WorldWideScience

Sample records for boron silicides

  1. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-01-01

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo 5 Si 3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi 2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo 5 Si 3 for structural integrity. 7 figs

  2. Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.C.; Gouge, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented

  3. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  4. A study of nanoscale TiB{sub 2} precipitation during titanium silicidation using atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedderhoff, K., E-mail: kirsten.wedderhoff@cnt.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany); Kleint, C.A.; Shariq, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, S. [UAS Jena, Dpt. SciTec, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 2, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Atom Probe Tomography (APT) was applied to analyze the silicidation reaction between a titanium metal film, capped by a TiN layer, and a boron-implanted silicon substrate. The concentration depth profile observed by APT, depicts low concentrations of B in titanium silicide itself and the B accumulation at the interface between the TiSi{sub 2} and the TiN capping layer. Moreover the three dimensional atomic reconstruction from APT revealed a laterally inhomogeneous B distribution along the interface as well as B precipitation. APT enables the stoichiometric identification of TiB{sub 2} precipitates smaller than 7 nm in diameter.

  5. Silicide fuel development at CERCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.P.; Lavastre, Y.; Colomb, P.

    2004-01-01

    After a long term development the manufacture Of U 3 Si 2 fuel plates has been perfected by Cerca. Developments are going on, in particular to set up theoretical model of several production and inspection processes in order to get a better understanding of parameters leading to a higher quality product. Concerning the improved silicide fuels with an increase in the uranium loading, an equivalent of 6.5 g Ut/cm 3 with pure U 3 Si 2 could probably be obtained. Above that value, the metallurgical compound (U 3 Si 2 ) must be changed. In an independent way of the increase in the uranium loading, silicide fuels could be optimized (if there is a need) by varying the uranium distribution inside the plate or by placing neutronic poisons in appropriate zones of the fuel assemblies. (author)

  6. Endotaxial silicide nanowires: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.A., E-mail: peter.bennett@asu.edu [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); He, Zhian [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Smith, David J. [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ross, F.M. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights NY 10598 (United States)

    2011-10-03

    We review the topic of self-assembled endotaxial silicide nanowires on silicon. Crystallographic orientation, lattice mismatch and average dimensions are discussed for a variety of systems including Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pt and several rare earths on Si(100), Si(111) and Si(110) surfaces. In situ observations of growth dynamics support a constant-shape growth model, in which length, width and thickness all change in proportion as the nanowire grows, with thermally activated, facet-dependent rates.

  7. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.

    2016-11-30

    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  8. Tungsten silicide contacts to polycrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Bain, M.F.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Baine, P.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; McNeill, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon-germanium alloy layers will be employed in the source-drain engineering of future MOS transistors. The use of this technology offers advantages in reducing series resistance and decreasing junction depth resulting in reduction in punch-through and SCE problems. The contact resistance of metal or metal silicides to the raised source-drain material is a serious issue at sub-micron dimensions and must be minimised. In this work, tungsten silicide produced by chemical vapour deposition has been investigated as a contact metallization scheme to both boron and phosphorus doped polycrystalline Si 1- x Ge x , with 0 ≤x ≤ 0.3. Cross bridge Kelvin resistor (CKBR) structures were fabricated incorporating CVD WSi 2 and polycrystalline SiGe. Tungsten silicide contacts to control polysilicon CKBR structures have been shown to be of high quality with specific contact resistance ρ c values 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 and 6 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 obtained to boron and phosphorus implanted samples respectively. The SiGe CKBR structures show that the inclusion of Ge yields a reduction in ρ c for both dopant types. The boron doped SiGe exhibits a reduction in ρ c from 3 x 10 -7 to 5 x 10 -8 ohm cm 2 as Ge fraction is increased from 0 to 0.3. The reduction in ρ c has been shown to be due to (i) the lowering of the tungsten silicide Schottky barrier height to p-type SiGe resulting from the energy band gap reduction, and (ii) increased activation of the implanted boron with increased Ge fraction. The phosphorus implanted samples show less sensitivity of ρ c to Ge fraction with a lowest value in this work of 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 for a Ge fraction of 0.3. The reduction in specific contact resistance to the phosphorus implanted samples has been shown to be due to increased dopant activation alone

  9. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  10. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breil, Nicolas [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Lavoie, Christian [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Ozcan, Ahmet [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Baumann, Frieder [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Klymko, Nancy [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Nummy, Karen [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Sun, Bing [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Yu, Jian [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Zhu, Frank [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Narasimha, Shreesh [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States); Chudzik, Michael [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center (SRDC), East Fishkill, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  11. Irradiation behavior of miniature experimental uranium silicide fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicides, because of their relatively high uranium density, were selected as candidate dispersion fuels for the higher fuel densities required in the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Irradiation experience with this type of fuel, however, was limited to relatively modest fission densities in the bulk from, on the order of 7 x 10 20 cm -3 , far short of the approximately 20 x 10 20 cm -3 goal established for the RERTR program. The purpose of the irradiation experiments on silicide fuels on the ORR, therefore, was to investigate the intrinsic irradiation behavior of uranium silicide as a dispersion fuel. Of particular interest was the interaction between the silicide particles and the aluminum matrix, the swelling behavior of the silicide particles, and the maximum volume fraction of silicide particles that could be contained in the aluminum matrix

  12. Palladium silicide - a new contact for semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totterdell, D.H.J.

    1981-11-01

    Silicide layers can be used as low resistance contacts in semiconductor devices. The formation of a metal rich palladium silicide Pd 2 Si is discussed. A palladium film 100A thick is deposited at 300 0 C and the resulting silicide layer used as an ohmic contact in an n + p silicon detector. This rugged contact has electrical characteristics comparable with existing evaporated gold contacts and enables the use of more reproducible bonding techniques. (author)

  13. Room temperature ferromagnetic gadolinium silicide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadimani, Magundappa Ravi L.; Gupta, Shalabh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David C.

    2018-03-06

    A particle usable as T1 and T2 contrast agents is provided. The particle is a gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particle that is ferromagnetic at temperatures up to 290 K and is less than 2 .mu.m in diameter. An MRI contrast agent that includes a plurality of gadolinium silicide (Gd.sub.5Si.sub.4) particles that are less than 1 .mu.m in diameter is also provided. A method for creating gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) particles is also provided. The method includes the steps of providing a Gd5Si4 bulk alloy; grinding the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy into a powder; and milling the Gd5Si4 bulk alloy powder for a time of approximately 20 minutes or less.

  14. Uranium silicide activities at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, W.W.; Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is actively involved in the Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactor (RERTR) Program to produce low enriched fuel elements for research reactors. B and W and ANL have undertaken a joint effort in which NNFD will fabricate two low enriched uranium (LEU), Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) elements with uranium silicide fuel furnished by ANL. These elements are being fabricated for irradiation testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Concurrently with this program, NNFD is developing and implementing the uranium silicide and uranium aluminide fuel fabrication technology. NNFD is fabricating the uranium silicide ORR elements in a two-phase program, Development and Production. To summarize: 1. Full size fuel plates can be made with U 3 SiAl but the fabricator must prevent oxidation of the compact prior to hot roll bonding; 2. Providing the ANL U 3 Si x irradiation results are successful, NNFD plans to provide two ORR elements during February 1983; 3. NNFD is developing and implementing U 3 Si x and UAI x fuel fabrication technology to be operational in 1983; 4. NNFD can supply U 3 O 8 high enriched uranium (HEU) or low enriched uranium (LEU) research reactor elements; 5. NNFD is capable of providing high quality, cost competitive LEU or HEU research reactor elements to meet the needs of the customer

  15. Boron reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity 10 B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron

  16. Silicide fuel at CERCA status as of September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjas, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    New progress in CERCA irradiation program for silicide fuels is presented. U3Si2 and U3Six fuel developments are now completed and the industrial fabrication phase has started at CERCA. The paper indicates the fabrication cost ratio to be expected for a given reactor chosen as an example, when replacing HEU fuel by LEU silicide fuel. (Author)

  17. Thickness measurement of aluminum, titanium, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.; Lee, C.O.; Lee, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has received a great deal of attention in the last few years as a quantitative means of determining both the stoichiometry and thickness of many different kinds of films. Examples include Ag and Cu films on mica substrates, Sn-Pb alloys on steel substrates, Al-Ti multilayers on Cu substrates and oxide films on silicon substrates. In XRF the sample is irradiated with x-rays which in turn cause x-rays to be given off by the sample. These x-rays that are given off by the sample can then be analyzed both for energy and intensity. The energy of the x-rays is characteristic of the elemental makeup of the sample and the intensity of the x-rays is dependent on how much of the particular element is present. The intensity then can be related to the thickness of a film if the stoichiometry of the film can be assumed constant. With the increased interest in silicides and more recently, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) process (8-10) for VLSI applications, in-line process monitoring of silicide film thickness has become important to integrated circuit manufacturing. In this study, the number of x-ray photons given of by Al, Ti, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films on silicon-based substrates was quantified so that a film thickness for an unknown sample could then be determined easily. In addition, XRF is a more accurate technique, limited principally by the accuracy technique, limited principally by the accuracy of the reference used and the amount of time the x-ray photons are counted

  18. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the re...

  19. Crystallographic characteristics and fine structures of semiconducting transition metal silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, G., E-mail: G.Shao@bolton.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Gao, Y. [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Xia, X.H. [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Milosavljevic, M. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia)

    2011-10-03

    Silicide-based photonic materials have attracted a great deal of research interest due to their compatibility with the well-developed silicon technology. Extensive efforts have been made for the synthesis and characterisation of these materials. This paper covers some aspects of the microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of ion beam synthesised silicides such as the semiconducting iron and ruthenium silicides, using transmission electron microscopy. A previously predicted new orientation relationship has been found to exist between the Si substrate and ion beam synthesised {beta}FeSi{sub 2} nanocrystals, which are free of 90{sup o} rotational order domain boundaries.

  20. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl x alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U 3 Si 2 miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed

  1. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400 deg. C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: 1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi) 3 and 2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. (author)

  2. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti Γ point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi 2 -monolayer and the Dy 3 Si 5 -multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi 2 /Si(111) and Er 3 Si 5 /Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the vector k parallel space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti Γ point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas of the sample surface, which are oriented

  3. Far-infrared spectroscopy of thermally annealed tungsten silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiotti, M.; Borghesi, A.; Guizzetti, G.; Nava, F.; Santoro, G.

    1991-01-01

    The far-infrared transmittance spectrum of tungsten silicide has been observed for the first time. WSi 2 polycrystalline films were prepared by coevaporation and chemical-vapour deposition on silicon wafers, and subsequently thermally annealed at different temperatures. The observed structures are interpreted, on the basis of the symmetry properties of the crystal, such as infrared-active vibrational modes. Moreover, the marked lineshape dependence on annealing temperature enables this technique to analyse the formation of the solid silicide phases

  4. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Diode with Nickel Silicide Induced Dopant Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weijie; Pey, Kin Leong; Wang, Xinpeng; Li, Xiang; Chen, Zhixian; Navab, Singh; Chew Leong, Kam; Lip Gan, Chee; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2012-11-01

    Dopant segregated Schottky barrier (DSSB) and Schottky barrier (SB) vertical silicon nanowire (VSiNW) diodes were fabricated using industry complemetary metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (CMOS) processes to investigate the effects of segregated dopants at the silicide/silicon interface and different annealing steps on nickel silicide formation in the DSSB VSiNW diodes. With segregated dopants at the silicide/silicon interface, VSiNW diodes showed higher on-current, due to an enhanced carrier tunneling, and much lower off-current. This can be attributed to the altered energy bands caused by the accumulated Arsenic dopants at the interface. Moreover, DSSB VSiNW diodes also presented ideality factor much closer to unity and exhibited lower electron Schottky barrier height (ΦBn) than SB VSiNW diodes. This proved that interfacial accumulated dopants could impede the inhomogeneous nature of the Schottky diodes and simultaneously, minimize the effect of Fermi level pinning and ionization of surface defect states. Comparing the impact of different silicide formation annealing sequence using DSSB VSiNW diodes, the 2-step anneal process reduces the silicide intrusion length within the SiNW by ˜5× and the silicide interface was smooth along the (100) direction. Furthermore, the 2-step DSSB VSiNW diode also exhibited much lower leakage current and an ideality factor much closer to unity, as compared to the 1-step DSSB VSiNW diode.

  5. Determination of accurate metal silicide layer thickness by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, J.F.; Baumann, S.M.; Evans, C.; Ward, I.; Coveney, P.

    1995-01-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is a proven useful analytical tool for determining compositional information of a wide variety of materials. One of the most widely utilized applications of RBS is the study of the composition of metal silicides (MSi x ), also referred to as polycides. A key quantity obtained from an analysis of a metal silicide is the ratio of silicon to metal (Si/M). Although compositional information is very reliable in these applications, determination of metal silicide layer thickness by RBS techniques can differ from true layer thicknesses by more than 40%. The cause of these differences lies in how the densities utilized in the RBS analysis are calculated. The standard RBS analysis software packages calculate layer densities by assuming each element's bulk densities weighted by the fractional atomic presence. This calculation causes large thickness discrepancies in metal silicide thicknesses because most films form into crystal structures with distinct densities. Assuming a constant layer density for a full spectrum of Si/M values for metal silicide samples improves layer thickness determination but ignores the underlying physics of the films. We will present results of RBS determination of the thickness various metal silicide films with a range of Si/M values using a physically accurate model for the calculation of layer densities. The thicknesses are compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cross-section micrographs. We have also developed supporting software that incorporates these calculations into routine analyses. (orig.)

  6. Influence of impurities on silicide contact formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazdaev, Kh.R.; Meermanov, G.B.; Kazdaev, R.Kh.

    2002-01-01

    Research objectives of this work are to investigate the influence of light impurities implantation on peculiarities of the silicides formation in molybdenum monocrystal implanted by silicon, and in molybdenum films sputtered on silicon substrate at subsequent annealing. Implantation of the molybdenum samples was performed with silicon ions (90 keV, 5x10 17 cm -2 ). Phase identification was performed by X ray analysis with photographic method of registration. Analysis of the results has shown the formation of the molybdenum silicide Mo 3 Si at 900 deg. C. To find out the influence of impurities present in the atmosphere (C,N,O) on investigated processes we have applied combined implantation. At first, molybdenum was implanted with ions of the basic component (silicon) and then -- with impurities ions. Acceleration energies (40keV for C, 45 keV for N and 50 keV for O) were chosen to obtain the same distribution profiles for basic and impurities ions. Ion doses were 5x10 17 cm -2 for Si-ions and 5x10 16 cm -2 - for impurities. The most important results are reported here. The first, for all three kinds of impurities the decreased formation temperatures of the phase Mo 3 Si were observed; in the case of C and N it was ∼100 deg. and in the case of nitrogen - ∼200 deg. Further, simultaneously with the Mo 3 Si phase, the appearance of the rich-metal phase Mo 5 Si 3 was registered (not observed in the samples without additional implantation). In case of Mo/Si-structure, the implantation of the impurities (N,O) was performed to create the peak concentration (∼4at/%) located in the middle of the molybdenum film (∼ 150nm) deposited on silicon substrate. Investigation carried out on unimplanted samples showed the formation of the silicide molybdenum MoSi 2 , observed after annealing at temperatures 900/1000 deg. C, higher than values 500-600 deg. C reported in other works. It is discovered that electrical conductivity of Mo 5 Si 3 -films synthesized after impurities

  7. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-12-12

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.

  8. Analyses on Silicide Coating for LOCA Resistant Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweidan, Faris B.; Lee, You Ho; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A particular focus of accident-tolerant fuel has been cladding due to the rapid high-temperature oxidation of zirconium-based cladding with the evolution of H2 when steam is a reactant. Some key features of the coated cladding include high-temperature resistance to oxidation, lower processing temperatures, and a high melting point of the coating. Zirconium alloys exhibit a reasonably high melting temperature, so a coating for the cladding is appealing if the coating increases the high-temperature resistance to oxidation. In this case, the cladding is protected from complete oxidation. The cladding coating involves the application of zirconium silicide onto Zr-based cladding. Zirconium silicide coating is expected to produce a glassy layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature. For this reason, silicide coatings on cladding offer the potential for improved reliability at normal operating temperatures and at the higher transient temperatures encountered during accidents. Although ceramic coatings are brittle and may have weak points to be used as coating materials, several ceramic coatings were successful and showed adherent behavior and high resistance to oxidation. In this study, the oxidation behavior of zirconium silicide and its oxidation kinetics are analyzed. Zirconium silicide is a new suggested material to be used as coatings on existing Zr-based cladding alloys, the aim of this study is to evaluate if zirconium silicide is applicable to be used, so they can be more rapidly developed using existing cladding technology with some modifications. These silicide coatings are an attractive alternative to the use of coatings on zirconium claddings or to the lengthy development of monolithic ceramic or ceramic composite claddings and coatings.

  9. Analyses on Silicide Coating for LOCA Resistant Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweidan, Faris B.; Lee, You Ho; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    A particular focus of accident-tolerant fuel has been cladding due to the rapid high-temperature oxidation of zirconium-based cladding with the evolution of H2 when steam is a reactant. Some key features of the coated cladding include high-temperature resistance to oxidation, lower processing temperatures, and a high melting point of the coating. Zirconium alloys exhibit a reasonably high melting temperature, so a coating for the cladding is appealing if the coating increases the high-temperature resistance to oxidation. In this case, the cladding is protected from complete oxidation. The cladding coating involves the application of zirconium silicide onto Zr-based cladding. Zirconium silicide coating is expected to produce a glassy layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature. For this reason, silicide coatings on cladding offer the potential for improved reliability at normal operating temperatures and at the higher transient temperatures encountered during accidents. Although ceramic coatings are brittle and may have weak points to be used as coating materials, several ceramic coatings were successful and showed adherent behavior and high resistance to oxidation. In this study, the oxidation behavior of zirconium silicide and its oxidation kinetics are analyzed. Zirconium silicide is a new suggested material to be used as coatings on existing Zr-based cladding alloys, the aim of this study is to evaluate if zirconium silicide is applicable to be used, so they can be more rapidly developed using existing cladding technology with some modifications. These silicide coatings are an attractive alternative to the use of coatings on zirconium claddings or to the lengthy development of monolithic ceramic or ceramic composite claddings and coatings

  10. Evaluation of Transmission Line Model Structures for Silicide-to-Silicon Specific Contact Resistance Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; van Dal, Mark J.H.; Lauwers, Anne; Vrancken, Christa; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to measure silicide-to-silicon specific contact resistance �?c, transmission line model (TLM) structures were proposed as attractive candidates for embedding in CMOS processes. We optimized TLM structures for nickel silicide and platinum silicide and evaluated them for various doping levels

  11. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  12. Irradiation behavior of experimental miniature uranium silicide fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Neimark, L.A.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium silicides, because of their relatively high uranium density, were selected as candidate dispersion fuels for the higher fuel densities required in the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Irradiation experience with this type of fuel, however, was limited to relatively modest fission densities in the bulk form, on the order of 7 x 10 20 cm -3 , far short of he approximately 20 x 10 20 cm -3 goal established for the RERTR Program. The purpose of the irradiation experiments on silicide fuels in the ORR, therefore, was to investigate the intrinsic irradiation behavior of uranium silicide as a dispersion fuel. Of particular interest was the interaction between the silicide particles and the aluminum matrix, the swelling behavior of the silicide particles, and the maximum volume fraction of silicide particles that could be contained in the aluminum matrix. The first group of experimental 'mini' fuel plates have recently reached the program's goal burnup and are in various stages of examination. Although the results to date indicate some limitations, it appears that within the range of parameters examined thus far the uranium silicide dispersion holds promise for satisfying most of the needs of the RERTR Program. The twelve experimental silicide dispersion fuel plates that were irradiated to approximately their goal exposure show the 30-vol % U 3 Si-Al plates to be in a stage of relatively rapid fission-gas-driven swelling at a fission density of 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . This fuel swelling will likely result in unacceptably large plate-thickness increases. The U 3 Si plates appear to be superior in this respect; however, they, too, are starting to move into the rapid fuel-swelling stage. Analysis of the currently available post irradiation data indicates that a 40-vol % dispersed fuel may offer an acceptable margin to the onset of unstable thickness changes at exposures of 2 x 10 21 fission/cm 3 . The interdiffusion between fuel and matrix

  13. Characterization of uranium silicide powder using XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Carvalho, Elita F.U.; Lima, Nelson B.; Ichikawa, Rodrigo U.; Martinez, Luiz G.

    2013-01-01

    Uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) is an intermetallic used as nuclear fuel in most modern MTR - Materials Test Reactor. Dispersed in aluminum, this fuel allows high uranium densities, up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 . At IPEN, the fabrication of fuel elements based on U 3 Si 2 for the IEA-R1 reactor is carried out in the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN), by vacuum induction melting of uranium and silicon, followed by grinding. Before employed in a nuclear reactor, U 3 Si 2 must be submitted to a strict quality control, which includes granulometry, density, X-ray radiography for dispersion homogeneity, chemical and crystallographic characterization. Concerning phase composition for a qualified fuel, the fraction of U 3 Si 2 should be higher than 80wt.%. Aiming at the development of a routine methodology for quantification of phases via analysis of XRD data using the Rietved method, six samples from two production baths of CCN were submitted to X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using software GSAS and line profile analysis methods. The results suggest that fusion product have preferred orientation and grinding step is important for a better refinement. (author)

  14. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Wan-Ting; Wu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsien

    2017-11-07

    This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET) with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs). The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>10⁷A), subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec.), and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact.

  15. Ultra Thin Poly-Si Nanosheet Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor with Nickel Silicide Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated an ultra thin poly-Si junctionless nanosheet field-effect transistor (JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact. For the nickel silicide film, two-step annealing and a Ti capping layer were adopted to form an ultra thin uniform nickel silicide film with low sheet resistance (Rs. The JL NS-FET with nickel silicide contact exhibited favorable electrical properties, including a high driving current (>107A, subthreshold slope (186 mV/dec., and low parasitic resistance. In addition, this study compared the electrical characteristics of JL NS-FETs with and without nickel silicide contact.

  16. Magnesium silicide production and silane synthesis on its basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Mukashev, F.A.; Manakov, S.M.; Francev, U.V.; Kalblanbekov, B.M.; Akhter, P.; Abbas, M.; Hussain, A.

    2003-01-01

    We had developed an alternative method of production of magnesium silicide with use of ferroalloys of silicon. Magnesium silicide is raw material for silane synthesis. The essence of the method consist of sintering FS -75 (ferrosilicium with 75 % of silicon and 25 % of iron, made by ferroalloy factories) with metal magnesium at temperature of 650 deg. C. The X-ray analysis has shown formation of magnesium silicide. That is further used for synthesis of silane. The output of silane is 60 % in respect of the contents of silicon. After removing the water vapors the mass-spectrometer analysis has estimated the purity of silane as 99.95 % with no detection of phosphine and diborane. (author)

  17. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  18. Design, assembly and characterization of silicide-based thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Holmgren, Lennart; Middleton, Hugh; Eremin, I.S.; Isachenko, G.N.; Jaegle, Martin; Tarantik, Karina; Vlachos, Nikolas; Manoli, Maria; Kyratsi, Theodora; Berthebaud, David; Dao Truong, Nhi Y.; Gascoin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel silicide-based thermoelectric modules were experimentally investigated. • The modules produced high power of 1.04 W at 405 °C and 3.24 W at 735 °C. • An estimated module efficiency of 5.3% represent the highest reported for silicide systems. - Abstract: Silicides have attracted considerable attention for use in thermoelectric generators due mainly to low cost, low toxicity and light weight, in contrast to conventional materials such as bismuth and lead telluride. Most reported work has focused on optimizing the materials properties while little has been done on module testing. In this work we have designed and tested modules based on N-type magnesium silicide Mg 2 (Si–Sn), abbreviated MGS, and P-type Higher Manganese Silicide, abbreviated HMS. The main novelty of our module design is the use of spring loaded contacts on the cold side which mitigate the effect of thermal expansion mismatch between the MGS and the HMS. We report tests carried out on three modules at different temperatures and electric loads. At a hot side temperature of 405 °C we obtained a maximum power of 1.04 W and at 735 °C we obtained 3.24 W. The power per thermoelectric material cross section area ranged from 1 to 3 W cm −2 . We used the modeling tool COMSOL to estimate efficiencies at 405 and 735 °C and obtained values of 3.7% and 5.3% respectively – to our knowledge the highest reported value to date for silicide based modules. Post-test examination showed significant degradation of the N-type (MGS) legs at the higher hot side temperatures. Further work is underway to improve the lifetime and degradation issues.

  19. Oxidation behavior of molybdenum silicides and their composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Deevi, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    A key materials issue associated with the future of high-temperature structural silicides is the resistance of these materials to oxidation at low temperatures. Oxidation tests were conducted on Mo-based silicides over a wide temperature range to evaluate the effects of alloy composition and temperature on the protective scaling characteristics and testing regime for the materials. The study included Mo 5 Si 3 alloys that contained several concentrations of B. In addition, oxidation characteristics of MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites that contained 20--80 vol.% Si 3 N 4 were evaluated at 500--1,400 C

  20. Making of fission 99Mo from LEU silicide(s): A radiochemists' view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2005-01-01

    The present-day industrial scale production of 99 Mo is fission based and involves thermal-neutron irradiation in research reactors of highly enriched uranium (HEU, > 20 % 235 U) containing targets, followed by radiochemical processing of the irradiated targets resulting in the final product: a 99 Mo containing chemical compound of molybdenum. In 1978 a program (RERTR) was started to develop a substitute for HEU reactor fuel i.e. a low enriched uranium (LEU, 235 U) one. In the wake of that program studies were undertaken to convert HEU into LEU based 99 Mo production. Both new targets and radiochemical treatments leading to 99 Mo compounds were proposed. One of these targets is based on LEU silicide, U 3 Si 2 . Present paper aims at comparing LEU U 3 Si 2 and LEU U 3 Si with another LEU target i.e. target material and arriving at some preferences pertaining to 99 Mo production. (author)

  1. Effects of nitrogen annealing on surface structure, silicide formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pure) bulk cobalt which was held in water cooled copper cru- cibles. All the samples were coated with 50 Å of cobalt at a rate of 0·1 Å/s. The deposition rate was ... sivity and due to the resultant shortage in the cobalt atoms, monosilicides are formed instead of di-metal silicides. At annealing temperatures higher than 600.

  2. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  3. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400 0 C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi) 3 and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  4. Spin, Charge, and Bonding in Transition Metal Mono Silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Schulte, K.; Menovsky, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Physica B 244 (1998) 138-147 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We review some of the relevant physical properties of the transition metal mono-silicides with the FeSi structure (CrSi, MnSi, FeSi, CoSi, NiSi, etc) and explore the relation between their structural

  5. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and silicide formation at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coercivity decreases and remanence increases. The values of remanence of pristine Co/Si and annealed at 300°C are. 0⋅80 and 0⋅98, respectively. 3.3 AFM measurement. Morphological changes of silicide surface during high temperature annealing have been investigated by AFM in terms of the RMS surface roughness.

  6. Boron nitride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  7. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  8. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, B., E-mail: bob.deschutter@ugent.be; De Keyser, K.; Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Lavoie, C. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi{sub 2}, C54-TiSi{sub 2}, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  9. Nanoscale contact engineering for Silicon/Silicide nanowire devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chen

    Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we studied growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction. We have grown single crystal PtSi nanowires and PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures through solid state reaction. TEM studies show that the heterostructures have atomically sharp interfaces free of defects. Electrical measurement of PtSi nanowires shows a low resistivity of ˜28.6 μΩ·cm and a high breakdown current density beyond 108 A/cm2. Furthermore, using single-crystal PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures with atomically clean interfaces, we have fabricated p-channel enhancement mode transistors with the best reported performance for intrinsic silicon nanowires to date. In our results, silicide can provide a clean and no Fermi level pinning interface and then silicide can form Ohmic-contact behavior by replacing the source/drain metal with PtSi. It has been proven by our experiment by contacting PtSi with intrinsic Si nanowires (no extrinsic doping) to achieve high performance p-channel device. By utilizing the same approach, single crystal MnSi nanowires and MnSi/Si/MnSi nanowire heterojunction with atomically sharp interfaces can also been grown. Electrical transport studies on Mn

  10. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  11. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Ahmet S., E-mail: asozcan@us.ibm.com [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Lavoie, Christian; Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Alptekin, Emre; Zhu, Frank [IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States); Leith, Allen; Pfeifer, Brian D.; LaRose, J. D.; Russell, N. M. [TEL Epion Inc., 900 Middlesex Turnpike, Bldg. 6, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  12. Analysis of reactivity accidents of the RSG-GAS core with silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran

    2002-01-01

    The fuels of RSG-GAS reactor is changed from uranium oxide to uranium silicide. For time being, the fuel of RSG-GAS core are mixed up between oxide and silicide fuels with 250 gr of loading and 2.96 g U/cm 3 of density, respectively. While, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading is still under research. The advantages of silicide fuels are can be used in high density, so that, it can be stayed longer in the core at higher burn-up, therefore, the length of cycle is longer. The silicide fuel in RSG-GAS core is used in step-wise by using mixed up core. Firstly, it is used silicide fuel with 250 gr of loading and then, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading (3.55 g U/cm 3 of density). In every step-wise of fuel loading must be analysed its safety margin. In this occasion, it is analysed the reactivity accident of RSG-GAS core with 300 gr of silicide fuel loading. The calculation was done by using POKDYN code which available at P2TRR. The calculation was done by reactivity insertion at start up and power rangers. From all cases which were have been done, the results of analysis showed that there is no anomaly and safety margin break at RSG-GAS core with 300 gr silicide fuel loading

  13. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Lavoie, Christian; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Alptekin, Emre; Zhu, Frank; Leith, Allen; Pfeifer, Brian D.; LaRose, J. D.; Russell, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  14. RA-3 core with uranium silicide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2000-01-01

    Following on with studies on uranium silicide fuel elements, this paper reports some comparisons between the use of standard ECN [U 3 O 8 ] fuel elements and type P-06 [from U 3 Si 2 ] fuel elements in the RA-3 core.The first results showed that the calculated overall mean burn up is in agreement with that reported for the facility, which gives more confidence to the successive ones. Comparing the mentioned cores, the silicide one presents several advantages such as: -) a mean burn up increase of 18 %; -) an extraction burn up increase of 20 %; -) 37.4 % increase in full power days, for mean burn up. All this is meritorious for this fuel. Moreover, grouped and homogenized libraries were prepared for CITVAP code that will be used for planning experiments and other bidimensional studies. Preliminary calculations were also performed. (author)

  15. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed

  16. Detailed analysis of uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Ryu, Woo-Seog.

    1989-01-01

    Swelling of U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 is analyzed. The growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate, fuel loading, and microstructural change taking place in the fuel compounds during irradiation. Several mechanisms are explored to explain the observations. The present work is aimed at a better understanding of the basic swelling phenomenon in order to accurately model irradiation behavior of uranium silicide disperson fuel. 5 refs., 10 figs

  17. Detailed analysis of uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.L.; Ryu, Woo-Seog

    1991-01-01

    Swelling of U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 is analyzed. The growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate, fuel loading, and micro structural change taking place in the fuel compounds during irradiation. Several mechanisms are explored to explain the observations. The present work is aimed at a better understanding of the basic swelling phenomenon in order to accurately model irradiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel. (orig.)

