Sample records for boron silicates

  1. The boron geochemistry of siliceous sponges (United States)

    de Leon, A.; Wille, M.; Eggins, S. M.; Ellwood, M. J.


    The boron content and isotopic composition (δ11B) of marine carbonate organisms can be linked to the pH of the seawater in which they have grown, making carbonates a useful tool for palaeo-seawater pH reconstruction. A study by Furst (1981) documented unusually high boron concentrations in siliceous sponge spicules, in range from hundreds to a thousand ppm. This observation and the potential for preferential incorporation of the tetrahedral borate species into biogenic silica raises the question as to whether the boron chemistry of biogenic silica might also be influenced by seawater pH. We have measured the boron concentration and isotopic composition of siliceous sponges from the Southern Ocean region, with a view to (1) confirming the observations of Furst (1981), (2) assessing the factors that control boron incorporation and isotopic compositions of sponge silica, and (3) investigating the potentially significant role of siliceous sponges in the marine boron cycle. The measured boron concentrations in a diverse range of both demosponge and hexactinellid sponges confirm the high boron concentrations previously reported. The boron isotope compositions of these sponges vary from around +2‰ to +25‰ and greatly exceed the range in marine carbonates. This isotopic variation is inconsistent with seawater pH control but is correlated with ambient seawater silicon concentration, in a manner that suggests a link to silicon uptake kinetics and demand by sponges.

  2. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro


    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  3. Boron in siliceous materials as a paleosalinity indicator * (United States)

    Furst, Marian J.


    The 10B(n, α) 7Li nuclear reaction has been used with alpha-sensitive plastic track detectors to determine boron concentrations in siliceous live-collected and fossil sponge spicules. This radiographic technique allows B determinations with 5-6% uncertainties on objects 20-25 μm in diameter and for concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm. Boron concentrations in spicules from different specimens from the same location agreed to within 10% when the spicules were not: (1) smaller than 20 μm in diameter, (2) from dictyonine skeletons, (3) the extremely large root-like spicules found in some soft substrate hexactinellids, or (4) microscleres. These criteria also applied to spicules found in sediment samples. Spicules from live-collected sponges exhibited a taxonomy-independent correlation of B concentrations with water salinity for samples from regions of low water temperature and high productivity. Measured concentrations ranged from nearly 0 ppm B (freshwater sponges) to 500-700 ppm (marine sponges), with intermediate values for brackish-water specimens. However, spicules from tropical, low-productivity marine locations contained markedly less boron than spicules from temperate, high-productivity regions. Thus, water temperature and/or food supply also seem to influence B concentrations. Pleistocene spicules from deep-sea cores contained less boron than was expected in comparison with live-collected spicules based on present water temperatures and nutrient supplies, but B concentrations did not vary with depth in the cores. Infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis and visual inspection revealed no evidence for chemical or mineralogic alteration. It is not clear whether the lower B concentrations of the Pleistocene samples are the result of diagenetic processes or the as yet undefined effects of differences in food supply and/or environmental conditions.

  4. Enhancement and retardation of thermal boron diffusion in silicon from atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposited boron silicate glass film (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro


    Thermal boron diffusion into silicon from boron silicate glass (BSG) prepared by atmospheric pressure CVD (AP-CVD) has been investigated in terms of the BSG boron concentration dependence on diffusion mechanism for N-type solar cell applications. With thermal diffusion at 950 °C in N2 for 20 min, the sheet resistance of the boron-diffused layer decreases with BSG boron concentration up to approximately 4 × 1021 cm-3 at which a boron-rich layer (BRL) is formed at the surface. However, the resistance increases with BSG boron concentration when the BSG boron concentration is higher than 4 × 1021 cm-3. It is also confirmed that the diffusion depth decreases with increasing BSG boron concentration within this BSG concentration region. To clarify this mechanism, the BSG boron concentration dependence on boron diffusivity has also been studied. From extracted diffusivities, the anomalous diffusion can be explained by silicon interstitials formed owing to kick-out by diffused boron atoms and by silicon interstitial generation-degradation due to BRL formation.

