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Sample records for boron ultra-shallow junction

  1. Fundamental characterization of the effect of nitride sidewall spacer process on boron dose loss in ultra-shallow junction formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, P. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States) and Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78758 (United States)]. E-mail: puneet.kohli@sematech.org; Chakravarthi, S. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Jain, Amitabh [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Bu, H. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Mehrotra, M. [Silicon Technology Development, Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX 75243 (United States); Dunham, S.T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Banerjee, S.K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78758 (United States)

    2004-12-15

    A nitride spacer with an underlying deposited tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) oxide that behaves as a convenient etch stop layer is a popular choice for sidewall spacer in modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process flows. In this work, we have investigated the effect of the silicon nitride spacer process chemistry on the boron profile in silicon and the related dose loss of B from Si into silicon dioxide. This is reflected as a dramatic change in the junction depth, junction abruptness and junction peak concentration for the different nitride chemistries. We conclude that the silicon nitride influences the concentration of hydrogen in the silicon dioxide and different nitride chemistries result in different concentrations of hydrogen in the silicon dioxide during the final source/drain anneal. The presence of H enhances the diffusivity of B in the silicon dioxide and thereby results in a significant dose loss from the Si into the silicon dioxide. In this work, we show that this dose loss can be minimized and the junction profile engineered by choosing a desirable nitride chemistry.

  2. Performance Analysis of Si-Based Ultra-Shallow Junction Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a performance investigation of newly-developed ultra-shallow junction photodiodes (PureB-diodes) for ultraviolet (UV) radiation detection. The photodiodes are fabricated by pure boron chemical vapor deposition (PureB CVD) technology, which can provide nanometer-thin boron

  3. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p+-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF3 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10 15 cm -2 ) from BF 3 plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10 16 cm -2 ). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10 19 cm -3 ) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  4. Review of electrical characterization of ultra-shallow junctions with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Hansen, Torben M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical characterization of ultra-shallow junctions, relying on advanced implant and anneal processes, has received much attention in the past few years since conventional characterization methods fail. With continued scaling of semiconductor devices, the problems associated with conventional ...

  5. Electrical characterization of InGaAs ultra-shallow junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Bøggild, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the limitations to sheet resistance and Hall effect characterization of ultra-shallow junctions (USJs) in In0.53Ga0.47As. We compare conventional van der Pauw and Hall effect measurements with micro four-point probe (M4PP) and micro Hall effect methods. Due to the hi...

  6. Ultra Shallow Arsenic Junctions in Germanium Formed by Millisecond Laser Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, G.; Rosseel, E.; Simoen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Millisecond laser annealing is used to fabricate ultra shallow arsenic junctions in preamorphized and crystalline germanium, with peak temperatures up to 900 degrees C. At this temperature, As indiffusion is observed while yielding an electrically active concentration up to 5.0 x 10(19) cm(-3......) for a junction depth of 31 nm. Ge preamorphization and the consecutive solid phase epitaxial regrowth are shown to result in less diffusion and increased electrical activation. The recrystallization of the amorphized Ge layer during laser annealing is studied using transmission electron microscopy...

  7. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, M.C.; Hillard, R.J.; Borland, J.O.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (R S ) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations

  8. Implant Monitoring Measurements On Ultra Shallow Implants Before And After Anneal Using Photomodulated Reflection And Junction Photovoltage Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallian, M.; Pap, A.; Mocsar, K.; Somogyi, A.; Nadudvari, Gy.; Kosztka, D.; Pavelka, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra shallow junctions are becoming widely used in the micro- and nanoelectronic devices, and novel measurement methods are needed to monitor the manufacturing processes. Photomodulated Reflection measurements before anneal and Junction Photovoltage-based sheet resistance measurements after anneal are non-contact, nondestructive techniques suitable for characterizing both the implantation and the annealing process. Tests verify that these methods are consistent with each other and by using them together, defects originating in the implantation and anneal steps can be separated.

  9. A comprehensive solution for simulating ultra-shallow junctions: From high dose/low energy implant to diffusion annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucard, F.; Roger, F.; Chakarov, I.; Zhuk, V.; Temkin, M.; Montagner, X.; Guichard, E.; Mathiot, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a global approach permitting accurate simulation of the process of ultra-shallow junctions. Physically based models of dopant implantation (BCA) and diffusion (including point and extended defects coupling) are integrated within a unique simulation tool. A useful set of the relevant parameters has been obtained through an original calibration methodology. It is shown that this approach provides an efficient tool for process modelling

  10. A comprehensive solution for simulating ultra-shallow junctions: From high dose/low energy implant to diffusion annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, F. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France)]. E-mail: Frederic.Boucard@silvaco.com; Roger, F. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Chakarov, I. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Zhuk, V. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Temkin, M. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Montagner, X. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Guichard, E. [Silvaco Data Systems, 55 Rue Blaise Pascal, F38330 Montbonnot (France); Mathiot, D. [InESS, CNRS and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 Rue du Loess, F67037 Strasbourg (France)]. E-mail: Daniel.Mathiot@iness.c-strasbourg.fr

    2005-12-05

    This paper presents a global approach permitting accurate simulation of the process of ultra-shallow junctions. Physically based models of dopant implantation (BCA) and diffusion (including point and extended defects coupling) are integrated within a unique simulation tool. A useful set of the relevant parameters has been obtained through an original calibration methodology. It is shown that this approach provides an efficient tool for process modelling.

  11. Studies of ultra shallow n+-p junctions formed by low-energy As-implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girginoudi, D.; Georgoulas, N.; Thanailakis, A.; Polychroniadis, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    The generation and the evolution of extended defects in ultra-shallow n + -p junctions, formed by As ion implantation into silicon at low energies of 15, 10 and 5 keV and a dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 , and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at temperatures of 650 deg. C ≤T ≤ 950 deg. C have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The generated defects in the end-of-range region are dislocation loops, which grew larger and their density decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Reduction in the implantation energy causes a decrease in defect size and density as well as in dissolution temperature. The loops dissolved at 950 deg. C for 15 and 10 keV, whereas for 5 keV they dissolved at 850 deg. C. Arsenic transient enhanced diffusion (TED) studied by ToF-SIMS measurements was observed at temperatures above 650 deg. C for all implantation energies, with markedly less TED for the 5 keV, although As segregates near the surface region. The results suggest that the surface plays a key role on the formation and the dissolution of the dislocation loops and the As TED, by acting as a perfect sink of point defects. A significant degradation in electrical activation efficiency and a sharp increase in sheet resistance were observed at the low energy of 5 keV. In addition, the increase of temperature causes a slight decrease in electrical activation efficiency. Out-diffusion of As (10-25%) plays a significant role in the electrically active fraction of the dopant, due to the extreme proximity to the surface of high As concentrations. Junctions shallower than 40 nm, with 50-40% of the implanted dose electrically active and sheet resistance of 370-320 ohm/square, were obtained for the 5 keV. Finally, the TED during RTA was correctly simulated using a RTA model implemented in SSUPREM4 of the process simulator, including the dislocation loops and the dose loss

  12. Laser activation of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ) doped by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervisch, Vanessa; Larmande, Yannick; Delaporte, Philippe; Sarnet, Thierry; Sentis, Marc; Etienne, Hasnaa; Torregrosa, Frank; Cristiano, Fuccio; Fazzini, Pier Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Today, the main challenges for the realization of the source/drain extensions concern the ultra-low energy implantation and the activation of the maximum amount of dopants with a minimized diffusion. Among the different annealing processes, one solution is the laser thermal annealing. Many studies [F. Torregrosa, C. Laviron, F. Milesi, M. Hernandez, H. Faik, J. Venturini, Proc. 14th International Conference on Ion Implant Technology, 2004; M. Hernandez, J. Venturini, D. Zahorski, J. Boulmer, D. Debarre, G. Kerrien, T. Sarnet, C. Laviron, M.N Semeria, D. Camel, J.L Santailler, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209 (2003) 345-351] have shown that the association of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) and Laser Thermal Process (LTP) allows to obtain junctions of a few nanometers with a high electrical activation. All the wafers studied have been implanted by PULSION (PIII implanter developed by Ion Beam Services) with an acceleration voltage of 1 kV and a dose of 6 x 10 15 at./cm 2 . In this paper, we compare the annealing process achieved with three excimer lasers: ArF, KrF and XeCl with a wavelength of respectively 193, 248 and 308 nm. We analyse the results in terms of boron activation and junction depth. To complete this study, we have observed the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) before PIII process on boron implantation and boron activation. We show that Ge PAI implanted by classical beam line allows a decrease of the junction depth from 20 down to 12 nm in the as-implanted condition. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed in order to study the structure of pre-amorphized silicon and to estimate the thickness of the amorphous layer. In order to determine the sheet resistance (R s ) and the junction depth (X j ), we have used the four-point probe technique (4PP) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis. To complete the electrical characterizations some samples have been analyzed by non-contact optical measurements. All the

  13. Comparative study of size dependent four-point probe sheet resistance measurement on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lin, Rong; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2008-01-01

    have been used to characterize the sheet resistance uniformity of millisecond laser annealed USJs. They verify, both experimentally and theoretically, that the probe pitch of a four-point probe can strongly affect the measured sheet resistance. Such effect arises from the sensitivity (or "spot size......In this comparative study, the authors demonstrate the relationship/correlation between macroscopic and microscopic four-point sheet resistance measurements on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions (USJs). Microfabricated cantilever four-point probes with probe pitch ranging from 1.5 to 500 mu m......") of an in-line four-point probe. Their study shows the benefit of the spatial resolution of the micro four-point probe technique to characterize stitching effects resulting from the laser annealing process....

  14. Ultra-Shallow P+/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10 14 /cm 2 . Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10 15 /cm 2 . Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm 2 and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  15. Study of shallow junction formation by boron-containing cluster ion implantation of silicon and two-stage annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Ming

    in combination with two-step annealing is effective in fabricating ultra-shallow junctions.

  16. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  17. Rectifying Properties of a Nitrogen/Boron-Doped Capped-Carbon-Nanotube-Based Molecular Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peng; Zhang Ying; Wang Pei-Ji; Zhang Zhong; Liu De-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method and first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigate the electronic transport properties of a nitrogen/boron-doped capped-single-walled carbon-nanotube-based molecular junction. Obvious rectifying behavior is observed and it is strongly dependent on the doping site. The best rectifying performance can be carried out when the nitrogen/boron atom dopes at a carbon site in the second layer. Moreover, the rectifying performance can be further improved by adjusting the distance between the C 60 nanotube caps. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Molecular dynamic simulation on boron cluster implantation for shallow junction formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Li; Yu Min; Li Wei; Ji Huihui; Ren Liming; Zhan Kai; Huang Ru; Zhang Xing; Wang Yangyuan; Zhang Jinyu; Oka, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Boron cluster ion implantation is a potential technology for shallow junction formation in integrated circuits manufacture. A molecular dynamic method for cluster implantation simulation, aiming at microelectronics application, is presented in this paper. Accurate geometric structures of boron clusters are described by the model, and the H atoms in clusters are included. A potential function taking the form of combining the ZBL and the SW potentials is presented here to model interaction among the atoms in the boron cluster. The impact of these models on cluster implantation simulation is investigated. There are notable impact on dopant distribution and amount of implantation defects with consideration of these models. The simulation on the distributions of B and H are verified by SIMS data

  19. Room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence from boron-diffused silicon pn junction diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon pn junction diodes with different doping concentrations were prepared by boron diffusion into Czochralski (CZ n-type silicon substrate. Their room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence (EL was measured. In the EL spectra of the heavily boron doped diode, a luminescence peak at ~1.6 m (0.78 eV was observed besides the band-to-band line (~1.1eV under the condition of high current injection, while in that of the lightly boron doped diode only the band-to-band line was observed. The intensity of peak at 0.78 eV increases exponentially with current injection with no observable saturation at room temperature. Furthermore, no dislocations were found in the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image, and no dislocation-related luminescence was observed in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra. We deduce the 0.78 eV emission originates from the irradiative recombination in the strain region of diodes caused by the diffusion of large number of boron atoms into silicon crystal lattice.

  20. Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.D., E-mail: Duy.Nguyen@imec.b [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rosseel, E. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Takeuchi, S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Everaert, J.-L. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yang, L. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry and INPAC Institute, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goossens, J.; Moussa, A.; Clarysse, T.; Richard, O.; Bender, H. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zaima, S. [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Sakai, A. [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Loo, R. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lin, J.C. [TSMC, R and D, 8, Li-Hsin 6th Rd., Hsinchu Science-Based Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); TSMC assignee at IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika - IKS, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Caymax, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at both planar and non-planar device applications. High quality ultra shallow junctions with abrupt profiles in Si substrates were demonstrated on 300 mm Si substrates. The excellent results obtained for the sheet resistance and the junction depth with boron allowed us to fulfill the requirements for the 32 nm as well as for the 22 nm technology nodes in the PMOS case by choosing appropriate laser anneal conditions. For instance, using 3 laser scans at 1300 {sup o}C, we measured an active dopant concentration of about 2.1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -} {sup 3} and a junction depth of 12 nm. With arsenic for NMOS, ultra shallow junctions were achieved as well. However, as also seen for other junction fabrication schemes, low dopant activation level and active dose (in the range of 1-4 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -} {sup 2}) were observed although dopant concentration versus depth profiles indicate that the dopant atoms were properly driven into the substrate during the anneal step. The electrical deactivation of a large part of the in-diffused dopants was responsible for the high sheet resistance values.

  1. Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N.D.; Rosseel, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Yang, L.; Goossens, J.; Moussa, A.; Clarysse, T.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Zaima, S.; Sakai, A.; Loo, R.; Lin, J.C.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at both planar and non-planar device applications. High quality ultra shallow junctions with abrupt profiles in Si substrates were demonstrated on 300 mm Si substrates. The excellent results obtained for the sheet resistance and the junction depth with boron allowed us to fulfill the requirements for the 32 nm as well as for the 22 nm technology nodes in the PMOS case by choosing appropriate laser anneal conditions. For instance, using 3 laser scans at 1300 o C, we measured an active dopant concentration of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm - 3 and a junction depth of 12 nm. With arsenic for NMOS, ultra shallow junctions were achieved as well. However, as also seen for other junction fabrication schemes, low dopant activation level and active dose (in the range of 1-4 x 10 13 cm - 2 ) were observed although dopant concentration versus depth profiles indicate that the dopant atoms were properly driven into the substrate during the anneal step. The electrical deactivation of a large part of the in-diffused dopants was responsible for the high sheet resistance values.

  2. Accurate depth profiling for ultra-shallow implants using backside-SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Chie; Tomita, Mitsuhiro; Takenaka, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    We studied methods for accurate depth profiling for ultra-shallow implants using backside-SIMS. For the measurement of ultra-shallow profiles, the effects of surface transient and atomic mixing are not negligible. Therefore, we applied backside-SIMS to analyze ultra-shallow doping in order to exclude these effects. Backside-SIMS profiles show a sharper ion implantation tail than surface-side-SIMS profiles. In addition, the primary ion energy dependence becomes weaker when backside-SIMS is used [Surf. Interf. Anal. 29 (2000) 362; Appl. Surf. Sci. 203-204 (2003) 264; J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21 (2003) 1422]. However, the peak concentration of the backside sample was lower than that of the surface-side sample. Therefore, the sample flatness was estimated using the SIMS response function. Furthermore, SIMS profiles were simulated using SIMS response functions. This simulation shows how the sample flatness affects the SIMS profile

  3. Hetero-junctions of Boron Nitride and Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Yoke Khin

    2013-03-14

    Hetero-junctions of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to have appealing new properties that are not available from pure BNNTs and CNTs. Theoretical studies indicate that BNNT/CNT junctions could be multifunctional and applicable as memory, spintronic, electronic, and photonics devices with tunable band structures. This will lead to energy and material efficient multifunctional devices that will be beneficial to the society. However, experimental realization of BNNT/CNT junctions was hindered by the absent of a common growth technique for BNNTs and CNTs. In fact, the synthesis of BNNTs was very challenging and may involve high temperatures (up to 3000 degree Celsius by laser ablation) and explosive chemicals. During the award period, we have successfully developed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique to grow BNNTs at 1100-1200 degree Celsius without using dangerous chemicals. A series of common catalyst have then been identified for the synthesis of BNNTs and CNTs. Both of these breakthroughs have led to our preliminary success in growing two types of BNNT/CNT junctions and two additional new nanostructures: 1) branching BNNT/CNT junctions and 2) co-axial BNNT/CNT junctions, 3) quantum dots functionalized BNNTs (QDs-BNNTs), 4) BNNT/graphene junctions. We have started to understand their structural, compositional, and electronic properties. Latest results indicate that the branching BNNT/CNT junctions and QDs-BNNTs are functional as room-temperature tunneling devices. We have submitted the application of a renewal grant to continue the study of these new energy efficient materials. Finally, this project has also strengthened our collaborations with multiple Department of Energy's Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), including the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINTs) at Sandia National Laboratories and Los

  4. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, O.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Romano, L.; Doyle, B. L.; Kontos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B + implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B + implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B + implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 × 10 13 to 5.0 × 10 15 cm −2 was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400–600 °C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 °C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H + beam by utilizing the 11 B(p, α)2α nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 °C.

  5. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  6. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+ implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge...... from 5.0 × 1013 to 5.0 × 1015 cm-2 was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 °C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed...... was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B+ implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging...

  7. APCVD hexagonal boron nitride thin films for passive near-junction thermal management of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, Pratik; Rai, Amit; Ashton, Taylor S.; Moore, Arden L.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of graphene to serve as an ultrathin heat spreader has been previously demonstrated with impressive results. However, graphene is electrically conductive, making its use in contact with electronic devices problematic from a reliability and integration perspective. As an alternative, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a similarly structured material with large in-plane thermal conductivity but which possesses a wide band gap, thereby giving it potential to be utilized for directing contact, near-junction thermal management of electronics without shorting or the need for an insulating intermediate layer. In this work, the viability of using large area, continuous h-BN thin films as direct contact, near-junction heat spreaders for electronic devices is experimentally evaluated. Thin films of h-BN several square millimeters in size were synthesized via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method that is both simple and scalable. These were subsequently transferred onto a microfabricated test device that simulated a multigate transistor while also allowing for measurements of the device temperature at various locations via precision resistance thermometry. Results showed that these large-area h-BN films with thicknesses of 77-125 nm are indeed capable of significantly lowering microdevice temperatures, with the best sample showing the presence of the h-BN thin film reduced the effective thermal resistance by 15.9% ± 4.6% compared to a bare microdevice at the same power density. Finally, finite element simulations of these experiments were utilized to estimate the thermal conductivity of the h-BN thin films and identify means by which further heat spreading performance gains could be attained.

  8. Effect of B+ Flux on the electrical activation of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, B.R.; Darby, B.L.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    + implants at 2 keV to a dose of 5.0×1014 cm-2 at beam currents ranging from 0.4 to 6.4 mA has been studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400°C for 60 s. It has been shown that the sheet number increases with beam current across the investigated range with electrical activation......The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B+ implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23% due to ion backscattering for 2 keV implants in Ge. The electrical characterization of ultra-shallow B...... being 76% higher at 6.4 mA as compared to 0.4mA. However, at 6.4 mA, the electrically active fraction remained low at 11.4%. Structural characterization revealed that the implanted region remained crystalline and amorphization is not able to explain the increased activation. The results suggest...

  9. Fabrication of sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions with rapid annealing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Xu; Ma, Junli; Cui, Ruirui; Deng, Chaoyong, E-mail: cydeng@gzu.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated using magnetron sputtering system. The rapid-anneal process was adopted to replace traditional way of annealing, trying to solve the problem of interdiffusion and oxidation with multilayer films. The boron film was used as barrier layer to avoid the introduction of impurities and improve reproducibility of the junctions. The bottom MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire substrate exhibits a critical temperature T{sub C} of 37.5 K and critical current density J{sub C} at 5 K of 8.7 × 10{sup 6} A cm{sup −2}. From the XRD pattern, the bottom MgB{sub 2} thin film shows c-axis orientation, whereas the top MgB{sub 2} became polycrystalline as Boron barrier layer grown thicker. Therefore, all junction samples show lower T{sub C} than single MgB{sub 2} thin film. The junctions exhibit excellent quasiparticle characteristics with ideal dependence on temperature and Boron barrier thickness. Subharmonic gap structure was appeared in conductance characteristics, which was attributed to the multiple Andreev reflections (MAR). The result demonstrates great promise of this new fabrication technology for MgB{sub 2} Josephson junction fabrication. - Highlights: • Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated. • The junctions were annealed after deposition with the rapid-anneal process. • The highest critical current is 25.3 mA at 5 K and remains non-zero near 25 K. • Subharmonic gap features can be observed in the dI/dV – V curves.

  10. Ultra-shallow arsenic implant depth profiling using low-energy nitrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2004-01-01

    Sputtering of silicon by low-energy nitrogen primary ion beams has been studied by a number of authors to characterize the altered layer, ripple formation and the sputtered yields of secondary ions [Surf. Sci. 424 (1999) 299; Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process 53 (1991) 179; Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 (1998) 1287]. This study examines the application of low-energy nitrogen primary ion beams for the possible depth profiling of ultra-shallow arsenic implants into silicon. The emphasis of this work is on the matrix silicon signals in the pre-equilibrium surface region that are used for dose calibration. Problems with these aspects of the concentration depth profiling can give significant inconsistencies well outside the error limits of the quoted dose for the arsenic implantation as independently verified by CV profiling. This occurs during depth profiling with either oxygen primary ion beams (with and without oxygen leaks) or cesium primary ion beams

  11. Deep level transient spectroscopic analysis of p/n junction implanted with boron in n-type silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Haruo; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nabetani, Yoichi

    2018-04-01

    For P-i-N diodes implanted and activated with boron ions into a highly-resistive n-type Si substrate, it is found that there is a large difference in the leakage current between relatively low temperature furnace annealing (FA) and high temperature laser annealing (LA) for activation of the p-layer. Since electron trap levels in the n-type Si substrate is supposed to be affected, we report on Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurement results investigating what kinds of trap levels are formed. As a result, three kinds of electron trap levels are confirmed in the region of 1-4 μm from the p-n junction. Each DLTS peak intensity of the LA sample is smaller than that of the FA sample. In particular, with respect to the trap level which is the closest to the silicon band gap center most affecting the reverse leakage current, it was not detected in LA. It is considered that the electron trap levels are decreased due to the thermal energy of LA. On the other hand, four kinds of trap levels are confirmed in the region of 38-44 μm from the p-n junction and the DLTS peak intensities of FA and LA are almost the same, considering that the thermal energy of LA has not reached this area. The large difference between the reverse leakage current of FA and LA is considered to be affected by the deep trap level estimated to be the interstitial boron.

  12. A simplified boron diffusion for preparing the silicon single crystal p-n junction as an educational device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Koki, E-mail: a14510@sr.kagawa-nct.ac.jp; Kai, Kazuho; Nagaoka, Shiro, E-mail: nagaoka@es.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, Kagawa, Mitoyo, Takuma, Koda 551 (Japan); Tsuji, Takuto [National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College, Mie, Suzuka, Shiroko (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi, Tenpaku, Hibarigaoka 1-1 (Japan); Rusop, Mohamad [University Technology Mara, Selangor, Shah Alam, 40450 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The educational method which is including designing, making, and evaluating actual semiconductor devices with learning the theory is one of the best way to obtain the fundamental understanding of the device physics and to cultivate the ability to make unique ideas using the knowledge in the semiconductor device. In this paper, the simplified Boron thermal diffusion process using Sol-Gel material under normal air environment was proposed based on simple hypothesis and the feasibility of the reproducibility and reliability were investigated to simplify the diffusion process for making the educational devices, such as p-n junction, bipolar and pMOS devices. As the result, this method was successfully achieved making p+ region on the surface of the n-type silicon substrates with good reproducibility. And good rectification property of the p-n junctions was obtained successfully. This result indicates that there is a possibility to apply on the process making pMOS or bipolar transistors. It suggests that there is a variety of the possibility of the applications in the educational field to foster an imagination of new devices.