  18. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  19. Mechanoactivation of chromium silicide formation in the SiC-Cr-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of simultaneous grinding of the components of a SiC-Cr-Si mixture and further temperature treatment in the temperature range 1073-1793 K were studied by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. It was established that, during grinding of the mixture, chromium silicides form. A temperature treatment completes the process. Silicide formation proceeds within the framework of the diffusion of silicon into chromium. In the presence of SiO2 in the mixture, silicide formation occurs also as a result of the reduction of silica by silicon and silicon carbide. The sintering of synthesized composite SiC-chromium silicides powders at a high temperature under a high pressure (T = 2073 K, P = 5 GPa is accompanied by the destruction of cc-SiC particles, the cc/3 transition in silicon carbide and deformation distortions of the lattices of chromium silicides.

  20. Exploitation of a self-limiting process for reproducible formation of ultrathin Ni1-xPtx silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhu Yu; Rossnagel, Steve; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yang, Bin; Gaudet, Simon; Desjardins, Patrick; Kellock, Andrew J.; Ozcan, Ahmet; Zhang Shili; Lavoie, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on a process scheme to obtain highly reproducible Ni 1-x Pt x silicide films of 3-6 nm thickness formed on a Si(100) substrate. Such ultrathin silicide films are readily attained by sputter deposition of metal films, metal stripping in wet chemicals, and final silicidation by rapid thermal processing. This process sequence warrants an invariant amount of metal intermixed with Si in the substrate surface region independent of the initial metal thickness, thereby leading to a self-limiting formation of ultrathin silicide films. The crystallographic structure, thickness, uniformity, and morphological stability of the final silicide films depend sensitively on the initial Pt fraction.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of rare-earth silicide thin films at Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dues, Christof; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Sanna, Simone [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth (RE) silicides thin films on silicon surfaces are currently of high interest. They grow nearly defect-free because of the small lattice mismatch, and exhibit very low Schottky-barriers on n-type silicon. They even give rise to the self-organized formation of RE silicide nanowires on the Si(001) and vicinal surfaces. Depending on the amount of deposited RE atoms, a plethora of reconstructions are observed for the RE silicide. While one monolayer leads to the formation of a 1 x 1-reconstruction, several monolayer thick silicides crystallize in a √(3) x √(3) R30 {sup circle} superstructure. Submonolayer RE deposition leads to different periodicities. In this work we investigate the formation of RE silicides thin films on Si(111) within the density functional theory. The energetically favored adsorption site for RE adatoms is determined calculating the potential energy surface. As prototypical RE, Dysprosium is used. Additional calculations are performed for silicides formed by different RE elements. We calculate structural properties, electronic band structures and compare measured and simulated STM images. We consider different terminations for the 5 x 2 reconstruction occurring in the submonolayer regime and investigate their stability by means of ab initio thermodynamics. The same method is employed to predict the stable silicide structure as a function of the deposited RE atoms.

  2. Study of iridium silicide monolayers using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popis, Minh D.; Popis, Sylvester V.; Oncel, Nuri; Hoffmann, Mark R.; ćakır, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated physical and electronic properties of possible two-dimensional structures formed by Si (silicon) and Ir (iridium). To this end, different plausible structures were modeled by using density functional theory and the cohesive energies calculated for the geometry of optimized structures, with the lowest equilibrium lattice constants. Among several candidate structures, we identified three mechanically (via elastic constants and Young's modulus), dynamically (via phonon calculations), and thermodynamically stable iridium silicide monolayer structures. The lowest energy structure has a chemical formula of Ir2Si4 (called r-IrSi2), with a rectangular lattice (Pmmn space group). Its cohesive energy was calculated to be -0.248 eV (per IrSi2 unit) with respect to bulk Ir and bulk Si. The band structure indicates that the Ir2Si4 monolayer exhibits metallic properties. Other stable structures have hexagonal (P-3m1) and tetragonal (P4/nmm) cell structures with 0.12 and 0.20 eV/f.u. higher cohesive energies, respectively. Our calculations showed that Ir-Si monolayers are reactive. Although O2 molecules exothermically dissociate on the surface of the free-standing iridium silicide monolayers with large binding energies, H2O molecules bind to the monolayers with a rather weak interaction.

  3. Improvement of Research Fuel by Atomizing Uranium Silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, Il Hyun; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Park, Jong Man; Kang, Young Hwan

    1993-01-01

    Rotating disk atomization has been applied to the research reactor fuel in which uranium silicide is dispersed in aluminum matrix. U-4.0 wt. %Si alloy powder is produced using the atomizer designed and manufactured in the laboratory. The atomized powder is heat-treated to be transformed into U 3 Si, and the mixture of U 3 Si and Al is extruded to the fuel meat. Most of the atomized powder is spherical in shape. The microstructure of the powder is fine due to the rapid solidification. The time required for protected reaction is reduced due to the fine microstructure and the resultant U 3 Si grain size is finer than ever obtained from ingot process. Elongation increases by about 200%. Conductivity is found to be improved: 10-20% increase in the transversal direction and same or slight decrease in the longitudinal direction. This is attributed to the reorientation of uranium silicide particles in extrusion processing. The results of this research are considered to provide a new direction of research reactor fuel

  4. Influence of IR-laser irradiation on α-SiC-chromium silicides ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, M.; Marquez Aguilar, P.A.; Resendiz-Gonzalez, M.C.; Kakazey, M.; Bykov, A.; Gonzalez Morales, I.

    2005-01-01

    This project investigated the influence of IR-laser irradiation (λ = 1064 nm, P = 240 mW) on composite ceramics SiC-chromium silicides (CrSi 2 , CrSi, Cr 5 Si 3 ) by methods of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. Samples were irradiated in air. It was established that a surface temperature of 1990 K was required to melt chromium silicides, evaporate silicon from SiC, oxidize chromium silicides, and enrich superficial layer by carbon and chromium oxide

  5. Influence Of The Gas Multipurpose Reactor Core Conversion From Oxide To Silicide On The GAMMA Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto

    1996-01-01

    In order to prepare the reactor core conversion from oxide to silicide, analysis of the gamma heat generation in the fuel plate and its influence on the gamma density in the reactor core using the GAMSET computer code have been done. The heat generation was evaluated for oxide (U 3 O 8 -Al) and silicide (U 3 Si 2 -Al) plate for different uranium loading. The calculation result shows that the heat generation in the silicide fuel plate contains 400 gram of U-235 per fuel element increase of 10.64% related to the normal oxide plate. This means that the gamma density in the reactor core will consequently decrease. Regarding this result, it can be concluded that the core conversion from oxide to silicide fuel with higher uranium loading will be followed by the heat generation increases in the fuel plate and the gamma density decreases in the reactor core

  6. Prediction of barrier inhomogeneities and carrier transport in Ni-silicided Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.R.; Dimitriu, C.B.; Horsfall, A.B.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Wright, N.G.; O'Neill, A.G.; Maiti, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Quantum Mechanical (QM) carrier transport and the effects of interface states, a theoretical model has been developed to predict the anomalous current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a non-ideal Ni-silicided Schottky diode at low temperatures. Physical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, series resistance and effective Richardson constant of a silicided Schottky diode were extracted from forward I-V characteristics and are subsequently used for the simulation of both forward and reverse I-V characteristics using a QM transport model in which the effects of interface state and bias dependent barrier reduction are incorporated. The present analysis indicates that the effects of barrier inhomogeneity caused by incomplete silicide formation at the junction and the interface states may change the conventional current transport process, leading to anomalous forward and reverse I-V characteristics for the Ni-silicided Schottky diode

  7. Information for irradiation and post-irradiation of the silicide fuel element prototype P-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Included in the 'Silicides' Project, developed by the Nuclear Fuels Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), it is foreseen the qualification of this type of fuel for research reactors in order to be used in the Argentine RA-3 reactor and to confirm the CNEA as an international supplier. The paper presents basic information on several parameters corresponding to the new silicide prototype, called P-07, to be taken into account for its irradiation, postirradiation and qualification. (author)

  8. Thermoelectric characteristics of Pt-silicide/silicon multi-layer structured p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchul; Jun, Dongseok; Kim, Soojung; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-01-01

    Electric and thermoelectric properties of silicide/silicon multi-layer structured devices were investigated with the variation of silicide/silicon heterojunction numbers from 3 to 12 layers. For the fabrication of silicide/silicon multi-layered structure, platinum and silicon layers are repeatedly sputtered on the (100) silicon bulk substrate and rapid thermal annealing is carried out for the silicidation. The manufactured devices show ohmic current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk Si is evaluated as 195.8 ± 15.3 μV/K at 300 K, whereas the 12 layered silicide/silicon multi-layer structured device is evaluated as 201.8 ± 9.1 μV/K. As the temperature increases to 400 K, the Seebeck coefficient increases to 237.2 ± 4.7 μV/K and 277.0 ± 1.1 μV/K for bulk and 12 layered devices, respectively. The increase of Seebeck coefficient in multi-layered structure is mainly attributed to the electron filtering effect due to the Schottky barrier at Pt-silicide/silicon interface. At 400 K, the thermal conductivity is reduced by about half of magnitude compared to bulk in multi-layered device which shows the efficient suppression of phonon propagation by using Pt-silicide/silicon hetero-junctions. - Highlights: • Silicide/silicon multi-layer structured is proposed for thermoelectric devices. • Electric and thermoelectric properties with the number of layer are investigated. • An increase of Seebeck coefficient is mainly attributed the Schottky barrier. • Phonon propagation is suppressed with the existence of Schottky barrier. • Thermal conductivity is reduced due to the suppression of phonon propagation

  9. Further data of silicide fuel for the LEU conversion of JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Futamura, Y.; Nakata, H.; Ando, H.; Sakurai, F.; Ooka, N.; Sakakura, A.; Ugajin, M.; Shirai, E.

    1990-01-01

    Silicide fuel data for the safety assessment of the JMTR LEU fuel conversion are being measured. The data include fission product release, thermal properties, behaviour under accident conditions, and metallurgical characteristics. The methods used in the experiments are discussed. Results of fission products release at high temperature are described. The release of iodine from the silicide fuel is considerably lower than for U-Al alloy fuel

  10. Effects of temperature dependent pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt silicide formation and thermal stability on Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Wall, Donald; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Using temperature controlled Si and C ion implantation, we studied the effects of pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt alloy silicide phase formation. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements were used to monitor phase and morphology evolution in silicide films. Results show that substrate amorphization strongly modulate the nucleation of silicide phases, regardless of implant species. However, morphological stability of the thin films is mainly enhanced by C addition, independently of the amorphization depth.

  11. A DFT study of hypercoordinated copper silicide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Ling-Yan; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The stability and electronic structures of copper silicide nanotubes (CuSiNTs) are calculated using first-principles density functional theory. Here these CuSiNTs of various different diameters, chiral vectors and morphologies were obtained by rolling up a novel two-dimensional hypercoordinated Cu2Si monolayer with high stability (Yang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137 (2015) 2757-2762). Electronic structure calculations showed that these CuSiNTs are conductors independent of their chiral vectors, diameters and morphologies. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the (6, 0) tube and the (8, 4) tube were performed. It was found that the (8, 4) tube has very good thermal stability and that its structure does not break down during MD simulations at initial temperatures up to 1500 K. Based on their electrical conductivity and good thermal stability, these CuSiNTs are promising candidates to envision application as metallic connections in nanoscale electronic devices.

  12. Nickel silicide formation using multiple-pulsed laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, Y.; Lee, P. S.; Pey, K. L.; Wang, X. C.; Lim, G. C.; Chow, F. L.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of multiple-pulsed laser irradiation on Ni silicide formation in Ni(Ti)/Si system was studied. A layered structure consisting of both crystalline NiSi 2 and Ni-rich Ni-Si amorphous phases with a protective TiO x overlayer was formed after five-pulsed laser annealing at 0.4 J cm -2 . Different solidification velocities caused by a variation in the atomic concentration across the melt have led to the formation of this layered structure. On the other hand, by increasing the number of laser pulses, a continuous layer of polycrystalline NiSi was obtained after a 20-pulsed laser annealing at 0.3 J cm -2 laser fluence. Its formation is attributed to a better elemental mixing which occurred during subsequent pulses. Enhancement of surface absorption and remelting of the phases formed is proposed as the mechanism governing the continuous NiSi layer formation

  13. Characterization of tungsten silicides formed by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.; Santiago, J.J.; VanDerSpiegel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tungsten silicide samples were formed by sputter depositing 80 nm W metal onto (100) oriented, 5 ohm-cm Si wafers. After deposition, the samples were fast radiatively processed in an RTA system using quartz-halogen tungsten lamps as radiation sources for time intervals ranging from 20 to 60s under high vacuum. Films processed at 22-25 W/cm 2 radiation with the film side of the samples oriented away from the lamps result in films which are metallic or cloudy in color, and have mixed composition as evidenced by x-ray diffraction (W, W 5 Si 3 and WSi 2 ). Films processed with the film side oriented toward the lamps show the occurrence of a phase transformation clearly nucleated at the film edge

  14. Preparations of Nanostructured Silicide Bundles and Oxide Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tatsuoka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of nanostructured silicide bundles and oxide nanowire arrays with abundant, non-toxic materials we are prepared. The CrSi2 nanowire and Mg2Si/MgO composite nanowire bundles were synthesized using a Si substrate and a SiOx nanofiber bundle, respectively. The hexagonal MoSi2 nanosheet bundles were also synthesized using a MoS2 layered material as a template. In addition, ZnO, CuO/Cu2O and α-Fe2O3 nanowire arrays were prepared on semiconductor or metallic substrates. The growth phenomena and the structural properties of the nanostructured materials awere investigated. In addition, the preparations of axial and radial nanowire structures weare examined. 

  15. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.; Suripto, A.

    1991-01-01

    After the successful experiment to produce U 3 Si 2 powder and U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using x -Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U 3 O 8 -Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal (∝50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  16. Development of molecular dynamics potential for uranium silicide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-09-01

    Use of uranium–silicide (U-Si) in place of uranium dioxide (UO2) is one of the promising concepts being proposed to increase the accident tolerance of nuclear fuels. This is due to a higher thermal conductivity than UO2 that results in lower centerline temperatures. U-Si also has a higher fissile density, which may enable some new cladding concepts that would otherwise require increased enrichment limits to compensate for their neutronic penalty. However, many critical material properties for U-Si have not been determined experimentally. For example, silicide compounds (U3Si2 and U3Si) are known to become amorphous under irradiation. There was clear independent experimental evidence to support a crystalline to amorphous transformation in those compounds. However, it is still not well understood how the amorphous transformation will affect on fuel behavior. It is anticipated that modeling and simulation may deliver guidance on the importance of various properties and help prioritize experimental work. In order to develop knowledge-based models for use at the engineering scale with a minimum of empirical parameters and increase the predictive capabilities of the developed model, inputs from atomistic simulations are essential. First-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations will provide the most reliable information. However, it is probably not possible to obtain kinetic information such as amorphization under irradiation directly from DFT simulations due to size and time limitations. Thus, a more feasible way may be to employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Unfortunately, so far no MD potential is available for U-Si to discover the underlying mechanisms. Here, we will present our recent progress in developing a U-Si potential from ab initio data. This work is supported by the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy.

  17. Nickel silicide thin films as masking and structural layers for silicon bulk micro-machining by potassium hydroxide wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Sim, L W

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using titanium and nickel silicide thin films as mask materials for silicon bulk micro-machining. Thin films of nickel silicide were found to be more resistant to wet etching in potassium hydroxide. The use of nickel silicide as a structural material, by fabricating micro-beams of varying dimensions, is demonstrated. The micro-structures were realized using these thin films with wet etching using potassium hydroxide solution on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) silicon substrates. These results show that nickel silicide is a suitable alternative to silicon nitride for silicon bulk micro-machining

  18. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.M.; Finck, C.

    1956-01-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 μ. Grain sizes smaller than 1μ are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [fr

  19. Technology CAD of silicided Schottky barrier MOSFET for elevated source-drain engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Bose, C.; Maiti, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Technology CAD has been used to study the performance of a silicided Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET with gate, source and drain contacts realized with nickel-silicide. Elevated source-drain structures have been used towards the S/D engineering of CMOS devices. A full process-to-device simulation has been employed to predict the performance of sub-micron SB n-MOSFETs for the first time. A model for the diffusion and alloy growth kinetics has been incorporated in SILVACO-ATLAS and ATHENA to explore the processing and design parameter space for the Ni-silicided MOSFETs. The temperature and concentration dependent diffusion model for NiSi have been developed and necessary material parameters for nickel-silicide and epitaxial-Si have been incorporated through the C-interpreter function. Two-dimensional (2D) process-to-device simulations have also been used to study the dc and ac (RF) performance of silicided Schottky barrier (SB) n-MOSFETs. The extracted sheet resistivity, as a function of annealing temperature of the silicided S/D contacts, is found to be lower than the conventional contacts currently in use. It is also shown that the Technology CAD has the full capability to predict the possible dc and ac performance enhancement of a MOSFET with elevated S/D structures. While the simulated dc performance shows a clear enhancement, the RF analyses show no performance degradation in the cut-off frequency/propagation delay and also improve the ac performance due to the incorporation of silicide contacts in the S/D region

  20. Technology CAD of silicided Schottky barrier MOSFET for elevated source-drain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India); School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Bose, C. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 (India); Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2005-12-05

    Technology CAD has been used to study the performance of a silicided Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET with gate, source and drain contacts realized with nickel-silicide. Elevated source-drain structures have been used towards the S/D engineering of CMOS devices. A full process-to-device simulation has been employed to predict the performance of sub-micron SB n-MOSFETs for the first time. A model for the diffusion and alloy growth kinetics has been incorporated in SILVACO-ATLAS and ATHENA to explore the processing and design parameter space for the Ni-silicided MOSFETs. The temperature and concentration dependent diffusion model for NiSi have been developed and necessary material parameters for nickel-silicide and epitaxial-Si have been incorporated through the C-interpreter function. Two-dimensional (2D) process-to-device simulations have also been used to study the dc and ac (RF) performance of silicided Schottky barrier (SB) n-MOSFETs. The extracted sheet resistivity, as a function of annealing temperature of the silicided S/D contacts, is found to be lower than the conventional contacts currently in use. It is also shown that the Technology CAD has the full capability to predict the possible dc and ac performance enhancement of a MOSFET with elevated S/D structures. While the simulated dc performance shows a clear enhancement, the RF analyses show no performance degradation in the cut-off frequency/propagation delay and also improve the ac performance due to the incorporation of silicide contacts in the S/D region.

  1. Reclamation and reuse of LEU silicide fuel from manufacturing scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Pace, B.W.; Evans, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide an understanding of the organization which is the sole supplier of United States plate type research and test reactor fuel and LEU core conversions, a brief description of the structure and history is presented. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is a part of McDermott International, Inc. which is a large diversified corporation employing over 20,000 people primarily in engineering and construction for the off-shore oil and power generation industries throughout the world. B and W provides many energy related products requiring precision machining and high quality systems. This is accomplished by using state-of-the-art equipment, technology and highly skilled people. The RTRFE group within B and W has the ability to produce various complexly shaped fuel elements with a wide variety of fuels and enrichments. B and W RTRFE has fabricated over 200,000 plates since 1981 and gained the diversified experience necessary to satisfy many customer requirements. This accomplishment was possible with the support of McDermott International and all of its resources. B and W has always had a commitment to high quality and integrity. This is apparent by the success and longevity (125 years) of the company. A lower cost to convert cores to LEU provides direct support to RERTR and demonstrates Babcock and Wilcox's commitment to the program. As a supporter of RERTR reactor conversion from HEU to LEU, B and W has contributed a significant amount of R and D money to improve the silicide fuel process which ultimately lowers the LEU core costs. In the most recent R and D project, B and W is constructing a LEU silicide reclamation facility to re-use the unirradiated fuel scrap generated from the production process. Remanufacturing use of this fuel completes the fuel cycle and provides a contribution to LEU cores by reducing scrap inventory and handling costs, lowering initial purchase of fuel due to increasing the process yields, and lowering the replacement costs. This

  2. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondon, A., E-mail: andrew.mondon@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wang, D. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), H.-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zuschlag, A. [Universität Konstanz FB Physik, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 27, D-78464 Konstanz (Germany); Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W. [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Adhesion of metallization of fully plated nickel–copper contacts on silicon solar cells can be achieved by formation of nickel silicide at the cost of degraded cell performance. • Understanding of silicide growth mechanisms and controlled growth may lead to high performance together with excellent adhesion. • Silicide formation is well known from CMOS production from PVD-Ni on flat surfaces. Yet the deposition methods and therefore layer characteristics and the surface topography are different for plated metallization. • TEM analysis is performed for differently processed samples. • A nickel silicide growth model is created for plated Ni on textured silicon solar cells. - Abstract: In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel–silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide

  3. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues

  4. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental phase contrast images and the diffraction pattern. Figure 3. (a) Bright field image of electrodeposited boron spec- imen showing a crystallite of size ∼10 × 5 nm; (b) phase contrast image of electrodeposited boron specimen showing a resolved la- ttice and (c) power spectrum of electrodeposited boron specimen.

  5. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  6. Irradiation of an uranium silicide prototype in RA-3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Estrik, G.; Notari, C.

    1996-01-01

    The factibility of irradiation of an uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) prototype in the RA-3 reactor was studied. The standard RA-3 fuel element uses U 3 O 8 as fissible material. The enrichment of both standard and prototype is the same: 20% U 235 and also the frame geometry and number of plates is identical. The differences are in the plate dimensions and the fissile content which is higher in the prototype. The cooling conditions of the core allow the insertion of the prototype in any core position, even near the water trap, if the overall power is kept below 5Mw. Nevertheless, the recommendation was to begin irradiation near the periphery and later on move the prototype towards more central positions in order to increase the burnup rate. The prototype was effectively introduced in a peripheral position and the thermal fluxes were measured between plates with the foil activation technique. These were also evaluated with the fuel management codes and a reasonable agreement was found. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. KUR core conversion to use LEU silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Kobiyashi, Keiji; Utsuro, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    As one of possible future programs for the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University (KURRI) has a plan for core conversion to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. A feasibility study for this conversion started in November, 1983, as a part of the joint study between KURRI and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).Thermal-hydraulic analysis on the use of LEU fuels in the KUR was performed in 1984, and neutronic calculation in 1985. The conversion is to be from the current highly enriched uranium HEU (93.15%, UAl-alloy 0.586 gU/cm3) to LEU (19.75%, U3Si2-Al, 3.2 gU/cm3). The results indicate that the core can be converted without significant difficulties. Prior to the safety review application for the full core conversion with LEU silicide fuel, we are planning to demonstrate the use of two full size LEU suicide fuel elements among the current HEU elements. The safety analysis report for the two-element demonstration is to be submitted to the government shortly. The full core conversion is anticipated in 1993.(author)

  8. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, A.; Wang, D.; Zuschlag, A.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel-silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide a continuous nickel silicide of greater depth, polycrystalline modification and expected phase according to thermal budget is formed. Information about the nature of silicide growth on typical solar cell surfaces could be obtained from silicide phase and geometric observations, which were supported by FIB tomography. The theory of isotropic NiSi growth and orientation dependent NiSi2 growth was derived. By this, a very well performing low-cost metallization for silicon solar cells has been brought an important step closer to industrial introduction.

  9. Investigation of hafnium silicide nanostructures on a Si(100) surface by means of photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluechter, C.R.; Weier, D. [Experimentelle Physik 1 - Universitaet Dortmund, (Germany); DELTA - Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D 44227 (Germany); Siervo, A. de; Landers, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, (Brazil); Schuermann, M.; Beimborn, A.; Schoenbohm, F.; Dreiner, S.; Westphal, C. [Experimentelle Physik 1 - Universitaet Dortmund, (Germany); Carazzolle, M.F.; Kleiman, G.G. [Inst. de Fisica - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Ultrathin films of hafnium were deposited on a silicon sample and annealed at 750 C forming rectangular shaped hafnium silicide islands on the surface. This silicidation process causes the thermal instability of HfO{sub 2} films on silicon substrates. The latter system is under investigation in the field of high-k dielectrics to replace the system SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) in MOSFET devices. We investigated the structure of the HfSi{sub 2} island for different initial film thicknesses of hafnium by means of atomic force microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron diffraction. Synchrotron light in the soft X-ray regime (h{nu}=180 eV) was used for excitation. The resulting diffraction patterns were compared to calculated patterns of model structures by an R-factor analysis. As a result, we propose a modified zirconium silicide model to describe the structure of the system.

  10. Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen evolution reaction on cobalt silicides in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichigin, V.I.; Shein, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Cathodic polarisation curves and impedance spectra for cobalt silicides Co 2 Si and CoSi 2 in 0.5–2 M KOH at ambient temperature were obtained. It was shown that electrocatalytic activity of both silicides in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is higher than that of cobalt. The dependences of equivalent circuit elements on the electrode potential were analysed. The conclusion was made that the atomic hydrogen adsorption on the surface of cobalt silicides is described by the Langmuir isotherm, and hydrogen evolution proceeds through the Volmer–Heyrovsky mechanism (at α 1 ≠ α 2 for Co 2 Si and α 1 = α 2 for CoSi 2 ; α 1 and α 2 are the transfer coefficients for the Volmer and Heyrovsky steps respectively). The Heyrovsky reaction is probably the rate-determining step. The values of the kinetic parameters of HER on Co 2 Si and CoSi 2 in 1 M KOH were estimated

  11. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  12. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  13. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  14. Growth, structure and lattice dynamics of rare earth silicide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Anja

    2015-07-13

    In the present thesis the epitaxial growth, crystal structure, stoichiometry, thermal stability and lattice dynamics of self-organized EuSi{sub 2} and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires are investigated. The rare earth silicide (RESi) nanostructures have attracted considerable interest due to their high conductivity, very low Schottky barrier heights, remarkable chemical stability, self-organization in high area density and defects-free nano-objects with tunable size and shape, and the direct integration into the Si technology. The extensive research is driven by the continuous downscaling of the CMOS electronics that require new approaches in the devices architecture and circuits interconnects. Although RESi nanostructures attracted a lot of interest already several years ago and a lot of research has been done in this field, the lattice dynamics of these materials are still unknown. Recent developments at third generation synchrotron radiation sources have brought their performance to a stage where phonon spectroscopy of nanostructures and thin layers became feasible using nuclear inelastic X-ray scattering. This novel experimental technique is based on the process of phonon-assisted nuclear resonant absorption/emission of X-rays from the nuclei of Moessbauer-active isotopes. The method provides direct access to the phonon density of states (DOS) of the investigated element. Together with the ab initio calculations it was possible to get a comprehensive understanding of the lattice dynamics. EuSi{sub 2} films and nanoislands and DySi{sub 2} films, nanoislands and nanowires have been grown on the vicinal Si(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. While DySi{sub 2} was grown following known growth procedures, the growth conditions for EuSi{sub 2} had to be established first. EuSi{sub 2} was grown at two different growth conditions to study the influence of crystal structure and morphology upon different growth temperatures. The structure has been

  15. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.; Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  16. Radiation Re-solution Calculation in Uranium-Silicide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The release of fission gas from nuclear fuels is of primary concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Although the production of fission gas atoms can be easily calculated from the fission rate in the fuel and the average yield of fission gas, the actual diffusion, behavior, and ultimate escape of fission gas from nuclear fuel depends on many other variables. As fission gas diffuses through the fuel grain, it tends to collect into intra-granular bubbles, as portrayed in Figure 1.1. These bubbles continue to grow due to absorption of single gas atoms. Simultaneously, passing fission fragments can cause collisions in the bubble that result in gas atoms being knocked back into the grain. This so called “re-solution” event results in a transient equilibrium of single gas atoms within the grain. As single gas atoms progress through the grain, they will eventually collect along grain boundaries, creating inter-granular bubbles. As the inter-granular bubbles grow over time, they will interconnect with other grain-face bubbles until a pathway is created to the outside of the fuel surface, at which point the highly pressurized inter-granular bubbles will expel their contents into the fuel plenum. This last process is the primary cause of fission gas release. From the simple description above, it is clear there are several parameters that ultimately affect fission gas release, including the diffusivity of single gas atoms, the absorption and knockout rate of single gas atoms in intra-granular bubbles, and the growth and interlinkage of intergranular bubbles. Of these, the knockout, or re-solution rate has an particularly important role in determining the transient concentration of single gas atoms in the grain. The re-solution rate will be explored in the following sections with regards to uranium-silicide fuels in order to support future models of fission gas bubble behavior.

  17. Silicon Framework-Based Lithium Silicides at High Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shoutao; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Guochun; Ma, Yanming

    2016-07-06

    The bandgap and optical properties of diamond silicon (Si) are not suitable for many advanced applications such as thin-film photovoltaic devices and light-emitting diodes. Thus, finding new Si allotropes with better bandgap and optical properties is desirable. Recently, a Si allotrope with a desirable bandgap of ∼1.3 eV was obtained by leaching Na from NaSi6 that was synthesized under high pressure [Nat. Mater. 2015, 14, 169], paving the way to finding new Si allotropes. Li is isoelectronic with Na, with a smaller atomic core and comparable electronegativity. It is unknown whether Li silicides share similar properties, but it is of considerable interest. Here, a swarm intelligence-based structural prediction is used in combination with first-principles calculations to investigate the chemical reactions between Si and Li at high pressures, where seven new compositions (LiSi4, LiSi3, LiSi2, Li2Si3, Li2Si, Li3Si, and Li4Si) become stable above 8.4 GPa. The Si-Si bonding patterns in these compounds evolve with increasing Li content sequentially from frameworks to layers, linear chains, and eventually isolated Si ions. Nearest-neighbor Si atoms, in Cmmm-structured LiSi4, form covalent open channels hosting one-dimensional Li atom chains, which have similar structural features to NaSi6. The analysis of integrated crystal orbital Hamilton populations reveals that the Si-Si interactions are mainly responsible for the structural stability. Moreover, this structure is dynamically stable even at ambient pressure. Our results are also important for understanding the structures and electronic properties of Li-Si binary compounds at high pressures.