  5. Investigation of Boron Thermal Diffusion from Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposited Boron Silicate Glass for N-Type Solar Cell Process Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Kurachi


    Full Text Available An atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD system has been newly developed for boron silicate glass (BSG film deposition dedicating to solar cell manufacturing. Using the system, thermal boron diffusion from the BSG film is investigated and confirmed in terms of process stability for surface property before BSG deposition and BSG thickness. No degradation in carrier lifetime is also confirmed. A boron diffusion simulator has been newly developed and demonstrated for optimization of this process. Then, the boron thermal diffusion from AP-CVD BSG is considered to be the suitable method for N-type silicon solar cell manufacturing.

  6. Ablation behavior and mechanism of boron nitride - magnesium aluminum silicate ceramic composites in an oxyacetylene combustion flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua; Yuan, Jingkun; Duan, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengjin; Ocelik, Vaclav; De Hossond, J. TH. M.; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu


    In the present study, ablation behavior and properties of BN-MAS (magnesium aluminum silicate) composites impinged with an oxyacetylene flame at temperatures up to 3100 degrees C were investigated. As ablation time ranged from 5 to 30 s, the mass and linear ablation rates increased from 0.0027 g/s

  7. Chemical stability and osteogenic activity of plasma-sprayed boron-modified calcium silicate-based coatings. (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Li, Kai; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin


    In recent years, CaSiO 3 bio-ceramic coatings have attracted great attention because of their good bioactivity. However, their high degradation rates in physiological environment restrict their practical applications. In this work, boron-modified CaSiO 3 ceramic (Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 , B-CS) coating was developed on Ti substrates by plasma-spraying technique attempting to obtain enhanced chemical stability and osteogenic activity. The B-CS coating possessed significantly increased chemical stability due to the introduction of boron and consequently the modified crystal structure, while maintaining good bioactivity. Scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence studies showed that better cellular adhesion and extinctive filopodia-like processes were observed on the B-CS coating. Compared with the pure CaSiO 3 (CS) coating, the B-CS coating promoted MC3T3-E1 cells attachment and proliferation. In addition, enhanced collagen I (COL-I) secretion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization levels were detected from the B-CS coating. According to RT-PCR results, notable up-regulation expressions of mineralized tissue-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) were observed on the B-CS coating compared with the CS coating. The above results suggested that Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 coatings possess excellent osteogenic activity and might be a promising candidate for orthopedic applications.

  8. Silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.


    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  9. Boron reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.


    A process to recover high purity 10 B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron

  10. Synthesis of Boron Nano wires, Nano tubes, and Nano sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Chou, T.; Iqbal, Z.


    The synthesis of boron nano wires, nano tubes, and nano sheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nano materials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nano wires, boron nano tubes, and boron nano sheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  11. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta


    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.

  12. Two aspects of thin film analysis: boron profile and scattering length density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Mayer, H.H. E-mail:; Lamaze, G.P.; Coakley, K.J.; Satija, S.K


    Boron/phosphorus-doped silicate glass (BPSG) thin films are widely used in microelectronic circuit devices. We employ two neutron techniques to investigate a 200-nm thick BPSG film: neutron depth profiling (NDP) and neutron reflectometry (NR) to obtain complementary information on the boron containing layer.

  13. Silicate volcanism on Io (United States)

    Carr, M. H.


    This paper is mainly concerned with the nature of volcanic eruptions on Io, taking into account questions regarding the presence of silicates or sulfur as principal component. Attention is given to the generation of silicate magma, the viscous dissipation in the melt zone, thermal anomalies at eruption sites, and Ionian volcanism. According to the information available about Io, it appears that its volcanism and hence its surface materials are dominantly silicic. Several percent of volatile materials such as sulfur, but also including sodium- and potassium-rich materials, may also be present. The volatile materials at the surface are continually vaporized and melted as a result of the high rates of silicate volcanism.