  13. Characterization of pure boron depositions integrated in silicon diodes for nanometer-deep junction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarubbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Doping technologies for formation of ultrashallow and highly-doped p+ junctions are continuously demanded to face the challenges in front-end processing that have emerged due to the aggressive downscaling of vertical dimensions for future semiconductor devices. As an alternative to implantations,

  14. Comparison of boron diffusion in silicon during shallow p{sup +}/n junction formation by non-melt excimer and green laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aid, Siti Rahmah; Matsumoto, Satoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fuse, Genshu [SEN Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 4-10-1 Yoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0097 (Japan); Sakuragi, Susumu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., 19 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation, low-energy boron implantation, and non-melt laser annealing is a promising method for forming ultrashallow p{sup +}/n junctions in silicon. In this study, shallow p{sup +}/n junctions were formed by non-melt annealing implanted samples using a green laser (visible laser). The dopant diffusion, activation, and recrystallization of an amorphous silicon layer were compared with those obtained in our previous study in which non-melt annealing was performed using a KrF excimer laser (UV laser). The experimental results reveal that only slight diffusion of boron in the tail region occurred in green-laser-annealed samples. In contrast, remarkable boron diffusion occurred in KrF-laser-annealed samples for very short annealing times. Recrystallization of the amorphous silicon layer was slower in green-laser-annealed samples than in KrF-laser-annealed samples. We consider the penetration depth and the pulse duration are important factors that may affect boron diffusion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Optical performance of B-layer ultra-shallow-junction silicon photodiodes in the VUV spectral range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.; Sarubbi, F.; Nanver, L.K.; Kroth, U.; Gottwald, A.; Nihtianov, S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, a novel silicon-based photodiode technology was reported to be suitable for producing radiation detectors for 193 nm deep-ultraviolet light and for the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. The devices were developed and fabricated at the Delft Institute of Microsystems and

  16. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) 2d carrier profiling for ultra-shallow junction characterization in deep-submicron technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyben, P.; Janssens, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the recent progress in SSRM capabilities highlighting simultaneous performances in terms of sensitivity (<10%), spatial resolution (1-3 nm), dopant gradient resolution (1-2 nm/decade) and quantification accuracy (20-30%). The latter is illustrated through the analysis of different carrier profiling applications, i.e. the calibration of process simulations for a 90 nm n-MOS technology, the determination of the impact of nitridation on the lateral diffusion in a 40 nm n-MOS technology, the study of activation and diffusion problems in SPER-anneals of shallow implants, the observation of stress-induced diffusion mechanisms in the vicinity of shallow trench isolations (STI) and the study of diffusion and mobility mechanisms in SiGe MOS structures. Favorable comparisons with SCM and STM are also presented and do illustrate the unique capability of the SSRM technique

  17. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: rad@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology) Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-12-05

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10{sup 20}-1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  18. High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radamson, H.H.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Ostling, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10 20 -1 x 10 21 cm -3 ) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  19. Impact of multiple sub-melt laser scans on the activation and diffusion of shallow Boron junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Vandervorst, W.; Clarysse, T.

    2008-01-01

    , careful process optimization is required. While macroscopic variations can easily be addressed using the proper spatial power compensation it is more difficult to completely eliminate the micro scale non-uniformity which is intimately linked to the laser beam profile, the amount of overlaps and the scan...... pitch. In this work, we will present micro scale sheet resistance uniformity measurements for shallow 0.5 keV B junctions and zoom in on the underlying effect of multiple subsequent laser scans. A variety of characterization techniques are used to extract the relevant junction parameters and the role...... of different implantation and anneal parameters will be explored. It turns out that the observed sheet resistance decrease with increasing number of laser scans is caused on one hand by a temperature dependent increase of the activation level, and on the other hand, by a non-negligible temperature...

  20. Low energy implantation of boron with decaborane ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Angela

    The goal of this dissertation was to determine the feasibility of a novel approach to forming ultra shallow p-type junctions (tens of nm) needed for future generations of Si MOS devices. In the new approach, B dopant atoms are implanted by cluster ions obtained by ionization of decaborane (B 10H14) vapor. An experimental ion implanter with an electron impact ion source and magnetic mass separation was built at the Ion Beam and Thin Film Research Laboratory at NJIT. Beams of B10Hx+ ions with currents of a few microamperes and energies of 1 to 12 keV were obtained and used for implantation experiments. Profiles of B and H atoms implanted in Si were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). From the profiles, the junction depth of 57 nm (at 1018 cm-3 B concentration) was obtained with 12 keV decaborane ions followed by RTA. The dose of B atoms that can be implanted at low energy into Si is limited by sputtering as the ion beam sputters both the matrix and the implanted atoms. As the number of sputtered B atoms increases with the implanted dose and approaches the number of the implanted atoms, equilibrium of B in Si is established. This effect was investigated by comparison of the B dose calculated from the ion beam integration with B content in the sample measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Maximum (equilibrium) doses of 1.35 x 1016 B cm -2 and 2.67 x 1016 B cm-2 were obtained at the beam energies of 5 and 12 keV, respectively. The problem of forming shallow p-type junctions in Si is related not only to implantation depth, but also to transient enhanced diffusion (TED). TED in Si implanted with B10Hx+ was measured on boron doping superlattice (B-DSL) marker layers. It was found that TED, following decaborane implantation, is the same as with monomer B+ ion implantation of equivalent energy and that it decreases with the decreasing ion energy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  2. Boron diffusion in strained and strain-relaxed SiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; Sheu, Y.M.; Liu, Sally; Duffy, R.; Heringa, A.; Cowern, N.E.B.; Griffin, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    . Phys. 94 (September (6)) (2003) 3883-3890; S. Eguchi, C.N. Chleirigh, O.O. Olubuyide, J.L. Hoyt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (January (3)) (2004) 368-370] in which the equilibrium state of point defects is achieved. These are not the conditions used in aggressive CMOS technologies. Our experiment has therefore been designed to investigate boron diffusion in both strained and strain-relaxed SiGe including ultra-low energy, high concentration boron implant and spike RTA. Models are proposed and the retardation factors corresponding to Ge concentration and stress effect were successfully extracted through these experiments. This paper describes these experiments, with the calibration and the resulting diffusion constants for an ultra-shallow boron junction in SiGe that is popular in advanced CMOS technology

  3. Diode characteristics and residual deep-level defects of p+n abrupt junctions fabricated by rapid thermal annealing of boron implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, A.; Katayama, M.; Wada, T.; Tokuda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    p + n diodes were fabricated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of boron implanted silicon in the annealing temperature range 700-1100 0 C for around 7 s, and the RTA temperature dependence of electrical characteristics of these diodes was studied. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were made to evaluate residual deep-level defects in the n-type bulk. Three electron traps were observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 700 0 C. It was considered that these three traps were residual point defects near the tail of the implantation damage after RTA. Residual defect concentrations increased in the range 700-900 0 C and decreased in the range 1000-1100 0 C. The growth of defects in the bulk was ascribed to the diffusion of defects from the implanted layer during RTA. Concentrations of electron traps observed in p + n diodes fabricated by RTA at 1100 0 C were approx. 10 12 cm -3 . It was found that these residual deep-level defects observed by DLTS were inefficient generation-recombination centres since the reverse current was independent of the RTA temperatures. (author)

  4. Boron reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity 10 B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron

  5. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and

  6. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B + , the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 x 10 14 and of 1 x 10 15 /cm -2 . Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B + requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold

  7. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingerle, D., E-mail: dingerle@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meirer, F. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  8. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  9. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  10. Aspects of the chemistry of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellinger, H.

    1976-01-01

    Crystal phases of elementary boron are reviewed as well as boron-sulphur, boron-selenum, boron-tellurium, and boron-nitrogen compounds, carboranes, and boron-carbohydrate complexes. A boron cadastre of rivers and lakes serves to illustrate the role of boron in environmental protection. Technically relevant boron compounds and their uses are mentioned. (orig.) 891 HK/orig. 892 MB [de

  11. Boron “stitching” reaction: a powerful tool for the synthesis of polyethylene-based star architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zapsas, George; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Kim, Joey; Bilalis, Panagiotis; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The linking of macroanions with BFOEt leads to a 3-arm star with a boron junction point, which can serve as a macroinitiator for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, thus enabling the synthesis of novel but not

  12. Boron “stitching” reaction: a powerful tool for the synthesis of polyethylene-based star architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zapsas, George

    2018-02-07

    The linking of macroanions with BFOEt leads to a 3-arm star with a boron junction point, which can serve as a macroinitiator for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, thus enabling the synthesis of novel but not

  13. Structure and reactivity of boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kathryn; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayr, Herbert; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2015-06-05

    Boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters and aryllithiums have been isolated, and the kinetics of their reactions with carbenium ions studied. The second-order rate constants have been used to derive nucleophilicity parameters for the boron-ate complexes, revealing that nucleophilicity increased with (i) electron-donating aromatics on boron, (ii) neopentyl glycol over pinacol boronic esters, and (iii) 12-crown-4 ether.

  14. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  15. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  16. Two-dimensional dopant profiling for shallow junctions by TEM and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work concerns the development of the Etch/TEM and Etch/AFM methods to obtain quantitative 2-D dopant profiles for the ultra shallow p-n junctions of the next generation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). For these methods, thin foil (TEM) or bulk (AFM) cross-sectional specimens were etched using a dopant selective chemical so that local areas of the dopant implanted source/drain (S/D) regions were etched to different depths. The surface topography of the S/D regions was determined from the thickness fringes for the TEM method and by the direct measurement for the AFM method. The local etched depths were converted to etch rates, and these were then converted to corresponding 1-D and 2-D dopant profiles by the experimentally independent etch rate calibration curves. Shallow junction MOSFET samples were designed and fabricated with junction depths 60nm (n + /p), 80nm (n + /p) and 120nm (p + /n) using 0.25μm process technology. A new method using SOG (Spin-on-Glass) contributed to the high quality XTEM thin foil specimens. Controlled stirring of the etchant increased the dopant concentration selectivity and etching consistency. Computer modelling simulated the isotropic etching behaviours, which can introduce the significant error in dopant profiling for shallow and abrupt junction samples. Comprehensive quantitative results enabled the optimum etching time to be determined for the first time. Etch/TEM method gave 1-D dopant profiles that showed good agreement with 1-D Spreading Resistance Probe (SRP) dopant profiles for determining junction depths. 2-D dopant profiles gave L eff , i.e. the shortest lateral distance between the S/D junctions, of major importance for MOSFET performance. Values for L eff of 161, 159 and 123nm were determined from 60, 80 and 120nm junction depth samples respectively, compared with the 215nm MOSFET gate length. The resolution and accuracy of the Etch/TEM method are estimated as 2 and 10nm

  17. The Leakage Current Improvement of a Ni-Silicided SiGe/Si Junction Using a Si Cap Layer and the PAI Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Jian-Guang; Wu Chun-Bo; Ji Xiao-Li; Ma Hao-Wen; Yan Feng; Shi Yi; Zhang Rong

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the leakage current of ultra-shallow Ni-silicided SiGe/Si junctions for 45 nm CMOS technology using a Si cap layer and the pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) process. It is found that with the conventional Ni silicide method, the leakage current of a p + (SiGe)—n(Si) junction is large and attributed to band-to-band tunneling and the generation-recombination process. The two leakage contributors can be suppressed quite effectively when a Si cap layer is added in the Ni silicide method. The leakage reduction is about one order of magnitude and could be associated with the suppression of the agglomeration of the Ni germano-silicide film. In addition, the PAI process after the application of a Si cap layer has little effect on improving the junction leakage but reduces the sheet resistance of the silicide film. As a result, the novel Ni silicide method using a Si cap combined with PAI is a promising choice for SiGe junctions in advanced technology. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.M.; Finck, C.

    1956-01-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 μ. Grain sizes smaller than 1μ are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [fr

  19. Visualization of boron in molybdenum by α-rays track etching method and tritium autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hideo; Morita, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Molybdenum alloys addicted with < 0.02 ppm B to 160 ppm B were analyzed by α-rays track etching (ATE) method irradiated by thermal neutron for 12 hours using atomic reactor of Rikkyo University and Japan atomic reactor of JRR-4. It was found that boron was segregated along grain boundaries and in the matrix. We analyzed boron distribution in the vicinity of the triple junctions at grain boundaries and in the matrix by the statistical frequency of α-rays tracks. Also we studied tritium autoradiography by cathodic charging method. Visualization of boron distribution was confirmed along the grain boundary which seemed to be effective trapping sites of hydrogen. (author)

  20. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  1. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  2. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues

  3. Implantation of boron in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofker, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution versus depth of boron implanted in silicon and the corresponding electrical activity obtained after annealing are studied. The boron distributions are measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Boron distributions implanted at energies in the range from 30 keV to 800 keV in amorphous and polycrystalline silicon are analysed. Moments of these distributions are determined by a curve-fitting programme and compared with moments calculated by Winterbon. Boron distributions obtained by implantations along a dense crystallographic direction in monocrystalline silicon are found to have penetrating tails. After investigation of some possible mechanisms of tail formation it is concluded that the tails are due to channelling. It was found that the behaviour of boron during annealing is determined by the properties of three boron fractions consisting of precipitated boron, interstitial boron and substitutional boron. The electrical activity of the boron versus depth is found to be consistent with the three boron fractions. A peculiar redistribution of boron is found which is induced by the implantation of a high dose of heavy ions and subsequent annealing. Different mechanisms which may cause the observed effects, such as thermal diffusion which is influenced by lattice strain and damage, are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  5. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  6. Thermoelectric properties of boron and boron phosphide CVD wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Sato, A.; Ando, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Electrical and thermal conductivities and thermoelectric power of p-type boron and n-type boron phosphide wafers with amorphous and polycrystalline structures were measured up to high temperatures. The electrical conductivity of amorphous boron wafers is compatible to that of polycrystals at high temperatures and obeys Mott`s T{sup -{1/4}} rule. The thermoelectric power of polycrystalline boron decreases with increasing temperature, while that of amorphous boron is almost constant in a wide temperature range. The weak temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of BP polycrystalline wafers reflects phonon scattering by grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity of an amorphous boron wafer is almost constant in a wide temperature range, showing a characteristic of a glass. The figure of merit of polycrystalline BP wafers is 10{sup -7}/K at high temperatures while that of amorphous boron is 10{sup -5}/K.

  7. Influence of the spacer dielectric processes on PMOS junction properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Pierre; Wacquant, Francois; Juhel, Marc; Laviron, Cyrille; Lenoble, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the interaction observed in PMOS transistor between the boron lightly doped drain (LDD) extensions and the spacer oxide and nitride dielectrics have been studied, with a simple experimental methodology. Low thermal budget oxide obtained by sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) and nitride deposited by plasma process have been evaluated as spacer layers. The influence of the oxide liner hydrogen content is shown to be critical for the p type shallow junction. Indeed, during the activation anneal, hydrogen content increases the boron out diffusion from the extension into the oxide liner and yield to a significant dose loss in this area. Nitride porosity has also been studied. A lower boron dose loss is observed with a porous layer because hydrogen can degas out significantly from the oxide, during anneal, through the porous nitride film. These results confirm the model of boron out diffusion based on oxide hydrogen content proposed by Kohli. Finally, a boron diffusion mechanism driven by chemistry and enhanced by hydrogen defects is proposed

  8. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  9. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, T.L.; ); Semerdzhieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Dushanbe

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt- or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is possible to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flux [ru

  10. Electrical activation of solid-phase epitaxially regrown ultra-low energy boron implants in Ge preamorphised silicon and SOI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.J.; Collart, E.J.H.; Colombeau, B.; Jeynes, C.; Bersani, M.; Giubertoni, D.; Sharp, J.A.; Cowern, N.E.B.; Kirkby, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of highly activated ultra-shallow junctions (USJ) is one of the key requirements for the next generation of CMOS devices. One promising method for achieving this is the use of Ge preamorphising implants (PAI) prior to ultra-low energy B implantation. In future technology nodes, bulk silicon wafers may be supplanted by Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI), and an understanding of the Solid Phase Epitaxial (SPE) regrowth process and its correlation to dopant electrical activation in both bulk silicon and SOI is essential in order to understand the impact of this potential technology change. This kind of understanding will also enable tests of fundamental models for defect evolution and point-defect reactions at silicon/oxide interfaces. In the present work, B is implanted into Ge PAI silicon and SOI wafers with different PAI conditions and B doses, and resulting samples are annealed at various temperatures and times. Glancing-exit Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is used to monitor the regrowth of the amorphous silicon, and the resulting redistribution and electrical activity of B are monitored by SIMS and Hall measurements. The results confirm the expected enhancement of regrowth velocity by B doping, and show that this velocity is otherwise independent of the substrate type and the Ge implant distribution within the amorphised layer. Hall measurements on isochronally annealed samples show that B deactivates less in SOI material than in bulk silicon, in cases where the Ge PAI end-of-range defects are close to the SOI back interface

  11. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion for pyramidally textured silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fa-Jun; Duttagupta, Shubham; Shetty, Kishan Devappa; Meng, Lei; Hoex, Bram; Peters, Ian Marius; Samudra, Ganesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Multidimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion is of great relevance for the improvement of industrial n-type crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. However, surface passivation of boron diffused area is typically studied in one dimension on planar lifetime samples. This approach neglects the effects of the solar cell pyramidal texture on the boron doping process and resulting doping profile. In this work, we present a theoretical study using a two-dimensional surface morphology for pyramidally textured samples. The boron diffusivity and segregation coefficient between oxide and silicon in simulation are determined by reproducing measured one-dimensional boron depth profiles prepared using different boron diffusion recipes on planar samples. The established parameters are subsequently used to simulate the boron diffusion process on textured samples. The simulated junction depth is found to agree quantitatively well with electron beam induced current measurements. Finally, chemical passivation on planar and textured samples is compared in device simulation. Particularly, a two-dimensional approach is adopted for textured samples to evaluate chemical passivation. The intrinsic emitter saturation current density, which is only related to Auger and radiative recombination, is also simulated for both planar and textured samples. The differences between planar and textured samples are discussed

  12. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  13. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  14. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  15. Supercurrent and multiple Andreev reflections in micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ben Shalom, Moshe; Mishchsenko, Artem; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre

    2018-02-08

    Ballistic Josephson junctions are predicted to support a number of exotic physics processess, providing an ideal system to inject the supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime. Herein, we demonstrate electrical transport measurements on ballistic superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions by contacting graphene to niobium with a junction length up to 1.5 μm. Hexagonal boron nitride encapsulation and one-dimensional edge contacts guarantee high-quality graphene Josephson junctions with a mean free path of several micrometers and record-low contact resistance. Transports in normal states including the observation of Fabry-Pérot oscillations and Sharvin resistance conclusively witness the ballistic propagation in the junctions. The critical current density J C is over one order of magnitude larger than that of the previously reported junctions. Away from the charge neutrality point, the I C R N product (I C is the critical current and R N the normal state resistance of junction) is nearly a constant, independent of carrier density n, which agrees well with the theory for ballistic Josephson junctions. Multiple Andreev reflections up to the third order are observed for the first time by measuring the differential resistance in the micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

  16. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  17. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Boron atom reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, R.; Tabacco, M.B.; Digiuseppe, T.G.; Davidovits, P.

    1982-01-01

    The reaction rates of atomic boron with various epoxides have been measured in a flow tube apparatus. The bimolecular rate constants, in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , are: 1,2-epoxypropane (8.6 x 10 -11 ), 1,2-epoxybutane (8.8 x 10 -11 ), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (5.5 x 10 -11 ), 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (5.7 x 10 -11 ), and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (1.5 x 10 -11 ). (orig.)

  19. Electron transport in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/boron nitride hybrid structures: density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S F K S; Namiranian, Afshin; Soleimani, Maryam; Jamaati, Maryam

    2018-02-07

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of two types of junction based on single polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs embedded in boron nitride (h-BN) nanoribbons, using nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT). In the PAH junctions, a Fano resonance line shape at the Fermi energy in the transport feature can be clearly seen. In hybrid junctions, structural asymmetries enable interactions between the electronic states, leading to observation of interface-based transport. Our findings reveal that the interface of PAH/h-BN strongly affects the transport properties of the structures.

  20. Formation of shallow junctions for VLSI by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, several techniques were studied to form shallow junctions in silicon by ion implantation. These include ion implantation through thin layers of silicon dioxide and ion implantation through a thick polycrystalline silicon layer. These techniques can be used to reduce the junction depth. Their main disadvantage is dopant loss in the surface layer. As an alternative, preamorphization of the Si substrate prior to boron implantation to reduce boron channeling was investigated. The disadvantage of preamorphization is the radiation damage introduced into the Si substrate using the implant. Preamorphization by silicon self-implantation has been studied before. The goal of this study was to test Ge as an alternative amorphizing agent. It was found that good-quality p + -n junctions can be formed by both boron and BF 2 ion implantation into Ge-preamorphized Si provided that the preamorphization conditions are optimized. If the amorphous crystalline interface is sufficiently close to the surface, it is possible to completely remove the end-of-range damage. If these defects are not removed and are left in the depletion region, they can result in poor-quality, leaky junctions

  1. Boron profiles in doped amorphous-silicon solar cells formed by plasma ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, C.T.H.; Hunt, C.P.; Coleman, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous silicon p-n junction solar cells of large area (100 cm 2 ) and having a quantum efficiency approaching 100% in the blue region have been prepared by plasma ion-plating, the p layer being formed from diborane and silane gases in a cathode glow-discharge. Surface secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with ion beam etching was found to be a very sensitive method with high in-depth resolution for obtaining the initial boron-silicon profile of the solar cell p-n junction. (author)

  2. Separation process for boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, S D

    1975-06-12

    The method according to the invention is characterized by the steps of preparing a gaseous mixture of BCl/sub 3/ containing the isotopes of boron and oxygen as the extractor, irradiating that mixture in the tube of the separator device by means of P- or R-lines of a CO/sub 2/ laser for exciting the molecules containing a given isotope of boron, simultaneously irradiating the mixture with UV for photodissociating the excited BCl/sub 3/ molecules and separating BCl/sub 3/ from the reaction products of photodissociation and from oxygen. Such method is suitable for preparing boron used in nuclear reactors.

  3. Lattice dynamics of α boron and of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast, N.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of α boron and of B 4 C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In α boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B 4 C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  4. Nothing Boring About Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  5. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  6. Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO2/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the TaxN barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlOx barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.

  7. Boronization in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.; Esser, H.G.; Koenen, L.; Reimer, H.; Seggern, J. v.; Schlueter, J.; Waelbroeck, F.; Wienhold, P.; Veprek, S.

    1989-01-01

    The liner and limiters of TEXTOR have been coated in situ with a boron containing carbon film using a RG discharge in a throughflow of 0.8 He + 0.1 B 2 H 6 + 0.1 CH 4 . The average film thickness was 30-50 nm, the ratio of boron and carbon in the layer was about 1:1 according to Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Subsequent tokamak discharges are characterized by a small fraction of radiated power ( eff lower than 1.2 are derived from conductivity measurements. The most prominent change in the impurity concentration compared to good conditions in a carbonized surrounding is measured for oxygen. The value OVI/anti n e of the OVI intensity normalized to the averaged plasma density anti n e decreases by more than a factor of four. The decrease in the oxygen content manifests itself also as a reduction of the CO and CO 2 partial pressures measured during and after the discharge with a sniffer probe. The carbon levels are reduced by a factor of about two as measured by the normalized intensity CII/anti n e of the CII line and via the ratio of the C fluxes and deuterium fluxed measured at the limiter (CI/D α ). The wall shows a pronounced sorption of hydrogen from the plasma, easing the density control and the establishment of low recycling conditions. The beneficial conditions did not show a significant deterioration during more than 200 discharges, including numerous shots at ICRH power levels >2 MW. (orig.)

  8. Note on boron toxicity in oats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langille, W M; Mahoney, J F

    1959-01-01

    Boron was applied at the rate of 35 pounds per acre of borax to a field of oats. With the first noticeable growth there appeared a definite chlorotic condition of the oat seedlings on plots receiving boron treatments. Analysis of chlorotic tissue at 3 weeks after seeding indicated 110 ppm boron, while apparently healthy tissue contained 6.1 ppm boron at the same stage of growth. There was a rapid decline in the boron content of the oat tissue as the crop grew older. At maturity the oat tissue from the boron-treated plots contained an average of 14.15 ppm boron as compared with 4.10 boron from untreated areas. Boron toxicity had no harmful effect so far as yields were concerned, under the conditions of this experiment. 3 references.

  9. Method for producing polycrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeevskii, V.P.; Bochko, A.V.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Karpinos, D.M.; Karyuk, G.G.; Kolomiets, I.P.; Kurdyumov, A.V.; Pivovarov, M.S.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Yarosh, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing less than 50 percent of graphite-like boron nitride treated by a shock wave and highly defective wurtzite-like boron nitride obtained by a shock-wave method is compressed and heated at pressure and temperature values corresponding to the region of the phase diagram for boron nitride defined by the graphite-like compact modifications of boron nitride equilibrium line and the cubic wurtzite-like boron nitride equilibrium line. The resulting crystals of boron nitride exhibit a structure of wurtzite-like boron nitride or of both wurtzite-like and cubic boron nitride. The resulting material exhibits higher plasticity as compared with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tools made of this compact polycrystalline material have a longer service life under impact loads in machining hardened steel and chilled iron. (U.S.)