  18. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  19. X-ray-emission studies of chemical bonding in transition-metal silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.W.; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de; Fuggle, J.C.; Reiter, S.; Wiech, G.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    We present Si L2,3 emission-band spectra of a series of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) silicides, together wtih Si K emission-band spectra of four 3d TM disilicides. The data are compared with augmented-spherical-wave density-of-states (DOS) calculations, and good agreement is found. The trends we

  20. Cross-Bridge Kelvin Resistor (CBKR) structures for silicide-semiconductor junctions characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, N.; van Dal, M.J.H.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing the contact geometry factors for the conventional CBKR structures, it appeared that the contact geometries conventionally used for the metal-to-silicide contact resistance measurements were not always satisfactory to reveal the specific contact resistance values. To investigate these

  1. Role of Ti 3 Al/silicides on tensile properties of Timetal 834 at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extremely fine coherent precipitates of ordered Ti3Al and relatively coarse incoherent precipitates of 2 silicide exist together in the near -titanium alloy, Timetal 834, in the dual phase matrix of primary and transformed . In order to assess the role of these precipitates, three heat treatments viz. WQ, WQ–A and WQ–OA, ...

  2. Role of Ti3Al/silicides on tensile properties of Timetal 834 at various ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    α-titanium alloy, Timetal 834, that precipitation of the ordered Ti3Al (α2) phase and silicides occurs on slow cooling in air/furnace but not during quenching in water/ oil, following solution treatment in the α + β phase field. (Singh 2000). However, precipitation of these phases occurs even in the rapidly quenched samples from ...

  3. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagoubi, S.; Heathman, S.; Svane, A.

    2013-01-01

    , for ThSi, USi and USi2, respectively. At ambient conditions, the uranium silicides crystallize in tetragonal structures (space groups: I4/mmm for USi and I41/amd for USi2), while ThSi adopts an orthorhombic structure (space group: Pbnm) (including an anharmonic analysis of the silicon). These structures...

  4. Influence of Rapid Thermal Ramp Rate on Phase Transformation of Titanium Silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Glenn; Hu, Yao, Zhi; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing Pin; Thakur, Randhir; Yang, Jiting

    1999-05-03

    ULSI technology requires low resistance, stable silicides formed on small geometry lines. Titanium disilicide (TiSiz), which is the most widely used silicide for ULSI applications, exists in two crystallographic phases: the high resistance, metastable C49 phase and the low resistance, stable C54 phase. The major issue with TiSiz is the increasing thermal budget required to transform the C49 phase into the low resistance C54 phase as linewiths decrease below 0.25 pm. Annealing above 900"C to obtain this transformation often results in thermal degradation, so it is desirable to reduce the transformation temperature. The transformation temperature has been shown to be a fi.mction of many factors including microstructure, grain size, and impurities. In this paper we report an investig+ion of rapid thermal silicidation of titanium films (250, 400, and 600 A) on single crystalline silicon at temperatures from 300 to 1000"C. The ramp rates for these experiments are 5, 30, 70, and 200oC/s. The transformation temperature decreases as the ramp rate increases and as the initial film thickness increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to analyze the resultant film microstructure. The ramp rate influence on Ti silicidation is also investigated on polycrystalline Si lines with widths ranging from 0.27 to 3.0 pm.

  5. Role of Ti3Al/silicides on tensile properties of Timetal 834 at various ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    alloy at room temperature and 866 K. They found that. Ti3Al precipitates were largely responsible for increase in the yield strength and decrease in ductility both at room temperature as well as at 866 K. On the other hand, increase in the rate of fatigue crack growth at room temperature was associated essentially with silicide ...

  6. Structure analysis of thin iron-silicide film from θ-scan RHEED Patterson function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Kataoka, K.; Matsui, F.; Hatori, K.; Hiroshi, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2006), s. 267-276 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Patterson function * RHEED * iron silicide * structure analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  7. Waste Photovoltaic Panels for Ultrapure Silicon and Hydrogen through the Low-Temperature Magnesium Silicide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dytrych, Pavel; Bumba, Jakub; Kaštánek, František; Fajgar, Radek; Koštejn, Martin; Šolcová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 45 (2017), s. 12863-12869 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14228S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : magnesium silicide * waste photovoltaic panels * ultrapure silicon Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  8. X-ray Emission and Absorption Studies of Silicides in Relation to their Electronic Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.W.; Wiech, G.; Zahorowski, W.; Speier, W.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Czyzyk, Marek; Acker, J.F. van; Leuken, E. van; Groot, R.A. de; Laan, G. van der; Sarma, D.D.; Kumar, L.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Fuggle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The valence bands and conduction bands of about 30 transition metal silicides (of which we concentrate on 4 here) have been investigated by measurements of Si X-ray emission bandsspectra, X-ray absorption spectra near the Si K (1s) edge, photoemission spectra, and Bremsstrahlung Isochromat spectra.

  9. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and α*-boron

    OpenAIRE

    Chaoyu He; J. X. Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and a promising metastable boron phase (α*-boron) have been studied by first-principles calculations. α-boron and α*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of “3S-6D-3S” and “2S-6D-4S”, respectively. The total energy calculations show that α*-boron is less stable than α-boron but more favorable than the well-known β-boron and γ-boron at zero pressure. Both α-boron and...

  10. Fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Jun

    2009-09-09

    Chemical composition and crystal structure of fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires have been determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The fivefold cyclic twinning relationship is confirmed by systematic axial rotation electron diffraction. Detailed chemical analysis reveals a carbon-rich boron carbide phase. Such boron carbide nanowires are potentially interesting because of their intrinsic hardness and high temperature thermoelectric property. Together with other boron-rich compounds, they may form a set of multiply twinned nanowire systems where the misfit strain could be continuously tuned to influence their mechanical properties.

  11. Investigation of silicide-induced-dopant-activation for steep tunnel junction in tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sihyun; Kwon, Dae Woong; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Lee, Roongbin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-02-01

    Numerous researches for making steep tunnel junction within tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) have been conducted. One of the ways to make an abrupt junction is source/drain silicidation, which uses the phenomenon often called silicide-induced-dopant-segregation. It is revealed that the silicide process not only helps dopants to pile up adjacent to the metal-silicon alloy, also induces the dopant activation, thereby making it possible to avoid additional high temperature process. In this report, the availability of dopant activation induced by metal silicide process was thoroughly investigated by diode measurement and device simulation. Metal-silicon (MS) diodes having p+ and n+ silicon formed on the p- substrate exhibit the characteristics of ohmic and pn diodes respectively, for both the samples with and without high temperature annealing. The device simulation for TFETs with dopant-segregated source was also conducted, which verified enhanced DC performance.

  12. Mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structures obtained by high-temperature brazing of corrosion-resistant steels with rapidly quenched non-boron nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B.; Penyaz, M.; Ivannikov, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Bachurina, D.; Fedotov, I.; Voennov, A.; Abramov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing nickel filler metals for high temperature brazing corrosion resistance steels different classes is perspective. The use of these alloys leads to the formation of a complex heterogeneous structure in the diffusion zone that contains separations of intermediate phases such as silicides and borides. This structure negatively affects the strength characteristics of the joint, especially under dynamic loads and in corrosive environment. The use of non-boron filler metals based on the Ni-Si-Be system is proposed to eliminate this structure in the brazed seam. Widely used austenitic 12Cr18Ni10Ti and ferrite-martensitic 16Cr12MoSiWNiVNb reactor steels were selected for research and brazing was carried out. The mechanical characteristics of brazed joints were determined using uniaxial tensile and impact toughness tests, and fractography was investigated by electron microscopy.

  13. Nuclear Analysis for Application of Boron Burnable Absorber in the HANARO Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Choi, Wonwoo; Chae, Hee-Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Keun Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, and the first full core analysis was performed last year. In the analysis, cadmium in the form of CdO was considered as the most promising burnable absorber for the current HANARO element. The U-Mo fuel with CdO was successfully irradiated at the HANARO core, but it was found that the thermodynamic stability of CdO is questionable under the higher temperature condition than the current manufacturing environment. Prior to application of CdO, further studies are required. Traditionally, boron has been used as burnable absorber at the high performance research reactors such as ATR, FRM-II, etc. The power density of HANARO is lower than those reactors, and the residual reactivity effect by boron is not negligible in the core. Basic nuclear analysis for application of boron burnable absorber in the HANARO fuel assembly was performed for getting a better fuel element. The residual reactivity effect can be overcome with replacing the reduced fuel rods into the standard rods. This new fuel design provides lower reactivity swing and lower power peaking. To minimize the residual reactivity effect, a concept of heterogeneous burnable poison within the rod is introduced. The heterogeneous cases give us better results and there is an optimum boundary for the burnable absorber region. This neutronics study was limited to the boron burnable absorber in the current silicide HANARO fuel, other studies including manufacturing study are desirable for application of burnable absorber.

  14. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman spectroscopic examination was carried out to study the nature of bonding and the allotropic form of boron obtained after electrodeposition. The results obtained from transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous mass of boron. Raman microscopic studies ...

  15. The effects of Ta on the formation of Ni-silicide in Ni{sub 0.95x}Ta{sub x0.05}/Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kihoon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: polymetal@empal.com; Choi, Siyoung [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja-Hum [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Woong [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We investigated a comparative study on the silicide formation in the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems and Ni/Si systems. Ni and Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and processed at various silicidation temperatures. The sheet resistance of the silicide from the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems was obtained at lower values than those in pure Ni/Si systems at any temperature. Using RBS and TEM analyses, we confirmed the presence of a Ta rich layer at the top of the Ni-silicide layer and the presence of small amounts of Ta in the silicide layer. The stability of the silicide layer for the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} systems is explained by the presence of the Ta rich layer on top of the Ni-silicide layer, as well as by the presence of the small amount of Ta in the Ni-silicide layer. The Ni-silicide using Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si system displayed a stable sheet resistance value of {approx}5 {omega}/sq which was maintained during the anneal process at 600 deg. C.

  16. Evaluation of In-Core Fuel Management for the Transition Cores of RSG-GAS Reactor to Full-Silicide Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Tukiran; MS, Tagor; P, Surian

    2003-01-01

    The core conversion of RSG-GAS reactor from oxide to silicide core with meat density of 2.96 gU/cc has been done. The core-of RSG-GAS reactor has been operated full core of silicide fuels which is started with the mixed core of oxide-silicide start from core 36. Based on previous work, the calculated core parameter for the cores were obtained and it is needed 9 transition cores (core 36 - 44) to achieve a full-silicide core (core 45). The objective of this work is to acquire the effect of the increment of the number of silicide fuel on the core parameters. Conversion core was achieved by transition cores mixed oxide-silicide fuels. Each transition core is calculated and measured core parameter such as, excess reactivity and shutdown margin. Calculation done by Batan-EQUIL-2D code and measurement of the core parameters was carried out using the method of compensation of couple control rods. The results of calculation and experiment shows that the excess reactivity trends lower with the increment of the number of silicide fuel in the core. However, the shutdown margin is not change with the increment of the number of silicide fuel. Therefore, the transition cores can be operated safely to a full-silicide core

  17. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  18. Boron Activated Neutron Thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsley, A. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Instrument Research & Development

    1952-01-09

    The Brown Instrument Division of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. have been making pilot models of boron coated neutron sensitive thermopiles, which show considerable promise of being effective indicators of slow neutron flux. Their loss in sensitivity in a year of operation in the maximum flux of CP-6 calculates to be less than 6 per cent. When used as rooftop indicators, the ratio of the signal of the two units would change by about 2 per cent in a year's time.

  19. Boron atom reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, R.; Tabacco, M.B.; Digiuseppe, T.G.; Davidovits, P.

    1982-01-01

    The reaction rates of atomic boron with various epoxides have been measured in a flow tube apparatus. The bimolecular rate constants, in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , are: 1,2-epoxypropane (8.6 x 10 -11 ), 1,2-epoxybutane (8.8 x 10 -11 ), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (5.5 x 10 -11 ), 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (5.7 x 10 -11 ), and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (1.5 x 10 -11 ). (orig.)

  20. Reactivity And Neutron Flux At Silicide Fuel Element In The Core Of RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Amir

    2000-01-01

    In order to 4.8 and 5.2 gr U/cm exp 3 loading of U 3 Si 2 --Al fuel plates characterization, he core reactivity change and neutron flux depression had been done. Control rod calibration method was used to reactivity change measurement and neutron flux distribution was measured using foil activation method. Measurement of insertion of A-type of testing fuel element with U-loading above cannot be done due to technical reason, so the measurement using full type silicide fuel element of 2.96 gr U/cm exp 3 loading. The reactivity change measurement result of insertion in A-9 and C-3 is + 2.67 cent. The flux depression at silicide fuel in A-9 is 1.69 times bigger than oxide and in C-3 is 0.68 times lower than oxide

  1. RA-3 reactor core with uranium silicide fuel elements P-07 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Following the studies on the utilization of fuel elements (FE) containing uranium silicide, core of the RA-3 was analyzed with several calculation models. At first, the present situation, i.e. the core charged with normal FE (U 3 O 8 ), has been analyzed to validate the simulation methodology comparing with experimental results and to establish reference data to 5 and 10 MW able to be compared with future new situations. Also, CITVAP's nuclear data libraries to be used in irradiation experiment planning were completed. The results were satisfactory and were applied to the study of the core containing P-07 FE [U 3 Si 2 ], in face of a future core change. Comparing with the performance of the U 3 O 8 FE, the silicides ones show the following advantages: - average burnup: 45 % greater; -extraction burnup increase 12 %; and, -the residence time [in full power days] could be a 117 % greater. (author)

  2. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  3. Optical anisotropy of quasi-1D rare-earth silicide nanostructures on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, S., E-mail: sandhya.chandola@isas.de [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Schwarzschildstraße 8, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Speiser, E.; Esser, N. [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Schwarzschildstraße 8, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Appelfeller, S.; Franz, M.; Dähne, M. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) is capable of distinguishing optically between the semiconducting wetting layer and the metallic nanowires of rare earth (Tb and Dy) silicide nanostructures grown on vicinal Si(001). • The spectra of the wetting layer show a distinctive line shape with a large peak appearing at 3.8 eV, which is assigned to the formation of 2 × 3 and 2 × 4-like subunits of the 2 × 7 reconstruction. The spectra of the metallic nanowires show peaks at the E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} transitions of bulk Si which is assigned to strong substrate strain induced by the nanowires. • The optical anisotropy of the Tb nanowires is larger than for the Dy nanowires, which is related to the preferential formation of more strained bundles as well as larger areas of clean Si surfaces in the case of Tb. • RAS is shown to be a powerful addition to surface science techniques for studying the formation of rare-earth silicide nanostructures. Its surface sensitivity and rapidity of response make it an ideal complement to the slower but higher resolution of scanning probes of STM and AFM. - Abstract: Rare earth metals are known to interact strongly with Si(001) surfaces to form different types of silicide nanostructures. Using STM to structurally characterize Dy and Tb silicide nanostructures on vicinal Si(001), it will be shown that reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) can be used as an optical fingerprint technique to clearly distinguish between the formation of a semiconducting two-dimensional wetting layer and the metallic one-dimensional nanowires. Moreover, the distinctive spectral features can be related to structural units of the nanostructures. RAS spectra of Tb and Dy nanostructures are found to show similar features.

  4. Carbon mediated reduction of silicon dioxide and growth of copper silicide particles in uniform width channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We show that surface arc-discharge deposited carbon plays a critical intermediary role in the breakdown of thermally grown oxide diffusion barriers of 90 nm on a silicon wafer at 1035°C in an Ar/H2 atmosphere, resulting in the formation of epitaxial copper silicide particles in ≈ 10 μm wide...... electron microscopy of focused ion beam fabricated lammelas and trenches in the structure to elucidate the process of their formation....

  5. Techno-economic study on conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.; Malherbe, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper marks the conclusion of the techno-economic study into the conversion of SAFARI-1 reactor in South Africa to LEU silicide fuel. Several different fuel types were studied and their characteristics compared to the current HEU fuel. The technical feasibility of operating SAFARI-1 with the different fuels as well as the overall economic impact of the fuels is discussed and conclusions drawn.(author)

  6. Formation of (Nd,Y)-silicides by sequential channeled implantation of Y and Nd ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.; Bender, H.; Wu, M.F.; Vantomme, A.; Langouche, G.

    2000-01-01

    A buried hexagonal Nd 0.32 Y 0.68 Si 1.7 layer is formed by a sequential implantation of Y and Nd ions into (1 1 1)-oriented silicon wafers. The orientation relationship between the epitaxial Nd 0.32 Y 0.68 Si 1.7 and the silicon is (0 0 0 1) Nd 0.32 Y 0.68 Si 1.7 //(1 1 1) Si with Nd 0.32 Y 0.68 Si 1.7 // Si . High temperature annealing (1000 deg. C) results in a gradual transition into an orthorhombic ternary (Nd,Y)-silicide. Between the orthorhombic (Nd,Y)-silicide and the Si a preferential orientation relationship exists: (1 1 0) orth //(1 1(bar) 0) Si with orth // Si . However, as not all orthorhombic silicide grains follow this epitaxial relationship, the minimum yield in the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) spectrum increases compared to the results after a low temperature annealing

  7. Formation of (Nd,Y)-silicides by sequential channeled implantation of Y and Nd ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Bender, H.; Wu, M. F.; Vantomme, A.; Langouche, G.

    2000-03-01

    A buried hexagonal Nd0.32Y0.68Si1.7 layer is formed by a sequential implantation of Y and Nd ions into (1 1 1)-oriented silicon wafers. The orientation relationship between the epitaxial Nd0.32Y0.68Si1.7 and the silicon is (0 0 0 1)Nd0.32Y0.68Si1.7//(1 1 1)Si with Nd0.32Y0.68Si1.7//Si. High temperature annealing (1000°C) results in a gradual transition into an orthorhombic ternary (Nd,Y)-silicide. Between the orthorhombic (Nd,Y)-silicide and the Si a preferential orientation relationship exists: (1 1 0)orth//(1 1¯ 0)Si with orth//Si. However, as not all orthorhombic silicide grains follow this epitaxial relationship, the minimum yield in the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) spectrum increases compared to the results after a low temperature annealing.

  8. Boron isotopes and groundwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.

    1999-01-01

    Boron can be used as a tracer in ground water because of its high solubility in aqueous solutions, natural abundance in all waters, and the lack of effects by evaporation, volatilisation, oxidation-reduction reactions. Since the boron concentrations in pristine ground waters are generally low and contaminant sources are usually enriched in boron, the δ 11 B of groundwater is highly sensitive to the impact of contamination. The large isotopic variations of the potential sources can be used to trace the origin of the contamination and to reconstruct mixing and flow paths

  9. Lattice dynamics of α boron and of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast, N.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of α boron and of B 4 C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In α boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B 4 C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  10. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  11. Nothing Boring About Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  12. Nano boron nitride flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-02-07

    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed.

  13. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  14. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  15. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  16. Probing Transition-Metal Silicides as PGM-Free Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution in Acidic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Thomas; Madkikar, Pankaj; Wang, Xiaodong; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Piana, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, we investigate various transition-metal silicides as platinum-group-metal-(PGM)-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), and for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic environment for the first time. Using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M HClO4, we first demonstrate that the tested materials exhibit sufficient stability against dissolution in the relevant potential window. Further, we determine the HOR and HER activities for Mo, W, Ta, Ni and Mo-Ni silicides in rotating disk electrode experiments. In conclusion, for the HOR only Ni2Si shows limited activity, and the HER activity of the investigated silicides is considerably lower compared to other PGM-free HER catalysts reported in the literature. PMID:28773022

  17. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  18. Future boronated molecules for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloway, A.H.; Alam, F.; Barth, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of several boron compounds to localize in tumor cells is examined. A number of first and second generation compounds which were not synthesized specifically for localization are described. Among these are the boron hydrides and boranes. A third generation of boron compounds are designed for selective localization. These fall into two groups: relatively small organic compounds and boronated antibodies, both of which are discussed here

  19. Compression and Associated Properties of Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Klandadze, G.I., and Eristavi, A.M., 1999: IR- Active Phonons and Structure Elements of Isotope - Enriched Boron Carbide, J. Sol. State Chem. 154, 79- 86...COMPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED PROPERTIES OF BORON CARBIDE D. P. Dandekar*and J. A. Ciezak Army Research Laboratory, APG, MD 21005 M. Somayazulu...of the observed loss of shear strength in boron carbide under plane shock wave compression to amorphization in boron carbide under triaxial stress

  20. Lattice vibrations in α-boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.

    1976-01-01

    α-rhombohedral boron is the simplest boron modification, with only 12 atoms per unit cell. The boron atoms are arranged in B 12 icosahedra, which are centered at the lattice points of a primitive rhombohedral lattice. The icosahedra are slightly deformed, as the five-fold symmetry of the ideal icosahedron is incompatible with any crystal structure. The lattice dynamics of α-boron are discussed in terms of the model developed by Weber and Thorpe. (Auth.)

  1. Synthesis of oligomeric boron-containing phospolyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.N.; Khokhlova, T.V.; Orlova, S.A.; Tuzhikov, O.I.

    2006-01-01

    Structure is investigated and reactivity of oligomeric boron-containing phospolyols is studied. Oligomeric boron-containing compound interacts with ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, glycerol, 1,4-butandiol with formation of linear boron-containing phospolyols. Reactions proceed in noncatalytic conditions with stoichiometric quantities of reagents at 170-200 Deg C in inert gas media. Boron-containing phospolyols are viscous uncolored liquids, their physicochemical characteristics are represented [ru

  2. The series production in a standardized fabrication line for silicide fuels and commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, E.L.; Hassel, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    NUKEM has been responsible for the development and fabrication of LEU fuel elements for MTR reactors under the frame of the German AF program since 1979. The AF program is part of the international RERTR efforts, which were initiated by the INFCE Group in 1978. This paper describes the actual status of development and the transition from the prototype to the series production in a standardized manufacturing line for silicide fuels at NUKEM. Technical provisions and a customer oriented standardized product range aim at an economized manufacturing. (Author)

  3. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Zuhair A [Davis, CA; Woolman, Joseph N [Davis, CA; Petrovic, John J [Los Alamos, NM

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  4. Iron-based superconductivity extended to the novel silicide LaFeSiH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; Garbarino, G.; Sulpice, A.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.; Gaudin, E.; Chevalier, B.; Méasson, M.-A.; Cano, A.; Tencé, S.

    2018-03-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the novel silicide LaFeSiH displaying superconductivity with onset at 11 K. We find that this pnictogen-free compound is isostructural to LaFeAsO, with a similar low-temperature tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion. Using density functional theory we show that this system is also a multiband metal in which the orthorhombic distortion is likely related to single-stripe antiferromagnetic order. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that these features occur side by side with superconductivity, which is suppressed by external pressure.

  5. Estimations on uranium silicide fuel prototypes for their irradiation and postirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Silicide' project includes the qualification of this type of research reactor fuel to be used i.e. in the Argentine RA-3 and to confirm CNEA's role as an international supplier. The present paper shows complementary basic information for P-04 prototype post-irradiation, which is already under way, and some parameter values related to the new P-06 prototype to be taken into account for planning its irradiation and post-irradiation. The reliability of these values has been evaluated through comparison with experimental results. The reported results contribute, also, to a parallel study on the nuclear data libraries used in calculations for this type of reactor. (author)

  6. Silicon behaviour during reprocessing of uranium silicide fuel by the PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touron, E.; Cheroux, L.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium silicide nuclear fuel is substantially different from power reactor fuel. Reprocessing of spent U 3 Si 2 fuel is a promising alternative to storage in order to reduce the waste volume and improve containment while separating reusable material from the waste. Among the possible spent fuel reprocessing scenarios, a study of dissolution of U 3 Si 2 fuel components in acidic media has shown that the PUREX process is applicable with a few modifications in the initial process steps. This study provided valuable data on several aspects of silicon behavior in nitric acid media, and suggests that the presence of silicon does not hinder the extraction of reusable materials. (author)

  7. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron have been studied by first-principles calculations. Both a-boron and a*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that a*-boron is less stable than a-boron but more favorable than beta-boron and Gamma-boron at zero pressure. Both a-boron and a*-boron are confirm...

  8. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaraiz Franco, E.; Esteban Hernandez, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe 2 B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  10. New Icosahedral Boron Carbide Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria Mora, Elena Maria

    Novel semiconductor boron carbide films and boron carbide films doped with aromatic compounds have been investigated and characterized. Most of these semiconductors were formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The aromatic compound additives used, in this thesis, were pyridine (Py), aniline, and diaminobenzene (DAB). As one of the key parameters for semiconducting device functionality is the metal contact and, therefore, the chemical interactions or band bending that may occur at the metal/semiconductor interface, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the interaction of gold (Au) with these novel boron carbide-based semiconductors. Both n- and p-type films have been tested and pure boron carbide devices are compared to those containing aromatic compounds. The results show that boron carbide seems to behave differently from other semiconductors, opening a way for new analysis and approaches in device's functionality. By studying the electrical and optical properties of these films, it has been found that samples containing the aromatic compound exhibit an improvement in the electron-hole separation and charge extraction, as well as a decrease in the band gap. The hole carrier lifetimes for each sample were extracted from the capacitance-voltage, C(V), and current-voltage, I(V), curves. Additionally, devices, with boron carbide with the addition of pyridine, exhibited better collection of neutron capture generated pulses at ZERO applied bias, compared to the pure boron carbide samples. This is consistent with the longer carrier lifetimes estimated for these films. The I-V curves, as a function of external magnetic field, of the pure boron carbide films and films containing DAB demonstrate that significant room temperature negative magneto-resistance (> 100% for pure samples, and > 50% for samples containing DAB) is possible in the resulting dielectric thin films. Inclusion of DAB is not essential for significant negative magneto

  11. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  12. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  13. Boron cycling in subduction zones

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction zones are geologically dramatic features, with much of the drama being driven by the movement of water. The “light and lively” nature of boron, coupled with its wide variations in isotopic composition shown by the different geo-players in this drama, make it an ideal tracer for the role and movement of water during subduction. The utility of boron ranges from monitoring how the fluids that are expelled from the accretionary prism influence seawater chemistry, to the subduction of c...

  14. Silicon-germanium and platinum silicide nanostructures for silicon based photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhevykh, M. S.; Dubkov, V. P.; Arapkina, L. V.; Chizh, K. V.; Mironov, S. A.; Chapnin, V. A.; Yuryev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports a study of two types of silicon based nanostructures prospective for applications in photonics. The first ones are Ge/Si(001) structures forming at room temperature and reconstructing after annealing at 600°C. Germanium, being deposited from a molecular beam at room temperature on the Si(001) surface, forms a thin granular film composed of Ge particles with sizes of a few nanometers. A characteristic feature of these films is that they demonstrate signs of the 2 x 1 structure in their RHEED patterns. After short-term annealing at 600°C under the closed system conditions, the granular films reconstruct to heterostructures consisting of a Ge wetting layer and oval clusters of Ge. A mixed type c(4x2) + p(2x2) reconstruction typical to the low-temperature MBE (Tgr class of materials is one of the friendliest to silicon technology. But as silicide film thickness reaches a few nanometers, low resistivity becomes of primary importance. Pt3Si has the lowest sheet resistance among the Pt silicides. However, the development of a process of thin Pt3Si films formation is a challenging task. This paper describes formation of a thin Pt3Si/Pt2Si structures at room temperature on poly-Si films. Special attention is paid upon formation of poly-Si and amorphous Si films on Si3N4 substrates at low temperatures.

  15. Prospect of Uranium Silicide fuel element with hypostoichiometric (Si ≤3.7%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sardjono; Martoyo

    1996-01-01

    An attempt to obtain high uranium-loading in silicide dispersion fuel element using the fabrication technology applicable nowadays can reach Uranium-loading slightly above 5 gU/cm 3 . It is difficult to achieve a higher uranium-loading than that because of fabricability constraints. To overcome those difficulties, the use of uranium silicide U 3 Si based is considered. The excess of U is obtained by synthesising U 3 Si 2 in Si-hypostoichiometric stage, without applying heat treatment to the ingot as it can generate undesired U 3 Si. The U U will react with the matrix to form U al x compound, that its pressure is tolerable. This experiment is to consider possibilities of employing the U 3 Si 2 as nuclear fuel element which have been performed by synthesising U 3 Si 2 -U with the composition of 3.7 % weigh and 3 % weigh U. The ingot was obtained and converted into powder form which then was fabricated into experimental plate nuclear fuel element. The interaction between free U and Al-matrix during heat-treatment is the rolling phase of the fuel element was observed. The study of the next phase will be conducted later

  16. Analysis of Chemical Bonding and Structural Network of Gold Silicide in Core-Shell Silicon Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Bibhu P.; Swain, Bhabani S.

    2018-02-01

    The Au-catalyzed core-shell silicon nanowires (Si-NWs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition by using SiH4 and H2 precursor gases. The TEM and FTIR studies revealed that the Si-NWs consist of core silicon surrounded by a thick oxide sheath and Au distributed at the a-SiOx/Si interface. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the chemical composition and electronic environments of gold silicide in the a-SiO x /Si-NWs. The elemental analysis and chemical network of gold silicide of core-shell Si-NWs were explained on the basis of the random atomic distribution of Si, O and Au atoms. The Raman spectra and XRD peak reveal the crystalline core of Si-NWs. The individual contribution to the Au (4d) core orbital was deconvoluted to Au-Si-Au, Au-Si-O, Au-Au, Au-O-Au, Au-O-Si and Au=O/Au-O2 bonding structure. The analysis shows that the O linked with Si and Au has also contributed to growth of Si-NWs.