  14. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich


    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  15. Boron nitride composites (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.


    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  16. Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)


    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  17. Methods of forming boron nitride (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L


    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  18. Electrophoretic deposits of boron on duralumin plates used for measuring neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.M.; Magnier, P.; Finck, C.


    Preparation of boron thin film deposits of around 1 mg per cm 2 on duralumin plates with a diameter of 8 cm. The boron coated plates for ionization chambers were originally prepared at the CEA by pulverization of boron carbides on sodium silicates. This method is not controlling precisely enough the quantity of boron deposit. Thus, an electrophoretic method is considered for a better control of the quantity of boron deposit in the scope of using in the future boron 10 which is costly and rare. The method described by O. Flint is not satisfying enough and a similar electrophoretic process has been developed. Full description of the method is given as well as explanation of the use of dried methanol as solvent, tannin as electrolyte and magnesium chloride to avoid alumina formation. (M.P.)

  19. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  20. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... silicate nanocomposites and their structure-properties relationship. In the first part of the thesis, thermoplastic layered silicates were obtained by extrusion. Different modification methods were tested to observe the intercalation treatment effect on the silicate-modifier interactions. The silicate...... modification was studied at different silicate/modifier ratios and properties were investigated for obtained nanocomposites with different amounts of modified layered silicate loadings. The obtained nanocomposites presented improved mechanical properties such as toughness, stiffness or a good balance between...

  1. Silicates in Alien Asteroids (United States)


    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  2. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.M.; Finck, C.


    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 μ. Grain sizes smaller than 1μ are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [fr

  3. Synthesis of radium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A; Agayev, T.N; Mansimov, Z.A


    Full text :One of the possible ways of implementation of the processes of molecular hydrogen radiologic of the elements in the differential heat of water as a catalyst for the collapse of the creation of a special nuclear reactors. A chemical process in radiation-4-oxide-silicon compounds, which is one of the radium, is of great importance. Research in the silicon-oxide-radiumun different activity-4 has been synthesized. As initial substances for the synthesis of tetra etiolate silicate and radium chloride solutions were used. At the same time to remove reaction products from the reaction intermediate in acetate acid was used. The intermediate product was reacted with ethyl alcohol ethyl acetate ether acetate acid that forms from the reaction of the temperature effect is broken. As a result, 4-oxide was initially pure silicon.

  4. Radiation response of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films (United States)

    Manzini, Ayelén; Alurralde, Martín; Luca, Vittorio


    The radiation response has been studied of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films having different boron contents prepared using the block copolymer template Brij 58 and the dip coating technique. The degree of pore ordering of the films was analysed using low-angle X-ray diffraction and film thickness measured by X-ray reflectivity. For films calcined at 350 °C, the incorporation of boron resulted in a reproducible oscillatory variation in the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflection as a function of boron content. A clear peak was observed in the d-spacing at 5-10 mol% boron incorporation. For borosilicate films of a given composition an overall suppression of d-spacing was observed as a function of aging time relative to films that did not contain boron. This was ascribed to a slow condensation process. The films were irradiated in pile with neutrons and with iodine ions at energies of 180 keV and 70 MeV. Neutron irradiation of the silicate thin films for periods up to 30 days and aged for 400 days resulted in little reduction in either d-spacing or intensity of the primary low-angle X-ray reflection indicating that the films retained their mesopore ordering. In contrast borosilicate films for which the B (n, α) reaction was expected to result in enhanced displacement damage showed much larger variations in X-ray parameters. For these films short irradiation times resulted in a reduction of the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflections considerably beyond that observed through aging. It is concluded that prolonged neutron irradiation and internal α irradiation have only a small, although measurable, impact on mesoporous borosilicate thin films increasing the degree of condensation and increasing unit cell contraction. When these borosilicate films were irradiated with iodine ions, more profound changes occurred. The pore ordering of the films was significantly degraded when low energy ions were used. In some cases the degree

  5. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric


    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  6. Radioanalysis of siliceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.