  10. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  11. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  12. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    -performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising

  13. Adsorption of boron from boron-containing wastewaters by ion exchange in a continuous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2005-01-01

    In this study, boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters prepared synthetically was investigated. The experiments in which Amberlite IRA 743, boron specific resin was used were carried out in a column reactor. The bed volume of resin, boron concentration, flow rate and temperature were selected as experimental parameters. The experimental results showed that percent of boron removal increased with increasing amount of resin and with decreasing boron concentration in the solution. Boron removal decreased with increasing of flow rate and the effect of temperature on the percent of total boron removal increased the boron removal rate. As a result, it was seen that about 99% of boron in the wastewater could be removed at optimum conditions

  14. Lattice vibrations in α-boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.

    1976-01-01

    α-rhombohedral boron is the simplest boron modification, with only 12 atoms per unit cell. The boron atoms are arranged in B 12 icosahedra, which are centered at the lattice points of a primitive rhombohedral lattice. The icosahedra are slightly deformed, as the five-fold symmetry of the ideal icosahedron is incompatible with any crystal structure. The lattice dynamics of α-boron are discussed in terms of the model developed by Weber and Thorpe. (Auth.)

  15. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  16. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  17. New Icosahedral Boron Carbide Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria Mora, Elena Maria

    Novel semiconductor boron carbide films and boron carbide films doped with aromatic compounds have been investigated and characterized. Most of these semiconductors were formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The aromatic compound additives used, in this thesis, were pyridine (Py), aniline, and diaminobenzene (DAB). As one of the key parameters for semiconducting device functionality is the metal contact and, therefore, the chemical interactions or band bending that may occur at the metal/semiconductor interface, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the interaction of gold (Au) with these novel boron carbide-based semiconductors. Both n- and p-type films have been tested and pure boron carbide devices are compared to those containing aromatic compounds. The results show that boron carbide seems to behave differently from other semiconductors, opening a way for new analysis and approaches in device's functionality. By studying the electrical and optical properties of these films, it has been found that samples containing the aromatic compound exhibit an improvement in the electron-hole separation and charge extraction, as well as a decrease in the band gap. The hole carrier lifetimes for each sample were extracted from the capacitance-voltage, C(V), and current-voltage, I(V), curves. Additionally, devices, with boron carbide with the addition of pyridine, exhibited better collection of neutron capture generated pulses at ZERO applied bias, compared to the pure boron carbide samples. This is consistent with the longer carrier lifetimes estimated for these films. The I-V curves, as a function of external magnetic field, of the pure boron carbide films and films containing DAB demonstrate that significant room temperature negative magneto-resistance (> 100% for pure samples, and > 50% for samples containing DAB) is possible in the resulting dielectric thin films. Inclusion of DAB is not essential for significant negative magneto

  18. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaraiz Franco, E.; Esteban Hernandez, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe 2 B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  19. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  20. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  1. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  2. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  3. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  4. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  5. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction ...

  6. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  7. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    high temperature reaction between elemental boron and car- bon to form B4C is .... cible was used as the container for the electrolyte and also acted as an anode. ... chosen as cathode due to its availability, low cost, ease of fabrication and ...

  8. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  9. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A.T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient

  10. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  11. Topological Phases in Graphene Nanoribbons: Junction States, Spin Centers, and Quantum Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting; Zhao, Fangzhou; Louie, Steven G.

    2017-08-01

    We show that semiconducting graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of different width, edge, and end termination (synthesizable from molecular precursors with atomic precision) belong to different electronic topological classes. The topological phase of GNRs is protected by spatial symmetries and dictated by the terminating unit cell. We have derived explicit formulas for their topological invariants and shown that localized junction states developed between two GNRs of distinct topology may be tuned by lateral junction geometry. The topology of a GNR can be further modified by dopants, such as a periodic array of boron atoms. In a superlattice consisting of segments of doped and pristine GNRs, the junction states are stable spin centers, forming a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin 1 /2 chain with tunable exchange interaction. The discoveries here not only are of scientific interest for studies of quasi-one-dimensional systems, but also open a new path for design principles of future GNR-based devices through their topological characters.

  12. Boron impurity at the Si/SiO2 interface in SOI wafers and consequences for piezoresistive MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafari, A; Karlen, D; Enoksson, P; Rusu, C; Svensson, K

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the electrical performance of piezoresistive devices fabricated on thinned SOI wafers has been investigated. Specifically, SOI wafers manufactured with the standard bond-and-etch back method (BESOI), commonly used for MEMS fabrication, have been studied. Results from electrical measurements and SIMS characterization show the presence of a boron impurity close to the buried oxide, even on unprocessed wafers. If the boron impurity overlaps with the piezoresistors on the device, it can create non-defined pn-junctions and thus allow conduction through the substrate, leading to stray connections and excessive noise. The thickness of the boron impurity can extend up to several µm, thus setting a thickness limit for the thinnest parts of a MEMS device. This work shows how this impurity can fundamentally affect the functionality of piezoresistive devices. Design rules of how to avoid this are presented

  13. Junction detection and pathway selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alex N.; Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.

    1992-02-01

    The ability to detect junctions and make choices among the possible pathways is important for autonomous navigation. In our script-based navigation approach where a journey is specified as a script of high-level instructions, actions are frequently referenced to junctions, e.g., `turn left at the intersection.' In order for the robot to carry out these kind of instructions, it must be able (1) to detect an intersection (i.e., an intersection of pathways), (2) know that there are several possible pathways it can take, and (3) pick the pathway consistent with the high level instruction. In this paper we describe our implementation of the ability to detect junctions in an indoor environment, such as corners, T-junctions and intersections, using sonar. Our approach uses a combination of partial scan of the local environment and recognition of sonar signatures of certain features of the junctions. In the case where the environment is known, we use additional sensor information (such as compass bearings) to help recognize the specific junction. In general, once a junction is detected and its type known, the number of possible pathways can be deduced and the correct pathway selected. Then the appropriate behavior for negotiating the junction is activated.

  14. Mixing in T-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction

  15. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  16. The role of the substrate in the high energy boron implantation damage recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, I.; Di Piazza, L.; Laurin, L.; Mariani, M.; Mauri, A.G.; Polignano, M.L.; Ricci, E.; Sammiceli, F.; Spoldi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the role of the Si substrate in the high energy boron implantation damage recovering is studied. The boron implants were carried out in Czochralski grown (1 0 0) polished Si substrates as well as in epitaxial Si layers grown on (1 0 0) Si by chemical vapor deposition. The boron implantation dose was 2 x 10 14 cm -2 and the implantation energy was 600 keV. The recovery annealing was a furnace annealing at 1000 deg. C for 40 min. The defects formed by high energy boron implantation have been observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order to increase the statistics some junctions were formed on the buried p-well and electrically characterized. For the epitaxial wafers it was found that the number and the size of the dislocations change according to the doping of the substrate. For the Czochralski wafers it was found that the morphology and the size of the dislocations change according to the presence of the wafer pre-annealing (whether conventional furnace annealing or Magic Denuded Zone process).

  17. Helium diffusion in irradiated boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1981-03-01

    Boron carbide has been internationally adopted as the neutron absorber material in the control and safety rods of large fast breeder reactors. Its relatively large neutron capture cross section at high neutron energies provides sufficient reactivity worth with a minimum of core space. In addition, the commercial availability of boron carbide makes it attractive from a fabrication standpoint. Instrumented irradiation experiments in EBR-II have provided continuous helium release data on boron carbide at a variety of operating temperatures. Although some microstructural and compositional variations were examined in these experiments most of the boron carbide was prototypic of that used in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The density of the boron carbide pellets was approximately 92% of theoretical. The boron carbide pellets were approximately 1.0 cm in diameter and possessed average grain sizes that varied from 8 to 30 μm. Pellet centerline temperatures were continually measured during the irradiation experiments

  18. Primary system boron dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, R.J.; Naretto, C.J.; Borgen, R.A.; Rockhold, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to suggest changes in administrative procedures or controls

  19. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Paluluoglu, Cihan [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  20. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar; Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Paluluoglu, Cihan

    2008-01-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm 2 , but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%

  1. Removal of boron (B) from waste liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J Q; Xu, Y; Simon, J; Quill, K; Shettle, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of electrocoagulation to remove boron from waste effluent in comparison with alum coagulation. In treating model test wastes, greater boron removals were achieved with electrocoagulation at low doses than conventional alum coagulation when reaction was undertaken for the same conditions (pH 8.5, and initial boron concentration was 500 mg/L). Al electrocoagulation can achieve good boron removal performance (68.3%) at a dose of 2.1 (as molar ratio of Al:B, and for current density of 62.1 A/m2), while alum coagulation can only achieve the maximum boron removal of 56% at a dose of 2.4. Also, Al electrocoagulation can remove 15-20% more boron than alum coagulation for the same dose compared in the treatment of both model test wastes and industry effluent. The estimation of running costs shows that to achieve 75% boron removal from industry waste effluent, i.e. removing 150 g of boron from 1 m3 of effluent, electrocoagulation was 6.2 times cheaper than alum coagulation. The economic advantage of electrocoagulation in the treatment of boron-containing waste effluent is thus significant.

  2. A technique to prepare boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranadive, G.N.; Rosenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    B72.3 monoclonal antibody has been successfully boronated using mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (boron cage compound). The reagent was incorporated by first reacting the lysine residues of the antibody with m-maleimidobenzoyl succinimide ester (MBS), followed by Michael addition to the maleimido group by the mercapto boron cage compound to form a physiologically stable thioether linkage. Boron content of the antibody was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. For biodistribution studies, boronated antibody was radioiodinated with iodogen. 125 I-labeled and boronated B72.3 monoclonal antibody demonstrated clear tumor localization when administered via tail vein injections to athymic nude mice bearing LS174-T tumor xenografts. Boronated antibody was calculated to deliver 10 6 boron atoms per tumor cell. Although this falls short of the specific boron content originally proposed as necessary for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), recent calculations suggest that far fewer atoms of 10 B per tumor cell would be necessary to effect successful BNCT when the boron is targeted to the tumor cell membrane. (author)

  3. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  4. The Control of Junction Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Charles

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of spatially-limited (i.e. localized) surface suction on unsteady laminar and turbulent junction flows was performed using hydrogen bubble flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...

  5. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B 4 C by carbothermic reduction of B 2 O 3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B 4 C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author) [pt

  6. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO x /Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 /Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to π-coupling is observed for a thickness d F =6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  7. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  8. Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

  9. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  10. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-01-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  11. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  12. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  13. Hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; El-Wahabi, M.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This research work studies the effect of boron contents on the hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, uniaxial hot-compression tests were carried out in a low carbon steel microalloyed with four different amounts of boron over a wide range of temperatures (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg. C) and constant true strain rates (10 -3 , 10 -2 and 10 -1 s -1 ). Experimental results revealed that both peak stress and peak strain tend to decrease as boron content increases, which indicates that boron additions have a solid solution softening effect. Likewise, the flow curves show a delaying effect on the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) when increasing boron content. Deformed microstructures show a finer austenitic grain size in the steel with higher boron content (grain refinement effect). Results are discussed in terms of boron segregation towards austenitic grain boundaries during plastic deformation, which increases the movement of dislocations, enhances the grain boundary cohesion and modificates the grain boundary structure

  14. Elastic modulus and fracture of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Walther, G.

    1978-12-01

    The elastic modulus of hot-pressed boron carbide with 1 to 15% porosity was measured at room temperature. K/sub IC/ values were determined for the same porosity range at 500 0 C by the double torsion technique. The critical stress intensity factor of boron carbide with 8% porosity was evaluated from 25 to 1200 0 C

  15. Peltier cooling in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Longji; Miao, Ruijiao; Wang, Kun; Thompson, Dakotah; Zotti, Linda Angela; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2018-02-01

    The study of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions is of fundamental interest for the development of various technologies including cooling (refrigeration) and heat-to-electricity conversion1-4. Recent experimental progress in probing the thermopower (Seebeck effect) of molecular junctions5-9 has enabled studies of the relationship between thermoelectricity and molecular structure10,11. However, observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions—a critical step for establishing molecular-based refrigeration—have remained inaccessible. Here, we report direct experimental observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions. By integrating conducting-probe atomic force microscopy12,13 with custom-fabricated picowatt-resolution calorimetric microdevices, we created an experimental platform that enables the unified characterization of electrical, thermoelectric and energy dissipation characteristics of molecular junctions. Using this platform, we studied gold junctions with prototypical molecules (Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au, Au-terphenyl-4,4''-dithiol-Au and Au-4,4'-bipyridine-Au) and revealed the relationship between heating or cooling and charge transmission characteristics. Our experimental conclusions are supported by self-energy-corrected density functional theory calculations. We expect these advances to stimulate studies of both thermal and thermoelectric transport in molecular junctions where the possibility of extraordinarily efficient energy conversion has been theoretically predicted2-4,14.

  16. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  17. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H J; Nesper, R [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  18. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three optically active defects are detected in mono- and polycrystal cubic boron nitride (β-BN). Analysis of intensity of temperature dependences, halfwidth and energy shift of 1.76 eV narrow phononless line (center GC-1) makes it possible to interprete the observed cathodoluminescence spectra an optical analog of the Moessbaner effect. Comparison of the obtained results with the known data for diamond monocrystals makes it possible to suggest that the detected center GC-1 is a nitrogen vacancy . The conclusion, concerning the Moessbauer optical spectra application, is made to analyze structural perfection of β-BN crystal lattice

  19. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  20. Chemistry and technology of boron and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigach, A.F.; Parfenov, B.P.; Svitsyn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of research dealing with development of technologies of boron trichloride, boron hydride, aminoderivative boron hydrides, metal borohydrides, carboranes, carborane-containing polymers, carried out at the institute of organoelemental compounds, are presented. Physicochemical properties of the compounds have been studied and analytical methods have been developed. Data on toxicity and fire hazard of boron compounds are provided

  1. Analysis of boron nitride by flame spectrometry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Chapysheva, G.Ya.; Shilkina, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for determination of free and total boron contents as well as trace impurities in boron nitride by using autoclave sample decomposition followed by atomic emission and atomic absorption determination. The relative standard deviation is not greater than 0.03 in the determination of free boron 0.012 in the determination of total boron content

  2. Study of ceramic mixed boron element as a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Samihah Mustaffha; Yusof Abdullah; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Nurliyana Abdullah; Hearie Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Shielding upon radiation should not be underestimated as it can causes hazard to health. Precautions on the released of radioactive materials should be well concerned and considered. Therefore, the combination of ceramic and boron make them very useful for shielding purpose in areas of low and intermediate neutron. A six grades of ceramic tile have been produced namely IMN05 - 5 % boron, IMN06 - 6 % boron, IMN07 - 7 % boron, IMN08 - 8 % boron, IMN09 - 9 % boron, IMN10 - 10 % boron from mixing, press and sintered process. Boron is a material that capable of absorbing and capturing neutron, so that neutron and gamma test were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of boron material in combination with ceramic as shielding. From the finding, percent reduction number of count per minute shows the ceramic tiles are capable to capture neutron. Apart from all the percentage of boron used, 10 % is the most effective shields since the percent reduction indicating greater neutron captured increased. (author)

  3. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  4. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B 10 and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B 10 content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data

  5. Cell cycle dependence of boron uptake in various boron compounds used for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, F.; Matsumura, A.; Shibata, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Nose, T.; Okumura, M.

    2000-01-01

    In neutron capture therapy, it is important that the tumor take boron in selectively. Furthermore, it is ideal when the uptake is equal in each tumor cell. Some indirect proof of differences in boron uptake among neoplastic cell cycles has been documented. However, no investigation has yet measured boron uptake directly. Using flow cytometry, in the present study cells were sorted by G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase, and the boron concentration of each fraction was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results were that BSH (sodiumborocaptate) and BPA (p-boronophenylalanine) had higher rates of boron uptake in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. However, in BPA the difference was more prominent, which revealed a 2.2-3.3 times higher uptake of boron in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. (author)

  6. The determination of boron and carbon in reactor grade boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.; Wood, A.J.; McInnes, C.A.J.; Jones, I.G.

    1978-09-01

    The sealed tube method of dissolution at high temperature and pressure has been successfully applied in the analysis of reactor grade boron carbide for the determination of boron. A 50 mg sample of boron carbide is completely dissolved by heating with concentrated nitric acid in a sealed tube at 300 0 C. The boron content of the resultant sample solution is determined by the mannitol potentiometric titration method. The precision of the method for the determination of 2.5 mg of boron using the Harwell automatic potentiometric titrator is 0.2% (coefficient of variation). The carbon content of a boron carbide sample is determined by combustion of the sample at 1050 0 C in a stream of oxygen using vanadium pentoxide to ensure the complete oxidation of the sample. The carbon dioxide produced from the sample is measured manometrically and the precision of the method for the determination of 4 mg of carbon is 0.4% (coefficient of variation). (author)

  7. Electron transport in a bilayer graphene/layered superconductor NbSe2 junction: effect of work function difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarimizu, Katsuhide; Tomori, Hikari; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    2018-03-01

    We have experimentally studied electron transport in a bilayer graphene (BLG)/layered superconductor NbSe2 junction encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride. The junction exhibits nonlinear current-voltage characteristics which strongly depend on the gate voltage around the charge neutrality point (CNP) of the BLG. Besides, we observe that the gate voltage dependence of electron transport in the BLG portion close to the junction interface is different from that of the BLG portion apart from the interface, indicating that the spatial variation of the Dirac point in the charge transfer region due to the difference in work function between superconductor and graphene needs to be considered in the analysis of the superconducting proximity effect.

  8. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  9. NbN tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegier, J.C.; Vieux-Rochaz, L.; Goniche, M.; Renard, P.; Vabre, M.

    1984-09-01

    All-niobium nitride Josephon junctions have been prepared successfully using a new processing called SNOP: Selective Niobium (nitride) Overlap Process. Such a process involves the ''trilayer'' deposition on the whole wafer before selective patterning of the electrodes by optically controlled dry reactive ion etching. Only two photomask levels are need to define an ''overlap'' or a ''cross-type'' junction with a good accuracy. The properties of the niobium nitride films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering and the surface oxide growth are analysed. The most critical point to obtain high quality and high gap value junctions resides in the early stage of the NbN counterelectrode growth. Some possibilities to overcome such a handicap exist even if the fabrication needs substrate temperatures below 250 0 C

  10. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain

  11. Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.

    2010-01-01

    to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of N-Type Zinc Oxide/P-Type Boron Doped Diamond Heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Marián; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Novotný, Ivan; Ižák, Tibor; Vojs, Marian; Kozak, Halyna; Varga, Marián; Artemenko, Anna; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and ZnO are very promising wide-bandgap materials for electronic, photovoltaic and sensor applications because of their excellent electrical, optical, physical and electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this contribution we show that the combination of these two materials opens up the potential for fabrication of bipolar heterojunctions. Semiconducting boron doped diamond (BDD) thin films were grown on Si and UV grade silica glass substrates by HFCVD method with various boron concentration in the gas mixture. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ge) thin layers were deposited by diode sputtering and pulsed lased deposition as the second semiconducting layer on the diamond films. The amount of dopants within the films was varied to obtain optimal semiconducting properties to form a bipolar p-n junction. Finally, different ZnO/BDD heterostructures were prepared and analyzed. Raman spectroscopy, SEM, Hall constant and I-V measurements were used to investigate the quality, structural and electrical properties of deposited heterostructures, respectively. I-V measurements of ZnO/BDD diodes show a rectifying ratio of 55 at ±4 V. We found that only very low dopant concentrations for both semiconducting materials enabled us to fabricate a functional p-n junction. Obtained results are promising for fabrication of optically transparent ZnO/BDD bipolar heterojunction.

  13. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  14. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balapanova, B.S.; Zhajmina, R.E.; Serazetdinov, D.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  15. Gravitation at the Josephson Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Atanasov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyperplane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility of transforming electric energy into geometric field energy, that is, curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.

  16. A comparative study of 30MeV boron4+ and 60MeV oxygen8+ ion irradiated Si NPN BJTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnaveni, S.; Yashoda, T.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Jayashree, B.; Ramani

    2015-01-01

    The impact of 30MeV boron 4+ and 60MeV oxygen 8+ ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of 2N3773 Si NPN Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is reported in the present study. The transistors were decapped and irradiated at room temperature. Gummel characteristics, DC current gain and Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were studied before and after irradiation at different fluences. DC current gain has decreased significantly in both boron and oxygen ion irradiation. Also the value of capacitance decreased 3-4 times with increase in fluence. Both 30MeV boron ion and 60MeV oxygen ion induced similar extent of degradation in electrical characteristics of the transistor

  17. Cathodoluminescence of cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Shipilo, V.B.; Zaitsev, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of optically active defect were observed in single-crystal and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (β-BN). An analysis of the temperature dependences of the intensity, half-width, and energy shift of a narrow zero-phonon line at 1.76 eV (GC-1 center) made it possible to interpret the observed cathodoluminescence spectra as an optical analog of the Moessbauer effect. A comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the available data on diamond single crystals made it possible to identify the observed GC-1 center as a nitrogen vacancy. It was concluded that optical Moessbauer-type spectra can be used to analyze structure defects in the crystal lattice of β-BN

  18. Behaviour of boron in Mandovi estuary (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.

    and alkalinity gave positive correlations with a linear variation. Though the overall behavioural pattern of boron indicated non-conservative nature, it showed a quasi-conservative character during premonsoon and a non-conservative during rest of the seasons...

  19. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s -1 and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.)

  20. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s{sup -1} and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.) 12 refs.

  1. Determination of boron in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazhulene, S.S.; Grossman, O.V.; Kuntscher, K.K.; Malygina, L.I.; Muller, E.N.; Telegin, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    In the determination of boron in amorphous alloys containingFe, Co, B, Si, Ni, and P having unusal magnetic and electrical properties, precise analysis and rapid analysis are necessary. To improve the metrological properties of the existing procedure, to find a rapid determination of boron in amorphous alloys, and to verify the accuracy of the results, in the present work the optimization of the photometric determination after extraction of the BF/sup -//sub 4/ ion pair with methylene blue has been studied, and a boron determination by flame photometry using selective methylation has been developed. The determination of boron by the flame photometric and spectrophotometric methods is shown. When a highly precise determination is needed, the spectrophotometric procedure can be used. This procedure is distinguished by its labor intensity and duration. When the need for reproducibility is less severe, the rapid flame photometric procedure is best.

  2. Boron adsorption on hematite and clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the suitability of boron as a potential reactive tracer for use in saturated-zone C-well reactive tracer studies for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Experiments were performed to identify the prevalent sorption mechanism of boron and to determine adsorption of boron on hematite and clinoptilolite as a function of pH. These minerals are present in the Yucca Mountain tuff in which the C-well studies will be conducted. Evaluation of this sorption mechanism was done by determining the equilibration time of boron-mineral suspensions, by measuring changes in equilibrium to titrations, and by measuring electrophoretic mobility. Experiments were performed with the minerals suspended in NaCl electrolytes of concentrations ranging from 0.1 N NaCl to 0.001 N NaCl. Experimentalconditions included pH values between 3 and 12 and temperature of about 38 degrees C

  3. Boron-isotope fractionation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marentes, E [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Vanderpool, R A [USDA/ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota (United States); Shelp, B J [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-10-15

    Naturally-occurring variations in the abundance of stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other elements in plants have been reported and are now used to understand various physiological processes in plants. Boron (B) isotopic variation in several plant species have been documented, but no determination as to whether plants fractionate the stable isotopes of boron, {sup 11}B and {sup 10}B, has been made. Here, we report that plants with differing B requirements (wheat, corn and broccoli) fractionated boron. The whole plant was enriched in {sup 11}B relative to the nutrient solution, and the leaves were enriched in {sup 10}B and the stem in {sup 11}B relative to the xylem sap. Although at present, a mechanistic role for boron in plants is uncertain, potential fractionating mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  4. Boron-isotope fractionation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marentes, E.; Vanderpool, R.A.; Shelp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally-occurring variations in the abundance of stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other elements in plants have been reported and are now used to understand various physiological processes in plants. Boron (B) isotopic variation in several plant species have been documented, but no determination as to whether plants fractionate the stable isotopes of boron, 11 B and 10 B, has been made. Here, we report that plants with differing B requirements (wheat, corn and broccoli) fractionated boron. The whole plant was enriched in 11 B relative to the nutrient solution, and the leaves were enriched in 10 B and the stem in 11 B relative to the xylem sap. Although at present, a mechanistic role for boron in plants is uncertain, potential fractionating mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  5. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  6. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauhari, I.; Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Superplastic boronizing. → Dual compression method has been developed. → Hard boride layer. → Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. → New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  7. Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhari, I., E-mail: iswadi@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof, H.A.M.; Saidan, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: {yields} Superplastic boronizing. {yields} Dual compression method has been developed. {yields} Hard boride layer. {yields} Bulk deformation was significantly thicker the boronized layer. {yields} New data on boronizing could be expanded the application of DSS in industries. - Abstract: In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a minimal amount of boron powder under a fix pre-strained compression condition throughout the process. The compression strain is controlled in such a way that plastic deformation is restricted at the surface asperities of the substrate in contact with the boron powder. In the second method, the boronized specimen taken from the first mode is compressed superplastically up to a certain compressive strain under a certain strain rate condition. The process in the second method is conducted without the present of boron powder. As compared with the conventional boronizing process, through this SPB under dual compression methods, a much harder and thicker boronized layer thickness is able to be produced using a minimal amount of boron powder.