  17. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R

    2018-01-11

    The Silicon-based solar cell is one of the most important enablers toward high efficiency and low-cost clean energy resource. Metallization of silicon-based solar cells typically utilizes screen printed silver-Aluminium (Ag-Al) which affects the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used as an alternative candidate only to the front contact grid lines in crystalline silicon (c-Si) based solar cells. In this paper, we investigate the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2% compared to Ag-Al. This is attributed to the improvement of the parasitic resistance in which the series resistance decreased by 0.737 Ω.cm². Further, we complement experimental observation with a simulation of different contact resistance values, which manifests NiSi/Cu-Al rear contact as a promising low-cost metallization for c-Si solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  18. Prediction of Stable Ruthenium Silicides from First-Principles Calculations: Stoichiometries, Crystal Structures, and Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Cheng; Zhou, Dawei; Li, Peifang; Bao, Gang; Hermann, Andreas

    2015-12-09

    We present results of an unbiased structure search for stable ruthenium silicide compounds with various stoichiometries, using a recently developed technique that combines particle swarm optimization algorithms with first-principles calculations. Two experimentally observed structures of ruthenium silicides, RuSi (space group P2(1)3) and Ru2Si3 (space group Pbcn), are successfully reproduced under ambient pressure conditions. In addition, a stable RuSi2 compound with β-FeSi2 structure type (space group Cmca) was found. The calculations of the formation enthalpy, elastic constants, and phonon dispersions demonstrate the Cmca-RuSi2 compound is energetically, mechanically, and dynamically stable. The analysis of electronic band structures and densities of state reveals that the Cmca-RuSi2 phase is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.480 eV and is stabilized by strong covalent bonding between Ru and neighboring Si atoms. On the basis of the Mulliken overlap population analysis, the Vickers hardness of the Cmca structure RuSi2 is estimated to be 28.0 GPa, indicating its ultra-incompressible nature.

  19. CEMS Investigations of Fe-Silicide Phases Formed by the Method of Concentration Controlled Phase Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodley, M. K.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Waal, H. de; Pretorius, R.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) measurements have been made on Fe-silicide samples formed using the method of concentration controlled phase selection. To prepare the samples a 10 nm layer of Fe 30 M 70 (M=Cr, Ni) was evaporated onto Si(100) surfaces, followed by evaporation of a 60 nm Fe layer. Diffusion of the Fe into the Si substrate and the formation of different Fe-Si phases was achieved by subjecting the evaporated samples to a series of heating stages, which consisted of (a) a 10 min anneal at 800 deg. C plus etch of the residual surface layer, (b) a further 3 hr anneal at 800 deg. C, (c) a 60 mJ excimer laser anneal to an energy density of 0.8 J/cm 2 , and (d) a final 3 hr anneal at 800 deg. C. CEMS measurements were used to track the Fe-silicide phases formed. The CEMS spectra consisted of doublets which, based on established hyperfine parameters, could be assigned to α- or β-FeSi 2 or cubic FeSi. The spectra showed that β-FeSi 2 had formed already at the first annealing stage. Excimer laser annealing resulted in the formation of a phase with hyperfine parameters consistent with those of α-FeSi 2 . A further 3 hr anneal at 800 deg. C resulted in complete reversal to the semiconducting β-FeSi 2 phase.

  20. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  1. Mössbauer spectroscopy study of surfactant sputtering induced Fe silicide formation on a Si surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, C.; Zhang, K. [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hofsäss, H., E-mail: hans.hofsaess@phys.uni-goettingen.de [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Brüsewitz, C.; Vetter, U. [2nd Institute of Physics, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Physics Department, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We study the formation of self-organized nanoscale dot and ripple patterns on Si. • Patterns are created by keV noble gas ion irradiation and simultaneous {sup 57}Fe co-deposition. • Ion-induced phase separation and the formation of a-FeSi{sub 2} is identified as relevant process. - Abstract: The formation of Fe silicides in surface ripple patterns, generated by erosion of a Si surface with keV Ar and Xe ions and simultaneous co-deposition of Fe, was investigated with conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. For the dot and ripple patterns studied, we find an average Fe concentration in the irradiated layer between 6 and 25 at.%. The Mössbauer spectra clearly show evidence of the formation of Fe disilicides with Fe content close to 33 at.%, but very little evidence of the formation of metallic Fe particles. The results support the process of ion-induced phase separation toward an amorphous Fe disilicide phase as pattern generation mechanism. The observed amorphous phase is in agreement with thermodynamic calculations of amorphous Fe silicides.

  2. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  3. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly (vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  4. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation. PMID:23663726

  5. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G

    2008-10-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality.

  6. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B + , the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 x 10 14 and of 1 x 10 15 /cm -2 . Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B + requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold

  7. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  8. Boron removal from wastewater using adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczka, J; Trojanowska, J; Zolotajkin, M; Ciba, J; Turek, M; Dydo, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, boron adsorption on activated alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride, tartaric acid and mannitol was investigated. The adsorbate in question was the wastewater from the chemical landfill in Tarnowskie Gory of 25-70 mg l(-1) boron content. The removal of boron from the above-described wastewater was examined in the static (batch) and dynamic (column) experiments. The static experiments were carried out to assess boron adsorption isotherms, based on which the most efficient adsorbent as well as the rough resin load was determined. On the basis of the dynamic experiment results, the boron adsorptive capacities of the examined resins were deduced. It was concluded that the use of the impregnants increased the ability of activated carbon to adsorb boron. Granulated activated carbon WG-12 impregnated with mannitol was found to be the most promising for the boron removal from wastewater of the Chemical Wastewater Plant in Tarnowskie Gory.

  9. Influence of Al addition on phase transformation and thermal stability of nickel silicides on Si(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hsien; Twan, Sheng-Chen; Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lee, Tu; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Lee, Sheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► The presence of Al slows down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promotes the NiSi 2−x Al x formation. ► The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. ► The Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si system exhibits remarkably improved thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. ► The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni(Al) silicides is discussed. -- Abstract: The influence of Al addition on the phase transformation and thermal stability of Ni silicides on (0 0 1)Si has been systematically investigated. The presence of Al atoms is found to slow down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promote the NiSi 2−x Al x formation during annealing. The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. Compared to the Ni 0.95 Pt 0.05 /Si and Ni 0.95 Al 0.05 /Si system, the Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si sample exhibits remarkably enhanced thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni silicides is discussed to elucidate the role of Al during the Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicidation. This work demonstrated that thermally stable Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicides would be a promising candidate as source/drain (S/D) contacts in advanced complementary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices

  10. Advanced microstructure of boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut; Shalamberidze, Sulkhan

    2012-09-26

    The rhombohedral elementary cell of the complex boron carbide structure is composed of B(12) or B(11)C icosahedra and CBC, CBB or B□B (□, vacancy) linear arrangements, whose shares vary depending on the actual chemical compound. The evaluation of the IR phonon spectra of isotopically pure boron carbide yields the quantitative concentrations of these components within the homogeneity range. The structure formula of B(4.3)C at the carbon-rich limit of the homogeneity range is (B(11)C) (CBC)(0.91) (B□B)(0.09) (□, vacancy); and the actual structure formula of B(13)C(2) is (B(12))(0.5)(B(11)C)(0.5)(CBC)(0.65)(CBB)(0.16) (B□B)(0.19), and deviates fundamentally from (B(12))CBC, predicted by theory to be the energetically most favourable structure of boron carbide. In reality, it is the most distorted structure in the homogeneity range. The spectra of (nat)B(x)C make it evident that boron isotopes are not randomly distributed in the structure. However, doping with 2% silicon brings about a random distribution.

  11. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  12. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrolysis was crystalline in nature, X-ray diffraction pat-. ∗. Author for correspondence (sas@igcar.gov.in) .... Elemental boron was synthesized by the electrolysis of molten potassium fluroborate dissolved in a ... A high-throughput Renishaw micro-Raman spectrome- ter (model Invia) was employed to record Raman ...

  13. Preparation process of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignani, G.; Ardaud, P.

    1990-01-01

    High purity boron nitride, without Si and a low carbon content, is prepared by pyrolysis, under an ammoniac atmosphere, of the reaction product between a B-trihalogenoborazole and a primary amine RNH 2 when R is a hydrocarbon radical eventually substituted containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms inclusively [fr

  14. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction ...

  15. Method of separating boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  16. Prevention of uncontrolled boron dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a synthesis of the global analysis of uncontrolled boron dilution risk performed by (European Consortium Mochovce (EUCOM) in the frame of Safety Measures RC 01 and AA 11. Recommendation for additional improvements (mainly I and C interlocks or inhibition) are presented. (author)

  17. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  18. Effects of boron-water on cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, G.H.; Weeth, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    To determine the effects of subtoxic concentrations of boron in drinking water, 12 Hereford heifers were used in a 3 x 3 latin-square experiment with four squares. Treatments were tap-water (0.8 ppm boron), 150 ppm boron-water, and 300 ppm boron-water. Periods were 30 days each. Total urine was collected during the last week of each period, and renal clearance observations (based on creatinine) were made on the last day of each period. While water consumption and total urine weight were not affected by the boron treatments, hay consumption decreased, and weight loss was noted. Plasma boron concentrations were 0.53 +/- 0.151 ppm, 11.2 +/- 0.91 ppm, and 18.9 +/- 0.60 ppm while the heifers were drinking tap-water, 150 ppm boron-water, and 300 ppm boron-water respectively. Urinary boron excretion rates were tap water, 64 +/- 5.6 mg/day; 150 ppm, 2841 +/- 181.2 mg/day; 300 ppm, 4932 +/- 173.3 mg/day. Although glomerular filtration and osmolal clearance were unaffected by the boron-waters, a relative diuresis was indicated by the free water clearance effects. The percent of filtered boron which was reabsorbed decreased with increased exogenous boron, as well as both plasma and urinary phosphate. These data indicate that 300 ppm boron is not acutely toxic to heifers when consumed via the drinking water. The safe tolerance concentration, however, must lie below 150 ppm because this concentration was responsible for some deleterious effects.

  19. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  20. Re-sintered boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride and method for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavens, T.R.; Corrigan, F.R.; Shott, R.L.; Bovenkerk, H.P.

    1987-06-16

    A method is described for making re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN) which comprises: (a) placing sintered substantially catalyst-free boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride particles in a high pressure/high temperature apparatus, the particles being substantially free of sintering inhibiting impurities; (b) subjecting the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles to a pressure and a temperature adequate to re-sinter the particles, the temperature being below the CBN reconversion temperature; (c) maintaining the temperature and pressure for a time sufficient to re-sinter the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles in the apparatus, and (d) recovering the re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride from the apparatus.

  1. Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450° C. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation.

  2. Burn-up analysis of uranium silicide fuels 20% 235U, in the LFR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amor, Ricardo A.; Bouza, Edgardo; Cabrejas, Julian L.; Devida, Claudio A.; Gil, Daniel A.; Stankevicius, Alejandro; Gautier, Eduardo; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Lobo, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The LFR Facility is a laboratory designed and constructed with a Hot-Cells line, a Globe-Box and a Fume-Hood, all of them suited to work with radioactive materials such as samples of irradiated silicide MTR fuel elements. A series of dissolutions of this material was performed. From the resulting solutions, two fractions were separated by HPLC. One contained U + Pu, and other the fission product Nd. The concentrations of these elements were obtained by isotopic dilution and mass spectrometry (IDMS). It is concluded that this technique is very powerful and accurate when properly applied, and makes the validation of burn-up calculation codes possible. It is worth remarking the Lfr capacity to carry on different Research and Development (R + D) tasks in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle field. (author)

  3. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  4. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L 2,3 - and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi 2 sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi 2 . Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed

  5. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michelle F.; Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Santiago-Avilés, J. J.; Graham, W. R.; Siegal, M. P.

    1994-02-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 Å. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 Å. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films.

  6. A study of strain in thin epitaxial films of yttrium silicide on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.F.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Santiago-Aviles, J.J.; Graham, W.R.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an x-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial yttrium silicide films grown on Si(111), with thicknesses ranging from 14 to 100 A. The macroscopic strain along the out-of-plane direction for films containing pits or pinholes follows the trend observed previously in films of thicknesses up to 510 A. The out-of-plane lattice parameter decreases linearly with film thickness. We show preliminary evidence that pinhole-free films do not follow the above trend, and that strain in these films has the opposite sign than in films with pinholes. Finally, our results also indicate that the mode of growth, coupled to the interfacial thermal properties of the films, affects the observed value for the strain in the films

  7. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  8. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  9. Formation and properties of thin films of iron silicides on Si(111) Surface: Ab initio simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyanov, I. A.; Alekseev, A. A.; Zotov, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    Density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation has been used to calculate the total energy and model the atomic and electronic structures of thin FeSi films with CsCl type lattice and γ-FeSi2 films with CaF2 fluorite type lattice on a Si(111) surface. It is shown that, upon the adsorption of two monolayers of iron atoms on Si(111), the most energetically favorable process is the growth of a γ-FeSi2 film with CaF2 type structure. The electronic structure of a silicide film formed upon the adsorption of one monolayer of iron atoms exhibits features that are characteristic of both FeSi and γ-FeSi2. The density of states calculated for the γ-FeSi2 well agrees with the experimental photoemission spectra reported in the literature.

  10. Safety analysis of RSG-GAS Silicide core using one line cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endiah-Puji-Hastuti

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of minimizing the operation-cost, operation mode using one line cooling system is being evaluated. Maximum reactor has been determined and to continuing this program, steady state and transient analysis were done. The analysis was done by means of a core thermal hydraulic code, COOLOD-N, and PARET. The codes solves core thermal hydraulic equation at steady state conditions and transient, respectively. By using silicide core data and coast down flow rate as the input, thermal hydraulics parameters such as fuel cladding and fuel meat temperatures as well as safety margin against flow instability were calculated. Imposing the safety criteria to the results of steady state and transient analysis, maximum permissible power for this operation was obtained as much as 17.1 MW

  11. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaia, N., E-mail: nabil.chaia@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Mathieu, S., E-mail: stephane.mathieu@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Rouillard, F., E-mail: fabien.rouillard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vilasi, M., E-mail: michel.vilasi@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour – UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oxidation protection is due to the formation of a pure silica layer. • V–4Cr–4Ti with V{sub x}Si{sub y} silicide coating withstands 400 1-h cycles (1100 °C-T{sub amb}) in air. • Three-point flexure testing at 950 °C and 75 MPa does not induce coating breakdown. • No delamination between coating and substrate is observed in any test. - Abstract: V–4Cr–4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi{sub 2} coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi{sub 2} coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V–4Cr–4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  12. Boron clusters in luminescent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2016-01-21

    In recent times, luminescent materials with tunable emission properties have found applications in almost all aspects of modern material sciences. Any discussion on the recent developments in luminescent materials would be incomplete if one does not account for the versatile photophysical features of boron containing compounds. Apart from triarylboranes and tetra-coordinate borate dyes, luminescent materials consisting of boron clusters have also found immense interest in recent times. Recent studies have unveiled the opportunities hidden within boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes, etc. as active constituents of luminescent materials. From simple illustrations of luminescence, to advanced applications in LASERs, OLEDs and bioimaging, etc., the unique features of such compounds and their promising versatility have already been established. In this review, recent revelations about the excellent photophysical properties of such materials are discussed.

  13. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  14. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Yilmaz, M Tolga; Paluluoğlu, Cihan

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm(2), but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  15. Removal of boron (B) from waste liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J Q; Xu, Y; Simon, J; Quill, K; Shettle, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of electrocoagulation to remove boron from waste effluent in comparison with alum coagulation. In treating model test wastes, greater boron removals were achieved with electrocoagulation at low doses than conventional alum coagulation when reaction was undertaken for the same conditions (pH 8.5, and initial boron concentration was 500 mg/L). Al electrocoagulation can achieve good boron removal performance (68.3%) at a dose of 2.1 (as molar ratio of Al:B, and for current density of 62.1 A/m2), while alum coagulation can only achieve the maximum boron removal of 56% at a dose of 2.4. Also, Al electrocoagulation can remove 15-20% more boron than alum coagulation for the same dose compared in the treatment of both model test wastes and industry effluent. The estimation of running costs shows that to achieve 75% boron removal from industry waste effluent, i.e. removing 150 g of boron from 1 m3 of effluent, electrocoagulation was 6.2 times cheaper than alum coagulation. The economic advantage of electrocoagulation in the treatment of boron-containing waste effluent is thus significant.

  16. The boron geochemistry of siliceous sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, A.; Wille, M.; Eggins, S. M.; Ellwood, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    The boron content and isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine carbonate organisms can be linked to the pH of the seawater in which they have grown, making carbonates a useful tool for palaeo-seawater pH reconstruction. A study by Furst (1981) documented unusually high boron concentrations in siliceous sponge spicules, in range from hundreds to a thousand ppm. This observation and the potential for preferential incorporation of the tetrahedral borate species into biogenic silica raises the question as to whether the boron chemistry of biogenic silica might also be influenced by seawater pH. We have measured the boron concentration and isotopic composition of siliceous sponges from the Southern Ocean region, with a view to (1) confirming the observations of Furst (1981), (2) assessing the factors that control boron incorporation and isotopic compositions of sponge silica, and (3) investigating the potentially significant role of siliceous sponges in the marine boron cycle. The measured boron concentrations in a diverse range of both demosponge and hexactinellid sponges confirm the high boron concentrations previously reported. The boron isotope compositions of these sponges vary from around +2‰ to +25‰ and greatly exceed the range in marine carbonates. This isotopic variation is inconsistent with seawater pH control but is correlated with ambient seawater silicon concentration, in a manner that suggests a link to silicon uptake kinetics and demand by sponges.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  18. Conduction mechanism in boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical conductivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and Hall-effect measurements have been made on single-phase boron carbides, B(1-x)C(x), in the compositional range from 0.1 to 0.2 X, and between room temperature and 1273 K. The results indicate that the predominant conduction mechanism is small-polaron hopping between carbon atoms at geometrically inequivalent sites.

  19. Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.

  20. Effect of P+ ions on the microstructure and the nature of the formed silicides in the Cr/Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirouh, K.; Bouabellou, A.; Halimi, R.; Karaali, A.; Mosser, A.; Ehret, G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the phosphorus on the microstructure and on the nature of the formed silicide in the annealed Cr/Si system is studied. The chromium layer is deposited by electron gun evaporation on the undoped and P + doped monocrystalline silicon. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) investigation of the samples, annealed at 475 deg. C for different times, shows that the presence of phosphorus leads to the formation of CrSi 2 disilicide, free of defects, and Cr 3 Si silicide for lower and higher annealing times, respectively. In the case of undoped substrate the formed CrSi 2 disilicide is stable and contains a high concentration of stacking faults when the chromium is partially consumed

  1. High Temperature Silicides and Refractory Alloys Symposium Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29 -December 2, 1993. Volume 322

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-02

    protective SiO2 films which can infiltrate and cover micro cracks generated during the operating process. In general, silicides have an intricate crystal...J. Orszagh and H. Vander Porten, Rev. int. Htes Temp. et Refract. 11, 109 (1974). 27. P. Pascal, editor, Nouveau Traite de Chimie Minerale , Masson et...M. WANGtt tDepartment of Chemistry and Center for Micro -Engineered Ceramics, ttDepartment of Earth and Planetary Science, University of New Mexico

  2. A Study on Characterization of Light-Induced Electroless Plated Ni Seed Layer and Silicide Formation for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaloo, Ashkan Vakilipour; Joo, Seung Ki; Es, Firat; Turan, Rasit; Lee, Doo Won

    2018-03-01

    Light-induced electroless plating (LIEP) is an easy and inexpensive method that has been widely used for seed layer deposition of Nickel/Copper (Ni/Cu)-based metallization in the solar cell. In this study, material characterization aspects of the Ni seed layer and Ni silicide formation at different bath conditions and annealing temperatures on the n-side of a silicon diode structure have been examined to achieve the optimum cell contacts. The effects of morphology and chemical composition of Ni film on its electrical conductivity were evaluated and described by a quantum mechanical model. It has been found that correlation exists between the theoretical and experimental conductivity of Ni film. Residual stress and phase transformation of Ni silicide as a function of annealing temperature were evaluated using Raman and XRD techniques. Finally, transmission line measurement (TLM) technique was employed to determine the contact resistance of Ni/Si stack after thermal treatment and to understand its correlation with the chemical-structural properties. Results indicated that low electrical resistive mono-silicide (NiSi) phase as low as 5 mΩ.cm2 was obtained.

  3. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B 4 C by carbothermic reduction of B 2 O 3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B 4 C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author) [pt

  4. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  5. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  6. Hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; El-Wahabi, M.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This research work studies the effect of boron contents on the hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, uniaxial hot-compression tests were carried out in a low carbon steel microalloyed with four different amounts of boron over a wide range of temperatures (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg. C) and constant true strain rates (10 -3 , 10 -2 and 10 -1 s -1 ). Experimental results revealed that both peak stress and peak strain tend to decrease as boron content increases, which indicates that boron additions have a solid solution softening effect. Likewise, the flow curves show a delaying effect on the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) when increasing boron content. Deformed microstructures show a finer austenitic grain size in the steel with higher boron content (grain refinement effect). Results are discussed in terms of boron segregation towards austenitic grain boundaries during plastic deformation, which increases the movement of dislocations, enhances the grain boundary cohesion and modificates the grain boundary structure

  7. Compression and associated properties of boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezak, Jennifer; Dandekar, Dattatraya

    2009-06-01

    The observed loss of shear strength of boron carbide around 22 GPa has been attributed to presence of amorphous material in the shock recovered, and statically indented and pressurized boron carbide. The present work presents a more direct association of the observed loss of shear strength in boron carbide under plane shock wave compression to amorphization in boron carbide under triaxial stress compression. This evidence is obtained from in-situ measurement of Raman, and infrared vibrational spectra of boron carbide confined in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressures. X-ray-diffraction measurements do show a shift in the compression of boron carbide around 27 GPa. However, X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the amorphization does not extend to micron scale, as there is no evidence of a loss of crystallinity in the recorded diffraction pattern of boron carbide to 47 GPa. Our work shows that shear plays a very dominant role in the stress-induced amorphization of boron carbide.

  8. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  9. Spectral tailoring for boron Neutron capture therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several places in the world, such as Petten and Delft in the Netherlands, investigations are in progress in the fight against certain types of cancer with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The basic idea is very simple: boron is loaded only into the cancer cells, using a special drug, after which

  10. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-01-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  11. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  12. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  13. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  14. Continuum modeling of boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Wu, J; Hwang, K C; Huang, Y

    2008-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes display unique properties and have many potential applications. A finite-deformation shell theory is developed for boron nitride nanotubes directly from the interatomic potential to account for the effect of bending and curvature. Its constitutive relation accounts for the nonlinear, multi-body atomistic interactions, and therefore can model the important effect of tube chirality and radius. The theory is then used to determine whether a single-wall boron nitride nanotube can be modeled as a linear elastic isotropic shell. Instabilities of boron nitride nanotubes under different loadings (e.g., tension, compression, and torsion) are also studied. It is shown that the tension instability of boron nitride nanotubes is material instability, while the compression and torsion instabilities are structural instabilities.

  15. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J E; Bhakhri, V; Hao, R; Prior, T J; Scheler, T; Gregoryanz, E; Chhowalla, M; Giulani, F

    2015-01-14

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  16. Analysis of boron nitride by flame spectrometry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Chapysheva, G.Ya.; Shilkina, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for determination of free and total boron contents as well as trace impurities in boron nitride by using autoclave sample decomposition followed by atomic emission and atomic absorption determination. The relative standard deviation is not greater than 0.03 in the determination of free boron 0.012 in the determination of total boron content

  17. Chemical vapor deposited boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Smith, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed analytical electron microscope (AEM) studies of yellow whiskers produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) show that two basic types of whiskers are produced at low temperatures (between 1200 0 C and 1400 0 C) and low boron to carbon gas ratios. Both whisker types show planar microstructures such as twin planes and stacking faults oriented parallel to, or at a rhombohedral angle to, the growth direction. For both whisker types, the presence of droplet-like terminations containing both Si and Ni indicate that the growth process during CVD is via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanisms

  18. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  19. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  20. Positron annihilation in boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Amrane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron and positron charge densities are calculated as a function of position in the unit cell for boron nitride. Wave functions are derived from pseudopotential band structure calculations and the independent particle approximation (IPM, respectively, for electrons and positrons. It is observed that the positron density is maximum in the open interstices and is excluded not only from ion cores but also to a considerable degree from valence bonds. Electron-positron momentum densities are calculated for (001,110 planes. The results are used in order to analyse the positron effects in BN.

  1. Boron nutrition and yield of alfalfa cultivar crioula in relation to boron supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Anacleto Ranulfo dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa cultivar Crioula (Medicago sativa cv. Crioula is grown in South Brazil and only a few studies on the plants' boron requirement are available. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with alfalfa to measure boron acquisition, production and distribution in the plant; data on critical level and production potentials were recorded. Plants were grown in ground quartz added with 1 L of solution, with the following boron rates: 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mg L-1. Plants were harvested at 46 days of growth. Forage dry mass was increased by boron supply and dry matter accumulation was considerably low in control. Boron concentration in the leaves was higher than in the stems or roots. Boron utilization from the external solution reached 90% at 0.0625 mg L-1 and sharply decreased with further increasing boron rates. Boron concentration and content in the leaves and in plant tops were at maximum when applied boron was between 1.5 and 1.6 mg L-1. Critical levels of boron in plant were 61 mg kg-1 in the leaves and 39 mg kg-1 in plant tops for this cultivar of alfalfa.

  2. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  3. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mei, Zhigang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  4. Study of ceramic mixed boron element as a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Samihah Mustaffha; Yusof Abdullah; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Nurliyana Abdullah; Hearie Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Shielding upon radiation should not be underestimated as it can causes hazard to health. Precautions on the released of radioactive materials should be well concerned and considered. Therefore, the combination of ceramic and boron make them very useful for shielding purpose in areas of low and intermediate neutron. A six grades of ceramic tile have been produced namely IMN05 - 5 % boron, IMN06 - 6 % boron, IMN07 - 7 % boron, IMN08 - 8 % boron, IMN09 - 9 % boron, IMN10 - 10 % boron from mixing, press and sintered process. Boron is a material that capable of absorbing and capturing neutron, so that neutron and gamma test were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of boron material in combination with ceramic as shielding. From the finding, percent reduction number of count per minute shows the ceramic tiles are capable to capture neutron. Apart from all the percentage of boron used, 10 % is the most effective shields since the percent reduction indicating greater neutron captured increased. (author)

  5. Analysis of Boron Distribution in Steel using Neutron at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Seong, Baek-Seok; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Boron is very useful element in steels to improve the mechanical properties. In steel matrix, boron exist several types such as solute, segregation in grain boundary and many kinds of precipitate, which influence the properties of the steel. But, detecting of boron using X-ray or ion-beam is not easy because boron is very light atom than iron. However neutron gives the clear image of boron distribution from the particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) method. The PTA method of boron uses the phenomenon that boron irradiated by neutron emits Liion and alpha particle. Boron distribution can be obtained by observing the traces of the emitted Li-ion and alpha particle. At HANARO, the study for observing of boron distribution has been performed several years ago. Recently, the experimental techniques were improved for the reactor power of 30 MW. In this paper, improved experimental techniques were described and some results for boron added low-carbon steel plate were introduced.

  6. Studies on Separation Process and Production Technology of Boron Isotope

    OpenAIRE

    LI Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    The boron isotopes separation test was performed by chemical exchange reaction in the benzene ether -three boron fluoride system, which resulted to the boron isotopic enrichment of -10 in the liquid phase, the boron isotopic enrichment of -11 in the gas phase. After then, boron isotope separation trial production has been finished. In this process, the exchange column and complex tower normal operating parameters and the complex tower technology have been obtained, the problems of material di...

  7. Composite boron nitride neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M.; Mojaev, E.; Khakhan, O.; Fleider, A.; Dul`kin, E.; Schieber, M.

    2014-09-01

    Single phase polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride (BN) or mixed with boron carbide (BxC) embedded in an insulating polymeric matrix acting as a binder and forming a composite material as well as pure submicron size polycrystalline BN has been tested as a thermal neutron converter in a multilayer thermal neutron detector design. Metal sheet electrodes were covered with 20-50 μm thick layers of composite materials and assembled in a multi-layer sandwich configuration. High voltage was applied to the metal electrodes to create an interspacing electric field. The spacing volume could be filled with air, nitrogen or argon. Thermal neutrons were captured in converter layers due to the presence of the 10B isotope. The resulting nuclear reaction produced α-particles and 7Li ions which ionized the gas in the spacing volume. Electron-ion pairs were collected by the field to create an electrical signal proportional to the intensity of the neutron source. The detection efficiency of the multilayer neutron detectors is found to increase with the number of active converter layers. Pixel structures of such neutron detectors necessary for imaging applications and incorporation of internal moderator materials for field measurements of fast neutron flux intensities are discussed as well.

  8. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  9. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B 10 and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B 10 content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data

  10. Proceedings of workshop on 'Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Y.

    1991-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 12, in 1991. In this workshop, our attention was focused on the chemical nature of boron compounds and the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). First, clinical experiences of BNCT in KURRI in 1990 and 1991 were reported (Chap. 3). The feasibility of the gadolinium neutron capture therapy for brain tumors was discussed (Chap. 4). In the chemical field, a rapid spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of borons in biological samples is described (Chap. 5). The chemical behaviours of p-boronophenylalanine and its analogs in aqueous solutions were investigated by a paper electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy (Chap. 6). On the molecular design and synthesis of new boron carriers for BNCT, several new synthetic methods for B-10 containing nucleoside derivatives were shown (Chap. 7). (author)

  11. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Jabbar [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Yarmohammadi, Zahra [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-25

    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures. - Highlights: • Electronic properties of graphene, silicon boron, and boron nitride planes are compared. • Tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism are implemented. • This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  12. The determination of boron and carbon in reactor grade boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.; Wood, A.J.; McInnes, C.A.J.; Jones, I.G.

    1978-09-01

    The sealed tube method of dissolution at high temperature and pressure has been successfully applied in the analysis of reactor grade boron carbide for the determination of boron. A 50 mg sample of boron carbide is completely dissolved by heating with concentrated nitric acid in a sealed tube at 300 0 C. The boron content of the resultant sample solution is determined by the mannitol potentiometric titration method. The precision of the method for the determination of 2.5 mg of boron using the Harwell automatic potentiometric titrator is 0.2% (coefficient of variation). The carbon content of a boron carbide sample is determined by combustion of the sample at 1050 0 C in a stream of oxygen using vanadium pentoxide to ensure the complete oxidation of the sample. The carbon dioxide produced from the sample is measured manometrically and the precision of the method for the determination of 4 mg of carbon is 0.4% (coefficient of variation). (author)

  13. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okka, M.; Genceli, M.; Eren, E.; Bayulken, A.

    2008-01-01

    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  14. Characterization of novel heterophasic powdered silicide-type material for high-temperature protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentieva, V.