    Both natural and induced radioactivity as well as man-made radiotracers may be applied to assess quality and its maintenance a widely varying range of siliceous materials. One example of industrial application is given for each of these three branches. Natural Radioactivity: The measurement of 222-Rn emanation from building material components serves the determination of the internal diffusion and thus of the effective porosity as well as the usual environmental control. Radiotracers: The specific surface area of silica components can be obtained from measurements of the chemisorptions of fluoride and its kinetics, using acid fluoride solutions and carrier-free 18-F, Tl/2 = 110 min, as the radiotracer. This also enables the determination of fluoride in drinking water at the (sub-) ppm level by spiking isotope dilution and substoichiometric adsorption to small glass beads. Neutron activation analysis (NAA): Concentration profiles down to the micro m-range of trace elements in small electronic components of irregular shape are derived from combination of NAA with controlled sequential etching flux in dilute HF-solutions. The cases of Na, Mn, Co and Se by instrumental NAA and that of W by chemical isolation from the reagent solution are considered. (author)

  7. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M.F.


    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues

  8. Electrophoretic deposits of boron on duralumin plates used for measuring neutron flux; Depots electrophoretiques de bore sur plaques de duralumin destines a des mesures de flux de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F.M.; Magnier, P.; Finck, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Preparation of boron thin film deposits of around 1 mg per cm{sup 2} on duralumin plates with a diameter of 8 cm. The boron coated plates for ionization chambers were originally prepared at the CEA by pulverization of boron carbides on sodium silicates. This method is not controlling precisely enough the quantity of boron deposit. Thus, an electrophoretic method is considered for a better control of the quantity of boron deposit in the scope of using in the future boron 10 which is costly and rare. The method described by O. Flint is not satisfying enough and a similar electrophoretic process has been developed. Full description of the method is given as well as explanation of the use of dried methanol as solvent, tannin as electrolyte and magnesium chloride to avoid alumina formation. (M.P.)


    Hudson, Sarah; Padera, Robert F.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.


    Micro- and nano- mesoporous silicate particles are considered potential drug delivery systems because of their ordered pore structures, large surface areas and the ease with which they can be chemically modified. However, few cytotoxicity or biocompatibility studies have been reported, especially when silicates are administered in the quantities necessary to deliver low-potency drugs. The biocompatibility of mesoporous silicates of particle sizes ~ 150 nm, ~ 800 nm and ~ 4 µm and pore sizes of 3 nm, 7 nm and 16 nm respectively are examined here. In vitro, mesoporous silicates showed a significant degree of toxicity at high concentrations with mesothelial cells. Following subcutaneous injection of silicates in rats, the amount of residual material decreased progressively over three months, with good biocompatibility on histology at all time points. In contrast, intra peritoneal and intra venous injections in mice resulted in death or euthanasia. No toxicity was seen with subcutaneous injection of the same particles in mice. Microscopic analysis of the lung tissue of the mice indicates that death may be due to thrombosis. Although local tissue reaction to mesoporous silicates was benign, they caused severe systemic toxicity. This toxicity could be mitigated by modification of the materials. PMID:18675454

  10. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental phase contrast images and the diffraction pattern. Figure 3. (a) Bright field image of electrodeposited boron spec- imen showing a crystallite of size ∼10 × 5 nm; (b) phase contrast image of electrodeposited boron specimen showing a resolved la- ttice and (c) power spectrum of electrodeposited boron specimen.

  11. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.


    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  12. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.


    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  13. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.


    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  14. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.; Wassink, J.


    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  15. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.


    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately C. to approximately C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  16. Elastic properties of silicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.


    Low seismic velocity regions in the mantle and crust are commonly attributed to the presence of silicate melts. Determining melt volume and geometric distribution is fundamental to understanding planetary dynamics. We present a new model for seismic velocity reductions that accounts for the anoma......Low seismic velocity regions in the mantle and crust are commonly attributed to the presence of silicate melts. Determining melt volume and geometric distribution is fundamental to understanding planetary dynamics. We present a new model for seismic velocity reductions that accounts...... for the anomalous compressibility of silicate melt, rendering compressional wave velocities more sensitive to melt fraction and distribution than previous estimates. Forward modeling predicts comparable velocity reductions for compressional and shear waves for partially molten mantle, and for low velocity regions...