  8. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-01-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to α and 7 Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by 10 B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient's dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here

  9. Boron-rich oligomers for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, M.; Perleberg, O.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of two BSH derivatives is described, which can be used for oligomerization in DNA-synthesizers. Synthesis pathways lead to final products in five and six steps, respectively. Because of chirality interesting results were expected. NMR-measurements confirm this expectation. Possible oligomers with high concentrations of boron can be attached to biomolecules. These oligomers can be explored with several imaging methods (EELS, PEM) to determine the lower detection limit of boron with these methods. (author)

  10. Rare earth-iron-boron premanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendehari, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnets containing added rare earth oxide, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a particulate alloy containing at least one rare earth metal, iron, and boron with at least one particulate rare earth oxide; (b) aligning magnetic domains of the mixture in a magnetic field; (c) compacting the aligned mixture to form a shape; and (d) sintering the compacted shape

  11. Quantitative analysis of boron by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayuelken, A.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Buchberger, T.

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative determination of boron in ores is a long process with chemical analysis techniques. As nuclear techniques like X-ray fluorescence and activation analysis are not applicable for boron, only the neutron radiography technique, using the high neutron absorption cross section of this element, can be applied for quantitative determinations. This paper describes preliminary tests and calibration experiments carried out at a 250 kW TRIGA reactor. (orig.) [de

  12. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The electronic structure of radial p-n junction silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shan-Haw; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    Silicon nanowires with radial p-n junctions have recently been suggested for photovoltaic applications because incident light can be absorbed along the entire length of the wire, while photogenerated carriers only need to diffuse a maximum of one radius to reach the p-n junction. If the differential of the potential is larger than the binding energy of the electron-hole pair and has a range larger than the Bohr radius of electron-hole pair, then the charge separation mechanism will be similar to traditional silicon solar cells. However, in the small-diameter limit, where quantum confinement effects are prominent, both the exciton binding energy and the potential drop will increase, and the p-n junction itself may have a dramatically different character. We present ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of silicon nanowires with 2-3 nm diameter in the [111] growth direction. A radial p-n junction was formed by symmetrically doping boron and phosphorous at the same vertical level along the axis of the nanowire. The competition between the slope and character of the radial electronic potential and the exciton binding energy will presented in the context of a charge separation mechanism.

  14. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  15. Boronization on NSTX using Deuterated Trimethylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.R.; Gernhardt, R.C.; Kugel, H.W.; LaMarche, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Boronization on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has proved to be quite beneficial with increases in confinement and density, and decreases in impurities observed in the plasma. The boron has been applied to the interior surfaces of NSTX, about every 2 to 3 weeks of plasma operation, by producing a glow discharge in the vacuum vessel using deuterated trimethylboron (TMB) in a 10% mixture with helium. Special NSTX requirements restricted the selection of the candidate boronization method to the use of deuterated boron compounds. Deuterated TMB met these requirements, but is a hazardous gas and special care in the execution of the boronization process is required. This paper describes the existing GDC, Gas Injection, and Torus Vacuum Pumping System hardware used for this process, the glow discharge process, and the automated control system that allows for remote operation to maximize both the safety and efficacy of applying the boron coating. The administrative requirements and the detailed procedure for the setup, operation and shutdown of the process are also described

  16. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  17. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  18. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current depe...

  19. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.

    2015-12-17

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  20. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  1. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  3. Research of boron conversion coating in neutron detector with boron deposited GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Di; Sun Zhijia; Zhou Jianrong; Wang Yanfeng; Yang Guian; Xu Hong; Chen Yuanbai; Xiao Yu; Diao Xungang

    2014-01-01

    GEM is a flourishing new gas detector and nowadays its technology become more mature. It has outstanding properties, such as excellent position resolution, high counting rate, radiation resistance, simple and flexible signal readout, can be large-area detector, wide application range. Detector with boron deposited GEM uses multilayer GEM with deposited boron film as neutron conversion carrier which reads out the information of neutron shot from the readout electrode with gas amplification from every GEM layer. The detector is high performance which can meet the demands of neutron detector of a new generation. Boron deposited neutron conversion electrode with boron deposited cathode and GEM included is the core part of the detector. As boron is a high-melting-point metalloid (> 2 000 ℃), electroplating and thermal evaporation are inappropriate ways. So finding a way to deposit boron on electrode which can meet the demands become a key technology in the development of neutron detector with boron deposited GEM. Compared with evaporation, sputtering has features such as low deposition temperature, high film purity, nice adhesive, thus is appropriate for our research. Magnetron sputtering is a improved way of sputtering which can get lower sputtering air pressure and higher target voltage, so that we can get better films. Through deposit process, the research uses magnetron sputtering to deposit pure boron film on copper electrode and GEM film. This method can get high quality, nice adhere, high purity, controllable uniformity, low cost film with high speed film formation. (authors)

  4. The study of high-boron steel and high-boron cast iron used for shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xuerong; Lu Jixin; Wen Yaozeng; Wang Zhaishu; Cheng Jiantin; Cheng Wen; Shun Danqi; Yu Jinmu

    1996-12-01

    The smelting, forging, heat-treatment technology and the mechanical properties of three kinds of high-boron steels (type 1: 0.5% boron; type 2: 0.5% boron and 4% or 2% nickel; type 3: 0.5% boron, 0.5% nickel and 0.5% molybdenum) were studied. The test results show that the technology for smelting, forging and heat-treatment (1050 degree C/0.5 h water cooled + 810 degree C/1 h oil cooled) in laboratory is feasible. Being sensitive to notch, the impact toughness of high-boron steel type 1 is not steady and can not meet the technology requirements on mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of both high-boron steel type 2 and type 3 can meet the technological requirements. The smelting technology of high-boron casting iron containing 0.5% boron was researched. The tests show that this casting iron can be smelted in laboratory and its properties can basically satisfy the technology requirements. (10 refs., 6 figs., 11 tab.)

  5. Real-time boronization in PBX-M using erosion of solid boronized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Tighe, W.; Hirooka, Y.

    1994-11-01

    Thirty one real-time boronizations were applied to PBX-M using the plasma erosion of solid target probes. More than 17 g of boron were deposited in PBX-M using this technique. The probes were positioned at the edge plasma to optimize vaporization and minimize spallation. Auger depth profile analysis of poloidal and toroidal deposition sample coupon arrays indicate that boron was transported by the plasma around the torus and deep into the divertors. During discharges with continuous real-time boronization, low-Z and high-Z impurities decreased rapidly as plasma surfaces were covered during the first 20-30 discharges. After boronization, a short-term improvement in plasma conditions persisted prior to significant boron erosion from plasma surfaces, and a longer term, but less significant improvement persisted as boron farther from the edge continued gettering. Real-time solid target boronization has been found to be very effective for accelerating conditioning to new regimes and maintaining high performance plasma conditions

  6. Effect of the reinforced boron carbide particulate content of AA6061 alloy on formation of the passive film in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katkar, V.A.; Gunasekaran, G.; Rao, A.G.; Koli, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Presence of boron carbide increases the corrosion rate of A6061 alloy in seawater. → Increasing the B 4 C content decreases passive layer thickness. → Passive films formed on A6061 and its B 4 C composites are n-type semiconductors. - Abstract: The effect of boron carbide (B 4 C) reinforcement on the corrosion of AA6061 alloy was studied by investigating passive films formed in seawater. The higher passive current and its potential-dependence for these composites indicated formation of porous passive film. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) graph suggests that the alloy surface is partly or totally active. The formed passive film is n-type semiconductor junction in nature. The difference between corrosion potential (E corr ) and potential at zero charge (PZC) suggests that the chloride ions responsible for film breakdown exist within the passive film. A suitable mechanism is proposed for the passive film breakdown.

  7. Radiation effects on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of advanced p-n junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyai, A.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.; Hayama, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ohyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of 20 MeV proton irradiation on the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of different geometry n + -p-well junction diodes surrounded by shallow trench isolation and processed in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. From I-V characteristics, a higher current damage coefficient was found for the bulk than for the peripheral component. The radiation-induced boron de-activation resulted in a lowering of the p-well doping, which has been derived from high-frequency C-V measurements. This was confirmed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, revealing the presence of interstitial boron related radiation defects. As will be demonstrated for the bulk leakage-current damage coefficient, the electric field enhanced generation rate of charge carriers and the radiation-induced boron de-activation should be accounted for properly

  8. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  9. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  10. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  11. Biodistribution, toxicity and efficacy of a boronated porphyrin for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.; Slatkin, D.; Gabel, D.

    1992-01-01

    Boron-containing porphyrins may be useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of brain tumors. Porphyrins have been shown to accumulate in tumor tissue and to be essentially excluded from normal brain. However, problems of toxicity may prevent some boron-containing porphyrins from being considered for BNCT. The authors have synthesized the boronated porphyrin 2,4-bis-vinyl-o-nidocarboranyl-deuteroporphyrin IX (VCDP). Preliminary studies in tumor-bearing mice showed considerable uptake of boron at a total dose of 150 μg/gbw with low mortality. They now report that a total dose to mice of ∼ 275 μg VCDP/gbw administered in multiple intraperitoneal (ip) injections can provide 40-50μg B per gram of tumor with acceptable toxicity. Toxicity experiments and a preliminary trial of BNCT in mice given such doses are also reported

  12. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots.

  13. Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.

    2015-03-01

    Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.

  14. Method of manufacturing Josephson junction integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jillie, D.W. Jr.; Smith, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Josephson junction integrated circuits of the current injection type and magnetically controlled type utilize a superconductive layer that forms both Josephson junction electrode for the Josephson junction devices on the integrated circuit as well as a ground plane for the integrated circuit. Large area Josephson junctions are utilized for effecting contact to lower superconductive layers and islands are formed in superconductive layers to provide isolation between the groudplane function and the Josephson junction electrode function as well as to effect crossovers. A superconductor-barrier-superconductor trilayer patterned by local anodization is also utilized with additional layers formed thereover. Methods of manufacturing the embodiments of the invention are disclosed

  15. Boron-containing thioureas for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketz, H.

    1993-01-01

    Melanin is produced in large amounts in malignant melanotic melanomas. Because thiourea compounds are covalently incorporated into melanin during its biosynthesis, the preparation of boronated thiourea-derivatives is of particular interest for the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). Accumulation of boron in tumors by means of boronated thiourea-derivatives may therefore provide levels of 10 B which are useful for BNCT. In BNCT the tumor containing the boron compound is irradiated with epithermal neutrons to generate He- and Li-nuclei from the 10 B which can then destroy the tumor cells. Because of the short ranges of these particles (approximately one cell diameter) the damage will be almost exclusively confined to the tumor leaving normal tissue unharmed. High accumulation of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole) in melanotic melanomas has been described in the literature. Boronated derivatives of methimazole were therefore synthesized. Boron was in the form of a boronic acid, a nido-carbonate and a mercaptoundeca hydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH). The synthesis of the boron cluster derivatives of methimazole (nido-carborate- and BSH-derivatives) with 9 resp. 12 boron atoms in the molecule were expected to achieve higher concentrations of boron in the tumor than in the case of the boronic acid compound with its single boron atom. (orig.) [de

  16. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  17. Flexible 2D layered material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.

    2018-03-01

    Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.

  18. Boron removal in radioactive liquid waste by forward osmosis membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doo Seong Hwang; Hei Min Choi; Kune Woo Lee; Jei Kwon Moon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the treatment of boric acid contained in liquid radioactive waste using a forward osmosis membrane. The boron permeation through the membrane depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7 and increases with an increase of the osmotic driving force. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but is not heavily influenced by a low salt concentration. The boron flux increases linearly with the concentration of boron. No element except for boron was permeated through the FO membrane in the multi-component system. The maximum boron flux is obtained in an active layer facing a draw solution orientation of the CTA-ES membrane under conditions of less than pH 7 and high osmotic pressure. (authors)

  19. 15th International Conference on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 121 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * boron * boron materials * carboranes * IMEBORON XV * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Structure prediction of boron-doped graphene by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Dieb, Thaer; Hou, Zhufeng; Tsuda, Koji

    2018-06-01

    Heteroatom doping has endowed graphene with manifold aspects of material properties and boosted its applications. The atomic structure determination of doped graphene is vital to understand its material properties. Motivated by the recently synthesized boron-doped graphene with relatively high concentration, here we employ machine learning methods to search the most stable structures of doped boron atoms in graphene, in conjunction with the atomistic simulations. From the determined stable structures, we find that in the free-standing pristine graphene, the doped boron atoms energetically prefer to substitute for the carbon atoms at different sublattice sites and that the para configuration of boron-boron pair is dominant in the cases of high boron concentrations. The boron doping can increase the work function of graphene by 0.7 eV for a boron content higher than 3.1%.

  1. Boron: out of the sky and onto the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Now an accepted, engineered material for aerospace applications, boron is taking its place on the ground. Both current production applications, prototype (development) applications, and speculative applications abound. In the leisure product market, boron epoxy or boron aluminum has been used or tried in golf clubs (in combination with graphite epoxy or to reinforce aluminum or steel), in tennis racquets, in bicycles, racing shells, skis and skipoles, bows and arrows, and others. In the industrial area, boron has been used to reduce fatigue, increase stiffness, or for its abrasive properties. Textile machinery, honing tools, and cut off wheels or saws are among the applications. In the medical field, prosthetics and orthotic braces, wheel chairs, canes, and crutches are all good applications for boron. Applications for boron in transportation, construction, and heavy industry are also possible. The volume of boron used in these applications could have a major impact on prices, making boron composite parts cost competitive with conventional materials. (U.S.)

  2. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    , this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous

  3. Josephson junctions and circle maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, P; Bohr, T; Jensen, M H; Christiansen, P V

    1984-01-01

    The return map of a differential equation for the current driven Josephson junction, or the damped driven pendulum, is shown numerically to be a circle map. Phase locking, noise and hysteresis, can thus be understood in a simple and coherent way. The transition to chaos is related to the development of a cubic inflection point. Recent theoretical results on universal behavior at the transition to chaos can readily be checked experimentally by studying I-V characteristics. 17 references, 1 figure.

  4. Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.

  5. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  6. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  7. Boron tolerance in NS wheat lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for higher plants. Present in excessive amounts boron becomes toxic and can limit plant growth and yield. Suppression of root growth is one of the symptoms of boron toxicity in wheat. This study was undertaken to investigate the response of 10 perspective NS lines of wheat to high concentrations of boron. Analysis of root growth was done on young plants, germinated and grown in the presence of different concentrations of boric acid (0, 50,100 and 150 mg/1. Significant differences occurred between analyzed genotypes and treatments regarding root length. Average suppression of root growth was between 11,6 and 34,2%, for line NS 252/02 are even noted 61,4% longer roots at treatments in relation to the control. Lines with mean suppression of root growth less than 20% (NS 101/02, NS 138/01, NS 53/03 and NS 73/02 may be considered as boron tolerant. Spearmans coefficients showed high level of agreement regarding rang of root length for genotypes treated with 100 and 150 mg H3BO3/l.

  8. Hot ductility behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study analyses the influence of boron contents (between 29 and 105 ppm) on the hot ductility of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, hot tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures (700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C) at a constant true strain rate of 0.001 s -1 . In general, results revealed an improvement of the hot ductility of steels at increasing boron content. At 700, 900 and 1000 deg. C the ductility is higher than at 800 deg. C, where boron microalloyed steels exhibit a region of ductility loss (trough region). Likewise, dynamic recrystallization only occurred at 900 and 1000 deg. C. The fracture surfaces of the tested steels at temperatures giving the high temperature ductility regime show that the fracture mode is a result of ductile failure, whereas it is ductile-brittle failure in the trough region. Results are discussed in terms of dynamic recrystallization and boron segregation towards austenite grain boundaries, which may retard the formation of pro-eutectoid ferrite and increase grain boundary cohesion

  9. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  10. Determination of free carbon content in boron carbide ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Lima, N.B. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1990-01-01

    Boron carbide is a ceramic material of technological importance due to its hardness and high chemical and thermal stabilities. Free carbon is always found as a process dependent impurity in boron carbide. The development of procedures for its detection is required because its presence leads to a degradation of the boron carbide properties. In this work, several procedures for determining free carbon content in boron carbide specimens are reported and discussed for comparison purposes. (author) [pt

  11. Porous silicon formation by hole injection from a back side p+/n junction for electrical insulation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fèvre, A; Menard, S; Defforge, T; Gautier, G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study the formation of porous silicon (PS) in low doped (1 × 10 14 cm −3 ) n-type silicon through hole injection from a back side p + /n junction in the dark. This technique is investigated within the framework of electrical insulation. Three different types of junctions are investigated. The first one is an epitaxial n-type layer grown on p + doped silicon wafer. The two other junctions are carried out by boron diffusion leading to p + regions with junction depths of 20 and 115 μm. The resulting PS morphology is a double layer with a nucleation layer (NL) and macropores fully filled with mesoporous material. This result is unusual for low doped n-type silicon. Morphology variations are described depending on the junction formation process, the electrolyte composition, the anodization current density and duration. In order to validate the more interesting industrial potentialities of the p + /n injection technique, a comparison is achieved with back side illumination in terms of resulting morphology and experiments confirm comparable results. Electrical characterizations of the double layer, including NL and fully filled macropores, are then performed. To our knowledge, this is the first electrical investigation in low doped n type silicon with this morphology. Compared to the bulk silicon, the measured electrical resistivities are 6–7 orders of magnitude higher at 373 K. (paper)

  12. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  13. The effects of boron management on soil microbial population and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microorganisms directly influence boron content of soil as maximum boron release corresponds with the highest microbial activity. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different levels of boron fertilizer on microbial population, microbial respiration and soil enzyme activities in different soil depths in ...

  14. Oxidation of boron carbide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of various types of boron carbides (pellets, powder) were investigated in the temperature range between 1073 and 1873 K. Oxidation rates were measured in transient and isothermal tests by means of mass spectrometric gas analysis. Oxidation of boron carbide is controlled by the formation of superficial liquid boron oxide and its loss due to the reaction with surplus steam to volatile boric acids and/or direct evaporation at temperatures above 1770 K. The overall reaction kinetics is paralinear. Linear oxidation kinetics established soon after the initiation of oxidation under the test conditions described in this report. Oxidation is strongly influenced by the thermohydraulic boundary conditions and in particular by the steam partial pressure and flow rate. On the other hand, the microstructure of the B 4 C samples has a limited influence on oxidation. Very low amounts of methane were produced in these tests

  15. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  16. Depth resolved investigations of boron implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztucki, M.; Metzger, T. H.; Milita, S.; Berberich, F.; Schell, N.; Rouvière, J. L.; Patel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the depth distribution and structure of defects in boron implanted silicon (0 0 1). Silicon wafers were implanted with a boron dose of 6×10 15 ions/cm -2 at 32 keV and went through different annealing treatments. Using diffuse X-ray scattering at grazing incidence and exit angles we are able to distinguish between different kinds of defects (point defect clusters and extrinsic stacking faults on {1 1 1} planes) and to determine their depth distribution as a function of the thermal budget. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to gain complementary information. In addition we have determined the strain distribution caused by the boron implantation as a function of depth from rocking curve measurements.

  17. Radiation hardening of MOS devices by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1975-01-01

    A novel technique is disclosed for radiation hardening of MOS devices and specifically for stabilizing the gate threshold potential at room temperature of a radiation subjected MOS field-effect device of the type having a semiconductor substrate, an insulating layer of oxide on the substrate, and a gate electrode disposed on the insulating layer. In the preferred embodiment, the novel inventive technique contemplates the introduction of boron into the insulating oxide, the boron being introduced within a layer of the oxide of about 100A to 300A thickness immediately adjacent the semiconductor-insulator interface. The concentration of boron in the oxide layer is preferably maintained on the order of 10 atoms/ cm 3 . The novel technique serves to reduce and substantially annihilate radiation induced positive gate charge accumulations, which accumulations, if not eliminated, would cause shifting of the gate threshold potential of a radiation subjected MOS device, and thus render the device unstable and/or inoperative. (auth)

  18. BC-454 boron-loaded plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Prototype samples of plastic scintillators containing up to 10% by weight of natural boron have been produced. The maximum size scintillators made to date are 28 mm dia. x 100 mm long. Rods containing up to 2% boron are now made routinely and work is progressing on higher concentrations. The plastics are clear and emit the same blue fluorescence as other common plastic scintillators. It is expected that rods up to 3'' dia. containing 5% boron will be produced during the next few months. BC-454 is particularly useful in neutron research, materials studies, some types of neutron dosimetry, and monitoring of medium to high energy neutrons in the presence of other types radiation. It combines attractive features that enhance its usefulness to the physics community

  19. On the Mechanism of Boron Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, D. G.; Dreizin, E. L.; Felder, W.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    1997-01-01

    Boron filaments were electrically heated in air and argon/oxygen mixtures while their resistance, temperature, and radiation at the wavelengths of BO and BO2 bands were monitored. The filaments 'burned' in two distinct stages. Samples of the filaments were quenched at different times before and during the burning and analyzed using electron microscopy. The beginning of the first stage combustion characterized by a local resistance minimum, a sharp spike in boron oxide radiation emission, and a rapid rise in temperature, occurred at 1500 +/- 70 deg. C, independent of pre-heating history and oxygen content (540%) in the gas environment. The data suggest that a phase transition occurs in the filaments at this temperature that triggers stage one combustion. Significant amounts of oxygen were found inside quenched filaments. Large spherical voids formed in the boron filaments during their second stage combustion which is interpreted to indicate a crucial role for the gas dissolution processes in the combustion scenario.

  20. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Peterson, P.L.; Winters, J.

    1992-01-01

    A system has been added to the DIII-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose f the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the DIII-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in DIII-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime

  1. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Winter, J.

    1991-09-01

    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  2. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron nitride nanotubes for spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Pati, Ranjit

    2014-09-22

    With the end of Moore's law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  4. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  5. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  6. Proton linacs for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1993-08-01

    Recent advances in the ability to deliver boron-containing drugs to brain tumors have generated interest in ∼4 MeV linacs as sources of epithermal neutrons for radiation therapy. In addition, fast neutron therapy facilities have been studying methods to moderate their beams to take advantage of the high cross section for epithermal neutrons on boron-10. This paper describes the technical issues involved in each approach and presents the motivation for undertaking such studies using the Fermilab linac. the problems which must be solved before therapy can begin are outlined. Status of preparatory work and results of preliminary measurements are presented

  7. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.

    1969-01-01

    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  8. Designing your boron-charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1979-01-01

    High-pressure positive-displacement pumps used in the boron-charging setups of pressurized-water (PWR) nuclear plants because of their inherently high efficiencies over a wide range of pressures and speeds are described. Hydrogen-saturated water containing 4-12% boric acid is fed to the pump from a volume-control tank under a gas blanket. Complicated piping and the pulsation difficulties associated with reciprocating pumps make hydrogen-saturated boron-charging systems a challenge to the designer. The article describes the unusual hydraulics of the systems to help assure a trouble-free design

  9. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  10. Model for calculating the boron concentration in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Martins Junior, L.L. dos; Vanni, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A PWR boron concentration model has been developed for use with RETRAN code. The concentration model calculates the boron mass balance in the primary circuit as the injected boron mixes and is transported through the same circuit. RETRAN control blocks are used to calculate the boron concentration in fluid volumes during steady-state and transient conditions. The boron reactivity worth is obtained from the core concentration and used in RETRAN point kinetics model. A FSAR type analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident in Angra I plant was selected to test the model and the results obtained indicate a sucessfull performance. (Author) [pt

  11. Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.