    2001-01-01

    Novel multicomponent heterophasic powdered material of silicide-type is presented. The powdered material is intended for forming high-temperature protective multifunction coatings able to protect different hot-loaded structural elements of aerospace industry from refractory metals alloys under severe oxidizing conditions in high-enthalpy and super/hypersonic oxygen-containing gas flows. The powdered material base on complexly composition of Si-Ti-Mo system modified with B,Y,W. Technological conception of its obtaining and powder making process are examined. The powders were worked out in accordance with early performed functional structural model of special materials for coatings with the increased self-healing ability. The coatings can be deposited from the specially prepared abovementioned powders by plasma spraying processes or any one of other coating methods ensuring the conservation of morphological peculiarities of microstructure and phase composition of powdered material (detonation spraying technique, from slurry ...). Finally the results of some properties of novel heterophasic silicidetype powders and some properties of protective coating deposited on the niobium base alloys by means of plasma spraying technique are presented. (author)

  15. Prompt Neutron Decay Constant Determination Of Silicide Transition Core Using Noise Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jujuratisbela, Uju; Yulianto, Yusi Eko; Cahyana

    2001-01-01

    Chairman of BATAN had decided to replace the Oxide fuel element type of RSG-GAS into silicide element type step by step. The replacement will create core transitions. Kinetic characteristic of the transition cores have to be monitored in order to know the deviation of core behavior. For that reason, the kinetic parameters have to be measured. Prompt neutron decay constant (alpha) is one of the kinetic parameters that has to be monitored continuously in the transition cores. In order not to disturb the normal operation of reactor, alpha parameter should be measured by using noise analysis method. The voltage of neutron flux at power of 15 MW is connected to preamplifier and filter then to the Dynamic Signal Analyzer Version-2 and then the auto power spectral density (APSD) was determined by using Fast Fourier transform. From the APSD curve of each channel of JKT03, the cut off frequency of each channel can be determined by using linear regression technique such that the prompt neutron decay constant can be estimated

  16. Magnesium silicide nanoparticles as a deoxygenation agent for cancer starvation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Yao, Heliang; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated. The nanoparticles are prepared by a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis strategy. In the acidic tumour microenvironment, the Mg2Si releases silane, which efficiently reacts with both tissue-dissolved and haemoglobin-bound oxygen to form silicon oxide (SiO2) aggregates. This in situ formation of SiO2 blocks the tumour blood capillaries and prevents tumours from receiving new supplies of oxygen and nutrients.

  17. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  18. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsi, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  19. Characterization of titanium silicide thin films by X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis deals with characterization techniques of thin films by means of X-ray diffraction. This includes phase identification and residual stress, microstress and crystallite size calculations. The techniques developed were applied on the study of the titanium silicide formation obtained by means of Rapidy Thermal Processing (RTP) pf Ti films deposited on silicon substratum. The different phases were studied in relation with processing temperature and time in one and two anneling steps. The low resistivity TiSi 2 phase was observed for temperature of 700 0 C and higher. The experimental results indicate that the residual stress of TiSi 2 films doesn't vary significantly with the annealing conditions. On the other hand, the microstress is reduced with annealing time at 800 0 C, while the crystallite size is almost not affected. For the microstress and the crystallite size determination technique, two methods were implemented and compared. The Riella's method appeared to be very efficient, while the Gangulle's method seemed to be inadequate, because the results oscillate too much [pt

  20. A modified Embedded-Atom Method interatomic potential for uranium-silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Baskes, Michael; Andersson, David; Cooper, Michael W. D.; Zhang, Yongfeng

    2017-11-01

    Uranium-silicide (U-Si) fuels are being pursued as a possible accident tolerant fuel (ATF). This uranium alloy fuel benefits from higher thermal conductivity and higher fissile density compared to uranium dioxide (UO2). In order to perform engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel must be known. Currently, the experimental data available for U-Si fuels is rather limited. Thus, multiscale modeling efforts are underway to address this gap in knowledge. In this study, a semi-empirical modified Embedded-Atom Method (MEAM) potential is presented for the description of the U-Si system. The potential is fitted to the formation energy, defect energies and structural properties of U3Si2. The primary phase of interest (U3Si2) is accurately described over a wide temperature range and displays good behavior under irradiation and with free surfaces. The potential can also describe a variety of U-Si phases across the composition spectrum.

  1. The new ternary silicide ErCo{sub 3}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzevenko, Mariya; Bigun, Inna [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2014-03-15

    The new ternary silicide ErCo{sub 3}Si{sub 2} adopts the ErRh{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure type (space group Imma, Pearson code oI24, Z = 4, a = 6.950(1), b = 9.020(2), c = 5.230(1) A, R{sub 1} = 0.0565, wR{sub 2} = 0.0355, 253 F{sup 2} values, 23 variables). It is a deformation derivative of the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} structure type. The coordination of the Er atom shows a normal 20-vertex polyhedron [Er(Si{sub 6}Co{sub 12}Er{sub 2})]. The two similar coordination polyhedra of Co are a distorted icosahedron [Co(Si{sub 4}Co{sub 4}Er{sub 4})], and a distorted icosahedron with one capped face [Co(Si{sub 4}Co{sub 5}Er{sub 4})]. The Si atom is surrounded by the polyhedron [Si(Co{sub 6}Si{sub 2}Er{sub 3})]. (orig.)

  2. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliia Fedyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium pentasilicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubooctahedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square antiprisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5 Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6 Å.

  3. Neutron irradiated uranium silicides studied by neutron diffraction and Rietveld analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Mueller, M.H.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Faber, J. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Uranium silicides have been considered for use as reactor fuels in both high power and low enrichment applications. However, U 3 Si was found to become amorphous under irradiation and to become mechanically unstable to rapid growth by plastic flow. U 2 Si 2 appears to be stable against amorphization at low displacement rates, but the extent of this stability is uncertain. Although the mechanisms responsible for plastic flow in U 3 Si and other amorphous systems are unknown, as is the importance of crystal structure for amorphization, it may not be surprising that these materials amorphize, in light of the fact that many radioactive nuclide - containing minerals are known to metaminctize (lose crystallinity) under irradiation. The present experiment follows the detailed changes in the crystal structures of U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 introduced by neutron bombardment and subsequent uranium fission at room temperature. U-Si seems the ideal system for a neutron diffraction investigation since the crystallographic and amorphous forms can be studied simultaneously by combining conventional Rietveld refinement of the crystallographic phases with Fourier-filtering of the non-crystalline scattering component

  4. Effect of boron concentration on physicochemical properties of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keru, Godfrey; Ndungu, Patrick G.; Nyamori, Vincent O., E-mail: nyamori@ukzn.ac.za

    2015-03-01

    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. Toluene was used as the carbon source, triphenylborane as boron as well as the carbon source while ferrocene was used as the catalyst. The amount of triphenylborane used was varied in a solution of toluene and ferrocene. Ferrocene was kept constant at 2.5 wt.%. while a maximum temperature of 900 °C was used for the synthesis of the shaped carbon nanomaterial (SCNMs). SCNMs obtained were characterized by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution-electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ay spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and inverse gas chromatography. TEM and SEM analysis confirmed SCNMs obtained were a mixture of B-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (B-CNF). EDX and ICP-OES results showed that boron was successively incorporated into the carbon hexagonal network of CNTs and its concentration was dependent on the amount of triphenylborane used. From the VSM results, the boron doping within the CNTs introduced ferromagnetic properties, and as the percentage of boron increased the magnetic coactivity and squareness changed. In addition, boron doping changed the conductivity and the surface energy among other physicochemical properties of B-CNTs. - Highlights: • Boron-doping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) changes their physiochemical properties. • Amount of boron-doping was dependent on the wt.% of boron precursor used. • Boron-doping changed CNTs surfaces and the distribution of dispersive energy sites. • Boron-doping affected the conductivity and ferromagnetic properties. • Increased boron-doping results in a more favourable interaction with polar probes.

  5. Boron Isotope Fractionation in Bell Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Geilert, Sonja; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Voerkelius, Susanne; Eichert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Various plant compartments of a single bell pepper plant were studied to verify the variability of boron isotope composition in plants and to identify possible intra-plant isotope fractionation. Boron mass fractions varied from 9.8 mg/kg in the fruits to 70.0 mg/kg in the leaves. Boron (B) isotope ratios reported as δ11B ranged from -11.0‰ to +16.0‰ (U ≤ 1.9‰, k=2) and showed a distinct trend to heavier δ11B values the higher the plant compartments were located in the plant. A fractionatio...

  6. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  7. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  8. Boron Doped Graphene 3-Dimensi untuk Superkapasitor Kapasitas Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Pramita Sari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical doping is an effective approach to improve the property of carbon material. In this study boron doped graphene with 3D structure used as the electrode was investigated. Boron doped graphene was prepared through freeze-dried process followed by pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO with three types of chemical substances; boron oxide, boric acid, and boron powder in an argon and hydrogen atmosphere at 1000 C for 3 hours. The difference of chemical composition generated a different percentage of boron bond with GO. The results shows that the highest electrochemical performance was found in graphene samples with the addition of boric acid (BA 86 F/g, followed by boron oxide (BO 59.2 F/g, and boron powder (BP 2 F/g. It can be caused by boron concentration bound with graphene. The higher concentration of boron could be increased the electrochemical performance due to better of ion movement.

  9. Breaking the icosahedra in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kelvin Y; An, Qi; Sato, Takanori; Breen, Andrew J; Ringer, Simon P; Goddard, William A; Cairney, Julie M; Hemker, Kevin J

    2016-10-25

    Findings of laser-assisted atom probe tomography experiments on boron carbide elucidate an approach for characterizing the atomic structure and interatomic bonding of molecules associated with extraordinary structural stability. The discovery of crystallographic planes in these boron carbide datasets substantiates that crystallinity is maintained to the point of field evaporation, and characterization of individual ionization events gives unexpected evidence of the destruction of individual icosahedra. Statistical analyses of the ions created during the field evaporation process have been used to deduce relative atomic bond strengths and show that the icosahedra in boron carbide are not as stable as anticipated. Combined with quantum mechanics simulations, this result provides insight into the structural instability and amorphization of boron carbide. The temporal, spatial, and compositional information provided by atom probe tomography makes it a unique platform for elucidating the relative stability and interactions of primary building blocks in hierarchically crystalline materials.

  10. Boron adsorption on hematite and clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the suitability of boron as a potential reactive tracer for use in saturated-zone C-well reactive tracer studies for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Experiments were performed to identify the prevalent sorption mechanism of boron and to determine adsorption of boron on hematite and clinoptilolite as a function of pH. These minerals are present in the Yucca Mountain tuff in which the C-well studies will be conducted. Evaluation of this sorption mechanism was done by determining the equilibration time of boron-mineral suspensions, by measuring changes in equilibrium to titrations, and by measuring electrophoretic mobility. Experiments were performed with the minerals suspended in NaCl electrolytes of concentrations ranging from 0.1 N NaCl to 0.001 N NaCl. Experimentalconditions included pH values between 3 and 12 and temperature of about 38 degrees C

  11. Determination of boron in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazhulene, S.S.; Grossman, O.V.; Kuntscher, K.K.; Malygina, L.I.; Muller, E.N.; Telegin, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    In the determination of boron in amorphous alloys containingFe, Co, B, Si, Ni, and P having unusal magnetic and electrical properties, precise analysis and rapid analysis are necessary. To improve the metrological properties of the existing procedure, to find a rapid determination of boron in amorphous alloys, and to verify the accuracy of the results, in the present work the optimization of the photometric determination after extraction of the BF/sup -//sub 4/ ion pair with methylene blue has been studied, and a boron determination by flame photometry using selective methylation has been developed. The determination of boron by the flame photometric and spectrophotometric methods is shown. When a highly precise determination is needed, the spectrophotometric procedure can be used. This procedure is distinguished by its labor intensity and duration. When the need for reproducibility is less severe, the rapid flame photometric procedure is best.

  12. Boron precipitates in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.K.; Washburn, J.

    1975-03-01

    Long rod-like defects are observed in ion implanted silicon when boron is present either as a prior dopant addition or as the implanted species. Results of recent work indicates that these defects have the characteristics of narrow extrinsic dipoles or elongated dislocation loops and that there are two different types along each of the six (110) directions. An annealing kinetics method has been used to identify the nature of these defects formed during post-implantation annealing in boron ion (100 keV) implanted silicon irradiated at room temperature to a dose of 2 x 10 14 /cm 2 . It is concluded that at least two different kinds of rod-like defects exist in boron ion implanted silicon. From the activation energy for shrinkage, it is also concluded that one type (anti A) is composed largely of boron atoms. (U.S.)

  13. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina

    1998-03-01

    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  14. Behaviour of boron in Mandovi estuary (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.

    and alkalinity gave positive correlations with a linear variation. Though the overall behavioural pattern of boron indicated non-conservative nature, it showed a quasi-conservative character during premonsoon and a non-conservative during rest of the seasons...

  15. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding women over 19 years of age. For adolescents 14 to 18 years of age and pregnant or breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years of age, the ... be expected, is 17 mg per day for adolescents 14 to 18 years of age and pregnant or breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years of age. For ...

  16. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  17. Boron-rich oligomers for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, M.; Perleberg, O.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of two BSH derivatives is described, which can be used for oligomerization in DNA-synthesizers. Synthesis pathways lead to final products in five and six steps, respectively. Because of chirality interesting results were expected. NMR-measurements confirm this expectation. Possible oligomers with high concentrations of boron can be attached to biomolecules. These oligomers can be explored with several imaging methods (EELS, PEM) to determine the lower detection limit of boron with these methods. (author)

  18. Dumbbells of five-connected silicon atoms and superconductivity in the binary silicides MSi3 (M = Ca, Y, Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich; Wosylus, Aron; Rosner, Helge; Schnelle, Walter; Ormeci, Alim; Meier, Katrin; Baranov, Alexey; Nicklas, Michael; Leipe, Susann; Müller, Carola J; Grin, Yuri

    2012-08-22

    The new metastable binary silicides MSi(3) (M = Ca, Y, Lu) have been synthesized by high-pressure, high-temperature reactions at pressures between 12(2) and 15(2) GPa and temperatures from 900(100) to 1400(150) K. The atomic patterns comprise intricate silicon layers of condensed molecule-like Si(2) dimers. The alkaline-earth element adopts the oxidation state +2, while the rare-earth and transition metals realize +3. All of the compounds exhibit BCS-type superconductivity with weak electron-phonon coupling below critical temperatures of up to 7 K.

  19. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  20. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  1. Real-time boronization in PBX-M using erosion of solid boronized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty one real-time boronizations were applied to PBX-M using the plasma ablation of solid target probes. More than 17 g of boron was deposited in PBX-M using this technique. The probes were positioned at the edge plasma to optimize ablation and minimize spallation. Auger depth profile analysis of poloidal and toroidal deposition sample coupon arrays indicate that boron was transported by the plasma around the torus and deep into the divertors. During discharges with continuous real-time boronization, low-Z and high-Z impurities decreased rapidly as plasma surfaces were covered during the first 20--30 discharges. After boronization, a short-term improvement in plasma conditions persisted prior to significant boron erosion from plasma surfaces, and a longer term, but less significant, improvement persisted as boron farther from the edge continued gettering. Real-time solid target boronization has been found to be very effective for accelerating conditioning to new regimes and maintaining high performance plasma conditions

  2. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  3. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  5. Evaluation of steam corrosion and water quenching behavior of zirconium-silicide coated LWR fuel claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwasung; Lockhart, Cody; Mariani, Robert; Xu, Peng; Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates steam corrosion of bulk ZrSi2, pure Si, and zirconium-silicide coatings as well as water quenching behavior of ZrSi2 coatings to evaluate its feasibility as a potential accident-tolerant fuel cladding coating material in light water nuclear reactor. The ZrSi2 coating and Zr2Si-ZrSi2 coating were deposited on Zircaloy-4 flats, SiC flats, and cylindrical Zircaloy-4 rodlets using magnetron sputter deposition. Bulk ZrSi2 and pure Si samples showed weight loss after the corrosion test in pure steam at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 72 h. Silicon depletion on the ZrSi2 surface during the steam test was related to the surface recession observed in the silicon samples. ZrSi2 coating (∼3.9 μm) pre-oxidized in 700 °C air prevented substrate oxidation but thin porous ZrO2 formed on the coating. The only condition which achieved complete silicon immobilization in the oxide scale in aqueous environments was the formation of ZrSiO4 via ZrSi2 coating oxidation in 1400 °C air. In addition, ZrSi2 coatings were beneficial in enhancing quenching heat transfer - the minimum film boiling temperature increased by 6-8% in the three different environmental conditions tested. During repeated thermal cycles (water quenching from 700 °C to 85 °C for 20 s) performed as a part of quench tests, no spallation and cracking was observed and the coating prevented oxidation of the underlying Zircaloy-4 substrate.

  6. Fuel loading and homogeneity analysis of HFIR design fuel plates loaded with uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, P.E.

    1995-08-01

    Twelve nuclear reactor fuel plates were analyzed for fuel loading and fuel loading homogeneity by measuring the attenuation of a collimated X-ray beam as it passed through the plates. The plates were identical to those used by the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) but were loaded with uranium silicide rather than with HFIR's uranium oxide fuel. Systematic deviations from nominal fuel loading were observed as higher loading near the center of the plates and underloading near the radial edges. These deviations were within those allowed by HFIR specifications. The report begins with a brief background on the thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor that motivated a statistical description of fuel loading and homogeneity. The body of the report addresses the homogeneity measurement techniques employed, the numerical correction required to account for a difference in fuel types, and the statistical analysis of the resulting data. This statistical analysis pertains to local variation in fuel loading, as well as to ''hot segment'' analysis of narrow axial regions along the plate and ''hot streak'' analysis, the cumulative effect of hot segment loading variation. The data for all twelve plates were compiled and divided into 20 regions for analysis, with each region represented by a mean and a standard deviation to report percent deviation from nominal fuel loading. The central regions of the plates showed mean values of about +3% deviation, while the edge regions showed mean values of about -7% deviation. The data within these regions roughly approximated random samplings from normal distributions, although the chi-square (χ 2 ) test for goodness of fit to normal distributions was not satisfied

  7. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The already low κ{sub L} of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring.

  8. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  9. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  10. Boron-containing thioureas for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketz, H.

    1993-01-01

    Melanin is produced in large amounts in malignant melanotic melanomas. Because thiourea compounds are covalently incorporated into melanin during its biosynthesis, the preparation of boronated thiourea-derivatives is of particular interest for the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). Accumulation of boron in tumors by means of boronated thiourea-derivatives may therefore provide levels of 10 B which are useful for BNCT. In BNCT the tumor containing the boron compound is irradiated with epithermal neutrons to generate He- and Li-nuclei from the 10 B which can then destroy the tumor cells. Because of the short ranges of these particles (approximately one cell diameter) the damage will be almost exclusively confined to the tumor leaving normal tissue unharmed. High accumulation of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole) in melanotic melanomas has been described in the literature. Boronated derivatives of methimazole were therefore synthesized. Boron was in the form of a boronic acid, a nido-carbonate and a mercaptoundeca hydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH). The synthesis of the boron cluster derivatives of methimazole (nido-carborate- and BSH-derivatives) with 9 resp. 12 boron atoms in the molecule were expected to achieve higher concentrations of boron in the tumor than in the case of the boronic acid compound with its single boron atom. (orig.) [de

  11. Atmospheric contribution to boron enrichment in aboveground wheat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Mindong; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Browne, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat. The results showed that the concentrations of boron in aboveground wheat tissues from the highly industrialized region were significantly higher than those from the agriculture-dominated region, even though there was no significant difference in boron content in soils. Using the model based on the translocation coefficients of boron in the soil-wheat system, we estimated that the contribution of atmosphere to boron accumulation in wheat straw in the highly industrialized region exceeded that in the agriculture-dominated region by 36%. In addition, from the environmental implication of the model, it was estimated that the development of boron-utilizing industries had elevated the concentration of boron in aboveground wheat tissues by 28-53%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface effect on the electronic and the magnetic properties of rock-salt alkaline-earth metal silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialek, Beata; Lee, Jaeil

    2011-01-01

    An all electron ab-initio method was employed to study the electronic and the magnetic properties of the (001) surface of alkaline-earth metal silicides, CaSi, SrSi, and BaSi, in the rock-salt structure. The three compounds retain their ferromagnetic metallic properties at the surface. Due to the surface effects, the magnetism of the topmost layer is changed as compared with the bulk. This is a short-range effect. In CaSi, the magnetism of the surface layer is noticeably reduced, as compared with the bulk: magnetic moments (MMs) on both Ca and Si atoms are reduced. In SrSi (001), the polarization of electrons in the surface atoms is similar to that in the bulk atoms, and the values of MMs on the component atoms in the topmost layer do not change as much as in CaSi. In BaSi (001), the magnetic properties of Si surface atoms are enhanced slightly, and the magnetism of Ba atoms is not affected considerably by the surface effect. The calculated densities of states confirm the short-range effect of the surface on the electronic properties of the metal silicides.

  13. Technical report: technical development on the silicide plate-type fuel experiment at nuclear safety research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Ichikawa, Hiroki

    1991-08-01

    According to a reduction of fuel enrichment from 45 w/o 235 U to 20 w/o, an aluminide plate-type fuel used currently in the domestic research and material testing reactors will be replaced by a silicide plate-type one. One of the major concern arisen from this alternation is to understand the fuel behavior under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions, this is strongly necessary from the safety and licensing point of view. The in-core RIA experiments are, therefore, carried out at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The silicide plate-type fuel consisted of the ternary alloy of U-Al-Si as a meat with uranium density up to 4.8 g/cm 3 having thickness by 0.51 mm and the binary alloy of Al-3%Mg as a cladding by thickness of 0.38 mm. Comparison of the physical properties of this metallic plate fuel with the UO 2 -zircaloy fuel rod used conventionally in commercial light water reactors shows that the heat conductivity of the former is of the order of about 13 times greater than the latter, however the melting temperature is only one-half (1570degC). Prior to in-core RIA experiments, there were some difficulties lay in our technical path. This report summarized the technical achievements obtained through our four years work. (J.P.N.)

  14. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L.; André, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  15. Magnetic and magnetothermal studies of pure and doped gadolinium silicide nanoparticles for self-controlled hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, M. Hisham; Awan, M. S.; Manzoor, Sadia

    2018-03-01

    We report on magnetic and magnetothermal properties of undoped and doped gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles with the objective of simultaneously attaining high specific absorption rate (SAR) and low Curie temperature (TC) suitable for self-controlled hyperthermia applications for which TC ∼ 315-320 K. Pellets of doped gadolinium silicide Gd5(Si1-xGex)4 and (Gd1-xRx)5Si4 with R = Ho, Nd and Er and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35 were made by arc melting and reduced to nanoparticulate form by surfactant assisted ball milling. Structural and morphological studies were done using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. All samples show soft magnetic properties. At low fields there is a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition that reduces remanance and coercivity to zero making these materials very attractive for biomedical applications. Zero-field-cooled thermal demagnetization measurements showed that TC of these nanoparticles can be lowered to lie within the limits required for self-controlled hyperthermia by varying the dopant concentration. Specific absorption rates (SAR's) were obtained from magnetothermia measurements made in an ac magnetic field of amplitude 10 Oe and frequency 300 kHz. We have identified samples that have SAR values larger or comparable to those of magnetite and several ferrite nanoparticles, while having Curie temperatures that are low enough for self controlled hyperthermia applications.

  16. High-temperature oxidation of silicide-aluminide layer on the TiAl6V4 alloy prepared by liquid-phase siliconizing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 257-261 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : TiAl6V4 * silicides * high-temperature oxidation * liquid-phase silicon izing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  17. Formation and thermal stability of Ti-capped Co-silicide from Co-Ta alloy films on (100) Si and polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Joo; Choi, Hyo Jick; Ko, Dae Hong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja Hum; Choi, Si Young; Fujihara, Kazuyuki [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol Woong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    Co-Ta alloy films were deposited on (100) single-crystalline and polycrystalline silicon substrates by using DC magnetron sputtering. The interfacial reactions between the Co-Ta alloy films and the silicon substrates were investigated in the temperature range of 500 {approx} 820 degree C by using rapid thermal annealing in an N{sub 2} ambient. In contrast to the Co/si system, we observed that the formation of Co-silicide and the transformation from the high resistivity CoSi phase to the low resistivity CoSi{sub 2} phase in the Co-Ta/Si system occurred at higher temperatures than it did in the Co/Si system. The Co-silicide films on Si and poly-Si substrates formed from Co-Ta alloy films maintained low sheet resistance values upon high temperature annealing while those of Co-silicide films from the Co/Si system increased significantly. The improvement in the thermal stability of the Co-silicide films formed from Co-Ta alloy films is due to the formation of Ta-compounds, such as the TaSi{sub 2} phase, at the grain boundaries and at the surfaces of the CoSi{sub 2} films.

  18. Surface protection of titanium by Ti.sub.5./sub.Si.sub.3./sub. silicide layer prepared by combination of vapour phase siliconizing and heat treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, D.; Novák, P.; Machač, P.; Mort´aniková, M.; Jurek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 464, 1-2 (2008), s. 179-184 ISSN 0925-8388 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 1P05OE192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silicides * titanium alloys * intermetallics * oxidation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.510, year: 2008

  19. 15th International Conference on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 121 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * boron * boron materials * carboranes * IMEBORON XV * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using cryptocrystalline magnesite to remove boron ions from aqueous systems. Batch experimental protocols were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of magnesite for boron. Parameters...

  1. Boron: out of the sky and onto the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Now an accepted, engineered material for aerospace applications, boron is taking its place on the ground. Both current production applications, prototype (development) applications, and speculative applications abound. In the leisure product market, boron epoxy or boron aluminum has been used or tried in golf clubs (in combination with graphite epoxy or to reinforce aluminum or steel), in tennis racquets, in bicycles, racing shells, skis and skipoles, bows and arrows, and others. In the industrial area, boron has been used to reduce fatigue, increase stiffness, or for its abrasive properties. Textile machinery, honing tools, and cut off wheels or saws are among the applications. In the medical field, prosthetics and orthotic braces, wheel chairs, canes, and crutches are all good applications for boron. Applications for boron in transportation, construction, and heavy industry are also possible. The volume of boron used in these applications could have a major impact on prices, making boron composite parts cost competitive with conventional materials. (U.S.)

  2. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  3. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  4. Impact scenarios in boron carbide: A computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, R. G.; Sugden, I. J.; Plant, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of radiative impacts on the structure of boron carbide has been studied by both classical and ab initio simulations. As a part of this study, a new forcefield was developed for use in studying boron carbide materials. Impact scenarios in boron carbide were simulated in order to investigate the exceptional resistance of this material, and other icosahedral boron solids, to high-energy impact events. It was observed that interstitial defects created by radiative impacts are likely to...

  5. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. Determination of free carbon content in boron carbide ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Lima, N.B. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1990-01-01

    Boron carbide is a ceramic material of technological importance due to its hardness and high chemical and thermal stabilities. Free carbon is always found as a process dependent impurity in boron carbide. The development of procedures for its detection is required because its presence leads to a degradation of the boron carbide properties. In this work, several procedures for determining free carbon content in boron carbide specimens are reported and discussed for comparison purposes. (author) [pt

  7. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  8. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W; Maya, L; Sloop, F V J

    2003-01-01

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon respons...

  9. Hot ductility behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study analyses the influence of boron contents (between 29 and 105 ppm) on the hot ductility of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, hot tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures (700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C) at a constant true strain rate of 0.001 s -1 . In general, results revealed an improvement of the hot ductility of steels at increasing boron content. At 700, 900 and 1000 deg. C the ductility is higher than at 800 deg. C, where boron microalloyed steels exhibit a region of ductility loss (trough region). Likewise, dynamic recrystallization only occurred at 900 and 1000 deg. C. The fracture surfaces of the tested steels at temperatures giving the high temperature ductility regime show that the fracture mode is a result of ductile failure, whereas it is ductile-brittle failure in the trough region. Results are discussed in terms of dynamic recrystallization and boron segregation towards austenite grain boundaries, which may retard the formation of pro-eutectoid ferrite and increase grain boundary cohesion

  10. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. INFLUENCE OF FINE-DISPERSED BORON CARBIDE ON THE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON-BORON ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  12. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1992-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  13. Simulating the effect of boron doping in superconducting carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuki; Chelikowsky, James R.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the effect of boron doping in superconducting forms of amorphous carbon. By judiciously optimizing boron substitutional sites in simulated amorphous carbon, we predict a superconducting transition temperature near 37 K at 14% boron concentration. Our findings have direct implications for understanding the recently discovered high-Tc superconductivity in Q-carbon.

  14. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engin

    Body weight was not affected by dietary boron supplementation at 16 and 40 weeks of age. ... and human nutrition. In bone metabolism, boron interacts with Ca, vitamin D and Mg (Chapin et al., 1998). In animals and plants, boron affects at least 26 enzymes involved in substrate metabolism, insulin release, oxidation and.

  15. Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    occurs in ballistic impact, and accompanies amorphization in diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments (Yan et al., 2009). Fracture in boron carbide ...Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals by J. D. Clayton ARL-RP-440 May 2013...Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-RP-440 May 2013 Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals J. D. Clayton

  16. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  17. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  18. Dietary boron: possible roles in human and animal physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is a bioactive element of low molecular weight. Since discovery of the first boron biomolecule, boromycin, in 1967, several other similar biomolecules are now well-characterized. Most recently described was a bacterial cell-to-cell communication signal that requires boron, autoinducer-II. Boro...

