface. Data streaming support fits into the data driven concept of LabVIEW and multithreading is a native concept in LabVIEW. The object oriented interface of MDSplus defines a set of classes which map specific functionality, such as Tree and TreeNode to represent pulse files and data items, respectively, and fits naturally into the LabVIEW Object Oriented programming interface (LVOOP) introduced in version 8.2. MDSplus objects have been mapped onto LabVIEW objects, which act as wrappers to the underlying MDSplus object instance. This approach allows exporting the full MDSplus functionality into LabVIEW retaining the language-independent system view provided by the MDSplus object oriented interface

  13. A new LabVIEW interface for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); De Marchi, E. [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University (Italy); Mandelli, A. [National Instruments (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Integration object oriented data access layer in LabVIEW. ► A new component of the MDSplus data acquisition package. ► A new approach in the graphical presentation of data acquisition systems. -- Abstract: The paper presents a new interface providing full integration of MDSplus in LabVIEW, based on the recent features of MDSplus, in particular, data streaming, multithreading and Object Oriented interface. Data streaming support fits into the data driven concept of LabVIEW and multithreading is a native concept in LabVIEW. The object oriented interface of MDSplus defines a set of classes which map specific functionality, such as Tree and TreeNode to represent pulse files and data items, respectively, and fits naturally into the LabVIEW Object Oriented programming interface (LVOOP) introduced in version 8.2. MDSplus objects have been mapped onto LabVIEW objects, which act as wrappers to the underlying MDSplus object instance. This approach allows exporting the full MDSplus functionality into LabVIEW retaining the language-independent system view provided by the MDSplus object oriented interface.

  14. An update on Lab Rover: A hospital material transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattaboni, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The development of a hospital material transporter, 'Lab Rover', is described. Conventional material transport now utilizes people power, push carts, pneumatic tubes and tracked vehicles. Hospitals are faced with enormous pressure to reduce operating costs. Cyberotics, Inc. developed an Autonomous Intelligent Vehicle (AIV). This battery operated service robot was designed specifically for health care institutions. Applications for the AIV include distribution of clinical lab samples, pharmacy drugs, administrative records, x-ray distribution, meal tray delivery, and certain emergency room applications. The first AIV was installed at Lahey Clinic in Burlington, Mass. Lab Rover was beta tested for one year and has been 'on line' for an additional 2 years.

  15. A mobile design lab for user-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the history and conceptual foundation for the Mobile Design Lab, ment to support both designers and users in the acts of user-driven innovation. The Mobile Design Lab is based on Vygotsky's theory of tool- and language-mediation, and was created in 2004 to support research...... and teaching of user driven innovation. Being itself an example of user-driven innovation it has taken shape of HCI design research projekcts, in which we have been involved since 2004. The first challenge was to get 'out of the lab', the next to get 'out of the head', and finally we are currently working...

  16. Perspectives on Industrial Innovation from Agilent, HP, and Bell Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2014-03-01

    Innovation is the life blood of technology companies. I will give perspectives gleaned from a career in research and development at Bell Labs, HP Labs, and Agilent Labs, from the point of view of an individual contributor and a manager. Physicists bring a unique set of skills to the corporate environment, including a desire to understand the fundamentals, a solid foundation in physical principles, expertise in applied mathematics, and most importantly, an attitude: namely, that hard problems can be solved by breaking them into manageable pieces. In my experience, hiring managers in industry seldom explicitly search for physicists, but they want people with those skills.

  17. GeoLab: A Geological Workstation for Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia; Calaway, Michael; Bell, Mary Sue; Li, Zheng; Tong, Shuo; Zhong, Ye; Dahiwala, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance theThe GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance the early scientific returns from future missions and ensure that the best samples are selected for Earth return. The facility was also designed to foster the development of instrument technology. Since 2009, when GeoLab design and construction began, the GeoLab team [a group of scientists from the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office within the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at JSC] has progressively developed and reconfigured the GeoLab hardware and software interfaces and developed test objectives, which were to 1) determine requirements and strategies for sample handling and prioritization for geological operations on other planetary surfaces, 2) assess the scientific contribution of selective in-situ sample

  18. Safety and shielding management for pulse power lab at IPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Shweta; Faldu, Akash; Koshti, Rahul; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in pulsed power lab works with very high voltage and high current regime for the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. This produces lot of electromagnetic noise, which can cause interference or malfunctioning of equipment. Laboratory Safety and protection are a very important aspect of science and engineering. Without it, practical performance could result in very serious injury, if not death. To reduce its effect electromagnetic shielding and grounding has to be enforced effectively. Pulse power lab deals with many safety issues like Radiation safety (shielding), High voltage safety, electrical and mechanical safety, etc. In this paper radiation all the safety aspects in pulse power lab is described. (author)

  19. The Earth is our lab: Ten years of geoscience school lab in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus Küppers, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2004, a geoscientific school lab for senior high school students was developed in the historical "Großer Refraktor" premises on the Telegraphenberg in Potsdam. Based on a one-day course architecture, laboratory days were developed covering singular themes: - Magnetic field of the Earth - Geographical Information Systems and geodata - Gravity field of the Earth - Geodynamics: seismology and seismics - Geoscience math - Geodata Brandenburg (Geological mapping with aerophotographs, remote sensing, underground data processing) With a focus on geophysical methodologies, course days generally focused on the field work around the Telegraphenberg site while introducing into the art of handling original professional equipment. Field data were afterwards compiled, analysed and interpreted in the group. Single days could be combined as clusters of up to one week and were bookable for national and international groups of max. 25 students. The courses were taught by active scientists with the assistance of student guides as the larger groups had to be split up. The paper gives an overview over the development history of the school lab and explains the course contents, the teaching methods and several employed escorting measures. Possible impact on the professional career decisions of the students is discussed.

  20. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...