  12. Hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refai, T.F.; Shehata, L.N.

    1988-09-01

    The resistively and capacitive shunted junction model is used to investigate hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions. Two empirical formulas that relate the hysteresis width and the quasi-particle diffusion length in terms of the junctions electrical parameters, temperature and frequency are obtained. The obtained formulas provide a simple tool to investigate the full potentials of the hysteresis phenomena. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  13. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...

  14. Loss models for long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....

  15. Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed

  16. Superconducting flux qubits with π-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a fabrication technology of Al/AlO x /Al Josephson junctions on Nb pads. The described technology gives the possibility of combining a variety of Nb-based superconducting circuits, like pi-junction phase-shifters with sub-micron Al/AlO x /Al junctions. Using this approach, we fabricated hybrid Nb/Al flux qubits with and without the SFS-junctions and studied dispersive magnetic field response of these qubits as well as their spectroscopy characteristics.

  17. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Boron Homeostasis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshinari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential element for plants but is toxic in excess. Therefore, plants must adapt to both limiting and excess boron conditions for normal growth. Boron transport in plants is primarily based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane: passive diffusion of boric acid, facilitated diffusion of boric acid via channels, and export of borate anion via transporters. Under boron -limiting conditions, boric acid channels and borate exporters function in the uptake and translocation of boron to support growth of various plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP5;1 and BOR1 are located in the plasma membrane and polarized toward soil and stele, respectively, in various root cells, for efficient transport of boron from the soil to the stele. Importantly, sufficient levels of boron induce downregulation of NIP5;1 and BOR1 through mRNA degradation and proteolysis through endocytosis, respectively. In addition, borate exporters, such as Arabidopsis BOR4 and barley Bot1, function in boron exclusion from tissues and cells under conditions of excess boron. Thus, plants actively regulate intracellular localization and abundance of transport proteins to maintain boron homeostasis. In this review, the physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms of intracellular localization and abundance of boron transport proteins are discussed.

  18. Nuclear radiation detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervisch, V.; Issa, F.; Ottaviani, L.; Lazar, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Szalkai, D.; Klix, A.; Lyoussi, A.; Vermeeren, L.; Hallen, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device detector based on ion implanted p-n junction in 4H-SiC for nuclear instrumentation. We showed the interest to use 10 Boron as a Neutron Converter Layer in order to detect thermal neutrons. We present the main results obtained during irradiation tests performed in the Belgian Reactor 1. We show the capability of our detector by means of first results of the detector response at different reverse voltage biases and at different reactor power (authors)

  19. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  20. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1989-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of gliomas and glioblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment of levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 S H must be known in several compartments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumin was established. This method is simples, reproducible and has adequate sensitivity for this control. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Boron uptake measurements in a rat model for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.i [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J.G. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Gadan, M.A. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Protti, N.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Cansolino, L.; Zonta, C.; Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 27100 Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the Western countries. Despite the introduction over the last few years of new therapeutic agents, survival from lung cancer has shown no discernible improvement in the last 20 years. For these reasons any efforts to find and validate new effective therapeutic procedures for lung cancer are very timely. The selective boron uptake in the tumour with respect to healthy tissues makes Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a potentially advantageous option in the treatment of tumours that affect whole vital organs, and that are surgically inoperable. To study the possibility of applying BNCT to the treatment of diffuse pulmonary tumours, an animal model for boron uptake measurements in lung metastases was developed. Both healthy and tumour-bearing rats were infused with Boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sacrificed at different time intervals after drug administration. The lungs were extracted, and prepared for boron analysis by neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectroscopy. The boron concentrations in tumour and normal lung were plotted as a function of the time elapsed after BPA administration. The concentration in tumour is almost constant within the error bars for all the time intervals of the experiment (1-8 h), while the curve in normal lung decreases after 4 h from BPA infusion. At 4 h, the ratio of boron concentration in tumour to boron concentration in healthy lung is higher than 3, and it stays above this level up to 8 h. Also the images of boron distribution in the samples, obtained by neutron autoradiography, show a selective absorption in the metastases.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of boron compounds containing two-, three- and four-coordinate boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrackmeyer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of boron chemistry on various areas of research in inorganic, organic and theoretical chemistry is well documented. In fact, many models presently employed to describe chemical bonding in general can be traced to attempts to understand bonding in boranes. The confirmation of many theoretical predictions in boron chemistry relies on direct and indirect structural information provided by various physical methods that - fortunately - became available almost at the same rate as that with which the interest in boron compounds was growing. Clearly, there has always been a strong link between the interest in synthesis and the application of physical methods. As in many other areas of chemistry, developments in boron chemistry have been greatly accelerated by NMR. 11 B NMR has been at the center of interest from the beginning, accompanied by routine 1 H NMR measurements, and occasional 14 N, 19 F and 31 P NMR work. In the last 12 years, we have seen an increasing number of 13 C NMR studies of boron compounds. The availability of multinuclear facilities for PFT NMR spectrometers stimulates the measurement of the NMR spectra of other nuclei, like 29 Si, 119 Sn or other metals, in order to obtain additional information. This paper is intended to serve several purposes: to update previous reviews on 11 B NMR of boron compounds, to demonstrate some applications of multinuclear NMR to boron chemistry; to attempt to incorporate new NMR parameters into the known data set; and to summarize the experimental facts required for obtaining the maximum information from NMR studies on boron compounds

  3. ICP-MS determination of boron: method optimization during preparation of graphite reference material for boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granthali, S.K.; Shailaja, P.P.; Mainsha, V.; Venkatesh, K.; Kallola, K.S.; Sanjukta, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Graphite finds widespread use in nuclear reactors as moderator, reflector, and fuel fabricating components because of its thermal stability and integrity. The manufacturing process consists of various mixing, moulding and baking operations followed by heat-treatment between 2500 °C and 3000 °C. The high temperature treatment is required to drive the amorphous carbon-to-graphite phase transformation. Since synthetic graphite is processed at high temperature, impurity concentrations in the precursor carbon get significantly reduced due to volatilization. However boron may might partly gets converted into boron carbide at high temperatures in the carbon environment of graphite and remains stable (B_4C: boiling point 3500 °C) in the matrix. Literature survey reveals the use of various methods for determination of boron. Previously we have developed a method for determination of boron in graphite electrodes using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method involves removal of graphite matrix by ignition of the sample at 800°C in presence of saturated barium hydroxide solution to prevent the loss of boron. Here we are reporting a modification in the method by using calcium carbonate in place of barium hydroxide and using beryllium (Be) as an internal standard, which resulted in a better precession. The method was validated by spike recovery experiments as well as using another technique viz. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The modified method was applied in evaluation of boron concentration in the graphite reference material prepared

  4. Boron exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and birth size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igra, Annachiara Malin; Harari, Florencia; Lu, Ying; Casimiro, Esperanza; Vahter, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Boron is a metalloid found at highly varying concentrations in soil and water. Experimental data indicate that boron is a developmental toxicant, but the few human toxicity data available concern mostly male reproduction. To evaluate potential effects of boron exposure through drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n=194), 1-3 samples of serum, whole blood and urine were collected per woman during pregnancy and analyzed for boron and other elements to which exposure occurred, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth. Drinking water boron ranged 377-10,929μg/L. The serum boron concentrations during pregnancy ranged 0.73-605μg/L (median 133μg/L) and correlated strongly with whole-blood and urinary boron, and, to a lesser extent, with water boron. In multivariable-adjusted linear spline regression analysis (non-linear association), we found that serum boron concentrations above 80μg/L were inversely associated with birth length (B-0.69cm, 95% CI -1.4; -0.024, p=0.043, per 100μg/L increase in serum boron). The impact of boron appeared stronger when we restricted the exposure to the third trimester, when the serum boron concentrations were the highest (0.73-447μg/L). An increase in serum boron of 100μg/L in the third trimester corresponded to 0.9cm shorter and 120g lighter newborns (p=0.001 and 0.021, respectively). Considering that elevated boron concentrations in drinking water are common in many areas of the world, although more screening is warranted, our novel findings warrant additional research on early-life exposure in other populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Boron nitride nanosheets reinforced glass matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saggar, Richa; Porwal, H.; Tatarko, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S26-S32 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK155 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Boron nitride nanosheets * Borosilicate glass * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2015

  6. Boron-doped manganese dioxide for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hong Zhong; Li, Yuwei; Xin, Yingxu; Qin, Haiying

    2014-11-11

    The addition of boron as a dopant during the reaction between carbon fiber and permanganate led to significant enhancement of the growth-rate and formation of the porous framework. The doped MnO2 was superior to the pristine sample as electrode materials for supercapacitors in terms of the specific capacitance and rate capability.

  7. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  8. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  9. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY - Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  10. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  11. New insight into pecan boron nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...

  12. Joining of boron carbide using nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosughi, A.; Hadian, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbide ceramics such as boron carbide due to their unique properties such as low density, high refractoriness, and high strength to weight ratio have many applications in different industries. This study focuses on direct bonding of boron carbide for high temperature applications using nickel interlayer. The process variables such as bonding time, temperature, and pressure have been investigated. The microstructure of the joint area was studied using electron scanning microscope technique. At all the bonding temperatures ranging from 1150 to 1300 d eg C a reaction layer formed across the ceramic/metal interface. The thickness of the reaction layer increased by increasing temperature. The strength of the bonded samples was measured using shear testing method. The highest strength value obtained was about 100 MPa and belonged to the samples bonded at 1250 for 75 min bonding time. The strength of the joints decreased by increasing the bonding temperature above 1250 d eg C . The results of this study showed that direct bonding technique along with nickel interlayer can be successfully utilized for bonding boron carbide ceramic to itself. This method may be used for bonding boron carbide to metals as well.

  13. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  14. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  15. Reaction of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, A.V.; Melekhin, V.F.; Pegov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation results of interaction in the B 4 C-MoSi 2 system during sintering in vacuum are presented. Sintering of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide is shown to lead to the formation of MoB 2 , SiC, Mo 5 Si 3 compounds, the presence of carbon-containing covering plays an important role in sintering

  16. Crystal structure of isomeric boron difluoride acetylnaphtholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukvetskij, B.V.; Fedorenko, E.V.; Mirochnik, A.G.; Karasev, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crystal structures of luminescent isomeric acetylnaphtholates of boron difluoride are investigated. Full X-ray structural analysis is done at 293 K. Coordinated of atoms, bond angles, bond lengths, interatomic distances are determined. Results of comparative evaluations of the isomers are represented [ru

  17. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author addresses the question of single session versus protracted therapy in the application of boron neutron therapy to tumors. As background he discusses the reasoning behind the current use of fractionated therapy with conventional low-LET radiations and difference which may obtain for neutron therapy. Several aspects of dose rates and dose levels are then addressed

  18. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  19. Boron diffusion in Ge+ premorphized and BF2 implanted Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.F.; Acosta-Ortiz, S.E.; Zou, L.X.; Regalado, L.E.; Sun, D.Z.; Wang, Z.G.

    1998-01-01

    The annealing behavior of Si implanted with Ge and then BF 2 has been characterized by double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The results show that annealing at 600 Centigrade for 60 minutes can only remove a little damage induced by implantation and nearly no redistribution of Ge and B atoms has occurred during the annealing. The initial crystallinity of Si is fully recovered after annealing at 950 Centigrade for 60 minutes and accompanied by Ge diffusion. Very shallow boron junction depth has been formed. When annealing temperature rises to 1050 Centigrade, B diffusion enhances, which leads to a deep diffusion and good distribution of B atoms into the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction (004) rocking curves from the samples annealed at 1050 Centigrade for 60 minutes display two Si Ge peaks, which may be related to the B concentration profiles. (Author)

  20. Linker-dependent Junction Formation Probability in Single-Molecule Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Kim, Taekyeong [HankukUniversity of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We compare the junction formation probabilities of single-molecule junctions with different linker molecules by using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We found that the junction formation probability varies as SH > SMe > NH2 for the benzene backbone molecule with different types of anchoring groups, through quantitative statistical analysis. These results are attributed to different bonding forces according to the linker groups formed with Au atoms in the electrodes, which is consistent with previous works. Our work allows a better understanding of the contact chemistry in the metal.molecule junction for future molecular electronic devices.

  1. Cavity syncronisation of underdamped Josephson junction arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, P.; Filatrella, G.; Lobb, C.

    2003-01-01

    the junctions in the array and an electromagnetic cavity. Here we show that a model of a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonator can produce many features of the coherent be havior above threshold, including coherent radiation of power and the shape of the array current...

  2. Functional anatomy of the human ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The valve function of the ureterovesical-junction (UVJ) is responsible for protection of the low pressure upper urinary tract from the refluxing of urine from the bladder. Controversy about the microanatomy of the human ureterovesical-junction persists. METHODS: Ten (3 male and 7 female)

  3. Spin, Vibrations and Radiation in Superconducting Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padurariu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the theoretical study of superconducting transport in several devices based on superconducting junctions. The important feature of these devices is that the transport properties of the junction are modified by the interaction with another physical system integrated in the

  4. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  5. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values i...

  6. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... experiment showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, ... Studies of connexins show that channel gating and permeability .... have found that connexin assembled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% ..... high glucose reduces gap junction activity in microvascular endothelial cells.

  7. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUAN CHEN

    2017-12-20

    Dec 20, 2017 ... showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, which indicates that the gap junction intercellular ... permeability could be affected by alterations of charged residues of .... bled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% Triton ..... regulation of connexin 43 expression by high glucose reduces.

  8. Plasma immersion ion implantation of boron for ribbon silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbouz K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report for the first time on the solar cell fabrication on n-type silicon RST (for Ribbon on Sacrificial Template using plasma immersion ion implantation. The experiments were also carried out on FZ silicon as a reference. Boron was implanted at energies from 10 to 15 kV and doses from 1015 to 1016 cm-2, then activated by a thermal annealing in a conventional furnace at 900 and 950 °C for 30 min. The n+ region acting as a back surface field was achieved by phosphorus spin-coating. The frontside boron emitter was passivated either by applying a 10 nm deposited SiOX plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD or with a 10 nm grown thermal oxide. The anti-reflection coating layer formed a 60 nm thick SiNX layer. We show that energies less than 15 kV and doses around 5 × 1015 cm-2 are appropriate to achieve open circuit voltage higher than 590 mV and efficiency around 16.7% on FZ-Si. The photovoltaic performances on ribbon silicon are so far limited by the bulk quality of the material and by the quality of the junction through the presence of silicon carbide precipitates at the surface. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that plasma immersion ion implantation is very promising for solar cell fabrication on ultrathin silicon wafers such as ribbons.

  9. Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David

    We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.

  10. Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.

  11. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  12. Raman spectroscopy of boron-doped single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoong Ahm; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Katsumi; Terrones, Mauricio; Behrends, Jan; Eckmann, Axel; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Novoselov, Kostya S; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-07-24

    The introduction of foreign atoms, such as nitrogen, into the hexagonal network of an sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom monolayer has been demonstrated and constitutes an effective tool for tailoring the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here, we report that boron atoms can be efficiently substituted for carbon in graphene. Single-layer graphene substitutionally doped with boron was prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of boron-doped graphite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the amount of substitutional boron in graphite was ~0.22 atom %. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the boron atoms were spaced 4.76 nm apart in single-layer graphene. The 7-fold higher intensity of the D-band when compared to the G-band was explained by the elastically scattered photoexcited electrons by boron atoms before emitting a phonon. The frequency of the G-band in single-layer substitutionally boron-doped graphene was unchanged, which could be explained by the p-type boron doping (stiffening) counteracting the tensile strain effect of the larger carbon-boron bond length (softening). Boron-doped graphene appears to be a useful tool for engineering the physical and chemical properties of graphene.

  13. Laser-induced photochemical enrichment of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, S.M.; Ritter, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A boron trichloride starting material containing both boron-10 isotopes and boron-11 isotopes is selectively enriched in one or the other of these isotopes by a laser-induced photochemical method involving the reaction of laser-excited boron trichloride with either H 2 S or D 2 S. The method is carried out by subjecting a low pressure gaseous mixture of boron trichloride starting material and the sulfide to infrared radiation from a carbon dioxide TE laser. The wave length of the radiation is selected so as to selectively excite one or the other of boron-10 BCl 3 molecules or boron-11 BCl 3 molecules, thereby making them preferentially more reactive with the sulfide. The laser-induced reaction produces both a boron-containing solid phase reaction product and a gaseous phase containing mostly unreacted BCl 3 and small amounts of sulfhydroboranes. Pure boron trichloride selectively enriched in one of the isotopes is recovered as the primary product of the method from the gaseous phase by a multi-step recovery procedure. Pure boron trichloride enriched in the other isotope is recovered as a secondary product of the method by the subsequent chlorination of the solid phase reaction product followed by separation of BCl 3 from the mixture of gaseous products resulting from the chlorination

  14. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Sarp, Sarper; Park, Y. G.; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  15. ISOBORDAT: An Online Data Base on Boron Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, M.; Adorni-Braccesi, A.; Andreani, D.; Gori, L.; Gonfiantini, R. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, Pisa (Italy); Sciuto, P. F. [Servizio Geologico, Sismico e dei Suoli, D.G. Ambiente e Difesa del Suolo e della Costa, Regione Emilia Romagna, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    From 1986, boron isotope data in natural substances increased sharply in scientific publications. Analytical difficulties derived from complex geochemical matrices have been faced and interlaboratory calibrations reported in the boron literature. Boron isotopes are nowdays applied to investigate boron origin and migration in natural waters, sources of boron contamination, water-rock interactions and also contribute to water resource management. This is especially important in those areas where boron content exceeds the local regulations for drinking water supply and boron sources need to be identified. ISOBORDAT, an interactive database on boron isotope composition and content in natural waters is presented to the wider community of boron isotope users. The database's structure, scope and applications are reported, along with a discussion on {delta}{sup 11}B values obtained in Italian waters. In the database boron data are structured in the following categories: rainwater, rivers, lakes, groundwater and potential contaminants. New categories (medium and high enthalpy fluids from volcanic and geothermal areas) are anticipated. ISOBORDAT aims to be as interactive as possible and will be developed taking into account information and suggestions received. The database is continually undergoing revision to keep pace with continuous data publication. Indications of data that are missing at present are greatly appreciated. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA MAGDA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the reaction mixture at a NH3:H3PO4 molar ratio of 1.5. The fertilizers obtained with boron contents ranging from 0.05 to 1 % (w/w were fully characterized by chemical analysis, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. The studies showed that up to 500 °C, regardless of the boron content, no significant changes concerning thermal stability and nutritional properties occurred. Above 500 °C, an increase of thermal stability with an increase of the boron content was observed. X-Ray diffraction of a heat-treated sample containing 5 % (w/w boron indicated the appearance of boron orthophosphate, BPO4, as a new crystalline phase, and the disappearance of the previous structures above 500 °C, which explains the increase in thermal stability.

  17. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  18. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  19. Resonance Transport of Graphene Nanoribbon T-Shaped Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Lan, Kong; Yong-Jian, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of T-shaped junctions composed of armchair graphene nanoribbons of different widths. Three types of junction geometries are considered. The junction conductance strongly depends on the atomic features of the junction geometry. When the shoulders of the junction have zigzag type edges, sharp conductance resonances usually appear in the low energy region around the Dirac point, and a conductance gap emerges. When the shoulders of the junction have armchair type edges, the conductance resonance behavior is weakened significantly, and the metal-metal-metal junction structures show semimetallic behaviors. The contact resistance also changes notably due to the various interface geometries of the junction

  20. Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.

    1986-01-01

    The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  2. Synthesis of Boron Nano wires, Nano tubes, and Nano sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Chou, T.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of boron nano wires, nano tubes, and nano sheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nano materials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nano wires, boron nano tubes, and boron nano sheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  3. Influence of dopants, particularly carbon, on β-rhombohedral boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H.; Flachbart, K.; Pristáš, G.; Lotnyk, D.; Filipov, V.; Kuhlmann, U.; Shitsevalova, N.; Lundström, T.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high affinity of carbon to boron, the preparation of carbon-free boron is problematic. Even high-purity (6 N) β-rhombohedral boron contains 30-60 ppm of C. Hence, carbon affects the boron physical properties published so far more or less significantly. We studied well-defined carbon-doped boron samples based on pure starting material carefully annealed with up to about 1% C, thus assuring homogeneity. We present and discuss their electrical conductivity, optical absorption, luminescence and phonon spectra. Earlier attempts of other authors to determine the conductivity of C-doped boron are revised. Our results allow estimating the effects of oxygen and iron doping on the electrical conductivity using results taken from literature. Discontinuities at low T impair the electronic properties.

  4. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  5. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  6. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron; Broyage de bore element et dosage de carbure de bore dans le bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F M; Finck, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 {mu}. Grain sizes smaller than 1{mu} are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [French] Il est possible de pulveriser finement du bore element au moyen de mortier et pilon en carbure de bore fritte, le taux de carbure de bore introduit etant inferieur a 1 pour cent. Le bore element dont nous disposons est constitue de petits grains brun fonce, a aretes vives, de dimension moyenne superieure a 5 {mu}. L'application de ce bore en couches minces demande des grains de dimensions inferieures a 1 {mu}. (aute0008.

  7. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  8. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; hide

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  9. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  10. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  11. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

  12. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  13. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R., E-mail: g.r.nash@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  14. The spectrophotometric determination of boron in tourmalines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA JAKSIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of macro amounts of boron in tourmaline with azomethine H is described. The used tourmaline concentrate was obtained by magnetic separation and heavy-liquids purification of the schorl zone of pegmatite or granite aplite. The samples of tourmaline were decomposed by fusion with anhydrous sodium carbonate and taken up in dilute hydrochloric acid. The interfering effects of iron and aluminium were eliminated by masking with an EDTA – NTA solution. After pH adjustment, the boron was reacted with azomethine H and the absorbance of the obtained coloured complex was measured at 415 nm. The results are compared with those obtained by other procedures. The relative error of the determination was less than 3 %.

  15. Determination of microdistribution of boron in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illic, R; Najzer, M; Rant, J [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1976-07-01

    A neutron induced autoradiographic technique was used for the determination of the boron microdistribution in metals. The specimens, which were in close contact with a LR 115 SSTD, were irradiated in the exposure room of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The spatial resolution of the autoradiographic image recorded by the LR 115 detector was found to be influenced mainly by the size of the reaction product tracks. The track diameter of a normally etched detector was about 7 {mu}m. An appreciable reduction of track size was achieved by pre-etching the detector foil before neutron irradiation. By this procedure it was possible to obtain a track diameter as small as 1 {mu}m and correspondingly to improve the spatial resolution of the autoradiographs of type EC 80 steel and Al Mg 3 alloy which contain 30 and 2 ppm of boron respectively. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of boron nitrides nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, T.H.; Sousa, E.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new synthesis for the production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) from boron powder, ammonium nitrate and hematite tube furnace CVD method. The samples were subjected to some characterization techniques as infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission. By analyzing the results can explain the chemical reactions involved in the process and confirm the formation of BNNT with several layers and about 30 nanometers in diameter. Due to excellent mechanical properties and its chemical and thermal stability this material is promising for various applications. However, BNNT has received much less attention than carbon nanotubes, it is because of great difficulty to synthesize appreciable quantities from the techniques currently known, and this is one of the main reasons this work.(author)

  17. Grain refinement of cast titanium alloys via trace boron addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamirisakandala, S.; Bhat, R.B.; Tiley, J.S.; Miracle, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    The grain size of as-cast Ti-6Al-4V is reduced by about an order of magnitude from 1700 to 200 μm with an addition of 0.1 wt.% boron. A much weaker dependence of reduction in grain size is obtained for boron additions from >0.1% to 1.0%. Similar trends were observed in boron-modified as-cast Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si

  18. On melting of boron phosphide under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Solozhenko, Vladimir; Mukhanov, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Melting of cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied at pressures to 9 GPa using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that above 2.6 GPa BP melts congruently, and the melting curve exhibits negative slope (–60 ± 7 K/GPa), which is indicative of a higher density of the melt as compared to the solid phase.

  19. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  20. Contributions to the chemistry of Boron, 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, R.; Noeth, H.

    1980-01-01

    Several methods were used to prepare a series of boron substituted 1, 3, 2-dithiaborols. The NMR data of this new class of compounds indicate in comparison to 1, 3, 2-dithiaborolanes, that the heterocycle can be looked at as a 6 π-electron system. A high degree of analogy in the mass spectrometric fragmentation of dithiaborolanes and dithiaborols exists, however, the parent ion of 2-methyl dithiaborol is more stable than that of the saturated analogon. (orig.)