  17. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and α*-boron


    Chaoyu He; J. X. Zhong


    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and a promising metastable boron phase (α*-boron) have been studied by first-principles calculations. α-boron and α*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of “3S-6D-3S” and “2S-6D-4S”, respectively. The total energy calculations show that α*-boron is less stable than α-boron but more favorable than the well-known β-boron and γ-boron at zero pressure. Both α-boron and...

  18. Constraints on astronomical silicate dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, W.H.


    Numerical radiative-transfer models are used to discuss the properties of circumstellar dust grains around the premain-sequence star AB Aur (HD 31293). It is assumed that the dust consists of a silicate-graphite mixture with Draine and Lee (1984) optical properties. The modeling technique is to match the observed FUV through FIR energy distribution with the spectral energy distribution predicted for a spherical dust shell around a luminous hot star. Special attention is given to matching the observed 10-micron silicate emission feature and the observed circumstellar absorption curve at UV wavelengths, making it possible to strengthen constraints on dust-grain opacity and chemical composition. It is concluded that, although silicate grains can explain the observed 10-micron emission feature, the Draine and Lee silicate-graphite mixture cannot explain the observed FUV circumstellar absorption at the same time. The dust shell around AB Aur contains an additional population of small particles, the most likely candidate being amorphous carbon grains in a nonhydrogenated form. 18 refs

  19. Constraints on astronomical silicate dust (United States)

    Sorrell, Wilfred H.


    Numerical radiative-transfer models are used to discuss the properties of circumstellar dust grains around the premain-sequence star AB Aur (HD 31293). It is assumed that the dust consists of a silicate-graphite mixture with Draine and Lee (1984) optical properties. The modeling technique is to match the observed FUV through FIR energy distribution with the spectral energy distribution predicted for a spherical dust shell around a luminous hot star. Special attention is given to matching the observed 10-micron silicate emission feature and the observed circumstellar absorption curve at UV wavelengths, making it possible to strengthen constraints on dust-grain opacity and chemical composition. It is concluded that, although silicate grains can explain the observed 10-micron emission feature, the Draine and Lee silicate-graphite mixture cannot explain the observed FUV circumstellar absorption at the same time. The dust shell around AB Aur contains an additional population of small particles, the most likely candidate being amorphous carbon grains in a nonhydrogenated form.

  20. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi


    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  1. Fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires. (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Jun


    Chemical composition and crystal structure of fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires have been determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The fivefold cyclic twinning relationship is confirmed by systematic axial rotation electron diffraction. Detailed chemical analysis reveals a carbon-rich boron carbide phase. Such boron carbide nanowires are potentially interesting because of their intrinsic hardness and high temperature thermoelectric property. Together with other boron-rich compounds, they may form a set of multiply twinned nanowire systems where the misfit strain could be continuously tuned to influence their mechanical properties.

  2. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman spectroscopic examination was carried out to study the nature of bonding and the allotropic form of boron obtained after electrodeposition. The results obtained from transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous mass of boron. Raman microscopic studies ...

  3. Determination of silica in silicates by differential spectrophotometry as α-molybdosilicic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlweiler, O.A.; Meditsch, J.O.; Silva, S.