  19. Thermal expansion and elastic moduli of the silicide based intermetallic alloys Ti5Si3(X) and Nb5Si3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Silicides are among those potential candidates for high temperature application because of their high melting temperature, low density and good oxidation resistance. Recent interest is focused on molybdenum silicides and titanium silicides. Extensive investigation has been carried out on MoSi 2 , yet comparatively less work was performed on titanium silicides such as Ti 5 Si 3 and Ti 3 and TiSi 2 which are of lower density than MoSi 2 . Fundamental understanding of the titanium silicides' properties for further evaluation their potential for practical application are thus needed. The thermal expansion coefficients and elastic moduli of intermetallic compounds are two properties important for evaluation as a first step. The thermal expansion determines the possible stress that might arise during cooling for these high melting point compounds, which is crucial to the preparation of defect free specimens; and the elastic moduli are usually reflections of the cohesion in crystal. In Frommeyer's work and some works afterwards, the coefficients of thermal expansion were measured on both polycrystalline and single crystal Ti 5 Si 3 . The elastic modulus of polycrystalline Ti 5 Si 3 was measured by Frommeyer and Rosenkranz. However, in the above works, the referred Ti 5 Si 3 was the binary one, no alloying effect has been reported on this matter. Moreover, the above parameters (coefficient of thermal expansion and elastic modulus) of Nb 5 Si 3 remain unreported so far. In this paper, the authors try to extend the knowledge of alloyed Ti 5 Si 3 compounds with Nb and Cr additions. Results on the coefficients of thermal expansion and elastic moduli of Ti 5 Si 3 compounds and Nb 5 Si 3 are presented and the discussion is focused on the alloying effect

  20. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  1. Biological evaluation of boronated unnatural amino acids as new boron carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W. [Departments of Radiology and Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)], E-mail: kabalka@utk.edu; Yao, M.-L.; Marepally, S.R. [Departments of Radiology and Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chandra, S. [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2009-07-15

    There is a pressing need for new and more efficient boron delivery agents to tumor cells for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A class of boronated unnatural cyclic amino acids has demonstrated a remarkable selectivity toward tumors in animal and cell culture models, far superior to currently used agents in clinical BNCT. One of these amino acids, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC), has shown a tumor to blood ratio of 8 and a tumor to normal brain ratio of nearly 21 in a melanoma bearing mouse model. This work represents further biological characterization of this compound for tumor targeting in an EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma mouse model and a T98G human glioblastoma cell line. Female BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors were injected with the fructose complex form of racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers of ABCPC in identical concentrations. Boron concentrations were measured in the tumor, blood, brain, skin, and liver tissues at 1, 3, and 5 h post-injection. These observations revealed a remarkable difference in racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers in tumor targeting by boron. This implies that further separation of the L and D forms of this compound may enhance tumor targeting to an even higher degree than that provided by the racemic mixtures. Since the uptake measurements were made in homogenized tumor and normal tissues, little is known about the subcellular location of the boron arising from the various isomeric forms of the amino acid. To study subcellular delivery of boron from ABCPC in T98G human glioblastoma cells, we employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of ion microscopy, which is capable of quantitatively imaging isotopic (elemental) gradients in cells and tissues at 500 nm spatial resolution. The T98G cells were exposed to the nutrient medium containing 100 ppm boron equivalent of a mixture of both L and D isomers of ABCPC in the form of a fructose complex for 1 h. Following this treatment

  2. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Winter, J.

    1991-09-01

    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  3. Biological Evaluation of Boronated Unnatural Amino Acids as New Boron Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Yao, M.-L.; Marepally, S.R.; Chandra, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is a pressing need for new and more efficient boron delivery agents to tumor cells for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A class of boronated unnatural cyclic amino acids has demonstrated a remarkable selectivity toward tumors in animal and cell culture models, far superior to currently used agents in clinical BNCT. One of these amino acids, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC), has shown a tumor to blood ratio of 8 and a tumor to normal brain ratio of nearly 21 in a melanoma bearing mouse model. This work represents further biological characterization of this compound for tumor targeting in an EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma mouse model and a T98G human glioblastoma cell line. Female BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors were injected with the fructose complex form of racemic mixtures of cis- and trans isomers of ABCPC in identical concentrations. Boron concentrations were measured in the tumor, blood, brain, skin, and liver tissues at 1, 3, and 5 hr post injection. These observations revealed a remarkable difference in racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers in tumor targeting by boron. This implies that further separation of the L and D forms of this compound may enhance tumor targeting to an even higher degree than that provided by the racemic mixtures. Since the uptake measurements were made in homogenized tumor and normal tissues, little is known about the subcellular location of the boron arising from the various isomeric forms of the amino acid. To study subcellular delivery of boron from ABCPC in T98G human glioblastoma cells, we employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of ion microscopy, which is capable of quantitatively imaging isotopic (elemental) gradients in cells and tissues at 500 nm spatial resolution. The T98G cells were exposed to the nutrient medium containing 100 ppm boron equivalent of a mixture of both L and D isomers of ABCPC in the form of a fructose complex for 1 hr. Following this

  4. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  5. Structure of Boron Carbide: Where's the Carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, David; Seidler, Gerald; Fister, Timothy; Nagle, Kenneth; Segre, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    Although the structure of the boron carbide series, B12-xCx with 0.06 x x-ray scattering (LERIX) spectrometer on the PNC-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab has enabled differentiation of the boron and carbon absorption edge data for the various crystallographic sites. The structure (R-3m) consists of twelve-atom icosahedra and three-atom chains. Boron carbide may have a maximum of three carbon atoms, which may be located on the two end of chain sites and in one of two inequivalent sites on the icosahedra. At least one carbon atom must be present in the structure for it to be stable. In this presentation, structural results from non-resonant x-ray scattering for seven samples, ranging from B4C to B10.1C will be presented.

  6. On the Mechanism of Boron Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, D. G.; Dreizin, E. L.; Felder, W.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    1997-01-01

    Boron filaments were electrically heated in air and argon/oxygen mixtures while their resistance, temperature, and radiation at the wavelengths of BO and BO2 bands were monitored. The filaments 'burned' in two distinct stages. Samples of the filaments were quenched at different times before and during the burning and analyzed using electron microscopy. The beginning of the first stage combustion characterized by a local resistance minimum, a sharp spike in boron oxide radiation emission, and a rapid rise in temperature, occurred at 1500 +/- 70 deg. C, independent of pre-heating history and oxygen content (540%) in the gas environment. The data suggest that a phase transition occurs in the filaments at this temperature that triggers stage one combustion. Significant amounts of oxygen were found inside quenched filaments. Large spherical voids formed in the boron filaments during their second stage combustion which is interpreted to indicate a crucial role for the gas dissolution processes in the combustion scenario.

  7. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and

  8. Enhancement and retardation of thermal boron diffusion in silicon from atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposited boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2014-03-01

    Thermal boron diffusion into silicon from boron silicate glass (BSG) prepared by atmospheric pressure CVD (AP-CVD) has been investigated in terms of the BSG boron concentration dependence on diffusion mechanism for N-type solar cell applications. With thermal diffusion at 950 °C in N2 for 20 min, the sheet resistance of the boron-diffused layer decreases with BSG boron concentration up to approximately 4 × 1021 cm-3 at which a boron-rich layer (BRL) is formed at the surface. However, the resistance increases with BSG boron concentration when the BSG boron concentration is higher than 4 × 1021 cm-3. It is also confirmed that the diffusion depth decreases with increasing BSG boron concentration within this BSG concentration region. To clarify this mechanism, the BSG boron concentration dependence on boron diffusivity has also been studied. From extracted diffusivities, the anomalous diffusion can be explained by silicon interstitials formed owing to kick-out by diffused boron atoms and by silicon interstitial generation-degradation due to BRL formation.

  9. Chemical and mechanical analysis of boron-rich boron carbide processed via spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhollon, Tyler Lee

    Boron carbide is a material of choice for many industrial and specialty applications due to the exceptional properties it exhibits such as high hardness, chemical inertness, low specific gravity, high neutron cross section and more. The combination of high hardness and low specific gravity makes it especially attractive for high pressure/high strain rate applications. However, boron carbide exhibits anomalous behavior when high pressures are applied. Impact pressures over the Hugoniot elastic limit result in catastrophic failure of the material. This failure has been linked to amorphization in cleavage planes and loss of shear strength. Atomistic modeling has suggested boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) may be a better performing material than the commonly used B4C due to the elimination of amorphization and an increase in shear strength. Therefore, a clear experimental understanding of the factors that lead to the degradation of mechanical properties as well as the effects of chemistry changes in boron carbide is needed. For this reason, the goal of this thesis was to produce high purity boron carbide with varying stoichiometries for chemical and mechanical property characterization. Utilizing rapid carbothermal reduction and pressure assisted sintering, dense boron carbides with varying stoichiometries were produced. Microstructural characteristics such as impurity inclusions, porosity and grain size were controlled. The chemistry and common static mechanical properties that are of importance to superhard materials including elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness of the resulting boron-rich boron carbides were characterized. A series of six boron carbide samples were processed with varying amounts of amorphous boron (up to 45 wt. % amorphous boron). Samples with greater than 40 wt.% boron additions were shown to exhibit abnormal sintering behavior, making it difficult to characterize these samples. Near theoretical densities were achieved in samples with

  10. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  12. Thermal conductivity behavior of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbides is necessary to evaluate its potential for high temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The thermal diffusivity of hot pressed boron carbide B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/ samples as a function of composition, temperature and temperature cycling was measured. These data in concert with density and specific heat data yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results in terms of a structural model to explain the electrical transport data and novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are discussed.

  13. Designing your boron-charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1979-01-01

    High-pressure positive-displacement pumps used in the boron-charging setups of pressurized-water (PWR) nuclear plants because of their inherently high efficiencies over a wide range of pressures and speeds are described. Hydrogen-saturated water containing 4-12% boric acid is fed to the pump from a volume-control tank under a gas blanket. Complicated piping and the pulsation difficulties associated with reciprocating pumps make hydrogen-saturated boron-charging systems a challenge to the designer. The article describes the unusual hydraulics of the systems to help assure a trouble-free design

  14. Unveiling polytype transformation assisted growth mechanism in boron carbide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate direct evidence that the lattice distortion, induced by boron carbide (BxCy) stoichiometry, assists the growth of boron carbide nanowires. The transformation between different polytypic boron carbide phases lowers the energy barrier for boron diffusion, promoting boron migration in the nanowire growth. An atomistic mass transport model has been established to explain such volume-diffusion-induced nanowire growth which cannot be explained by the conventional surface diffusion model alone. These findings significantly advance our understanding of nanowire growth processes and mass transport mechanisms and provide new guidelines for the design of nanowire-structured devices.

  15. Model for calculating the boron concentration in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Martins Junior, L.L. dos; Vanni, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A PWR boron concentration model has been developed for use with RETRAN code. The concentration model calculates the boron mass balance in the primary circuit as the injected boron mixes and is transported through the same circuit. RETRAN control blocks are used to calculate the boron concentration in fluid volumes during steady-state and transient conditions. The boron reactivity worth is obtained from the core concentration and used in RETRAN point kinetics model. A FSAR type analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident in Angra I plant was selected to test the model and the results obtained indicate a sucessfull performance. (Author) [pt

  16. Removal properties of dissolved boron by glucomannan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kyoko; Maehata, Yugo

    2013-04-01

    Boron ions have long been known to form complexes with the cis-diol group of a polysaccharide. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) which is one of polysaccharides was used to remove dissolved boron in this study. KGM forms a complex with boron, but does not remove boron from contaminated waters as well as other polysaccharides because of its high water solubility. Therefore, the removal efficiencies of dissolved boron were examined using both an insoluble KGM gel and KGM semi-gel. The former did not remove dissolved boron, but the latter did. The difference in the ability of boron removal was due to the presence of diol group inside. KGM loses free diol group during the process of gelation. On the other hand, the semi-gel gelated only surface layer in water has diol group inside. The boron removal capacity of the semi-gel was highest at pHs⩾11, when the boron species is present as B(OH)4(-). The capacity was slightly increased by the addition of Al, Ca and Mg under high pH conditions. This was due to co-precipitation of boron with Ca dissolved from the semi-gel. The boron adsorbed to the semi-gel easily was desorbed under low pH conditions and the hysteresis was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of boron concentration in biopsy-sized tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yougjin; Fong, Katrina; Edwards, Benjamin; Autry-Conwell, Susan; Boggan, James

    2000-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the most sensitive analytical method for boron determination. However, because boron is volatile and ubiquitous in nature, low-concentration boron sample measurement remains a challenge. In this study, an improved ICP-MS method was developed for quantitation of tissue samples with low (less than 10 ppb) and high (100 ppb) boron concentrations. The addition of an ammonia-mannitol solution converts volatile boric acid to the non-volatile ammonium borate in the spray chamber and with the formation of a boron-mannitol complex, the boron memory effect and background are greatly reduced. This results in measurements that are more accurate, repeatable, and efficient. This improved analysis method has facilitated rapid and reliable tissue biodistribution analyses of newly developed boronated compounds for potential use in neutron capture therapy. (author)

  18. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten substrates from atomic fluxes of boron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovskiy, Y.; Begrambekov, L.; Ayrapetov, A.; Gretskaya, I.; Grunin, A.; Dyachenko, M.; Puntakov, N.

    2016-09-01

    A device used for both coating deposition and material testing is presented in the paper. By using lock chambers, sputtering targets are easily exchanged with sample holder thus allowing testing of deposited samples with high power density electron or ion beams. Boron carbide coatings were deposited on tungsten samples. Methods of increasing coating adhesion are described in the paper. 2 μm boron carbide coatings sustained 450 heating cycles from 100 to 900 C. Ion beam tests have shown satisfactory results.

  19. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  20. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1989-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of gliomas and glioblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment of levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 S H must be known in several compartments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumin was established. This method is simples, reproducible and has adequate sensitivity for this control. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Effect of low temperature oxidation (LTO) in reducing boron skin in boron spin on dopant diffused emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan Singh [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Mumbai-400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Formation of boron skin is an unavoidable phenomenon in p-type emitter formation with boron dopant source. The boron skin thickness is generally less than 100 nm and difficult to remove by chemical and physical means. Low temperature oxidation (LTO) used in this work is useful in removing boron skin thickness up to 30 nm and improves the emitter performance. The effective minority carrier lifetime gets improved by more than 30% after using LTO and leakage current of the emitter gets lowered by 100 times thereby showing the importance of low temperature oxidation in boron spin on dopant diffused emitters.

  2. Boron exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and birth size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igra, Annachiara Malin; Harari, Florencia; Lu, Ying; Casimiro, Esperanza; Vahter, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Boron is a metalloid found at highly varying concentrations in soil and water. Experimental data indicate that boron is a developmental toxicant, but the few human toxicity data available concern mostly male reproduction. To evaluate potential effects of boron exposure through drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n=194), 1-3 samples of serum, whole blood and urine were collected per woman during pregnancy and analyzed for boron and other elements to which exposure occurred, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth. Drinking water boron ranged 377-10,929μg/L. The serum boron concentrations during pregnancy ranged 0.73-605μg/L (median 133μg/L) and correlated strongly with whole-blood and urinary boron, and, to a lesser extent, with water boron. In multivariable-adjusted linear spline regression analysis (non-linear association), we found that serum boron concentrations above 80μg/L were inversely associated with birth length (B-0.69cm, 95% CI -1.4; -0.024, p=0.043, per 100μg/L increase in serum boron). The impact of boron appeared stronger when we restricted the exposure to the third trimester, when the serum boron concentrations were the highest (0.73-447μg/L). An increase in serum boron of 100μg/L in the third trimester corresponded to 0.9cm shorter and 120g lighter newborns (p=0.001 and 0.021, respectively). Considering that elevated boron concentrations in drinking water are common in many areas of the world, although more screening is warranted, our novel findings warrant additional research on early-life exposure in other populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid mass-spectrometric determination of boron isotopic distribution in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, J E; Abernathey, R M

    1972-07-01

    Boron isotopic ratios are measured in boron carbide by thermionic ionization mass spectrometry with no prior chemical separation. A powder blend of boron carbide and sodium hydroxide is prepared, a small portion is transferred to a tantalum filament, the filament is heated to produce sodium borate, and the filament is transferred to the mass spectrometer where the(11)B/(10)B ratio is measured, using the Na(2)BO(2)(+) ion. Variables investigated for their effect on preferential volatilization of (10)B include the sodium hydroxide-boron carbide ratio and the temperature and duration of filament heating. A series of boron carbide pellets containing natural boron, of the type proposed for the control rods of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor, were analysed with an apparently unbiased result of 4.0560 for the (11)B/(10)B ratio (standard deviation 0.0087). The pellets contained over 3% metal impurities typically found in this material. Time of analysis is 45 min per sample, with one analyst.

  4. The investigation of physical conditions of boron uptake region in proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Young Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a quantitative study to identify the effectiveness of proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT. Four simulation scenarios were designed to investigate the escalation in total dose with the proton boron reaction using a Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX 2.6.0 simulation. The peak integrated dose was obtained for three different physical conditions (i.e., boron uptake region (BUR thickness, BUR location, and boron concentration with differing proton beam energy (60–90 MeV. We found that the peak integrated dose was increased by up to 96.62% compared to the pristine proton Bragg-peak. For the synergetic effect to take place with 60–70 MeV proton beam, the BUR had to be at least 0.3 cm thick while spanning the Bragg-peak. Similarly to the thickness, the BUR location needed to be within 0.3 cm from the Bragg-peak when the thickness was maintained at 0.9 cm. An effective proton boron reaction required the boron concentration to be equal to or greater than 14.4 mg/g. These results demonstrate the impact of various physical and beam conditions of the PBFT, which are critical environmental factors for the treatment planning. We envision that this study will advance our understanding of the PBFT, which can be an invaluable treatment method for maximizing the potential of proton therapy.

  5. Epitaxial growth of copper silicides by 'bilayer' technique on monocrystalline silicon with and without native SiO x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benouattas, N.; Osmani, L.; Salik, L.; Benazzouz, C.; Benkerri, M.; Bouabellou, A.; Halimi, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cu/Au and Au/Cu multilayered films were thermally evaporated alternatively on (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) monocrystal silicon substrates with and without native silicon oxide. After heat treatment in situ either at 400 or at 600 deg. C, the interfacial transformations were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, θ-2θ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found, that the samples surface was covered with Cu 3 Si and Cu 4 Si crystallites of square, rectangular and hexagonal basis shapes well-oriented on Si(1 0 0) and of triangular shape on Si(1 1 1) owing to the strong intermixing between the different elements. The dilution of the entire gold deposited layer in the Cu-Au-Si formed mixture suggests that gold atoms have a high limit solubility in the formed polycrystalline Cu 3 Si and Cu 4 Si silicides

  6. Memory characteristics of cobalt-silicide nanocrystals embedded in HfO2 gate oxide for nonvolatile nanocrystal flash devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JooHyung; Yang, JungYup; Lee, JunSeok; Hong, JinPyo

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt-silicide (CoSi2) nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated for use in charge storage for metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices with thin HfO2 tunneling and control oxide layers. CoSi2 NCs were synthesized by exposure of Co /Si/HfO2 tunneling oxide/Si stacks to an external UV laser. Observations from transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clearly confirm the formation of CoSi2 NCs and the values of Co-Si bonding energies that are shifted 0.3eV from original values, respectively. The CoSi2 NCs in MOS devices exhibited a large memory window of 3.4V as well as efficient programming/erasing speeds, good retention, and endurance times.

  7. Testing boron carbide under triaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles; Chocron, Sidney; Dannemann, Kathryn A.; Nicholls, Arthur E.

    2012-03-01

    This article focuses on the pressure dependence and summarizes the characterization work conducted on intact and predamaged specimens of boron carbide under confinement in a pressure vessel and in a thick steel sleeve. The failure curves obtained are presented, and the data compared to experimental data from the literature.

  8. Kinetic analysis of boron carbide sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, W.; Kerler, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of the sintering of boron carbide were investigated by shrinkage measurements with a high-temperature dilatometer under argon atmosphere in dependence on temperature, grain size, and pressure. The activation energies and the reaction mechanisms of the different stages of sintering were determined. (orig.) [de

  9. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian

    1993-01-01

    report on attempts to compact amorphous iron–boron particles prepared by chemical reduction of Fe(II) ions in aqueous solution by NaBH4 (Ref. 2). The particles prepared in this way are pyrophoric, but can be passivated. The small particle size (10–100 nm), characteristic of this preparation technique...

  10. Boron nitride nanosheets reinforced glass matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saggar, Richa; Porwal, H.; Tatarko, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S26-S32 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK155 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Boron nitride nanosheets * Borosilicate glass * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2015

  11. Energetics of Boron Doping of Carbon Pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Carlos; St. John, Alexander; Connolly, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Carbon-based materials show promise, given their light weight, large surface areas and low cost for storage of hydrogen and other gases, e.g., for energy applications. Alas, the interaction of H2 and carbon, 4-5kJ/mol, is insufficient for room-temperature operation. Boron doping of carbon materials could raise the binding energy of H2 to 12-15kJ/mol. The nature of the incorporation of boron into a carbon structure has not been studied so far. In this talk we will address the energetics of boron incorporation into a carbon matrix via adsorption and decomposition of decaborane by first principles calculations. These demonstrate: (a) A strong adsorption of decaborane to carbon (70-80kJ/mol) resulting in easy incorporation of decaborane, sufficient for up to 10-20% B:C at low decaborane vapour pressures. (b) Identification that boron acts as an electron acceptor when incorporated substitutionally into a graphene-like material, as expected due to its valence. (c) The electrostatic field near the molecule is responsible for ca. 2/3 of the enhancement of the H2-adsorbent interaction in aromatic compounds such as pyrene, coronene and ovalene. Supported by DOE DE-FG36-08GO18142, ACS-PRF 52696-ND5, and NSF 1069091.

  12. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  13. Reaction of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, A.V.; Melekhin, V.F.; Pegov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation results of interaction in the B 4 C-MoSi 2 system during sintering in vacuum are presented. Sintering of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide is shown to lead to the formation of MoB 2 , SiC, Mo 5 Si 3 compounds, the presence of carbon-containing covering plays an important role in sintering

  14. New insight into pecan boron nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...

  15. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY - Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  16. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  17. Perfomance analysis of boron carbide in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Birney, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Reactivity control in the FFTF and LMFBR's will be maintained by control elements utilizing boron carbide pellets contained in stainless steel pins. Computer performance codes predict irradiation service conditions of absorber pellets and identify required experimental testing. Test results are incorporated in the codes to improve performance prediction capabilities

  18. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  19. Investigation into organic boron compounds complexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakova, G.A.; Belonovich, M.I.; Rybakova, M.N.; Morozova, T.L.; Lapkin, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    Triarylboranes interact with 4-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole With the formation of complexes of the composition 1:1. Ligand forms coordination bond with boron at the expense of pyridine atom of triazole cycle nitrogen. IR spectra, yields and decomposition temperatures of the complexes are presented

  20. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre......-incubated with boron nanoparticles for 12 hours, were injected subcutaneously into C57BL16J mice. The tumour sites were exposed to different doses of neutron radiation one, four, or eight days after tumour cell inoculation. Results: When the tumour site was irradiated with thermal neutrons one day after injection......, tumour growth was delayed and the treated mice survived longer than untreated controls (median survival time 20 days (N=8) compared with 10 days (N=7) for untreated mice). Conclusion: Boron nanoparticles significantly delay the growth of an aggressive B16-OVA tumour in vivo by boron neutron capture...

  1. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  3. Raman spectroscopy of boron-doped single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoong Ahm; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Katsumi; Terrones, Mauricio; Behrends, Jan; Eckmann, Axel; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Novoselov, Kostya S; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-07-24

    The introduction of foreign atoms, such as nitrogen, into the hexagonal network of an sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom monolayer has been demonstrated and constitutes an effective tool for tailoring the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here, we report that boron atoms can be efficiently substituted for carbon in graphene. Single-layer graphene substitutionally doped with boron was prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of boron-doped graphite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the amount of substitutional boron in graphite was ~0.22 atom %. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the boron atoms were spaced 4.76 nm apart in single-layer graphene. The 7-fold higher intensity of the D-band when compared to the G-band was explained by the elastically scattered photoexcited electrons by boron atoms before emitting a phonon. The frequency of the G-band in single-layer substitutionally boron-doped graphene was unchanged, which could be explained by the p-type boron doping (stiffening) counteracting the tensile strain effect of the larger carbon-boron bond length (softening). Boron-doped graphene appears to be a useful tool for engineering the physical and chemical properties of graphene.

  4. Laser-induced photochemical enrichment of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, S.M.; Ritter, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A boron trichloride starting material containing both boron-10 isotopes and boron-11 isotopes is selectively enriched in one or the other of these isotopes by a laser-induced photochemical method involving the reaction of laser-excited boron trichloride with either H 2 S or D 2 S. The method is carried out by subjecting a low pressure gaseous mixture of boron trichloride starting material and the sulfide to infrared radiation from a carbon dioxide TE laser. The wave length of the radiation is selected so as to selectively excite one or the other of boron-10 BCl 3 molecules or boron-11 BCl 3 molecules, thereby making them preferentially more reactive with the sulfide. The laser-induced reaction produces both a boron-containing solid phase reaction product and a gaseous phase containing mostly unreacted BCl 3 and small amounts of sulfhydroboranes. Pure boron trichloride selectively enriched in one of the isotopes is recovered as the primary product of the method from the gaseous phase by a multi-step recovery procedure. Pure boron trichloride enriched in the other isotope is recovered as a secondary product of the method by the subsequent chlorination of the solid phase reaction product followed by separation of BCl 3 from the mixture of gaseous products resulting from the chlorination

  5. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Boron removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiangcheng; Luan, Zhaokun; Zhao, Changwei; Ren, Xiaojing

    2010-05-15

    The removal of boron from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was studied with self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes in the present work. The effect of pH, boron concentration, temperature and salt concentration of the feed solution on the boron rejection was investigated. The experimental results indicated that boron rejection was less dependent on the feed pH and salt concentration. DCMD process had high boron removal efficiency (>99.8%) and the permeate boron was below the maximum permissible level even at feed concentration as high as 750 mg/L. Although the permeate flux was enhanced exponentially with the feed temperature increasing, the influence of feed temperature on the boron rejection could be neglected. Finally, the natural groundwater sample containing 12.7 mg/L of boron was treated by DCMD process. The permeate boron kept below 20 microg/L whether the feed was acidified or not, but pre-acidification was helpful to maintain the permeate flux stability. All the experimental results indicated that DCMD could be efficiently used for boron removal from aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 μl) microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2012-02-08

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 μL microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m 2 of current density and 392 mW/m 3 of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong

    2009-01-01

    Gate-grounded NMOS (GGNMOS) devices with different device dimensions and layout floorplans have been designed and fabricated in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology. The snapback characteristics of these GGNMOS devices are measured using the transmission line pulsing (TLP) measurement technique. The relationships between snapback parameters and layout parameters are shown and analyzed. A TCAD device simulator is used to explain these relationships. From these results, the circuit designer can predict the behavior of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level. Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Mechanical properties of C40-based ternary Mo(Si,Al)2 and quaternary (Mo,Zr)(Si,Al)2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagihara, K.; Nakano, T.; Umakoshi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Refractory silicides with transition metals are of interest as structural materials operating at very high temperatures to improve energy efficiency. MoSi 2 is particularly attractive because of its high melting point (2,030 C), relatively low density (6.24 g/cm 3 ), superior oxidation resistance and high thermal conductivity. Nevertheless, MoSi 2 still has several problems which must be overcome before structural application. In this paper an attempt to improve the ductility, toughness and high-temperature strength of C40-based MoSi 2 silicides was made by controlling additional Al and Zr contents in order to change the ductility, species of the constituent phase and the volume fraction of each phase

  10. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  11. Morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled iron silicide nanoparticles on Si(0 0 1) and Si(1 1 1) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnár, G., E-mail: molnargy@mfa.kfki.hu; Dózsa, L.; Erdélyi, R.; Vértesy, Z.; Osváth, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Epitaxial iron silicide nanostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) and Si(0 0 1) substrates. • The size and shape of the particles are the function of the thickness and annealing. • The local current–voltage characteristics were measured by conductive AFM. • The different size and shape nanoparticles show similar I–V characteristics. • The tip current is dominated in few nm size sites, visible in the AFM phase image. - Abstract: Epitaxial iron silicide nanostructures are grown by solid phase epitaxy on Si(0 0 1) and Si(1 1 1), and by reactive deposition epitaxy on Si(0 0 1) substrates. The formation process is monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The morphology, size, and electrical properties of the nanoparticles are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, by electrically active scanning probe microscopy, and by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the shape, size, orientation, and density of the nanoobjects can be tuned by self-assembly, controlled by the lattice misfit between the substrates and iron silicides. The size distribution and shape of the grown nanoparticles depend on the substrate orientation, on the initial thickness of the evaporated iron, on the temperature and time of the annealing, and on the preparation method. The so-called Ostwald ripening phenomena, which state that the bigger objects develop at the expense of smaller ones, controls the density of the nanoparticles. Raman spectra show the bigger objects do not contain β-FeSi{sub 2} phase. The different shape nanoparticles exhibit small, about 100 mV barrier compared to the surrounding silicon. The local leakage current of the samples measured by conductive AFM using a Pt coated Si tip is localized in a few nanometers size sites, and the sites which we assume are very small silicide nanoparticles or point defects.

  12. Morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled iron silicide nanoparticles on Si(0 0 1) and Si(1 1 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnár, G.; Dózsa, L.; Erdélyi, R.; Vértesy, Z.; Osváth, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epitaxial iron silicide nanostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) and Si(0 0 1) substrates. • The size and shape of the particles are the function of the thickness and annealing. • The local current–voltage characteristics were measured by conductive AFM. • The different size and shape nanoparticles show similar I–V characteristics. • The tip current is dominated in few nm size sites, visible in the AFM phase image. - Abstract: Epitaxial iron silicide nanostructures are grown by solid phase epitaxy on Si(0 0 1) and Si(1 1 1), and by reactive deposition epitaxy on Si(0 0 1) substrates. The formation process is monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The morphology, size, and electrical properties of the nanoparticles are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, by electrically active scanning probe microscopy, and by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the shape, size, orientation, and density of the nanoobjects can be tuned by self-assembly, controlled by the lattice misfit between the substrates and iron silicides. The size distribution and shape of the grown nanoparticles depend on the substrate orientation, on the initial thickness of the evaporated iron, on the temperature and time of the annealing, and on the preparation method. The so-called Ostwald ripening phenomena, which state that the bigger objects develop at the expense of smaller ones, controls the density of the nanoparticles. Raman spectra show the bigger objects do not contain β-FeSi 2 phase. The different shape nanoparticles exhibit small, about 100 mV barrier compared to the surrounding silicon. The local leakage current of the samples measured by conductive AFM using a Pt coated Si tip is localized in a few nanometers size sites, and the sites which we assume are very small silicide nanoparticles or point defects.