  1. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: II. Ion irradiated Au-Si Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a new technique called scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS) for the spatial analysis of electrically active defects in devices. In the first part of this paper, a simple theory behind SIDLTS was introduced and factors determining its sensitivity and resolution were discussed. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique on MeV boron implantation induced defects in an Au-Si Schottky junction. SIDLTS measurements are compared with capacitance DLTS measurements over the temperature range, 100-300 K. SIDLTS analyses indicate the presence of two levels, one of which was positively identified as the E c - 0.23 eV divacancy level. The high sensitivity of SIDLTS is verified and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in light of non-exponential components in the charge transient response. Reasons for several undetected levels are also discussed

  2. Recoil implantation of boron into silicon by high energy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, L.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, X. M.; Rusakova, I.; Mount, G.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2001-07-01

    A recoil implantation technique for shallow junction formation was investigated. After e-gun deposition of a B layer onto Si, 10, 50, or 500 keV Si ion beams were used to introduce surface deposited B atoms into Si by knock-on. It has been shown that recoil implantation with high energy incident ions like 500 keV produces a shallower B profile than lower energy implantation such as 10 keV and 50 keV. This is due to the fact that recoil probability at a given angle is a strong function of the energy of the primary projectile. Boron diffusion was showed to be suppressed in high energy recoil implantation and such suppression became more obvious at higher Si doses. It was suggested that vacancy rich region due to defect imbalance plays the role to suppress B diffusion. Sub-100 nm junction can be formed by this technique with the advantage of high throughput of high energy implanters.

  3. Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...... may explain the experimentally measured linewidth broadening of Josephson oscillations at mm and submm wave frequencies in high-Tc superconducting junctions. Experimental results are discussed in terms of bound states existing at surfaces of d-wave superconducting electrodes....

  4. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...

  5. Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)

  6. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Piezoelectric Boron Nirtride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conduct a systematic computational study on the physical and electro-mechanical properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) to evaluate their functional...

  7. Combustion Performance of a Staged Hybrid Rocket with Boron addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lee, C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of boron on overall system specific impulse was investigated. Additionally, a series of combustion tests was carried out to analyze and evaluate the effect of boron addition on O/F variation and radial temperature profiles. To maintain the hybrid rocket engine advantages, upper limit of boron contents in solid fuel was set to be 10 wt%. The results also suggested that, when adding boron to solid fuel, it helped to provide more uniform radial temperature distribution and also to increase specific impulse by 3.2%.

  8. Deuterated-decaborane using boronization on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagyu, Jun-ichi; Arai, Takashi; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Miyata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Arai, Masaru [Kaihatsu Denki Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    In JT-60U, boronization using hydride-decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) vaporization has been conducted for the first wall conditioning. Compared to other discharge cleaning (DC), boronization is claimed to be efficient in reduction of oxygen impurities and hydrogen recycling in plasma. However, there are some problems in reduction of hydrogen included in boron film and stabilization of DC glow discharge during the boronization. To solve these problems, a new boronization method using deuterated-decaborane (B{sub 10}D{sub 14}) was adopted instead of the conventional hydride-decaborane. As a result, hydrogen content in the boron film decreased clearly and discharge conditioning shots, for decreasing hydrogen content in plasmas, after the boronization were reduced to 1/10 in comparison to the conventional process. Furthermore, DC glow discharge became stable, with only helium carrier gas, and it was possible to save 30 hours in maximum of the time necessary to boronization. It is shown that the boronization using deuterated-decaborane is very efficient and effective method for the first wall conditioning. (author)

  9. Graphite and boron carbide composites made by hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, K.; Hagio, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1981-01-01

    Composites consisting of graphite and boron carbide were made by hot-pressing mixed powders of coke carbon and boron carbide. The change of relative density, mechanical strength and electrical resistivity of the composites and the X-ray parameters of coke carbon were investigated with increase of boron carbide content and hot-pressing temperature. From these experiments, it was found that boron carbide powder has a remarkable effect on sintering and graphitization of coke carbon powder above the hot-pressing temperature of 2000 0 C. At 2200 0 C, electrical resistivity of the composite and d(002) spacing of coke carbon once showed minimum values at about 5 to 10 wt% boron carbide and then increased. The strength of the composite increased with increase of boron carbide content. It was considered that some boron from boron carbide began to diffuse substitutionally into the graphite structure above 2000 0 C and densification and graphitization were promoted with the diffusion of boron. Improvements could be made to the mechanical strength, density, oxidation resistance and manufacturing methods by comparing with the properties and processes of conventional graphites. (author)

  10. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  11. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of 11 B + into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of 11 B + into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10 11 /cm 2 to 1 x 10 14 /cm 2 ) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses ( 12 /cm 2 ). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of 11 B + . Two of these hole traps have also been observed in γ-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures ( 0 C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF 2 + into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250 0 C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF 2 + implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active

  12. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  13. Advances in boronization on NSTX-Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H Skinner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Boronization has been effective in reducing plasma impurities and enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas in many magnetic fusion devices. The National Spherical Torus eXperiment, NSTX, has recently undergone a major upgrade to NSTX-U in order to develop the physics basis for a ST-based Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF with capability for double the toroidal field, plasma current, and NBI heating power and increased pulse duration from 1–1.5s to 5–8s. A new deuterated tri-methyl boron conditioning system was implemented together with a novel surface analysis diagnostic. We report on the spatial distribution of the boron deposition versus discharge pressure, gas injection and electrode location. The oxygen concentration of the plasma facing surface was measured by in-vacuo XPS and increased both with plasma exposure and with exposure to trace residual gases. This increase correlated with the rise of oxygen emission from the plasma.

  14. Boron determination in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Nadia S.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Rosa, Daniele S.; Ulrich, Joao C.

    2009-01-01

    There exist specifications of the concentration as far the limit of impurities in the used uranium compounds is concerned. Among those impurities the boron element is detached. that in the uranium compounds acts as neutron absorber in nuclear reactions. Therefore, the determination of this element in uranium compounds, it is fundamental for the quality and performance of the nuclear fuels. However, the determination of this element is many times prejudiced by the presence of the uranium. For solving this problem, it is performed a chemical separation of the uranium (matrix) out of the interest. The most used methods to accomplish that separation are the solvent extraction and the ion exchange. In this work, the boron concentration will be done through the ion exchange technique, using polypropylene columns and Dowex AG 50W - X8 100-200 mesh cation resin in chloricide medium 0.25 M. The boron concentration will be determined through high resolution inductive coupling plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS)

  15. Stable boron nitride diamondoids as nanoscale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We predict the stability of diamondoids made up of boron and nitrogen instead of carbon atoms. The results are based on quantum-mechanical calculations within density functional theory (DFT) and show some very distinct features compared to the regular carbon-based diamondoids. These features are evaluated with respect to the energetics and electronic properties of the boron nitride diamondoids as compared to the respective properties of the carbon-based diamondoids. We find that BN-diamondoids are overall more stable than their respective C-diamondoid counterparts. The electronic band-gaps (E g ) of the former are overall lower than those for the latter nanostructures but do not show a very distinct trend with their size. Contrary to the lower C-diamondoids, the BN-diamondoids are semiconducting and show a depletion of charge on the nitrogen site. Their differences in the distribution of the molecular orbitals, compared to their carbon-based counterparts, offer additional bonding and functionalization possibilities. These tiny BN-based nanostructures could potentially be used as nanobuilding blocks complementing or substituting the C-diamondoids, based on the desired properties. An experimental realization of boron nitride diamondoids remains to show their feasibility. (paper)

  16. A critical assessment of boron target compounds for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M Frederick; Lee, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has undergone dramatic developments since its inception by Locher in 1936 and the development of nuclear energy during World War II. The ensuing Cold War spawned the entirely new field of polyhedral borane chemistry, rapid advances in nuclear reactor technology and a corresponding increase in the number to reactors potentially available for BNCT. This effort has been largely oriented toward the eradication of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and melanoma with reduced interest in other types of malignancies. The design and synthesis of boron-10 target compounds needed for BNCT was not channeled to those types of compounds specifically required for GBM or melanoma. Consequently, a number of potentially useful boron agents are known which have not been biologically evaluated beyond a cursory examination and only three boron-10 enriched target species are approved for human use following their Investigational New Drug classification by the US Food and Drug Administration; BSH, BPA and GB-10. All ongoing clinical trials with GBM and melanoma are necessarily conducted with one of these three species and most often with BPA. The further development of BNCT is presently stalled by the absence of strong support for advanced compound evaluation and compound discovery driven by recent advances in biology and chemistry. A rigorous demonstration of BNCT efficacy surpassing that of currently available protocols has yet to be achieved. This article discusses the past history of compound development, contemporary problems such as compound classification and those problems which impede future advances. The latter include means for biological evaluation of new (and existing) boron target candidates at all stages of their development and the large-scale synthesis of boron target species for clinical trials and beyond. The future of BNCT is bright if latitude is given to the choice of clinical disease to be treated and if a recognized study

  17. Determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide by TIMS and PIGE: an inter-comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasibhushan, K.; Rao, R.M.; Parab, A.R.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Acharya, R.; Chhillar, S.; Pujari, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports a comparison of results on the determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide (B 4 C) samples by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Particle Induced Gamma ray Spectrometry (PIGE). B 4 C samples having varying boron isotopic composition (natural, enriched with respect to 10 B) and their synthetic mixtures) have been analysed by both the techniques. The 10 B atom% was found to be in the range of 20-67%. (author)

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy. Synthesis of boronated amines- and DNA intercalating agents for potential use in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaneolhosseini, H.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary cancer treatment modality, involving the delivery of a suitable boron compound to tumour cells followed by irradiation of the tumour by thermal neutrons. Boronated agents can selectively be delivered to tumour cells either directly with tumour-specific boron compounds, or by use of targeting strategies. However, the efficacy of this method would increase if the boron agents are localised in the cell nucleus rather than in the cell cytoplasm when neutron irradiation takes place. With these considerations in mind, some boronated DNA intercalating/interacting agents such as phenanthridine- acridine- spermidine- and naphthalimide derivatives were synthesised. Aminoalkyl-o-carboranes were synthesised in order to be used both for coupling to macromolecules and also for halogenation of their corresponding nido-derivatives. The amino groups were introduced using the Gabriel reagent N, N-dibenzyl iminodicarboxylate to provide 1-(aminomethyl)- and 1-(2-aminoethyl)-o-carboranes. The first attempt to achieve the possibility to accumulate a higher concentration of boron atoms in the cell nucleus was to synthesize carboranyl phenanthridinium analogues by reacting a p- or o-carboranyl moiety with phenanthridine, a chromophore with a planar aromatic ring system as DNA intercalator. Boronated acridine-spermidine, boronated diacridine, and boronated dispermidine were obtained in order to increase water solubility to avoid the interaction of these agents with non-DNA sides of the cell, especially membranes; and to enhance the feasibility of a higher DNA-binding constant and also decrease the DNA-drug dissociation rate. Finally, the synthesis of a boronated naphthalimide derivative was carried out by nucleophilic reaction of a primary aminoalkyl-p-carborane with naphthalic anhydride. Biological evaluations on DNA-binding, toxicity, and cellular binding with carboranyl phenanthridinium analogues, boronated acridine- and spermidine are described

  19. Determination of boron in graphite, boron carbide and glass by ICP-MS, ICP-OES and conventional wet chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Kamble, Granthali S.; Venkatesh, Manisha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Boron is an important element of interest in nuclear reactor materials due to its high neutron absorption cross section (σ 0 =3837 barns for 10 B). In the present paper, R and D work and routinely used methods have been described for the analysis of case samples (1) Graphite where boron is present at trace levels, (2) Boron Carbide having boron concentration of about 80% and (3) Glass containing 4-6 % boron. (author)

  20. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, α) in the 10 B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a 239 Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue

  1. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0 mA/cm(2), initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293 K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following; [formula in text]. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  2. Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert

    2007-04-01

    Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La0.1Bi0.9MnO3 (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.

  3. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  4. Josephson tunnel junctions in niobium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, Tapio.

    1976-12-01

    A method of fabricating stable Josephson tunnel junctions with reproducible characteristics is described. The junctions have a sandwich structure consisting of a vacuum evaporated niobium film, a niobium oxide layer produced by the glow discharge method and a lead film deposited by vacuum evaporation. Difficulties in producing thin-film Josephson junctions are discussed. Experimental results suggest that the lower critical field of the niobium film is the most essential parameter when evaluating the quality of these junctions. The dependence of the lower critical field on the film thickness and on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter of the film is studied analytically. Comparison with the properties of the evaporated films and with the previous calculations for bulk specimens shows that the presented model is applicable for most of the prepared samples. (author)

  5. Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively

  6. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  7. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  8. Exotic hadron and string junction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M 4 , B 5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)

  9. Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2018-03-15

    We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.

  10. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2017-01-03

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N 2 -fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO 2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the "septal junctions" (formerly known as "microplasmodesmata") linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans. Although bacteria are frequently considered just as unicellular organisms, there are bacteria that behave as true multicellular organisms. The heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which cells communicate. Intercellular molecular exchange is thought to be mediated by septal junctions. Here, we show that intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers in the cyanobacterial filament has the physical properties of simple diffusion. Thus, cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to metazoan gap junctions

  11. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  12. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration.

  13. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon

    2014-01-01

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration

  14. Floating-Gate Manipulated Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterojunction for Nonvolatile Ambipolar Schottky Junction Memories, Memory Inverter Circuits, and Logic Rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Zong, Qijun; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-10-11

    The Schottky junction is an important unit in electronics and optoelectronics. However, its properties greatly degrade with device miniaturization. The fast development of circuits has fueled a rapid growth in the study of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, which may lead to breakthroughs in the semiconductor industry. Here we report a floating-gate manipulated nonvolatile ambipolar Schottky junction memory from stacked all-2D layers of graphene-BP/h-BN/graphene (BP, black phosphorus; h-BN, hexagonal boron nitride) in a designed floating-gate field-effect Schottky barrier transistor configuration. By manipulating the voltage pulse applied to the control gate, the device exhibits ambipolar characteristics and can be tuned to act as graphene-p-BP or graphene-n-BP junctions with reverse rectification behavior. Moreover, the junction exhibits good storability properties of more than 10 years and is also programmable. On the basis of these characteristics, we further demonstrate the application of the device to dual-mode nonvolatile Schottky junction memories, memory inverter circuits, and logic rectifiers.

  15. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  16. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  17. Observation of apparent MOS regimes on Al/PECVD grown boron nitride/p-c-Si/Al MIS structure, investigated through admittance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Orhan [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, Esenler, istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    PECVD grown boron nitride (BN) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) semiconductor was investigated by admittance measurement in the form of metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) structure. Apart from well-known regimes of traditional MOS structure, gradual bypassing of depletion layer was observed once ambient temperature (frequency) increased (decreased). Such an anomalous behavior was interpreted through modulations of charges located within BN film and/or at the interfacial layer of BN film/c-Si junction in terms of weighted average concept. (author)

  18. The role of Mg interface layer in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with CoFe and CoFeB electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsoo Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tunneling spin polarization (TSP is directly measured from reactively sputter deposited crystalline MgO tunnel barriers with various CoFe(B compositions using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. We find that the Mg interface layer thickness dependence of TSP values for CoFeB/Mg/MgO junctions is substantially different from those for CoFe/Mg/MgO especially in the pre-annealed samples due to the formation of boron oxide at the CoFeB/MgO interface. Annealing depletes boron at the interface thus requiring a finite Mg interface layer to prevent CoFeOx formation at the CoFeB/MgO interface so that the TSP values can be optimized by controlling Mg thickness.

  19. High pressure synthesis and investigations of properties of boron allotropes and boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvashova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed at the development of the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthesis of single crystals of boron allotropes and boron-rich compounds, which could be used further for precise investigations of their structures, properties, and behavior at extreme conditions. To summarize, the present work resulted in the HPHT synthesis of the first previously unknown non-icosahedral boron allotrope ζ-B. This finding confirmed earlier theoretical predictions, which stayed unproven for decades because of experimental challenges which couldn't be overcome until recently. Structural stability of α-B and β-B in the Mbar pressure range and B 13 C 2 up to 68 GPa was experimentally proven. Accurate measurements of the unit cell and B 12 icosahedra volumes of the stoichiometric boron carbide B 13 C 2 as a function of pressure led to conclusion that they undergo a similar reduction upon compression that is typical for covalently bonded solids. Neither 'molecular-like' nor 'inversed molecular-like' solid behavior upon compression was detected that has closed a long-standing scientific dispute. A comparison of the compressional behavior of B 13 C 2 with that of α-B and γ-B allotropes and B 4 C showed that it is determined by the types of bonding involved in the course of compression.

  20. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  1. From boron analogues of amino acids to boronated DNA: potential new pharmaceuticals and neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, B.F.; Sood, Anup; Duke Univ., Durham, NC; Shaw, B.R.; Hall, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    Isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogues of the α-amino acids ranging from simple glycine analogues such as H 3 NBH 2 COOH and Me 2 NHBH 2 COOH to alanine analogues have been synthesised. A diverse variety of analogues, including precursors and derivatives (such as peptides) have potent pharmacological activity, including anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypolipidemic activity in animal model studies and in vitro cell cultures. Boronated nucleosides and (oligo)nucleotides, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues of ''antisense'' agents interact with a complementary nucleic acid sequence blocking the biological effect of the target sequence. Nucleosides boronated on the pyrimidine and purine bases have been prepared. It has been established that an entirely new class of nucleic acid derivatives is feasible in which one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide phosphodiester linkage can be replaced by an isoelectronic analogue, the borane group, (BH 3 ). The boronated oligonucleotides can be viewed as hybrids of the normal oxygen oligonucleotides and the methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. (author)

  2. Investigation of Hard Boron Rich Solids: Osmium Diboride and β-Rhombohedral Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbache, M.; Živković, D.

    Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing three osmium borides, i.e., OsB1.1, Os2B3 and OsB2. Up to date, almost nothing is known about the physical properties of these materials. Microhardness measurements show that OsB2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that it is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used for hard coatings. The β-rhombohedral polymorph of boron is the second hardest elemental crystal (H ≈ 33 GPa). It is also very light and a p-type semiconductor. In early 1970s, it has been shown that the doping of boron with 3d transition elements enhances its hardness by about 25%. We predict that, in general, heavily doped samples MBx, with x ≤ 31 or equivalently a dopant concentration larger than 3.2 at.%, should be ultrahard, i.e., H > 43 GPa. The relevant dopants M are Al, Cu, Sc, Mn, Mg and Li. In addition to these properties, boron-rich materials have a very low volatility, a high chemical inertness and high melting point. They are suitable for applications under extreme conditions and thermoelectric equipment.

  3. Boron distribution and the effect of lime on boron uptake by pansy, petunia, and gerbera plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent in pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), and gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) plug production. When symptoms are observed in production the presence and severity of symptoms have no pattern, symptomatic plants can be located a...

  4. High pressure synthesis and investigations of properties of boron allotropes and boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvashova, Irina

    2017-06-12

    This work aimed at the development of the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthesis of single crystals of boron allotropes and boron-rich compounds, which could be used further for precise investigations of their structures, properties, and behavior at extreme conditions. To summarize, the present work resulted in the HPHT synthesis of the first previously unknown non-icosahedral boron allotrope ζ-B. This finding confirmed earlier theoretical predictions, which stayed unproven for decades because of experimental challenges which couldn't be overcome until recently. Structural stability of α-B and β-B in the Mbar pressure range and B{sub 13}C{sub 2} up to 68 GPa was experimentally proven. Accurate measurements of the unit cell and B{sub 12} icosahedra volumes of the stoichiometric boron carbide B{sub 13}C{sub 2} as a function of pressure led to conclusion that they undergo a similar reduction upon compression that is typical for covalently bonded solids. Neither 'molecular-like' nor 'inversed molecular-like' solid behavior upon compression was detected that has closed a long-standing scientific dispute. A comparison of the compressional behavior of B{sub 13}C{sub 2} with that of α-B and γ-B allotropes and B{sub 4}C showed that it is determined by the types of bonding involved in the course of compression.

  5. Dynamic response of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1 ... 1. Introduction. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are like carbon nanotubes. (CNTs) in structure in which carbon atoms are replaced by alternate boron and nitrogen atoms. Thus, BNNTs demon- ... istic analyser for intermediate landing situation of inserted mass.15 Also, a macroscopic continuum simulation is sug-.

  6. Highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Sumitaka; Saito, Yukio; Jinbo, Ryutaro; Ogiwara, Norio; Saido, Masahiro.

    1996-01-01

    In a composite member for use in walls of a thermonuclear reactor, if carbon fibers and boron carbide are mixed, since they are brought into contact with each other directly, boron is reacted with the carbon fibers to form boron carbide to lower thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. Then, in the present invention, graphite or amorphous carbon is filled between the carbon fibers to provide a fiber bundle of not less than 500 carbon fibers. Further, the surface of the fiber bundle is coated with graphite or amorphous carbon to suppress diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers or reaction of them. Then, lowering of thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers is prevented, as well as the mixing amount of the carbon fiber bundles with boron carbide, a sintering temperature and orientation of carbon fiber bundles are optimized to provide a highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material. In addition, carbide or boride type short fibers, spherical graphite, and amorphous carbon are mixed in the boron carbide to prevent development of cracks. Diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers is reduced or reaction of them if the carbon fibers are bundled. (N.H.)

  7. Eleventh international conference on boron chemistry. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Abstracts of reports at the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry are presented. Born chemistry as a connecting bridge between many fields maintains one of the leading positions in modern chemistry. Methods of synthesis of different boron compounds, properties of the compounds, their use in other regions of chemistry and medicine are widely presented in reports.

  8. Feasibility study of SMART core with soluble boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Quun

    2000-11-01

    The excess reactivity of SMART core without soluble boron is effectively controlled by 49 CEDM. We suggest another method to control the core excess reactivity using both the checkerboard type of 25 CEDM and soluble boron and perform a feasibility calculation. The soluble boron operation is categorized into the on-line and the off-line mechanisms. The former is to successively control the boron concentration according to the excess reactivity during operation and the latter is to add and change some soluble boron during refueling and repairing. Since the on-line soluble boron control system of SMART is conceptually identical to that of the commercial pressurized water reactor, we did not perform the analysis. Since the soluble boron in the complete off-line system increases the moderator temperature coefficient, the reactivity defect between hot and cold moderator temperature is decreased. However, the decrease of the reactivity is not big to satisfy the core reactivity limits. When using 25 CEDM, the possible mechanism is to control the excess reactivity by both control rod and on-line boron control mechanism between cold and hot zero power and by only control rod at hot full power. We selected the loading pattern satisfying the requirement in the view of nuclear design

  9. Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarielashvili, V.O.; Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.

    1992-01-01

    Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic compounds was conducted. Ionization was performed by electron shock. Possibility of determining boron isotope content is all analyzed organic boron vinyl-substituted compounds by direct method is shown. This simplifies sufficiently and lowers the price of analysis, improves its accuracy and rapidity

  10. Determination of free and combined carbon in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, P.S.; Kulkarni, Amit S.; Pandey, K.L.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Yadav, C.S.; Sayi, Y.S.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and fast method for the determination of free and combined carbon in boron carbide samples, based on combustion in presence of oxygen at different temperatures, has been developed. Method has been standardized by analyzing mixture of two different boron carbide samples. Error associated with the method in the determination of free carbon is less than 5%. (author)

  11. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering Erzurum (Turkey); Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze/Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2005-10-17

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl{sub 2}. Added CaCl{sub 2} increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions.

  12. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar; Keskinler, Buelent

    2005-01-01

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm 2 . The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl 2 . Added CaCl 2 increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions

  13. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  14. New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Florine Duval - New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids – Summary

    Chapter 1 introduces the theory and known applications of the interaction between boronic acids and diols, and explains the context of this thesis. Diagnosis of

  15. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  16. Preparation of boron-nitrogen films by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, S.; Winde, B.

    1980-01-01

    Hard boron-nitrogen films adherent to various substrates can be prepared by sputtering. IR investigations suggest the existence of cubic boron nitride in certain layers. Transmission electron microscope studies have shown a quasi-amorphous structure irregularly incorporating crystallites of zinc blende structure of some nm in diameter

  17. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    weight armour plates etc (Alizadeh et al 2004). It can also be used as a reinforcing material for ceramic matrix composites. It is an excellent neutron absorption material in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  18. Eleventh international conference on boron chemistry. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Abstracts of reports at the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry are presented. Born chemistry as a connecting bridge between many fields maintains one of the leading positions in modern chemistry. Methods of synthesis of different boron compounds, properties of the compounds, their use in other regions of chemistry and medicine are widely presented in reports [ru

  19. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  20. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, H.A.; Jacobson, J.