    A method for determining silica in silicates by differential spectrophotometry, using β-molybdosilic acid, is described. The sample is attacked by a mixture of boron trioxide and lithium carbonate (10:1). α-molydbosilicic acid is developed in a buffered solution (pH approximatelly 3.9) containing acetic acid and sodium acetate. The analytical procedure involves a series of preliminary steps which were previously elaborated for the gravimetric determination of silica as oxine molybdosilicate and which account for the removal of phosphorus, titanium and zirconium through ion exchange resins. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (United States)

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K


    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  5. Boron Activated Neutron Thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsley, A. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Instrument Research & Development


    The Brown Instrument Division of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. have been making pilot models of boron coated neutron sensitive thermopiles, which show considerable promise of being effective indicators of slow neutron flux. Their loss in sensitivity in a year of operation in the maximum flux of CP-6 calculates to be less than 6 per cent. When used as rooftop indicators, the ratio of the signal of the two units would change by about 2 per cent in a year's time.

  6. Boron atom reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, R.; Tabacco, M.B.; Digiuseppe, T.G.; Davidovits, P.


    The reaction rates of atomic boron with various epoxides have been measured in a flow tube apparatus. The bimolecular rate constants, in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , are: 1,2-epoxypropane (8.6 x 10 -11 ), 1,2-epoxybutane (8.8 x 10 -11 ), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (5.5 x 10 -11 ), 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (5.7 x 10 -11 ), and 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane (1.5 x 10 -11 ). (orig.)

  7. Boron isotopes and groundwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.


    Boron can be used as a tracer in ground water because of its high solubility in aqueous solutions, natural abundance in all waters, and the lack of effects by evaporation, volatilisation, oxidation-reduction reactions. Since the boron concentrations in pristine ground waters are generally low and contaminant sources are usually enriched in boron, the δ 11 B of groundwater is highly sensitive to the impact of contamination. The large isotopic variations of the potential sources can be used to trace the origin of the contamination and to reconstruct mixing and flow paths

  8. Lattice dynamics of α boron and of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vast, N.


    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of α boron and of B 4 C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In α boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B 4 C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  9. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.


    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  10. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater. (United States)

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül


    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  11. Radiosynoviorthesis with yttrium-90 silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, H.; Bergmann, H.; Kolarz, G.; Thumb, N.; Vienna Univ.


    The results of the radiosynoviorthesis with yttrium-90 silicate in 36 joints, are reported. In comparison to the radiogold therapy in 64 joints, yttrium-90 was a little more effective. Additionally, the body distribution of radioactive yttrium after radiosynoviorthesis of knee joints, was measured in 6 patients. It could be shown that the uptake of the regional lymphnodes was between 4 and 5% of the yttrium administered. The radiation dose of the regional lymphnodes certainly exceeds 1000 rad. These results point to the importance of a careful selection of patients for radiosynoviorthesis. (author)

  12. Nothing Boring About Boron (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara


    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  13. Nano boron nitride flatland. (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri


    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed.

  14. Silicate bonded ceramics of laterites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Douse, V.


    Sodium silicate is vacuum impregnated in bauxite waste (red mud) at room temperature to develop ceramics of mechanical properties comparable to the sintered ceramics. For a concentration up to 10% the fracture toughness increases from 0.12 MNm -3/2 to 0.9 MNm -3/2 , and the compressive strength from 7 MNm -2 to 30 MNm -2 . The mechanical properties do not deteriorate, when soaked in water for an entire week. The viscosity and the concentration of the silicate solution are crucial, both for the success of the fabrication and the economics of the process. Similar successful results have been obtained for bauxite and lime stone, even though the latter has poor weathering properties. With scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis, an attempt is made to identify the crystals formed in the composite, which are responsible for the strength. The process is an economic alternative to the sintered ceramics in the construction industry in the tropical countries, rich in lateritic soils and poor in energy. Also the process has all the potential for further development in arid regions abundant in limestone. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.


    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  16. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.N.


    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B 3 H 8 ; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds

  17. Boron diffusion in silicon devices (United States)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian


    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  18. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill


    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  19. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner


    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  20. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles


    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  1. Future boronated molecules for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloway, A.H.; Alam, F.; Barth, R.F.