  13. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L

    2001-07-01

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  14. Analytical techniques for boron and boron 10 analysis in a solid experimental tumor EO.771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, W.; Marx, J.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    If a tumor can be preferentially loaded with a suitable boron-10 compound and irradiated with thermal neutrons, malignant cells can be selectively destroyed via the α-particle + Li 7-nucleus from the reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li. Neutron capture therapy with two boron-10 amino acid analogs of low toxicity has been tested in recent years: (a) trimethylamine carboxyborane, (A3) and (b) amine-carboxyborane, (A7). Now the boron-10 glycineamide analog (A8), amineboryl carboxamide has been synthsized; it contains 13.81% boron (90% Boron 10+10% Boron 11) and shows a very low toxicity in mice. The effects of this compund were tested on the syngeneic solid adenocarcinoma EO 771 on the right hind leg of male C57 BL/6J mice under standard conditions, by measuring tumor volume growth delay and cell cycle changes using flow cytometry. Boron distribution between tumor and muscle was analyzed by emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) following injection of a suspension of peanut oil emulsion. In addition, boron-10 concentration in the tumor were analyzed with prompt γ-activation analysis and neutron capture radiography (Kodak-Pathe LR115) at the MRR reactor in Brookhaven after i.p. injection of 0.4 mg/g A8. Application of A8 alone (0.4 mg/g i.p.) or thermal neutron irradiation of the tumor EO. 771 produced a tumor growth delay of 1-2 days for tumor volume doubling. Application of the boron 10 glycine-amide analog A8 i.p. plus 5x10 12 n/cm 2 resulted in a growth delay of 3-6 days. In contrast intratumoral application of A8 plus 4x10 12 n/cm 2 neutrons gave a growth delay of 7-14 days; the fraction of (G2+M) cells rose from 35% (neutrons alone) to 52%, as evaluated from flow cytometry. (orig.)

  15. Diffusion Boronizing of H11 Hot Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurči, Peter; Hudáková, Mária

    2011-10-01

    The H11 hot work tool steel was boronized at various processing parameters, austenitized, quenched, and tempered to a core hardness of 47-48 HRC. Microstructure, phase constitution, and microhardness of boronized layers were investigated. Effect of boronized region on the bulk properties was determined by the Charpy impact test. Structure of boronized regions is formed by the compound layers and diffusion inter-layer. The compound layers consisted of only (Fe,Cr)2B phase, but in the case of longer processing time, they contained also of the (Fe,Cr)B-phase. The inter-layer contained enhanced portion of carbides, formed due to carbon diffusion from the boride compounds toward the substrate. Microhardness of boronized layers exceeded considerably 2000 HV 0.1. However, boronizing led to a substantial lowering of the Charpy impact toughness of the material.

  16. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Influence of dopants, particularly carbon, on β-rhombohedral boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H.; Flachbart, K.; Pristáš, G.; Lotnyk, D.; Filipov, V.; Kuhlmann, U.; Shitsevalova, N.; Lundström, T.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high affinity of carbon to boron, the preparation of carbon-free boron is problematic. Even high-purity (6 N) β-rhombohedral boron contains 30-60 ppm of C. Hence, carbon affects the boron physical properties published so far more or less significantly. We studied well-defined carbon-doped boron samples based on pure starting material carefully annealed with up to about 1% C, thus assuring homogeneity. We present and discuss their electrical conductivity, optical absorption, luminescence and phonon spectra. Earlier attempts of other authors to determine the conductivity of C-doped boron are revised. Our results allow estimating the effects of oxygen and iron doping on the electrical conductivity using results taken from literature. Discontinuities at low T impair the electronic properties.

  18. Synthesis of Boron Nano wires, Nano tubes, and Nano sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Chou, T.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of boron nano wires, nano tubes, and nano sheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nano materials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nano wires, boron nano tubes, and boron nano sheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  19. Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.

    1986-01-01

    The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Boron nitride - Composition, optical properties, and mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at. percent. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at. percent range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  1. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  2. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  3. Strongly Phosphorescent Transition Metal π-Complexes of Boron-Boron Triple Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dellermann, Theresa; Dewhurst, Rian D; Hupp, Benjamin; Kramer, Thomas; Mattock, James D; Mies, Jan; Phukan, Ashwini K; Steffen, Andreas; Vargas, Alfredo

    2017-04-05

    Herein are reported the first π-complexes of compounds with boron-boron triple bonds with transition metals, in this case Cu I . Three different compounds were isolated that differ in the number of copper atoms bound to the BB unit. Metalation of the B-B triple bonds causes lengthening of the B-B and B-C NHC bonds, as well as large upfield shifts of the 11 B NMR signals, suggesting greater orbital interactions between the boron and transition metal atoms than those observed with recently published diboryne/alkali metal cation complexes. In contrast to previously reported fluorescent copper(I) π-complexes of boron-boron double bonds, the Cu n -π-diboryne compounds (n = 2, 3) show intense phosphorescence in the red to near-IR region from their triplet excited states, according to their microsecond lifetimes, with quantum yields of up to 58%. While the Cu diborene bond is dominated by electrostatic interactions, giving rise to S 1 and T 1 states of pure IL(π-π*) nature, DFT studies show that the Cu I π-complexes of diborynes reported herein exhibit enhanced metal d orbital contributions to HOMO and HOMO-1, which results in S 1 and T 1 having significant MLCT character, enabling strong spin-orbit coupling for highly efficient intersystem-crossing S 1 → T n and phosphorescence T 1 → S 0 .

  4. Separation and Analysis of Boron Isotope in High Plant by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingcai; Dong, Yuliang; Zhu, Huayu; Sun, Aide

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of boron and its isotope in plants is useful to better understand the transposition and translocation of boron within plant, the geochemical behavior in the interface between soil and plant, and the biogeochemical cycle of boron. It is critical to develop a useful method to separate boron from the plant for the geochemical application of boron and its isotope. A method was developed for the extraction of boron in plant sample, whose isotope was determined by thermal ionization mass ...

  5. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-06

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals.

  6. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  7. Development of Self-Healing Zirconium-Silicide Coatings for Improved Performance Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Mariani, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Xu, Peng [Westinghouse Electric Company; Lahoda, Ed [Westinghouse Electric Company

    2018-03-31

    Given the long-term goal of developing such coatings for use with nuclear reactor fuel cladding, this work describes results of oxidation and corrosion behavior of bulk zirconium-silicide and fabrication of zirconium-silicide coatings on zirconium-alloy test flats, tube configurations, and SiC test flats. In addition, boiling heat transfer of these modified surfaces (including ZrSi2 coating) during clad quenching experiments is discussed in detail. Oxidation of bulk ZrSi2 was found to be negligible compared to Zircaloy-4 (a common Zr-alloy cladding material) and mechanical integrity of ZrSi2 was superior to that of bulk Zr2Si at high temperatures in ambient air. Very interesting and unique multi-nanolayered composite of ZrO2 and SiO2 were observed. Physical model for the oxidation has been proposed wherein Zr–Si–O mixture undergoes a spinodal phase decomposition into ZrO2 and SiO2, which is manifested as a nanoscale assembly of alternating layer of the two oxides. Steam corrosion at high pressure (10.3 MPa) led to weight loss of ZrSi2 and produced oxide scale with depletion of silicon, possibly attributed to volatile silicon hydroxide, gaseous silicon monoxide, and a solubility of silicon dioxide in water. Only Zircon phase (ZrSiO4) formed during oxidation of ZrSi2 at 1400°C in air, and allowed for immobilization silicon species in oxide scale in the aqueous environments. Zirconium-silicide coatings (on zirconium-alloy substrates) investigated in this study were deposited primarily using magnetron sputter deposition method and slurry method, although powder spray deposition processes cold spray and thermal spray methods were also investigated. The optimized ZrSi2 sputtered coating exhibited a highly protective nature at elevated temperatures in ambient air by mitigating oxygen permeation to the underlying zirconium alloy substrate. The high oxidation resistance of the coating has been shown to be due to nanocrystalline SiO2 and ZrSiO4 phases in the amorphous

  8. Behavior of disordered boron carbide under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchini, Giovanni; McCauley, James W; Chhowalla, Manish

    2006-07-21

    Gibbs free-energy calculations based on density functional theory have been used to determine the possible source of failure of boron carbide just above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL). A range of B4C polytypes is found to be stable at room pressure. The energetic barrier for shock amorphization of boron carbide is by far the lowest for the B12(CCC) polytype, requiring only 6 GPa approximately = P(HEL) for collapse under hydrostatic conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that the collapse of the B12(CCC) phase leads to segregation of B12 and amorphous carbon in the form of 2-3 nm bands along the (113) lattice direction, in excellent agreement with recent transmission electron microscopy results.

  9. Steam activation of boron doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tatsuya; Zhang Junfeng; Takasu, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam activation of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. → Steam activated BDD has a porous columnar texture. → Steam activated BDD has a wide potential window. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were activated in steam at various temperatures, resulting in high quality BDD electrodes with a porous microstructure. Distinct columnar structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemically active surface area of the steam-activated BDD was up to 20 times larger than the pristine BDD electrode owing to the porous texture. In addition, a widening of the potential window was observed after steam activation, suggesting that the quality of BDD was enhanced due to oxidative removal of graphitic impurities during the activation process.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  11. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  12. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; hide

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of boron nitrides nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, T.H.; Sousa, E.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new synthesis for the production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) from boron powder, ammonium nitrate and hematite tube furnace CVD method. The samples were subjected to some characterization techniques as infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission. By analyzing the results can explain the chemical reactions involved in the process and confirm the formation of BNNT with several layers and about 30 nanometers in diameter. Due to excellent mechanical properties and its chemical and thermal stability this material is promising for various applications. However, BNNT has received much less attention than carbon nanotubes, it is because of great difficulty to synthesize appreciable quantities from the techniques currently known, and this is one of the main reasons this work.(author)

  14. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  15. Development of boron epoxy rocket motor chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. M.; Knoell, A. C.; Zweben, C.

    1972-01-01

    A 71 cm diameter 74 cm length boron/epoxy composite rocket motor chamber was designed based on the geometric configuration of the JPL Applications Technology Satellite titanium alloy apogee motor chamber. Because analyses showed large stress concentrations in the domes, the configuration was modified using the same basic constraints for openings and attachments. The rocket motor chamber was then fabricated by filament winding with boron/epoxy tape and hydrostatically tested to failure at 264 N/sq cm, 57.2 N/sq cm above the design value. Two more rocket motor chambers were fabricated with the same basic constraints, but shortened to 57.6 cm for a smaller propellant load. The first of these short chambers failed in proof because of filament winding fabrication difficulties. The second chamber was successfully fabricated and passed the hydrostatic proof test.

  16. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

  17. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  18. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Piezoelectric Boron Nirtride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conduct a systematic computational study on the physical and electro-mechanical properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) to evaluate their functional...

  19. Cobalt Doping of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Using Cobaltocene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, Lonnie

    2007-01-01

    .... This temperature dependent surface photovoltage effect is not compelling evidence for the majority carrier type but does suggest an increase in the carrier concentration in semiconducting boron...

  20. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  1. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  2. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  3. Boron isotopes as an artificial tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Lansey, Kevin; Arnold, Robert; Bassett, Randy L; Rincon, Martha

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted using a combination of intrinsic and artificial tracers to estimate travel times and dilution during transport of infiltrate from a reclaimed water infiltration basin to nearby monitoring wells. A major study objective was to validate boric acid enriched in (10)B as an artificial tracer. Basin 10E at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Whittier, California, was the site of the test. The basin normally receives a mixture of treated municipal waste water, purchased State Project water, and local runoff from the San Gabriel River. Approximately 3.5 kg of (10)B-enriched boric acid was dispersed among 2.05 x 10(5) m(3) of basin water to initiate the experiment. The resultant median delta(11)B in the infiltration basin was -71 per thousand. Prior to tracer addition, the basin water had an intrinsic delta(11)B of +2 per thousand. Local monitoring wells that were used to assess travel times had delta(11)B values of +5 per thousand and +8 per thousand at the time of tracer addition. Analytic results supported an assumption that boron is conserved during ground water transport and that boron enriched in (10)B is a useful artificial tracer. Several intrinsic tracers were used to reinforce the boric acid tracer findings. These included stable isotopes of oxygen (delta(18)O) and hydrogen (deltaD), sulfate concentration, and the boron to chloride ratio. Xenon isotopes, (136)Xe and (124)Xe, also supported boron isotope results. Xenon isotopes were added to the recharge basin as dissolved gases by investigators from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Boron Isotopes Enrichment via Continuous Annular Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Boron has two stable isotopes namely 10B and 11B isotopes. The large cross section of 10B isotope for thermal neutrons is used for reactor control in nuclear fission reactors. The thermal neutrons absorption cross sections of pure 10B and 11B are 3837 and 0.005 barns respectively. In the literature, amongst others, batch elution chromatography techniques are reported for 10B isotope enrichment. This work focuses on continuous chromatographic 10B isotope separation system via continuo...

  5. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.; Clendenon, N.

    1986-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  6. Nanotwins soften boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A.

    2017-03-01

    Extensive studies of metals and alloys have observed that nanotwins lead to strengthening, but the role of nanotwins in ceramics is not well established. We compare here the shear strength and the deformation mechanism of nanotwinned boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) with the perfect crystal under both pure shear and biaxial shear deformations. We find that the intrinsic shear strength of crystalline B13C2 is higher than that of crystalline boron carbide (B4C). But nanotwins in B13C2 lower the strength, making it softer than crystalline B4C. This reduction in strength of nanotwinned B13C2 arises from the interaction of the twin boundary with the C-B-C chains that connect the B12 icosahedra.

  7. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  8. Boron determination in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Nadia S.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Rosa, Daniele S.; Ulrich, Joao C.

    2009-01-01

    There exist specifications of the concentration as far the limit of impurities in the used uranium compounds is concerned. Among those impurities the boron element is detached. that in the uranium compounds acts as neutron absorber in nuclear reactions. Therefore, the determination of this element in uranium compounds, it is fundamental for the quality and performance of the nuclear fuels. However, the determination of this element is many times prejudiced by the presence of the uranium. For solving this problem, it is performed a chemical separation of the uranium (matrix) out of the interest. The most used methods to accomplish that separation are the solvent extraction and the ion exchange. In this work, the boron concentration will be done through the ion exchange technique, using polypropylene columns and Dowex AG 50W - X8 100-200 mesh cation resin in chloricide medium 0.25 M. The boron concentration will be determined through high resolution inductive coupling plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS)

  9. A fundamental study of industrial boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.; Kormann, R.; Lesueur, D.

    1983-09-01

    Some of the physical properties of boron carbide, before and after irradiation are reviewed on the basis of several new experiments performed in our laboratory. The layered aspect of the grains of this ceramic, due to a microtwinning of the rhomboedral structure, is emphasized first. Then, the location of free carbon in samples of composition close to B 4 C is discussed in relation with new sputtering experiments. Coupled studies of the electric conductivities and the electron spin resonance lines have demonstrated the important role of free carbon in the electronic properties of boron carbide and revealed the existence of a homogeneous short range disorder, the origin of which is not very clear (amorphous concept). The elementary processes responsible of the swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated boron carbide are rather well understood. The role of the point defects in these processes is reported. The displacement threshold energies and formation volumes are discussed in relation with electron irradiation experiments, and displacement rates are calculated in different irradiation situations including neutron irradiations [fr

  10. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  11. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, α) in the 10 B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a 239 Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue

  12. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zołotajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2.

  13. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon

    2014-01-01

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration

  14. Removal of boron species by layered double hydroxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-07-15

    Boron, which is an essential element for plants, is toxic to humans and animals at high concentrations. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and thermally activated LDHs have shown good uptake of a range of boron species in laboratory scale experiments when compared to current available methods, which are for the most part ineffective or prohibitively expensive. LDHs were able to remove anions from water by anion exchange, the reformation (or memory) effect and direct precipitation. The main mechanism of boron uptake appeared to be anion exchange, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Solution pH appeared to have little effect on boron sorption while thermal activation did not always significantly improve boron uptake. In addition, perpetration of numerous LDHs with varying boron anions in the interlayer region by direct co-precipitation and anion exchange have been reported by a number of groups. The composition and orientation of the interlayer boron ions could be identified with reasonable certainty by applying a number of characterisation techniques including: powder XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. There is still considerable scope for future research on the application of LDHs for the removal of boron contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation and deprotection of F-BODIPYs using boron trihalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, Travis; Cameron, T Stanley; Thompson, Alison

    2014-07-07

    The activation of F-BODIPYs with boron trihalides, followed by treatment with a nucleophile, effects facile substitution at boron; using water as the nucleophile promotes deprotective removal of the -BF2 moiety and thereby production of the corresponding parent dipyrrin salt in quantitative yield under extremely mild conditions.

  16. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.

    1983-09-20

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  17. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally...

  18. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  19. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  20. New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Florine Duval - New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids – Summary Chapter 1 introduces the theory and known applications of the interaction between boronic acids and diols, and explains the context of this thesis. Diagnosis of

  1. Appraisal of SIMS applicability to boron studies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dérue, Cedric; Gibouin, David; Verdus, Marie-Claire; Lefebvre, Fabrice; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Thellier, Michel

    2002-07-15

    In the search for a new methodological approach applicable to the determination of the still poorly known primary role of boron in plant physiology, we have undertaken to appraise the potential of the SIMS method for the analytical imaging of the boron isotopes, (10)B and (11)B, at physiological concentrations in plants. With our own, CAMECA IMS4F SIMS ion analyser, and using O(2)(+) as primary ions for the detection of B(+) (plus (12)C(+) and (40)Ca(+)) secondary ions, we have been able to map quantitatively the two boron isotopes in control and boron-enriched plants, to evaluate boron concentrations at the level of individual cells and to determine boron isotopic ratios. This provides the opportunity to carry out the simultaneous labeling and imaging of boron, using enrichment with the stable isotopes, (10)B and (11)B. The method has also the potential for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of the boron isotopes and of the borate-binding sites in plant cells. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Feasibility study of SMART core with soluble boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Quun

    2000-11-01

    The excess reactivity of SMART core without soluble boron is effectively controlled by 49 CEDM. We suggest another method to control the core excess reactivity using both the checkerboard type of 25 CEDM and soluble boron and perform a feasibility calculation. The soluble boron operation is categorized into the on-line and the off-line mechanisms. The former is to successively control the boron concentration according to the excess reactivity during operation and the latter is to add and change some soluble boron during refueling and repairing. Since the on-line soluble boron control system of SMART is conceptually identical to that of the commercial pressurized water reactor, we did not perform the analysis. Since the soluble boron in the complete off-line system increases the moderator temperature coefficient, the reactivity defect between hot and cold moderator temperature is decreased. However, the decrease of the reactivity is not big to satisfy the core reactivity limits. When using 25 CEDM, the possible mechanism is to control the excess reactivity by both control rod and on-line boron control mechanism between cold and hot zero power and by only control rod at hot full power. We selected the loading pattern satisfying the requirement in the view of nuclear design

  3. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  4. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    weight armour plates etc (Alizadeh et al 2004). It can also be used as a reinforcing material for ceramic matrix composites. It is an excellent neutron absorption material in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  5. Eleventh international conference on boron chemistry. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Abstracts of reports at the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry are presented. Born chemistry as a connecting bridge between many fields maintains one of the leading positions in modern chemistry. Methods of synthesis of different boron compounds, properties of the compounds, their use in other regions of chemistry and medicine are widely presented in reports [ru

  6. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of gel material. A K KHANRA. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 21 August 2006; revised 29 January 2007. Abstract. Boron carbide (B4C) powder has been produced ...

  7. Vacancy complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of divacancies on the stability, structural and electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes is studied using the ab initio density functional method. VBBN is more stable in the boron-rich and less stable in the nitrogen...

  8. Research on weed species for phytoremediation of boron polluted soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... This research was aimed to investigate the application of weed species for phytoremediation of soil polluted with boron. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of increasing boron. (B) application on the growth and B uptake of common weed species, Sorghum halepense L. Pers.,.

  9. A comparison of the metallurgical behaviour of dispersion fuels with uranium silicides and U6Fe as dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazare, S.

    1984-01-01

    In the past few years metallurgical studies have been carried out to develop fuel dispersions with U-densities up to 7.0 Mg U m -3 . Uranium silicides have been considered to be the prime candidates as dispersants; U 6 Fe being a potential alternative on account of its higher U-density. The objective of this paper is to compare the metallurgical behaviour of these two material combinations with regard to the following aspects: (1) preparation of the compounds U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 and U 6 Fe; (2) powder metallurgical processing to miniature fuel element plates; (3) reaction behaviour under equilibrium conditions in the relevant portions of the ternary U-Si-Al and U-Fe-Al systems; (4) dimensional stability of the fuel plates after prolonged thermal treatment; (5) thermochemical behaviour of fuel plates at temperatures near the melting point of the cladding. Based on this data, the possible advantages of each fuel combination are discussed. (author)

  10. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  11. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  12. Isotopic Enrichment of Boron in the Sputtering of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study is described to measure the isotopic enrichment of boron. Xenon ions from 100 eV to 1.5 keV were used to sputter a boron nitride target. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 microA/sq cm. Xenon ions impinged on the target surface at 50 deg angle to the surface normal. Since boron nitride is an insulator, a flood electron gun was used in our experiments to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The sputtered secondary ions of boron were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectrometer entrance aperture was located perpendicular to the ion beam direction and 10 mm away from the target surface. The secondary ion flux was observed to be enriched in the heavy isotopes at lower ion energies. The proportion of heavy isotopes in the sputtered secondary ion flux was found to decrease with increasing primary ion energy from 100 to 350 eV. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially. The light isotope enrichment factor was observed to reach an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. This trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy range.

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acid or borax, and a nitrogen-containing compound such as melamine, urea or dicyandiamide are heated in an atmo- sphere of non-oxidizing gas such as nitrogen or ammonia. ∗. Author for correspondence (mitun@cgcri.res.in). These h-BN powders have low crystallinity and crystal- lographically it belongs to boron nitride ...

  14. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  15. From boron analogues of amino acids to boronated DNA: potential new pharmaceuticals and neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, B.F.; Sood, Anup; Duke Univ., Durham, NC; Shaw, B.R.; Hall, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    Isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogues of the α-amino acids ranging from simple glycine analogues such as H 3 NBH 2 COOH and Me 2 NHBH 2 COOH to alanine analogues have been synthesised. A diverse variety of analogues, including precursors and derivatives (such as peptides) have potent pharmacological activity, including anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypolipidemic activity in animal model studies and in vitro cell cultures. Boronated nucleosides and (oligo)nucleotides, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues of ''antisense'' agents interact with a complementary nucleic acid sequence blocking the biological effect of the target sequence. Nucleosides boronated on the pyrimidine and purine bases have been prepared. It has been established that an entirely new class of nucleic acid derivatives is feasible in which one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide phosphodiester linkage can be replaced by an isoelectronic analogue, the borane group, (BH 3 ). The boronated oligonucleotides can be viewed as hybrids of the normal oxygen oligonucleotides and the methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. (author)

  16. Dietary boron: progress in establishing essential roles in human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Curtiss D

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal biological functions. These include roles in calcium metabolism, bone growth and maintenance, insulin metabolism, and completion of the life cycle. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood but the nature of boron biochemistry suggests further characterization of the cell signaling molecules capable of complexing with boron. Such characterization may provide insights into the biochemical function(s) of boron in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  19. Fracture toughness of borides formed on boronized ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ugur; Sen, Saduman; Koksal, Sakip; Yilmaz, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, fracture toughness properties of boronized ductile iron were investigated. Boronizing was realized in a salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid and ferro-silicon. Boronizing heat treatment was carried out between 850 and 950 deg. C under the atmospheric pressure for 2-8 h. Borides e.g. FeB, Fe 2 B formed on ductile iron was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM and optical microscope. Experimental results revealed that longer boronizing time resulted in thicker boride layers. Optical microscope cross-sectional observation of borided layers showed dentricular morphology. Both microhardness and fracture toughness of borided surfaces were measured via Vickers indenter. The harnesses of borides formed on the ductile iron were in the range of 1160-2140 HV 0.1 and fracture toughness were in the range of 2.19-4.47 MPa m 1/2 depending on boronizing time and temperature

  20. Metal-Free Boron-Containing Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Wang, Xinchen

    2017-12-04

    Metal-free catalysts have distinct advantages over metal and metal oxide catalysts, such as lower cost as well as higher reliability and sustainability. Among the nonmetal compounds used in catalysis, boron-containing compounds with a few unique properties have been developed. In this Minireview, the recent advances in the field of boron-containing metal-free catalysts are presented, including binary and ternary boron-containing catalytic materials. Additionally, the three main applications in catalysis are considered, namely, electrocatalysis, thermal catalysis, and photocatalysis, with the role of boron discussed in depth for each specific catalytic application. Boron-containing compounds could have a substantial impact on the field of metal-free catalysts in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  2. Problems and possibilities of development of boron nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusanova, L.N.; Romashin, A.G.; Kulikova, G.I.; Golubeva, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    The modern state of developments in the field of technology of ceramics produced from boron nitride is analyzed. Substantial difficulties in production of pure ceramics from hexagonal and wurtzite-like boron nitride are stated as related to the structure peculiarities and inhomogeneity of chemical bonds in elementary crystal cells of various modifications. Advantages and disadvantages of familiar technological procedures in production of boron nitride ceramics are compared. A new technology is suggested, which is based on the use of electroorganic compounds for hardening and protection of porous high-purity boron-nitride die from oxidation, and as high-efficient sintered elements for treatment of powders of various structures and further pyrolisis. The method is called thermal molecular lacing (TML). Properties of ceramics produced by the TML method are compared with characteristics of well-known brands of boron nitride ceramics

  3. Density functional calculations of hydrogen adsorption on boron nanotubes and boron sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; López, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.

    2006-02-01

    Hydrogen adsorption on the recently discovered boron nanotubes, BNTs, and on boron sheets is investigated by density functional calculations. Both molecular physisorption and dissociative atomic chemisorption are considered. The geometric and electronic structures of BNTs and boron sheets have been elucidated. These two novel boron structures present buckled surfaces with alternating up and down rows of B atoms, with a large buckling height of about 0.8 Å. The buckled structures are about 0.20 eV/atom more stable than the corresponding flat ones. However, the helicity of some BNTs does not allow for the formation of alternating up and down B rows in the surface and, therefore, these nanotubes have flat surfaces. The buckled and flat nanostructures have different geometric and bonding characteristics, but both are metallic. Molecular hydrogen physisorption energies are about 30-60 meV/molecule on boron sheets and nanotubes, actually lower than in graphene and in carbon nanotubes and far from the energies of 300-400 meV/molecule necessary for efficient hydrogen storage at room temperature and moderate pressures for onboard automotive applications. Chemisorption binding energies on BNTs are about 2.4-2.9 eV/H atom, similar to the ones obtained in CNTs. Finally, the energy barrier from molecular physisorption to dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen is about 1.0 eV /molecule. Therefore, the calculations predict physisorption as the leading adsorption mechanism of hydrogen at moderate temperatures and pressures. The expected hydrogen adsorption capacity of these novel B materials is even smaller than that of CNTs.

  4. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mark W.; Shelly, Kenneth; Kane, Robert R.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  5. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.

    2006-01-01

    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  6. The Combined Action of Duplicated Boron Transporters Is Required for Maize Growth in Boron-Deficient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Qiujie; Menello, Caitlin; Galli, Mary; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The micronutrient boron is essential in maintaining the structure of plant cell walls and is critical for high yields in crop species. Boron can move into plants by diffusion or by active and facilitated transport mechanisms. We recently showed that mutations in the maize boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR (RTE) cause severe developmental defects and sterility. RTE is part of a small gene family containing five additional members ( RTE2 - RTE6 ) that show tissue-specific expression. The close paralogous gene RTE2 encodes a protein with 95% amino acid identity with RTE and is similarly expressed in shoot and root cells surrounding the vasculature. Despite sharing a similar function with RTE , mutations in the RTE2 gene do not cause growth defects in the shoot, even in boron-deficient conditions. However, rte2 mutants strongly enhance the rte phenotype in soils with low boron content, producing shorter plants that fail to form all reproductive structures. The joint action of RTE and RTE2 is also required in root development. These defects can be fully complemented by supplying boric acid, suggesting that diffusion or additional transport mechanisms overcome active boron transport deficiencies in the presence of an excess of boron. Overall, these results suggest that RTE2 and RTE function are essential for maize shoot and root growth in boron-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  8. Exploiting the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases via boron oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Dudek, Hanna; Reis, Joel S.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective carbon-boron bond oxidation of several chiral boron-containing compounds by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was evaluated. PAMO and M446G PAMO conveniently oxidized 1-phenylethyl boronate into the corresponding 1-(phenyl)ethanol (ee = 82-91%). Cyclopropyl boronic esters were also

  9. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P.; Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  10. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  11. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  12. Wettability of Pyrolytic Boron Nitride by Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    1991-01-01

    The wetting of pyrolytic boron nitride by molten 99.9999 percent pure aluminum was investigated by using the sessile drop method in a vacuum operating at approximately 660 micro-Pa at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 C. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with an increase in temperature. For temperatures at 900 C or less, the equilibrium contact angle was greater than 90 deg. At 1000 C a nonwetting-to-wetting transition occurred and the contact angle stabilized at 49 deg.

  13. Fabrication of boron nitride planar field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuuko; Tagawa, Shigeru; Sugino, Takashi

    1999-05-01

    Boron nitride (BN) films are grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). BN films are doped with sulfur. Insertion of the GaN layer between the BN film and sapphire leads to a tight adhesion of the BN film. The electrical resistivity of the sulfur-doped BN film is reduced to 10 3 Ω cm. The cathode electrode is formed on the BN film and the anode electrode on the sapphire substrate by evaporating Ti and Au. An emission current of 1 μA is obtained at an electric field strength of 16 V/μm.