    1964-01-01

    A control blade design, incorporating boron-carbide (B 4 C) in stainless-steel tubes, was introduced into service in boiling water reactors in April 1961. Since that time this blade has become the standard reference control element in General Electric boiling-water reactors, replacing the 2% boron-stainless-steel blades previously used. The blades consist of a sheathed, cruciform array of small vertical stainless-steel tubes filled with compácted boron-carbide powder. The boron-carbide powder is confined longitudinally into several independent compartments by swaging over ball bearings located inside the tubes. The development and use of boron-carbide control rods is discussed in five phases: 1. Summary of experience with boron-steel blades and reasons for transition to boron-carbide control; 2. Design of the boron-carbide blade, beginning with developmental experiments, including early measurements performed in the AEC ''Control Rod Material and Development Program'' at the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, through a description of the final control blade configuration; 3. Fabrication of the blades and quality control procedures; 4. Results of confirmatory pre-operational mechanical and reactivity testing; and 5. Post-operational experience with the blades, including information on the results of mechanical inspection and reactivity testing after two years of reactor service. (author) [fr

  1. Boron-based nanostructures: Synthesis, functionalization, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedasso, Eyrusalam Kifyalew

    Boron-based nanostructures have not been explored in detail; however, these structures have the potential to revolutionize many fields including electronics and biomedicine. The research discussed in this dissertation focuses on synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of boron-based zero-dimensional nanostructures (core/shell and nanoparticles) and one-dimensional nanostructures (nanorods). The first project investigates the synthesis and functionalization of boron-based core/shell nanoparticles. Two boron-containing core/shell nanoparticles, namely boron/iron oxide and boron/silica, were synthesized. Initially, boron nanoparticles with a diameter between 10-100 nm were prepared by decomposition of nido-decaborane (B10H14) followed by formation of a core/shell structure. The core/shell structures were prepared using the appropriate precursor, iron source and silica source, for the shell in the presence of boron nanoparticles. The formation of core/shell nanostructures was confirmed using high resolution TEM. Then, the core/shell nanoparticles underwent a surface modification. Boron/iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles were functionalized with oleic acid, citric acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, folic acid, and dopamine, and boron/silica core/shell nanoparticles were modified with 3-(amino propyl) triethoxy silane, 3-(2-aminoethyleamino)propyltrimethoxysilane), citric acid, folic acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, and O-(2-Carboxyethyl)polyethylene glycol. A UV-Vis and ATR-FTIR analysis established the success of surface modification. The cytotoxicity of water-soluble core/shell nanoparticles was studied in triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the result showed the compounds are not toxic. The second project highlights optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of boron nanorods. This synthesis, done via reduction of boron oxide with molten lithium, was studied to produce boron nanorods without any

  2. Problems and possibilities of development of boron nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusanova, L.N.; Romashin, A.G.; Kulikova, G.I.; Golubeva, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    The modern state of developments in the field of technology of ceramics produced from boron nitride is analyzed. Substantial difficulties in production of pure ceramics from hexagonal and wurtzite-like boron nitride are stated as related to the structure peculiarities and inhomogeneity of chemical bonds in elementary crystal cells of various modifications. Advantages and disadvantages of familiar technological procedures in production of boron nitride ceramics are compared. A new technology is suggested, which is based on the use of electroorganic compounds for hardening and protection of porous high-purity boron-nitride die from oxidation, and as high-efficient sintered elements for treatment of powders of various structures and further pyrolisis. The method is called thermal molecular lacing (TML). Properties of ceramics produced by the TML method are compared with characteristics of well-known brands of boron nitride ceramics

  3. Fracture toughness of borides formed on boronized ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ugur; Sen, Saduman; Koksal, Sakip; Yilmaz, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, fracture toughness properties of boronized ductile iron were investigated. Boronizing was realized in a salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid and ferro-silicon. Boronizing heat treatment was carried out between 850 and 950 deg. C under the atmospheric pressure for 2-8 h. Borides e.g. FeB, Fe 2 B formed on ductile iron was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM and optical microscope. Experimental results revealed that longer boronizing time resulted in thicker boride layers. Optical microscope cross-sectional observation of borided layers showed dentricular morphology. Both microhardness and fracture toughness of borided surfaces were measured via Vickers indenter. The harnesses of borides formed on the ductile iron were in the range of 1160-2140 HV 0.1 and fracture toughness were in the range of 2.19-4.47 MPa m 1/2 depending on boronizing time and temperature

  4. An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation is an overview of boron (boric acid) dilution in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Boric acid has been widely used in PWRs as a dissolved poison, as one of the main reactivity controlling means, for a long time, from nearly but not quite from the beginning of the design, construction and operation of PWRs in the present-day sense. The specific safety issue, namely the risk of uncontrolled reactivity insertion due to inadvertent boron dilution, is discussed first, followed by a brief look on the history of boron usage in PWRs. A discussion of boron dilution phenomenology is presented next in general terms. Some particular concerns that boron dilution phenomena arouse in the minds of a regulator will also be presented before concluding with a brief look on the future of dissolved poisons. (11 refs.)

  5. Morphological and electrochemical studies of spherical boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes de Barros, R.C. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Sumodjo, P.T.A. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Serrano, S.H.P. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: shps@iq.usp.br

    2006-08-14

    Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of boron doped diamond electrode in new geometric shape are presented. The main purpose of this study is a comparison among voltammetric behavior of planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE), planar boron doped diamond electrode (PDDE) and spherical boron doped diamond electrode (SDDE), obtained from similar experimental parameters. SDDE was obtained by the growth of boron doped film on textured molybdenum tip. This electrode does not present microelectrode characteristics. However, its voltammetric peak current, determined at low scan rates, is largest associated to the smallest {delta}E {sub p} values for ferrocyanide system when compared with PDDE or GCE. In addition, the capacitance is about 200 times smaller than that for GCE. These results show that the analytical performance of boron doped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of sensor geometry, from plane to spherical shape.

  6. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  7. Impact of Boron pollution to Biota Marine aquatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto-SBS; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Power plants and industrial facilities can release potentially harmful chemicals, like boron through direct aqueous discharges or cycling of cooling water to aquatic ecosystems environmental at plant surrounding. Boron is an essential trace element for the growth of marine biota, but can be toxic in excessive amount. Therefore will adversely affect of growth, reproduction or survival. Toxicity to aquatic organism, including vertebrates, invertebrates and plants can vary depending on the organism's life stage and environment. It is recommended that the maximum concentration of total boron for the protection of marine aquatic life should not exceed 1,2 mg B/L. Early stages of life cycle are more sensitive to boron than later ones, and the use of reconstituted water shows higher toxicity in lower boron concentrations than natural waters. (author)

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  9. Boron determination in tourmaline by neutron induced radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, A.A. E-mail: aaqureshi@pinstech.org.pk; Akram, M.; Ayub Khan, M.; Khattak, N.U.; Qureshi, I.E.; Khan, H.A

    2001-06-01

    The technique of neutron induced radiography has been applied to determine the boron concentration and its spatial distribution in mineral tourmaline collected from Swat Tourmaline Granite, Northern Pakistan. The technique involves the simultaneous irradiation of sample and a standard fixed on a track detector with thermal neutrons and the counting of alpha and {sup 7}Li tracks produced in the detector from the nuclear reaction {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li. Boron concentration is determined by comparing the {sup 7}Li and alpha particle tracks density with that of a standard of known boron concentration. Boron concentration in tourmaline has been found to be (3.40{+-}0.01)% in this study which is on the upper side within the normal range (2.5-3.8)% reported in the world. The presence of somewhat higher concentration of boron in tourmaline indicates that the Swat Tourmaline Granite was generated as a late stage hydrothermal activity during the Himalayan Orogeny.

  10. Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2018-05-01

    We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.

  11. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  12. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  13. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias

  14. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Hernan, E-mail: htb@forsmark.vattenfall.s [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, SE-742 03 Osthammar (Sweden); Buchwald, Przemyslaw [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor, E-mail: wiktor@reactor.sci.kth.s [Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of

  15. Numerical simulation of boron injection in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan; Buchwald, Przemyslaw; Frid, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The present study constitutes a first step to understand the process of boron injection, transport and mixing in a BWR. It consists of transient CFD simulations of boron injection in a model of the downcomer of Forsmark's Unit 3 containing about 6 million elements. The two cases studied are unintentional start of boron injection under normal operation and loss of offsite power with partial ATWS leaving 10% of the core power uncontrolled. The flow conditions of the second case are defined by means of an analysis with RELAP5, assuming boron injection start directly after the first ECCS injection. Recent publications show that meaningful conservative results may be obtained for boron or thermal mixing in PWRs with grids as coarse as that utilized here, provided that higher order discretization schemes are used to minimize numerical diffusion. The obtained results indicate an apparently strong influence of the scenario in the behavior of the injection process. The normal operation simulation shows that virtually all boron solution flows down to the Main Recirculation Pump inlet located directly below the boron inlet nozzle. The loss of offsite power simulation shows initially a spread of the boron solution over the entire sectional area of the lower part of the downcomer filled with colder water. This remaining effect of the ECCS injection lasts until all this water has left the downcomer. Above this region, the boron injection jet develops in a vertical streak, eventually resembling the injection of the normal operation scenario. Due to the initial spread, this boron injection will probably cause larger temporal and spatial concentration variations in the core. In both cases, these variations may cause reactivity transients and fuel damage due to local power escalation. To settle this issue, an analysis using an extended model containing the downcomer, the MRPs and the Lower Plenum will be carried out. Also, the simulation time will be extended to a scale of several

  16. Packing C60 in Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, W.; Aloni, S.; Han, Wei-Qiang; Cumings, John; Zettl, A.

    2003-04-01

    We have created insulated C60 nanowire by packing C60 molecules into the interior of insulating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). For small-diameter BNNTs, the wire consists of a linear chain of C60 molecules. With increasing BNNT inner diameter, unusual C60 stacking configurations are obtained (including helical, hollow core, and incommensurate) that are unknown for bulk or thin-film forms of C60. C60 in BNNTs thus presents a model system for studying the properties of dimensionally constrained ``silo'' crystal structures. For the linear-chain case, we have fused the C60 molecules to form a single-walled carbon nanotube inside the insulating BNNT.

  17. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  18. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  19. Synthesis of boron-containing heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azev, Yuri; Slepukhina, Irina; Gabel, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of boron-containing 1,3,5-triazines and 1,2,4-triazines is described. Derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine containing the o-carborane cluster have been obtained by reacting the corresponding propargyl derivatives with B 10 H 14 . Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazine containing the B 12 H 12 2- cluster have been obtained by nucleophilic substitution of ethylsulfone derivatives with B 12 H 11 SH 2- . They have been isolated in their ring-protonated form. Reaction of RNH 2 -B 8 H 11 NH-R with stericly demanding heterocycles failed, either for steric or for solubility reasons

  20. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  1. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mark W.; Shelly, Kenneth; Kane, Robert R.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  2. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.

    2006-01-01

    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  3. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes....... In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  4. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  5. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P.; Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  6. Exploiting the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases via boron oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Dudek, Hanna; Reis, Joel S.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective carbon-boron bond oxidation of several chiral boron-containing compounds by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was evaluated. PAMO and M446G PAMO conveniently oxidized 1-phenylethyl boronate into the corresponding 1-(phenyl)ethanol (ee = 82-91%). Cyclopropyl boronic esters were also

  7. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  8. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  9. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans

  10. Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, P.

    1990-08-01

    At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.) [de

  11. Joint diseases: from connexins to gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Henry J; Qu, Roy W; Genetos, Damian C

    2017-12-19

    Connexons form the basis of hemichannels and gap junctions. They are composed of six tetraspan proteins called connexins. Connexons can function as individual hemichannels, releasing cytosolic factors (such as ATP) into the pericellular environment. Alternatively, two hemichannel connexons from neighbouring cells can come together to form gap junctions, membrane-spanning channels that facilitate cell-cell communication by enabling signalling molecules of approximately 1 kDa to pass from one cell to an adjacent cell. Connexins are expressed in joint tissues including bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and the synovium. Indicative of their importance as gap junction components, connexins are also known as gap junction proteins, but individual connexin proteins are gaining recognition for their channel-independent roles, which include scaffolding and signalling functions. Considerable evidence indicates that connexons contribute to the function of bone and muscle, but less is known about the function of connexons in other joint tissues. However, the implication that connexins and gap junctional channels might be involved in joint disease, including age-related bone loss, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, emphasizes the need for further research into these areas and highlights the therapeutic potential of connexins.

  12. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  13. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  14. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Raineri, V.; Setola, R.; Rimini, E.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1992-01-01

    Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5x10 11 and 1x10 15 atoms/cm 2 . The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B + were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, S c , was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the [100] and [110] axis. The energy dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by S e = KE p with p [100] = 0.469±0.010 and p [110] = 0.554±0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles. (orig.)

  15. Method for fabricating boron carbide articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardary, Z.; Reynolds, C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method for fabricating an essentially uniformly dense boron carbide article of a length-to-diameter or width ratio greater than 2 to 1 comprising the steps of providing a plurality of article segments to be joined together to form the article with each of said article segments having a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5 to 1. Each segment is fabricated by hot pressing a composition consisting of boron carbide powder at a pressure and temperature effective to provide the article segment with a density greater than about 85% of theoretical density, providing each article segment with parallel planar end surfaces, placing a plurality of said article segments in a hot-pressing die in a line with the planar surfaces of adjacent article segments being disposed in intimate contact, and hot pressing the aligned article segments at a temperature and pressure effective to provide said article with a density over the length thereof in the range of about 94 to 98 percent theoretical density and greater than the density provided in the discrete hot pressing of each of the article segments and to provide a bond between adjacent article segments with said bond being at least equivalent in hardness, strength and density to a remainder of said article

  16. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  17. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.

    2000-01-01

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  18. Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.

    2001-01-01

    High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation

  19. Phase-dependent noise in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Forrest; Peotta, Sebastiano; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In addition to the usual superconducting current, Josephson junctions (JJs) support a phase-dependent conductance related to the retardation effect of tunneling quasi-particles. This introduces a dissipative current with a memory-resistive (memristive) character that should also affect the current noise. By means of the microscopic theory of tunnel junctions we compute the complete current autocorrelation function of a Josephson tunnel junction and show that this memristive component gives rise to both a previously noted phase-dependent thermal noise, and an undescribed non-stationary, phase-dependent dynamic noise. As experiments are approaching ranges in which these effects may be observed, we examine the form and magnitude of these processes. Their phase dependence can be realized experimentally as a hysteresis effect and may be used to probe defects present in JJ based qubits and in other superconducting electronics applications.

  20. Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr

  1. Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices

  2. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-07-23

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially

  3. Electrical analog of a Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that a mathematical description of the phase-coupling of two oscillators synchronized by a phase-lock-loop under the influence of thermal white noise is analogous to that of the phase coupling of two superconductors in a Josephson junction also under the influence of noise. This analogy may be useful in studying threshold instabilities of the Josephson junction in regimes not restricted to the case of large damping. This is of interest because the behavior of the mean voltage near the threshold current can be characterized by critical exponents which resemble those exhibited by an order parameter of a continuous phase transition. As it is possible to couple a collection of oscillators together in a chain, the oscillator analogy may also be useful in exploring the dynamics and statistical mechanics of coupled junctions

  4. Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).

  5. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO x vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni 60 Cu 40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of

  6. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation

  7. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela)

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation.

  8. SHB1/HY1 Alleviates Excess Boron Stress by Increasing BOR4 Expression Level and Maintaining Boron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential mineral nutrient for higher plant growth and development. However, excessive amounts of boron can be toxic. Here, we report on the characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant, shb1 (sensitive to high-level of boron 1, which exhibits hypersensitivity to excessive boron in roots. Positional cloning demonstrated that the shb1 mutant bears a point mutation in a gene encoding a heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 corresponding to the HY1 gene involved in photomorphogenesis. The transcription level of the SHB1/HY1 gene in roots is up-regulated under excessive boron stimulation. Either overexpressing SHB1/HY1 or applying the HO1 inducer hematin reduces boron accumulation in roots and confers high boron tolerance. Furthermore, carbon monoxide and bilirubin, catalytic products of HO1, partially rescue the boron toxicity-induced inhibition of primary root growth in shb1. Additionally, the mRNA level of BOR4, a boron efflux transporter, is reduced in shb1 roots with high levels of boron supplementation, and hematin cannot relieve the boron toxicity-induced root inhibition in bor4 mutants. Taken together, our study reveals that HO1 acts via its catalytic by-products to promote tolerance of excessive boron by up-regulating the transcription of the BOR4 gene and therefore promoting the exclusion of excessive boron in root cells.

  9. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  10. Influence of boron reduction strategies on PWR accident management flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papukchiev, Angel Aleksandrov; Liu, Yubo; Schaefer, Anselm

    2007-01-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. Design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest regarding three aspects - improved reactivity feedback properties, lower impact of boron dilution scenarios on PWR safety and eventually more flexible accident management procedures. In order to assess the potential advantages through the introduction of boron reduction strategies in current PWRs, two low boron core configurations based on fuel with increased utilization of gadolinium and erbium burnable absorbers have been developed. The new PWR designs permit to reduce the natural boron concentration in reactor coolant at begin of cycle to 518 ppm and 805 ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages of these cores a hypothetical beyond design basis accident has been simulated with the system code ATHLET. The analyses showed improved inherent safety and increased accident management flexibility of the low boron cores in comparison with the standard PWR. (author)

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, B.S.; Larsson, B.; Roberto, A. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that some thioamides, e.g., thiouracil, are incorporated as false precursors into melanin during its synthesis. If boronated analogs of the thioamides share this property, the melanin of melanotic melanomas offers a possibility for specific tumoural uptake and retention of boron as a basis for neutron capture therapy. We report on the synthesis of boronated 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (B-TZT), boronated 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil (B-CTU), and boronated 5-diethylaminomethyl-2-thiouracil (B-DEAMTU) and the localization of these substances in melanotic melanomas transplanted to mice. The distribution in the mice was studied by boron neutron capture radiography. B-TZT and B-CTU showed the highest tumour:normal tissue concentration ratios, with tumour:liver ratios of about 4 and tumour:muscle ratios of about 14; B-DEAMTU showed corresponding ratios of 1.4 and 5, respectively. The absolute concentration of boron in the tumours, however, was more than three times higher in the mice injected with B-TZT, compared with B-CTU. The results suggest that B-TZT may be the most promising compound of the three tested with regard to possible therapy of melanotic melanomas.

  12. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  13. Structure and single-phase regime of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1988-01-01

    The boron carbides are composed of twelve-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom intericosahedral chains. The boron carbides are known to exist as a single phase with carbon concentrations from about 8 to about 20 at. %. This range of carbon concentrations is made possible by the substitution of boron and carbon atoms for one another within both the icosahedra and intericosahedral chains. The most widely accepted structural model for B 4 C (the boron carbide with nominally 20% carbon) has B/sub 11/C icosahedra with C-B-C intericosahedral chains. Here, the free energy of the boron carbides is studied as a function of carbon concentration by considering the effects of replacing carbon atoms within B 4 C with boron atoms. It is concluded that entropic and energetic considerations both favor the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms within the intericosahedral chains, C-B-C→C-B-B. Once the carbon concentration is so low that the vast majority of the chains are C-B-B chains, near B/sub 13/C 2 , subsequent substitutions of carbon atoms with boron atoms occur within the icosahedra, B/sub 11/C→B/sub 12/. Maxima of the free energy occur at the most ordered compositions: B 4 C,B/sub 13/C 2 ,B/sub 14/C. This structural model, determined by studying the free energy, agrees with that previously suggested by analysis of electronic and thermal transport data. These considerations also provide an explanation for the wide single-phase regime found for boron carbides

  14. Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-09-20

    A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  16. Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Virtanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.

  17. Superconductive junctions for x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, J.B. le; Bruijn, M.P.; Frericks, M.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Houwman, E.P.; Flokstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Biasing of SIS-junctions for the purpose of high energy resolution x-ray detection is complicated by the presence of a DC Josephson current and AC Josephson current resonances, so that a large magnetic field is normally used for the suppression of these Josephson features. A transimpedance amplifier is proposed for biasing and signal amplification at low magnetic field. X-ray spectroscopy detectors for astronomy require a high detection efficiency in the 0.5-10 keV energy band and a reasonable (∼1 cm 2 ) detector area. Calculations on absorber-junctions combinations which might meet these requirements are presented. (author) 9 refs.; 10 figs

  18. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  19. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  20. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...... of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane....

  1. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadjiev, T.L.; Semerdjieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one

  3. Reload safety evaluation of boron dilution accident related to shutdown margin proportional to boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Ki Bog; Song, Jae Woong

    1993-06-01

    This report investigates the efficient safety evaluation method and analysis procedure on Boron Dilution Accident(BDA) under the proportional shutdown margin to boron concentration. Also investigated are problems caused by applying this shutdown margin limit. Through this investigation, the safety of Kori-3 Cycle-8, Yonggwang-2 Cycle-7, Kori-4 Cycle-8 and Yonggwang-1 Cycle-8 with respect to BDA is verified. In order to satisfy the shutdown margin requirement in the Technical Specifications, it is shown that the High Flux Alarm at Shutdown Setting for Kori-4 Cycle-8 and Yonggwang-1 Cycle-8 at Mode 5 should be set at 2 or the Technical Specification should be revised. (Author)

  4. Thermoelectric properties of β-boron and some boron compounds. Final report, August 1981-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, G.A.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Miller, M.L.; Huseby, I.C.

    1984-12-01

    The thermoelectric properties, that is the Seebeck coefficient, and electrical and thermal conductivity, of doped β-boron have been measured from 300 to 1600 K. Most of the useful doping elements are transition metals and occupy interstitial sites in the lattice. The highest figure of merit so far achieved at 1000 K is ZT = 0.11 for P-type, polycrystalline, hot-pressed β-boron doped with copper. Higher values may be achievable once a better P-type dopant is found. Some experiments on B 68 Y, α-B 12 Al, B 4 C, and B 6 Si are described. Transition metals appear to be effective dopants for B 68 Y and B 4 C

  5. Dose modification factors in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.J. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Menai (Australia))

    1993-01-01

    The effective treatment depth and therapeutic ratio in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depend on a number of macroscopic dose factors such as boron concentrations in the tumor, normal tissue and blood. However, the role of various microscopic dose modification factors can be of critical importance in the evaluation of normal tissue tolerance levels. An understanding of these factors is valuable in designing BNCT experiments and the selection of appropriate boron compounds. These factors are defined in this paper and applied to the case of brain tumors with particular attention to capillary endothelial cells and oligodendrocytes. (orig.).

  6. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  7. On Certain Topological Indices of Boron Triangular Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Adnan; Ahmad, Safyan; Gao, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The topological index gives information about the whole structure of a chemical graph, especially degree-based topological indices that are very useful. Boron triangular nanotubes are now replacing usual carbon nanotubes due to their excellent properties. We have computed general Randić (Rα), first Zagreb (M1) and second Zagreb (M2), atom-bond connectivity (ABC), and geometric-arithmetic (GA) indices of boron triangular nanotubes. Also, we have computed the fourth version of atom-bond connectivity (ABC4) and the fifth version of geometric-arithmetic (GA5) indices of boron triangular nanotubes.

  8. Ultrastructural changes in tumor cells following boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkla, D.H.; Brown, J.K.; Meriaty, H.; Allen, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study the authors reported on morphological changes in two human melanoma cell lines treated with 10 B-phenylalanine(BPA) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT). The present study describes morphological changes in melanoma and glioma cell lines treated with boron-tetraphenyl porphyrin(BTPP) and BNCT. Porphyrin compounds are selectively taken up by tumor cells and have been used clinically in phototherapy treatment of cancer patients. Boronated porphyrins show good potential as therapeutic agents in BNCT treatment of human cancer patients

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of boron-10 in neutron detectors electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Vinhas, L.A.; Vieira, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Process of boron-10 electrophoresis on large area of aluminum substrates was developed with the aim of using them in the construction of neutron detectors. After definition and optimization of the boron electrophoresis parameters, depositions of boron-10 on aluminum cylinders were performed and used as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. These prototypes were designed and builded at IPEN-CNEN-SP, and submited for characterization tests at IEA-R1 reactor, and they fulfil the technical specifications of the project. (author) [pt

  10. On certain topological indices of boron triangular nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, Adnan [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Natural Sciences and Humanities; Ahmad, Safyan [GC Univ. Lahore (Pakistan). Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences; Gao, Wei [Yunnan Normal Univ., Kunming (China). School of Information Science and Technology

    2017-11-01

    The topological index gives information about the whole structure of a chemical graph, especially degree-based topological indices that are very useful. Boron triangular nanotubes are now replacing usual carbon nanotubes due to their excellent properties. We have computed general Randic (R{sub a}), first Zagreb (M{sub 1}) and second Zagreb (M{sub 2}), atom-bond connectivity (ABC), and geometric-arithmetic (GA) indices of boron triangular nanotubes. Also, we have computed the fourth version of atom-bond connectivity (ABC{sub 4}) and the fifth version of geometric-arithmetic (GA{sub 5}) indices of boron triangular nanotubes.