  14. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  15. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Hari Mohan; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Srivastava, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  16. Processing of boron carbide-aluminum composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The processing problems associated with boron carbide and the limitations of its mechanical properties can be significantly reduced when a metal phase (e.g., aluminum) is added. Lower densification temperatures and higher fracture toughness will result. Based on fundamental capillarity thermodynamics, reaction thermodynamics, and densification kinetics, we have established reliable criteria for fabricating B 4 C-Al particulate composites. Because chemical reactions cannot be eliminated, it is necessary to process B 4 C-Al by rapidly heating to near 1200 degrees C (to ensure wetting) and subsequently heat-treating below 1200 degrees C (for microstructural development)

  17. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  18. Synthesis of a boron modified phenolic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resin has long been used as matrix for composites mainly because of its flame retardant behavior and high char yield after pyrolysis, which results in a self supporting structure. The addition of ceramic powders, such as SiC and B4C, as fillers to the phenolic resin, results in better thermo-oxidative stability, but as drawbacks, it has poor homogeneity, adhesion and processing difficulties during molding of the composites. The addition of single elements, such as boron, silicon and phosphorus in the main backbone of the thermo-set resin is a new strategy to obtain special high performance resins, which results in higher mechanical properties, avoiding the drawbacks of simply adding fillers, which results in enhanced thermo-oxidative stability compared to conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins. Therefore, the product can have several applications, including the use as ablative thermal protection for thermo-structural composites. This work describes the preparation of a boron-modified phenolic resin (BPR using salicyl alcohol and boric acid. The reaction was performed in refluxing toluene for a period of four hours, which produced a very high viscosity amber resin in 90% yield.The final structure of the compound, the boric acid double, substituted at the hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring, was determined with the help of the Infrared Spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, TGA-DSC and boron elemental analysis. The absorption band of the group B-O at 1349 cm ˉ¹ can be visualized at the FT-IR spectrum. ¹H-NMR spectra showed peaks at 4.97-5.04 ppm and 3.60-3.90 ppm assigned to belong to CH2OH groups from the alcohol. The elemental analysis was also performed for boron determination.The product has also been tested in carbon and silicon fibers composite for the use in thermal structure. The results of the tests showed composites with superior mechanical properties when compared with the conventional phenolic resin.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of cubic boron nitride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meiyan; Cui Deliang; Kai Li; Yin Yansheng; Wang Qilong; Lei Chu

    2005-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystals have been successfully synthesized by in situ hydrothermal method. In order to obtain cBN pure phase crystals, two comparative experiments were carried out. The experimental results indicated that compared to one-step in situ hydrothermal method, multi-step in situ hydrothermal method was beneficial to the synthesis of cBN. It is believed that the multi-step in situ hydrothermal method is the optimal route to synthesize pure cBN bulk crystals

  20. Boron carbide nanowires with uniform CNx coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, R. M.; You, L. P.; Yu, J.; Chen, H.; Yu, D. P.; Chen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Boron carbide nanowires with uniform carbon nitride coating layers were synthesized on a silicon substrate using a simple thermal process. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanowires were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A correlation between the surface smoothness of the nanowire sidewalls and their lateral sizes has been observed and it is a consequence of the anisotropic formation of the coating layers. A growth mechanism is also proposed for these growth phenomena.

  1. Boron nitride - boron hybrid coating on uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide fuel. Final report for the period 1 November 1996 - 1 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, G.

    1997-11-01

    The report describes work to develop laboratory-scale technology of the deposition of hybrid boron nitrate-metallic boron coating onto the surface of uranium dioxide ore uranium dioxide - gadolinia dioxide fuel pellets. Methods of chemical vapour deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were used in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. An excellent adherence of boron onto the boron nitrate layer and boron nitrate layer onto the fuel pellet surface was demonstrated. Fine grain-type structure of boron coating and its excellent adherence are good indices for integrated fuel burnable absorber fuels

  2. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  3. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  4. Detection of boron removal capacities of different microorganisms in wastewater and effective removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laçin, Bengü; Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    In this study boron removal capacities of different microorganisms were tested. Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus versicolor were examined for their boron bioaccumulation capacities in simulated municipal wastewater. A. versicolor and B. cereus were found as the most boron-tolerant microorganisms in the experiments. Also boron bioaccumulation yield of A. versicolor was 49.25% at 15 mg/L boron concentration. On the other hand biosorption experiments revealed that A. versicolor was more capable of boron removal in inactive form at the highest boron concentrations. In this paper maximum boron bioaccumulation yield was detected as 39.08% at 24.17 mg/L and the maximum boron biosorption yield was detected as 41.36% at 24.01 mg/L boron concentrations.

  5. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  6. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  7. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation

  8. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela)

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation.

  9. Analysis of boron carbides' electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Iris A.; Beckel, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    The electronic properties of boron-rich icosahedral clusters were studied as a means of understanding the electronic structure of the icosahedral borides such as boron carbide. A lower bound was estimated on bipolaron formation energies in B12 and B11C icosahedra, and the associated distortions. While the magnitude of the distortion associated with bipolaron formation is similar in both cases, the calculated formation energies differ greatly, formation being much more favorable on B11C icosahedra. The stable positions of a divalent atom relative to an icosahedral borane was also investigated, with the result that a stable energy minimum was found when the atom is at the center of the borane, internal to the B12 cage. If incorporation of dopant atoms into B12 cages in icosahedral boride solids is feasible, novel materials might result. In addition, the normal modes of a B12H12 cluster, of the C2B10 cage in para-carborane, and of a B12 icosahedron of reduced (D sub 3d) symmetry, such as is found in the icosahedral borides, were calculated. The nature of these vibrational modes will be important in determining, for instance, the character of the electron-lattice coupling in the borides, and in analyzing the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity.

  10. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.

    2000-01-01

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  11. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Initial Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results of initial testing of an Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Several configurations of the ABUNCL models, which use 10B-lined proportional counters in place of 3He proportional counters for the neutron detection elements, were previously reported. The ABUNCL tested is of a different design than previously modeled. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was performed, and modeling will be conducted. Testing of the system reconfigured for active testing will be performed in the near future, followed by testing with nuclear fuel.

  12. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  13. Transport properties of polycrystalline boron doped diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.R. de [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Berengue, O.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP Departamento de Física, Guaratinguetá 12.516-410 (Brazil); Moro, J. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Bragança Paulista 12929-600 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Física, São Carlos 13565-905 (Brazil); Baldan, M.R., E-mail: baldan@las.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Synthetic boron doped diamond films were grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • We characterized the films by hall effects as a function of temperature and magnetic field. • The resistivity was investigated. • The conduction mechanism was dominated by variable range hopping (VRH). - Abstract: The influence of doping level in the electronic conductivity and resistivity properties of synthetic diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was investigated. Eight different doping level concentrations varied from 500 to 30,000 ppm were considered. The polycrystalline morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra was strongly affected by the addition of boron. The electric characterization by Hall effect as a function of temperature and magnetic field showed that at sufficiently low temperatures, electrical conduction is dominated by variable range hopping (VRH) conducting process. The resistivity was also investigated by temperature-dependent transport measurements in order to investigate the conduction mechanism in the doped samples. The samples exhibited the VRH (m = 1/4) mechanism in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. The interface between metal, and our HFCVD diamond was also investigated for the lower doped samples.

  14. Aluminum/boron composite - fatigue life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumtree, A.; Glinka, G.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue behaviour of a 6061-0 aluminum alloy reinforce with 0.25 volume fraction undirectional boron fibres of 100 μm diameter has been investigated. The specimens were tested under constant stress amplitude using a stress ratio (minimum/maximum stress) of 0.2 with the fibres oriented at an angle to the loading direction in order to study the matrix dominated fatigue behaviour. Two sets of data were obtained for unidirectional specimens tested with fibre to load axis angles of 200 and 450 A third set of data was obtained with V 45 angle-ply specimens. It is shown that a microstress/strain analysis in conjunction with a multiaxial fatigue parameter can be applied to successfully predict the fatigue lives of these boron reinforced aluminum alloy composites. The multiaxial parameter enables a generalized strain-life relationship to be determined using limited experimental data. Once this generalized relationship is known, the life of the composite cycled under different loads and load-fibre angles can be predicted. (author)

  15. The boron connection: Roots (routes), grounds, horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdetsis, Aristides D.

    2012-12-01

    Isoelectronic and isolobal silicon-based analogues to boranes and borane complexes are considered and studied. The framework and the implementation of such isoelectronic and isolobal analogies initially between silicon clusters (cluster dianions) and isovalent boranes, known under the scoptical and synoptical name "boron connection" is critically analyzed and reviewed in considerable depth and breadth, paying special attention to its conceptual simplicity, origin, and originality. It is illustrated that such a concept can be extended to several borane complexes producing analogous silicon based (nano)structures. This is achieved by considering and evaluating several vertical, horizontal and diagonal relationships on the periodical table rooted on Si. It is shown that this type of simple and transparent relationships can lead to far reaching extensions and generalizations of the "boron connection" to encompass structural and electronic relationships between additional simple and mixed clusters based in addition to Si on other group 14 elements. Such clusters include, among others, simple Gen2- and Snn2- dianions and mixed Si-Bi, Ge-Bi and Sn-Bi clusters. Special emphasis is placed on molecular and material engineering and functionalization, in analogy to similar functionalization of borane based molecules and materials. It is illustrated that this enlarged and expanded project is very promising and could be very successful for the design of a practically unlimited number of new group-14-based complexes as well as the rationalization and fictionalization of newly synthesized materials.

  16. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  17. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  18. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  19. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Effect of nickel silicide gettering on metal-induced crystallized polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Lee, Yong Hee; Joo, Seung Ki

    2017-06-01

    Low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via metal-induced crystallization (MIC) are attractive candidates for use in active-matrix flat-panel displays. However, these exhibit a large leakage current due to the nickel silicide being trapped at the grain boundaries of the poly-Si. We reduced the leakage current of the MIC poly-Si TFTs by developing a gettering method to remove the Ni impurities using a Si getter layer and natively-formed SiO2 as the etch stop interlayer. The Ni trap state density (Nt) in the MIC poly-Si film decreased after the Ni silicide gettering, and as a result, the leakage current of the MIC poly-Si TFTs decreased. Furthermore, the leakage current of MIC poly-Si TFTs gradually decreased with additional gettering. To explain the gettering effect on MIC poly-Si TFTs, we suggest an appropriate model. He received the B.S. degree in School of Advanced Materials Engineering from Kookmin University, Seoul, South Korea in 2012, and the M.S. degree in Department of Materials Science and Engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea in 2014. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul. He is involved in semiconductor device fabrication technology and top-gate polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors. He received the M.S. degree in innovation technology from Ecol Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France in 2013. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul. He is involved in semiconductor device fabrication technology and bottom-gate polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors. He is currently pursuing the integrated M.S and Ph.D course with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul. He is involved in semiconductor device fabrication technology and copper

  1. Semiconducting iron silicide thin films on silicon (111) with large Hall mobility and low residual electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muret, P.; Ali, I.; Brunel, M.

    1998-10-01

    Unprecedented Hall mobility, electron concentration and photoconductivity are demonstrated in semiconducting 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 thin films prepared on Si(111) surfaces by co-sputtering of iron and silicon followed by post-anneal. Characterization of the silicide as a function of the initial temperature and post-treatment shows that annealing temperatures above 0268-1242/13/10/020/img8C are needed to obtain single phase 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7. Reactive deposition on substrates heated at 0268-1242/13/10/020/img11C leads to textured films. Majority carriers are electrons in all these unintentionally doped films. Hall concentrations between 0268-1242/13/10/020/img12 and 0268-1242/13/10/020/img13 electrons 0268-1242/13/10/020/img14 and respective Hall mobilities from 290 to 0268-1242/13/10/020/img15 are measured at room temperature, involving two different conduction band minima in these two extreme cases. Only deep centres exist in the samples having the lower carrier concentration. In such a situation, raw data must be corrected for the substrate contribution to extract values which are relevant for the 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 film alone. Photoconductivity also takes place in these samples: at 80 K, it shows a maximum value at the direct band gap of 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 while at 296 K a step still appears at the same energy. Such results are a consequence of the important decrease of the residual impurity concentration in comparison to values previously published.

  2. Valence electron structure analysis of the cubic silicide intermetallics in rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Q.; Qian, C.F.; Zhang, B.J.; Tseng, M.K.; Xiong, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The application of rapid solidification for the development of elevated temperature aluminum alloys has resulted in the emergence of several alloys based on the Al-Fe alloy system. Of particular interest are Al-Fe-V-Si alloys which have excellent room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties. In a pioneering study, Skinner et al. showed the stabilization of the cubic phase in ternary Al-Fe-Si alloy by the addition of a quaternary element, vanadium. The evolution of the microstructure in these alloys both during rapid solidification and subsequent processing is of crucial importance. Kim has demonstrated that the composition of the silicide phase in rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy is very close to Al 12 (Fe,V) 3 Si with the body centered cubic (bcc) structure. The structure is closely related to that of quasicrystals.In view of the structural features and the relationship between the α 12 and α 13 phases, the researching emphasis should firstly be put on the α 12 phase. In this paper the authors analyzed the α -(AlFeSi)(α 12 -type) phase from the angle of atomic valence electron structure other than the traditional methods of obtaining the diffraction spots of the phase. Several pieces of information were obtained about the hybrid levels and bond natures of every kind of atom in the α -(AlFeSi) phase. Finally the authors explained the phenomenon which V atom can substitute for Fe atom in the α 12 phase and improve the thermal stability of the phase in Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

  3. INFLUENCE OF MICROALLOYING BY BORON ON HARDENABILITY OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Baradyntseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in laboratory of metallurgical science by which the factors exerting impact on hardenability of steel microalloyed by boron were analysed. The research was made because the implementation of this process in mass production is connected with the certain difficulties. The conducted researches have allowed to draw a conclusion that changing content of various chemical elements, such as nitrogen, boron, the titan and aluminum in steel containing boron, produced by JSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC» at the stage of preparation of chart flowsheet make it possible to predict terms of hardenability of the final product.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of boron-10 in neutron detectors electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Vinhas, L.A.; Vieira, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Process of boron-10 electrophoresis on large area of aluminum substrates was developed with the aim of using them in the construction of neutron detectors. After definition and optimization of the boron electrophoresis parameters, depositions of boron-10 on aluminum cylinders were performed and used as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. These prototypes were designed and builded at IPEN-CNEN-SP, and submited for characterization tests at IEA-R1 reactor, and they fulfil the technical specifications of the project. (author) [pt

  5. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  6. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-01

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20-60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable mechanistic

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Xiang [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, B{sub x}Al{sub y}H{sub z}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Li, Xiang; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Kandalam, Anil K

    2014-04-28

    Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, BxAlyHz(-), were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

  9. Coordination Networks Based on Boronate and Benzoxaborolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive range of investigations on boronic acids (R-B(OH2, some aspects of their reactivity still need to be explored. This is the case for the coordination chemistry of boronate anions (R-B(OH3−, which has only recently been started to be studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the key features of boronate ligands (and of their cyclic derivatives, benzoxaborolates in materials: (i coordination properties; (ii spectroscopic signatures; and (iii emerging applications.

  10. Kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of boron on molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, W.; Nakaanishi, N.; Kato, E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental rate data of chemical vapor deposition of boron by reduction of boron trichloride with hydrogen are analyzed to determine the reaction mechanism. The reaction orders with respect to the partial pressures of hydrogen and boron trichloride are one half and one third, respectively. It has been found that the outer layer of a deposited film is Mo/sub 2/B/sub 5/ and the inner layer is MoB by the use of X-ray diffraction and EPMA line analysis

  11. Determination of boron in silicon related nuclear materials by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Sayi, Y.S.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Boron is one of the important specifications in all-nuclear materials. The present paper describes in detail about the determination of boron in U-Al-Si and SILUMIN. The sample is treated with H 2 O 2 and 3 M HCl. Silicon will be left as precipitate. It was removed by centrifugation. Boron was selectively separated by solvent extraction with 10% 2-ethyl hexane 1,3-diol and was quantitatively determined by spectrophotometry using curcumin as complexing agent. Since standard reference materials are not available, standard addition method was employed to confirm the results. (author)

  12. Boron-doped nanodiamonds as possible agents for local hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervald, A. M.; Burikov, S. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Ekimov, E. A.; Shenderova, O. A.; Dolenko, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the effective heating of surrounding water by heavily-boron-doped nanodiamonds (NDs) under laser irradiation of visible wavelength was found. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy of aqueous suspensions of boron-doped NDs, it was found that this abnormally high heating results in the weakening of hydrogen bonds much more so (2-5 times stronger) than for undoped NDs. The property of boron-doped NDs to heat a solvent under the influence of laser radiation (1-5 W cm-2) opens broad prospects for their use to create nanoagents for medical oncology and local hyperthermia.

  13. First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sutherland DG, Van Buuren T, Carlisle JA, Terminello LJ, Himpsel FJ. Photoemission and x - ray -absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal...along the C-C chain. If the interstitial dopant is either B or C, a local boron carbide (B4C)-like structure with either a C-B-C or C-C-C chain is...strength, high oxidation resistance (򒱰 °C), and chemical inertness.1–8 However, unlike other high-performance ceramics, boron carbide (B4C) and

  14. Click Reactions and Boronic Acids: Applications, Issues, and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Dai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Boronic acids have been widely used in a wide range of organic reactions, in the preparation of sensors for carbohydrates, and as potential pharmaceutical agents. With the growing importance of click reactions, inevitably they are also applied to the synthesis of compounds containing the boronic acid moiety. However, such applications have unique problems. Chief among them is the issue of copper-mediated boronic acid degradation in copper-assisted [2,3]-cycloadditions involving an alkyne and an azido compound as the starting materials. This review summarizes recent developments, analyzes potential issues, and discusses known as well as possible solutions.

  15. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated.

  16. On certain topological indices of boron triangular nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, Adnan [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Natural Sciences and Humanities; Ahmad, Safyan [GC Univ. Lahore (Pakistan). Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences; Gao, Wei [Yunnan Normal Univ., Kunming (China). School of Information Science and Technology

    2017-11-01

    The topological index gives information about the whole structure of a chemical graph, especially degree-based topological indices that are very useful. Boron triangular nanotubes are now replacing usual carbon nanotubes due to their excellent properties. We have computed general Randic (R{sub a}), first Zagreb (M{sub 1}) and second Zagreb (M{sub 2}), atom-bond connectivity (ABC), and geometric-arithmetic (GA) indices of boron triangular nanotubes. Also, we have computed the fourth version of atom-bond connectivity (ABC{sub 4}) and the fifth version of geometric-arithmetic (GA{sub 5}) indices of boron triangular nanotubes.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of β-boron and some boron compounds. Final report, August 1981-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, G.A.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Miller, M.L.; Huseby, I.C.

    1984-12-01

    The thermoelectric properties, that is the Seebeck coefficient, and electrical and thermal conductivity, of doped β-boron have been measured from 300 to 1600 K. Most of the useful doping elements are transition metals and occupy interstitial sites in the lattice. The highest figure of merit so far achieved at 1000 K is ZT = 0.11 for P-type, polycrystalline, hot-pressed β-boron doped with copper. Higher values may be achievable once a better P-type dopant is found. Some experiments on B 68 Y, α-B 12 Al, B 4 C, and B 6 Si are described. Transition metals appear to be effective dopants for B 68 Y and B 4 C

  18. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008 and 2 to determine response and relations among the traits when four of the female inbred lines are treated by foliar boron fertilization - three times in 10-days interval with 0.5% Solubor solution (17.5% B during one growing season (2008. The investigations were performed on Experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek, (soil type: eutrical cambisol. Highly significant differences among the nine female inbred lines were detected for B concentration in ear-leaf (from 14.7 to 46.7 mg B kg-1 and grain (from 1.20 to 2.06 mg B kg-1 as well as for grain yield (from 3.33 to 4.83 t ha-1 and grain moisture (from 14.7% to 26.6%. However, there were also significant effects of growing season and the genotype by environment interaction for all four traits. Positive and moderate correlations were found between the boron status in plant and grain yield. Although B concentrations were considerably increased by foliar boron fertilization (averages 41.7 and 125.3 mg B kg-1 in leaves, 1.79 and 2.80 mg B kg-1 in grain, for control and fertilization, respectively, in general grain yield differences among treatments were non-significant. (averages 5.21 and 5.15 t ha-1, respectively.

  19. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić Luka; Kovačević Vlado; Kadar Imre; Jambrović Antun; Plavšić Hrvoje; Šimić Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008) and 2) to determine response and relation...

  20. B-decachloro-o-carborane derivatives as suitable boron carriers for the preparation of water-soluble boron-conjugated macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, D.; Walczyna, R.; Wellmann, F.; Riesenberg, H.; Hocke, I.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of boron-containing macromolecules, especially immunoglobulins, for boron neutron capture therapy, has so far been rather unsuccessful, because of the increased water insolubility of heavily substituted proteins. By using polar boron compounds, some of the difficulties previously encountered in the preparation of boron-conjugated immunoglobulins might be overcome. To this end, the authors have investigated the use of B-decachloro-o-carborane (B 10 Cl 10 C 2 H 2 ) for the preparation of water-soluble macromolecules

  1. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Novel boron channel-based structure of boron carbide at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun; Cheng, Taimin; Chen, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the hardest materials known to date. The extreme hardness of B4C arises from architecturally efficient B12 or B11C icosahedrons and strong inter-icosahedral B-C bonding. As an excellent material for use in ballistic armor, the mechanic limit of B4C and possible phase transitions under extreme stress conditions are of great interest. Here we systematically explored the post-icosahedral solid structures of B4C under high pressure, using an unbiased structure search method. A new structure composed of extended framework of B and zigzag chains of C is predicted to be stable above 96 GPa. The new structure was predicted to have a high Vickers hardness of 55 GPa and simultaneously to retain a metallic ground state. The exceptional mechanical properties found in this structure are attributed to strong sp 3 covalent network formed under extreme pressure conditions. The predicted structure represents a new type of superhard boron carbides that form under high pressure without the presence of boron icosahedrons, which encourages experimental exploration in this direction.

  3. Biocompatibility of functionalized boron phosphate (BPO4) nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Grandi, Stefania; Ciana, Annarita; Guidetti, Gianni F; Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Cansolino, Laura; Tomasi, Corrado; Balduini, Alessandra; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Merli, Daniele; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Canobbio, Ilaria; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing the death of the neoplastic cell. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used boron-containing compounds. Here we report the development and the characterization of BPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel possible alternative drug for BNCT. An extensive analysis of BPO4 NP biocompatibility was performed using both mature blood cells (erythrocytes, neutrophils and platelets) and a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity study was performed on neoplastic coloncarcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BPO4 functionalization with folic acid, introduced to improve the uptake by tumor cells, appeared to effectively limit the unwanted effects of NPs on the analyzed blood components. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality based on the accumulation of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, inducing the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing neoplastic cell death. This team of authors reports on a folic acid functionalized BPO4 nanoparticle with improved characteristics compared with conventional BNCT approaches, as demonstrated in tumor cell lines, and hopefully to be followed by translational human studies. © 2014.

  4. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.

    2006-01-01

    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  5. Photoelectron diffraction study and structure determination of ultrathin hafnium silicide layers on silicon(1 0 0) using Mg K{alpha} radiation and synchrotron light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluechter, C.R. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: christian.fluechter@uni-dortmund.de; Siervo, A. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Weier, D. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Schuermann, M. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Berges, U. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Dreiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Carazzolle, M.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Landers, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, C.P. 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kleiman, G.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Westphal, C. [Experimentelle Physik 1, Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); DELTA, Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    In order to increase the switching speed and the efficiency of modern semiconductor devices a further down scaling is desired. Thus, the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric might be replaced by layers of a material with a much higher dielectric constant like HfO{sub 2}. A major problem of the system HfO{sub 2}/Si(1 0 0) is the silicidation of hafnium at the interface. Therefore, ultrathin films (3-30 A) of HfSi{sub 2} on Si(1 0 0) were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron diffraction. Synchrotron light with an energy of h{nu} = 180 eV was used for excitation. First results were obtained using a Mg X-ray tube (h{nu} = 1253.6 eV). In order to determine the structure of the films, the recorded photoelectron diffraction patterns were compared to computer simulations of model structures. The simulations for the low-energy measurements were performed using the program MSPHD. As a result a modified zirconium silicide structure is presented in order to describe the structure of ultrathin HfSi{sub 2} films on Si(1 0 0)

  6. Synthesis of nano-patterned and Nickel Silicide embedded amorphous Si thin layer by ion implantation for higher efficiency solar devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, D.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Naik, V.; Satpati, B.; Karmakar, P.

    2017-11-01

    We report the ion beam based single step synthesis process of surface-patterned amorphous Silicon (a-Si) with a buried plasmon active nickel silicide layer for the realization of cost-effective, higher efficiency Silicon (Si) photovoltaic devices. Simultaneous amorphization, surface pattern formation and buried layer development are achieved by normal incidence 10 keV Ni1+ ion bombardment on Si(100) surface at a fluence of 1 × 1017. Atomic Force Microscopy study shows rim-surrounded crater like periodic nanostructure on the surface whereas cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy detects the amorphization and implant buried layer just below the surface. The distribution of implanted Ni ions and Si vacancies, obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation (SRIM) is consistent with the experimental results. Spatially resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurement detects that the buried layer is nickel silicide. The potential application of such nano-patterned and plasmon active system for future low-cost a-Si based higher efficient Photovoltaic devices is discussed.

  7. Bimetallic low thermal-expansion panels of Co-base and silicide-coated Nb-base alloys for high-temperature structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, R.K.; Novak, M.D.; Levi, C.G.; Pollock, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low net thermal expansion bimetallic structural lattice constructed. → Temperatures on the order of 1000 deg. C reached. → Improved silicide coating for niobium alloy developed. - Abstract: The fabrication and high temperature performance of low thermal expansion bimetallic lattices composed of Co-base and Nb-base alloys have been investigated. A 2D sheet lattice with a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) lower than the constituent materials of construction was designed for thermal cycling to 1000 deg. C with the use of elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The low CTE lattice consisted of a continuous network of the Nb-base alloy C-103 with inserts of high CTE Co-base alloy Haynes 188. A new coating approach wherein submicron alumina particles were incorporated into (Nb, Cr, Fe) silicide coatings was employed for oxidation protection of the Nb-base alloy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results indicate that the addition of submicron alumina particles reduced the oxidative mass gain by a factor of four during thermal cycling, increasing lifetime. Bimetallic cells with net expansion of 6 x 10 -6 /deg. C and 1 x 10 -6 /deg. C at 1000 deg. C were demonstrated and their measured thermal expansion characteristics were consistent with analytical models and finite element analysis predictions.

  8. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  9. On surface Raman scattering and luminescence radiation in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Filipov, V; Schwarz, U; Armbrüster, M; Leithe-Jasper, A; Tanaka, T; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-02-03

    The discrepancy between Raman spectra of boron carbide obtained by Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman spectrometry is systematically investigated. While at photon energies below the exciton energy (1.560 eV), Raman scattering of bulk phonons of boron carbide occurs, photon energies exceeding the fundamental absorption edge (2.09 eV) evoke additional patterns, which may essentially be attributed to luminescence or to the excitation of Raman-active processes in the surface region. The reason for this is the very high fundamental absorption in boron carbide inducing a very small penetration depth of the exciting laser radiation. Raman excitations essentially restricted to the boron carbide surface region yield spectra which considerably differ from bulk phonon ones, thus indicating structural modifications.

  10. Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses.

  11. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  12. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  13. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomura, T.; Furutani, H.; Osawa, M.; Ono, K.; Fukuda, K.

    2000-01-01

    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  14. Microstructural characterization aluminium alloys from the addition of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, A.G.P.; Pipano, T.F.; Mota, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Ramos, E.C.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the electrical industry, the aluminum becomes attractive because it has excellent characteristics for transmitting electricity. The liquid aluminum has in its composition transition elements (zirconium, titanium, vanadium and chromium) that interfere negatively on the quality of the product. The addition of aluminum-boron alloys have been used to remove transition metals through the formation of borides, enabling an increase in electrical conductivity. However, no detailed reports of reactions between boron, transition metals and primary aluminum engines. However, the objective is to determine the stoichiometric composition that enables an increase in electrical conductivity of an aluminum alloy. Samples with different concentrations of boron were characterized by optical emission spectrometry, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The addition of boron in excess reduces the time in the formation of borides, and enable an increase in electrical conductivity. (author)

  15. Spectrographic determination of traces of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Roca, M.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrographic method has been developed to determine quantitatively boron in steels in the 0.5 to 250 ppm concentration range. The samples are dissolved in acids and transformed into oxides, avoiding boron losses by the addition of mannitol. For the fluoride evolution of boron in the dc arc the following compounds have been considered: CuF 2 , LiF, NaF, and SrF 2 . CuF 2 , at a concentration of 10%, provides the highest line-to-background intensity ratio. An arc current of 5 amperes eliminates the interference from iron spectrum on the most sensitive boron line - B 2497.7 A. Variations in chromium and nickel contents have no effect on the analytical results. (author)

  16. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of boron release and biological resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOT) and a commercial water repellent compound. Leachates sampled from the leaching cycles for 10 days and extracts from treated wood specimens were analyzed for boron content. Treated wood specimens were exposed to wood degrading ...

  18. Effect of Boronization on Ohmic Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Blanchard, W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; LaMarche, P.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Nishino, N.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2001-01-01

    Boronization of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has enabled access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas. A glow discharge with 4 mTorr helium and 10% deuterated trimethyl boron deposited 1.7 g of boron on the plasma facing surfaces. Ion beam analysis of witness coupons showed a B+C areal density of 10 to the 18 (B+C) cm to the -2 corresponding to a film thickness of 100 nm. Subsequent ohmic discharges showed oxygen emission lines reduced by x15, carbon emission reduced by two and copper reduced to undetectable levels. After boronization, the plasma current flattop time increased by 70% enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas

  19. Preparation of boron nitride fiber by organic precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, boron nitride polymer precursor was made by boric acid, melamine, twelve sodium alkyl sulfate as raw materials and pure water as medium which is heated to 70 °C. Boron nitride precursor polymer was soluble in formic acid solution. The boron nitride precursor can be electrostatically spun at the voltage in 23 kV and the distance between the positive and negative poles is 15 cm. The formed fiber is very uniform. The properties of the precursors were analyzed through electron microscope, infrared spectrum, X-ray and ultraviolet spectrum. The aim of the job is to got the precursor of BN and spun it. Keywords: Melamine, Boric acid, Boron nitride precursor, Electrostatic spinning

  20. Calculation of local boron dilution accidents with the Hextran code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Stenius, T.

    1995-01-01

    Possibilities of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) due to local boron dilution slugs entering the core of PWRs have been widely studied in recent years. In Finland the main analysis tool for reactor dynamics RIA calculations has been the three dimensional HEXTRAN code which also includes full circuit models. Reliable calculation of propagating boron fronts is very difficult with standard numerical algorithms because numerical diffusion tends to smoothen the front. Thus the reactivity effect of the boron dilution can be significantly lowered and conservatism of the analyses cannot be guaranteed. In normal flow conditions this problem has been avoided in HEXTRAN analyses by simulating the dilution front directly to the core inlet. In natural circulation conditions there occurs significant numerical diffusion even during the propagation of boron front inside the core. Therefore a new hydraulics solution method PLIM (Piecewise Linear Interpolation Method) has been applied to HEXTRAN. Examples are given of analyses made with HEXTRAN in both flow conditions