  11. Boron complexing with H-resorcinol and acidic hydroxyxanthene dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, V.A.; Flyantikova, G.V.; Chekirda, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Complex formation of boron with H-resorcinol (hr; 2,4-dihydroxybenzene-azo -8-hydroxynaphtalene-3,6-disulfonic acid) and acidic hydroxyxanthene dyes (hxd: fluorescein, eosine, erathrosine). Mixed-ligand complexes with a ratio of r:hr:hxd=1:1:1 are formed at pH=5-6. The chemism of the complex formation of boron with H-resorcinol and fluorescein has been studied. The stability consta nt of the complex is 1.12x10 21 , the conditional molar absorptivitis 1.80x10 0 . This complex formation reaction was used for photometric determination of boron in natural water

  12. Coordination Networks Based on Boronate and Benzoxaborolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive range of investigations on boronic acids (R-B(OH2, some aspects of their reactivity still need to be explored. This is the case for the coordination chemistry of boronate anions (R-B(OH3−, which has only recently been started to be studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the key features of boronate ligands (and of their cyclic derivatives, benzoxaborolates in materials: (i coordination properties; (ii spectroscopic signatures; and (iii emerging applications.

  13. Kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of boron on molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, W.; Nakaanishi, N.; Kato, E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental rate data of chemical vapor deposition of boron by reduction of boron trichloride with hydrogen are analyzed to determine the reaction mechanism. The reaction orders with respect to the partial pressures of hydrogen and boron trichloride are one half and one third, respectively. It has been found that the outer layer of a deposited film is Mo/sub 2/B/sub 5/ and the inner layer is MoB by the use of X-ray diffraction and EPMA line analysis

  14. Boron-doped nanodiamonds as possible agents for local hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervald, A. M.; Burikov, S. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Ekimov, E. A.; Shenderova, O. A.; Dolenko, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the effective heating of surrounding water by heavily-boron-doped nanodiamonds (NDs) under laser irradiation of visible wavelength was found. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy of aqueous suspensions of boron-doped NDs, it was found that this abnormally high heating results in the weakening of hydrogen bonds much more so (2-5 times stronger) than for undoped NDs. The property of boron-doped NDs to heat a solvent under the influence of laser radiation (1-5 W cm-2) opens broad prospects for their use to create nanoagents for medical oncology and local hyperthermia.

  15. Interlayer shear of nanomaterials: Graphene-graphene, boron nitride-boron nitride and graphene-boron nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinfeng Li; Weiwei Zhang; Bill Guo; Dibakar Datta

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,the interlayer sliding between graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations.The interlayer shear force between h-BN/h-BN is found to be six times higher than that of graphene/graphene,while the interlayer shear between graphene/h-BN is approximate to that of graphene/graphene.The graphene/h-BN heterostructure shows several anomalous interlayer shear characteristics compared to its bilayer counterparts.For graphene/graphene and h-BN/h-BN,interlayer shears only exit along the sliding direction while interlayer shear for graphene/h-BN is observed along both the translocation and perpendicular directions.Our results provide significant insight into the interlayer shear characteristics of 2D nanomaterials.

  16. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. The optical properties of boron carbide near boron K-edge inside periodical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Schlemper, Christoph; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer mirrors made for the use in the wavelength range near K-edge of boron (188 eV) are of great interest for X-ray fluorescence analysis of boron content in doped semiconductors, plasma diagnostics, astronomy and lithography. Moreover, multilayer mirrors composed by a metal and a low Z element like boron are used as optical elements in both the soft x-ray spectral range as well as at higher photon energies on 3rd generation synchrotron beamlines. Using an energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method we reconstructed the optical data from energy dependence of both integrated peak intensity and FWHM of the 1st order ML Bragg peak measured at the UHV triple axis soft-x-ray reflectometer at BESSY II. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the peak shape of the ML Bragg peak is most sensitive to any kind of electronic excitation and recombination in solid. The soft-ray reflectivity can give detailed information for MLs with thickness up to several tens of nanometers. In addition, measurements close to a resonance edge probe the chemical state of the respective constituent accompanied with a high sensitivity of changes close to the sample surface.

  18. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm 2 , initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10 6 x[OH] 0.11 x[CD] 0.62 x[IBC] -0.57 x[DSE] -0.04 x[T] -2.98 x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  19. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm{sup 2}, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10{sup 6}x[OH]{sup 0.11}x[CD]{sup 0.62}x[IBC]{sup -0.57}x[DSE]{sup -0.}= {sup 04}x[T]{sup -2.98}x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  20. Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.

  1. Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.

  2. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum

  3. Tribo-mechanical and electrical properties of boron-containing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jincheng

    The development of new hard protective coatings with advanced performance is very important for progress in a variety of scientific and industrial fields. Application of hard protective coatings can significantly improve the performance of parts and components, extend their service life, and save energy in many industrial applications including aerospace, automotive, manufacturing, and other industries. In addition, the multifunctionality of protective coatings is also required in many other application fields such as optics, microelectronics, biomedical, magnetic storage media, etc. Therefore, protective coatings with enhanced tribo-mechanical and corrosion properties as well as other functions are in demand. The coating characteristics can be adjusted by controlling the microstructure at different scales. For example, films with nanostructures, such as superlattice, nanocolumn, and nanocomposite systems, exhibit distinctive characteristics compared to single-phase materials. They show superior tribo-mechanical properties due to the presence of strong interfaces, and different functions can be achieved due to the multi-phase characteristics. Boron-containing materials with their excellent mechanical properties and interesting electronic characteristics are good candidates for functional hard protective coatings. For instance, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), boron carbide (B1-xCx), and titanium diboride (TiB 2) are well known for their high hardness, high thermal stability, and high chemical inertness. An interesting example is the boron carbon nitride (BCN) compound that possesses many attractive properties because its structure is similar to that of carbon (graphite and diamond) and of boron nitride (BN in hexagonal and cubic phases). The main goal of this work is to further develop the family of Boron-containing films including B1-xCx, Ti-B-C, and BCN films fabricated by magnetron sputtering, and to enhance their performance by controlling their microstructure on

  4. Macroscopic Refrigeration Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Peter; O'Neil, Galen; Underwood, Jason; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ullom, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Sub-kelvin temperatures are often a prerequisite for modern scientific experiments, such as quantum information processing, astrophysical missions looking for dark energy signatures and tabletop time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. Existing methods of reaching these temperatures, such as dilution refrigerators, are bulky and costly. In order to increase the accessibility of sub-Kelvin temperatures, we have developed a new method of refrigeration using normal-metal/insulator/superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. NIS junctions cool the electrons in the normal metal since the hottest electrons selectively tunnel from the normal metal into the superconductor. By extending the normal metal onto a thermally isolated membrane, the cold electrons can cool the phonons through the electron-phonon coupling. When these junctions are combined with a pumped 3He system, they provide a potentially inexpensive method of reaching these temperatures. Using only three devices, each with a junction area of approximately 3,500 μm2, we have cooled a 2 cm3 Cu plate from 290 mK to 256 mK. We will present these experimental results along with recent modeling predictions that strongly suggest that further refinements will allow cooling from 300 mK to 120 mK. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program.

  5. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...

  6. Double-barrier junction based dc SQUID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolomé, M.E.; Brinkman, Alexander; Flokstra, Jakob; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst

    2000-01-01

    dc SQUIDs based on double-barrier Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb junctions (DBSQs) have been fabricated and tested for the first time. The current–voltage curves have been measured at temperatures down to 1.4 K. The critical current, Ic, dependence on the temperature T is partially described by the

  7. Anatomy of the human atrioventricular junctions revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.; Becker, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    There have been suggestions made recently that our understanding of the atrioventricular junctions of the heart is less than adequate, with claims for several new findings concerning the arrangement of the ordinary working myocardium and the specialised pathways for atrioventricular conduction. In

  8. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs

  9. Axial p-n-junctions in nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C; Shik, A; Byrne, K; Lynall, D; Blumin, M; Saveliev, I; Ruda, H E

    2015-02-27

    The charge distribution and potential profile of p-n-junctions in thin semiconductor nanowires (NWs) were analyzed. The characteristics of screening in one-dimensional systems result in a specific profile with large electric field at the boundary between the n- and p- regions, and long tails with a logarithmic drop in the potential and charge density. As a result of these tails, the junction properties depend sensitively on the geometry of external contacts and its capacity has an anomalously large value and frequency dispersion. In the presence of an external voltage, electrons and holes in the NWs can not be described by constant quasi-Fermi levels, due to small values of the average electric field, mobility, and lifetime of carriers. Thus, instead of the classical Sah-Noice-Shockley theory, the junction current-voltage characteristic was described by an alternative theory suitable for fast generation-recombination and slow diffusion-drift processes. For the non-uniform electric field in the junction, this theory predicts the forward branch of the characteristic to have a non-ideality factor η several times larger than the values 1 < η < 2 from classical theory. Such values of η have been experimentally observed by a number of researchers, as well as in the present work.

  10. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by

  11. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  12. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1982-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L / λJ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L / λJ=6) and intermediate (L / λJ=2) junctions. We find good...... agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of soliton oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency f1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a "symmetric" mode which...... on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...

  13. Dissipative current in SIFS Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenko, A.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Hekking, F.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SIFS) tunnel Josephson junctions in the dirty limit, using the quasiclassical theory. We consider the case of a strong tunnel barrier such that the left S layer and the right FS bilayer are decoupled. We calculate quantitatively the

  14. CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs.

  15. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  16. Critical current of pure SNS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.A.; Bezzub, O.P.

    1982-01-01

    Boundary conditions at the superconductor-normal metal interface are determined, taking into account the differences in the effective masses and the density of states of the metals constituting the transition and assumed to be pure. The potential barrier of the interface is chosen to be zero. The critical current of the junction is calculated [ru

  17. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...

  18. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.

  19. Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.

  20. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubarov, M.; Pedersen, H.; Högberg, H.; Filippov, S.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; O'Connel, J.; Henry, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp 2 -BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  1. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, M., E-mail: mihcu@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Pedersen, H., E-mail: henke@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Högberg, H., E-mail: hanho@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Filippov, S., E-mail: stafi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); O' Connel, J., E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A., E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp{sup 2}-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  2. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  3. Boron carbide in pile behaviour Rapsodie experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryger, B.; Colin, M.

    1983-04-01

    Results concerning boron carbide irradiation experiments performed in RAPSODIE up to 10 22 .cm - 3 capture density in the temperature range 600-1100 0 lead to the following main conclusions: initial density and grain size lowering contribute to swelling decrease but density is the major parameter for swelling limitation; swelling rate can vary in a wide range (ratio 1 to 3) according to combinations of density (1.8 to 2.3) and grain size (10 to 50 μm) values; a swelling balance reveals that the most important contribution to swelling should be a high density of helium small bubbles (<400 A); helium retention increases with density and grain size and decreases with temperature elevation. A diffusion law is proposed to describe the rate of helium release

  4. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanbin; Aluru, Narayana R., E-mail: aluru@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wagner, Lucas K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems.

  5. Apatite formability of boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Debrupa; Keshri, Anup K; Agarwal, Arvind; Singh, Virendra; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to induce apatite formation in a simulated body fluid environment for a period of 7, 14 and 28 days. BNNTs, when soaked in the simulated body fluid, are found to induce hydroxyapatite (HA) precipitation on their surface. The precipitation process has an initial incubation period of ∼ 4.6 days. The amount of HA precipitate increases gradually with the soaking time. High resolution TEM results indicated a hexagonal crystal structure of HA needles. No specific crystallographic orientation relationship is observed between BNNT and HA, which is due to the presence of a thin amorphous HA layer on the BNNT surface that disturbs a definite orientation relationship.

  6. Boron in plants: deficiency and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Rexach, Jesús; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2008-10-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of higher plants, and B availability in soil and irrigation water is an important determinant of agricultural production. To date, a primordial function of B is undoubtedly its structural role in the cell wall; however, there is increasing evidence for a possible role of B in other processes such as the maintenance of plasma membrane function and several metabolic pathways. In recent years, the knowledge of the molecular basis of B deficiency and toxicity responses in plants has advanced greatly. The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent findings related to these topics, which can contribute to a better understanding of the role of B in plants.

  7. Production of polyoxoboronate as novel boron compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Mitsui, Sayaka; Ogata, Aya

    2006-01-01

    Polyoxometalates are negatively charged inorganic substances which contain early transitional metal ions such as tungsten, molybdenum, making a cluster with the surrounding oxygen atoms. We prepared novel boron compound, (H 15 [V 12 10 B 32 O 84 Na 4 ]·13H 2 O; 10 B32), as the structure of polyoxometalates. With thermal neutron irradiation, 10 B32 shows cytotoxic effect on the proliferation of AsPC-1 cells in colony formation assay. On BNCT model mice bearing AsPC-1, 10 B32 shows tumor growth suppression, as well. These results indicate that 10 B32 has anti-tumor activity being functioned as a novel neutron capture agent. (author)

  8. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, G. C.; Baillargeat, D.

    2014-01-01

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heat—the boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  9. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, G. C., E-mail: jgloh@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Baillargeat, D. [CNRS-International-NTU-Thales Research Alliance (CINTRA), 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-06-28

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heat—the boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  10. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  11. Rebar graphene from functionalized boron nitride nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilun; Peng, Zhiwei; Larios, Eduardo; Wang, Gunuk; Lin, Jian; Yan, Zheng; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Tour, James M

    2015-01-27

    The synthesis of rebar graphene on Cu substrates is described using functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) that were annealed or subjected to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene. Characterization shows that the BNNTs partially unzip and form a reinforcing bar (rebar) network within the graphene layer that enhances the mechanical strength through covalent bonds. The rebar graphene is transferrable to other substrates without polymer assistance. The optical transmittance and conductivity of the hybrid rebar graphene film was tested, and a field effect transistor was fabricated to explore its electrical properties. This method of synthesizing 2D hybrid graphene/BN structures should enable the hybridization of various 1D nanotube and 2D layered structures with enhanced mechanical properties.

  12. Separation of boron isotopes by infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya

    1995-01-01

    Vibrationally excited chemical reaction of boron tribromide (BBr 3 ) with oxygen (O 2 ) is utilized to separate 10 B and 11 B. Infrared absorption of 10 BBr 3 is at 11.68μ and that of 11 BBr 3 is at 12.18μ. The wavelengths of ammonia laser made in the laboratory were mainly 11.71μ, 12.08μ and 12.26μ. Irradiation was done by focussing the laser with ZnSe lens on the sample gas (mixture of 1.5 torr of natural BBr 3 and 4.5 torr of O 2 ) in the reaction cell. Depletions of 10 BBr 3 and 11 BBr 3 due to chemical reaction of BBr 3 with O 2 was measured with infrared spectrometer. The maximum separation factor β( 10 B/ 11 B) obtained was about 4.5 (author)

  13. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  15. Hydrolytic Stability of Boronate Ester-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huifang; Li, Haoyuan; Dai, Qingqing; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-01

    by reducing the energy barrier by a factor of 3. Importantly, the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds situated in a COF environment follows reaction pathways that are different and have increased energy barriers. These results point to an enhanced hydrolytic

  16. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomura, T.; Furutani, H.; Osawa, M.; Ono, K.; Fukuda, K.

    2000-01-01

    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  17. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursier, J.; Hure, J.; Platzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [fr

  18. Boronic acid-based chemical sensors for saccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Tai; Liu, Guang-Jian; Ning, Zhang-Wei; Xing, Guo-Wen

    2017-11-27

    During the past decades, the interaction between boronic acids-functionalized sensors and saccharides is of great interest in the frontier domain of the interdiscipline concerning both biology and chemistry. Various boronic acid-based sensing systems have been developed to detect saccharides and corresponding derivatives in vitro as well as in vivo, which embrace unimolecular sensors, two-component sensing ensembles, functional assemblies, and boronic acid-loaded nanomaterials or surfaces. New sensing strategies emerge in endlessly with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, several typical sensing systems were introduced and some promising examples were highlighted to enable the deep insight of saccharides sensing on the basis of boronic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunocytochemistry by electron spectroscopic imaging using a homogeneously boronated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, M M; Qualmann, B; Klobasa, F; Sierralta, W D

    1996-05-01

    A linear all-L-oligopeptide containing five carboranyl amino acids (corresponding to 50 boron atoms) was synthesized and specifically attached to the free thiol group of monovalent antibody fragments F(ab)'. The boronated immunoreagent was used for the direct post-embedding detection of somatotrophic hormone in ultrathin sections of porcine pituitary embedded in Spurr resin. The specific boron-labelling of secretory vesicles in somatotrophs was detected by electron spectroscopic imaging and confirmed by conventional immunogold labelling run in parallel. In comparison with immunogold, boron-labelled F(ab)'-fragments showed higher tagging frequencies, as was expected; the small uncharged immunoreagents have an elongated shape and carry the antigen-combining structure and the detection tag at opposite ends, thus allowing for high spatial resolution in electron spectroscopic imaging.

  20. Nuclear Design Study for Reduced Boron Concentration Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    In PWR, Boron Dilution Accident (BDA) which is an inadvertent reduction of the soluble boron concentration in the primary coolant, can lead to a positive reactivity insertion and a power increase. In this study, an optimal Low Boron Concentration (LBC) core design will be developed by reducing an excess reactivity so as to possess passive inherently safety features as well as one of attentively preventive measures of BDA scenarios. The scope of the research project concerning the change of operational procedure in chemical shim system, will involve three main parts namely, nuclear design for LBC core, feasibility check on the proposed core in safety and costs, and PSA approach on design change benefits. In addition, successful system analysis of the reactivity effects due to boron dilution transients, require a full coupling between core thermal hydraulic, reactor dynamics, and the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes

  1. Nuclear Design Study for Reduced Boron Concentration Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    In PWR, Boron Dilution Accident (BDA) which is an inadvertent reduction of the soluble boron concentration in the primary coolant, can lead to a positive reactivity insertion and a power increase. In this study, an optimal Low Boron Concentration (LBC) core design will be developed by reducing an excess reactivity so as to possess passive inherently safety features as well as one of attentively preventive measures of BDA scenarios. The scope of the research project concerning the change of operational procedure in chemical shim system, will involve three main parts namely, nuclear design for LBC core, feasibility check on the proposed core in safety and costs, and PSA approach on design change benefits. In addition, successful system analysis of the reactivity effects due to boron dilution transients, require a full coupling between core thermal hydraulic, reactor dynamics, and the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes.

  2. Continuum modelling for carbon and boron nitride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M

    2007-01-01

    Continuum based models are presented here for certain boron nitride and carbon nanostructures. In particular, certain fullerene interactions, C 60 -C 60 , B 36 N 36 -B 36 N 36 and C 60 -B 36 N 36 , and fullerene-nanotube oscillator interactions, C 60 -boron nitride nanotube, C 60 -carbon nanotube, B 36 N 36 -boron nitride nanotube and B 36 N 36 -carbon nanotube, are studied using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach, which assumes a uniform distribution of atoms on the surface of each molecule. Issues regarding the encapsulation of a fullerene into a nanotube are also addressed, including acceptance and suction energies of the fullerenes, preferred position of the fullerenes inside the nanotube and the gigahertz frequency oscillation of the inner molecule inside the outer nanotube. Our primary purpose here is to extend a number of established results for carbon to the boron nitride nanostructures

  3. Effect of Boronization on Ohmic Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Blanchard, W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; LaMarche, P.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Nishino, N.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2001-01-01

    Boronization of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has enabled access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas. A glow discharge with 4 mTorr helium and 10% deuterated trimethyl boron deposited 1.7 g of boron on the plasma facing surfaces. Ion beam analysis of witness coupons showed a B+C areal density of 10 to the 18 (B+C) cm to the -2 corresponding to a film thickness of 100 nm. Subsequent ohmic discharges showed oxygen emission lines reduced by x15, carbon emission reduced by two and copper reduced to undetectable levels. After boronization, the plasma current flattop time increased by 70% enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas

  4. Spectrographic determination of traces of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Roca, M.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrographic method has been developed to determine quantitatively boron in steels in the 0.5 to 250 ppm concentration range. The samples are dissolved in acids and transformed into oxides, avoiding boron losses by the addition of mannitol. For the fluoride evolution of boron in the dc arc the following compounds have been considered: CuF 2 , LiF, NaF, and SrF 2 . CuF 2 , at a concentration of 10%, provides the highest line-to-background intensity ratio. An arc current of 5 amperes eliminates the interference from iron spectrum on the most sensitive boron line - B 2497.7 A. Variations in chromium and nickel contents have no effect on the analytical results. (author)

  5. Preliminary evaluation of boron release and biological resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... 2Forel Marketing and Foreign Trade Inc., Istanbul, Turkey. 3Architectural ... Leachates sampled from the leaching cycles for 10 days and extracts from treated wood specimens were analyzed for boron content. Treated wood ...

  6. Microstructural characterization aluminium alloys from the addition of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, A.G.P.; Pipano, T.F.; Mota, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Ramos, E.C.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the electrical industry, the aluminum becomes attractive because it has excellent characteristics for transmitting electricity. The liquid aluminum has in its composition transition elements (zirconium, titanium, vanadium and chromium) that interfere negatively on the quality of the product. The addition of aluminum-boron alloys have been used to remove transition metals through the formation of borides, enabling an increase in electrical conductivity. However, no detailed reports of reactions between boron, transition metals and primary aluminum engines. However, the objective is to determine the stoichiometric composition that enables an increase in electrical conductivity of an aluminum alloy. Samples with different concentrations of boron were characterized by optical emission spectrometry, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The addition of boron in excess reduces the time in the formation of borides, and enable an increase in electrical conductivity. (author)

  7. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  8. Tritium release from fast neutron irradiated boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    A high-energy neutron reaction with boron produces tritium. In the LMFBR control material, B 4 C, most of the tritium that is generated remains in the pellets. Potential retention mechanisms are discussed. 5 figures

  9. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  10. Defect complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defect complexes on the stability, structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method implemented...

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  12. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available of Water Reuse and Desalination Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite Vhahangwele Masindi and Mugera W. Gitari Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using cryptocrystalline magnesite...

  13. Fractionation of boron isotopes in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive δ 1 1B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive δ 1 1B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to absorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  14. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Yingkai, X.

    The abundance and isotopic compositions of boron in sediments from the salt lakes of Qaidam Basin, China have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate. The results show large variations in the isotopic compositions...

  15. Electrodialysis of boron-containing solutions using homogeneuos ionite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Grebenyuk, V.D.; Mel'nik, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Electrodialysis of boron-containing solutions is studied when preparing potable water from the sea one with the limiting admissible concentration (LAC) of boron 0.5 mg/dm 3 . It is ascertained that at pH>7 diffusion permeability of anion- and cation-exchange membranes as regards boron reduces both in the absence of external field and at current density 0.3 A/dm 3 . It is shown that when MK-100 homogeneous cationic membranes and MA-100 homogeneous anionic membranes are used, boron concentration in dialyzate decreases to LAC, if the process is realized in acid and low-acid media and if the depth of freshening increases to 0.2g/l

  16. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.

    1994-01-01

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  17. Preliminary evaluation of boron release and biological resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOT) and a commercial water repellent compound. Leachates sampled from the leaching cycles for 10 days and extracts from treated wood specimens were analyzed for boron content. Treated wood specimens were exposed to wood degrading ...

  18. Measurement of boron isotope ratios in groundwater studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, N.C.; Walsh, J.N.; Jarvis, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Boron is present at low levels in groundwater and rainfall in the UK, ranging between 2 and 200 ng ml -1 . A sensitive technique has been developed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure boron isotope ratios at low concentrations with a precision (s r ) of between 0.1 and 0.2%. Samples were evaporated to increase elemental boron concentrations to 200 ng ml -1 and interfering matrix elements were removed by an adapted cation-exchange separation procedure. The validity of measuring boron isotopic ratios by ICP-MS at this concentration level is discussed in relation to the theoretical instrument precision attainable based on counting statistics. (author)

  19. Impact of impregnation with boron compounds on combustion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... 2Gazi University, Industrial Arts Education Faculty, Department of ... security. Key words: Combustion, flame retardance, coatings, boron compounds, varnish. ..... attack in wood deterioration and its prevention by preservative.

  20. Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez triple junction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to ...