    The ability of several boron compounds to localize in tumor cells is examined. A number of first and second generation compounds which were not synthesized specifically for localization are described. Among these are the boron hydrides and boranes. A third generation of boron compounds are designed for selective localization. These fall into two groups: relatively small organic compounds and boronated antibodies, both of which are discussed here

  2. Compression and Associated Properties of Boron Carbide (United States)


    Klandadze, G.I., and Eristavi, A.M., 1999: IR- Active Phonons and Structure Elements of Isotope - Enriched Boron Carbide, J. Sol. State Chem. 154, 79- 86...COMPRESSION AND ASSOCIATED PROPERTIES OF BORON CARBIDE D. P. Dandekar*and J. A. Ciezak Army Research Laboratory, APG, MD 21005 M. Somayazulu...of the observed loss of shear strength in boron carbide under plane shock wave compression to amorphization in boron carbide under triaxial stress

  3. Lattice vibrations in α-boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.


    α-rhombohedral boron is the simplest boron modification, with only 12 atoms per unit cell. The boron atoms are arranged in B 12 icosahedra, which are centered at the lattice points of a primitive rhombohedral lattice. The icosahedra are slightly deformed, as the five-fold symmetry of the ideal icosahedron is incompatible with any crystal structure. The lattice dynamics of α-boron are discussed in terms of the model developed by Weber and Thorpe. (Auth.)

  4. Synthesis of oligomeric boron-containing phospolyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.N.; Khokhlova, T.V.; Orlova, S.A.; Tuzhikov, O.I.


    Structure is investigated and reactivity of oligomeric boron-containing phospolyols is studied. Oligomeric boron-containing compound interacts with ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, glycerol, 1,4-butandiol with formation of linear boron-containing phospolyols. Reactions proceed in noncatalytic conditions with stoichiometric quantities of reagents at 170-200 Deg C in inert gas media. Boron-containing phospolyols are viscous uncolored liquids, their physicochemical characteristics are represented [ru


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Sargent, B. A., E-mail: [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.; Koch, I.; Sargent, B. A.


    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.

  7. Model Dust Envelopes Around Silicate Carbon Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh


    Full Text Available We have modeled dust envelopes around silicate carbon stars using optical properties for a mixture of amorphous carbon and silicate dust grains paying close attention to the infrared observations of the stars. The 4 stars show various properties in chemistry and location of the dust shell. We expect that the objects that fit a simple detached silicate dust shell model could be in the transition phase of the stellar chemistry. For binary system objects, we find that a mixed dust chemistry model would be necessary.

  8. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron


    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin


    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron have been studied by first-principles calculations. Both a-boron and a*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that a*-boron is less stable than a-boron but more favorable than beta-boron and Gamma-boron at zero pressure. Both a-boron and a*-boron are confirm...

  9. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaraiz Franco, E.; Esteban Hernandez, J. A.


    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe 2 B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  10. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.


    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  11. New Icosahedral Boron Carbide Semiconductors (United States)

    Echeverria Mora, Elena Maria

    Novel semiconductor boron carbide films and boron carbide films doped with aromatic compounds have been investigated and characterized. Most of these semiconductors were formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The aromatic compound additives used, in this thesis, were pyridine (Py), aniline, and diaminobenzene (DAB). As one of the key parameters for semiconducting device functionality is the metal contact and, therefore, the chemical interactions or band bending that may occur at the metal/semiconductor interface, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the interaction of gold (Au) with these novel boron carbide-based semiconductors. Both n- and p-type films have been tested and pure boron carbide devices are compared to those containing aromatic compounds. The results show that boron carbide seems to behave differently from other semiconductors, opening a way for new analysis and approaches in device's functionality. By studying the electrical and optical properties of these films, it has been found that samples containing the aromatic compound exhibit an improvement in the electron-hole separation and charge extraction, as well as a decrease in the band gap. The hole carrier lifetimes for each sample were extracted from the capacitance-voltage, C(V), and current-voltage, I(V), curves. Additionally, devices, with boron carbide with the addition of pyridine, exhibited better collection of neutron capture generated pulses at ZERO applied bias, compared to the pure boron carbide samples. This is consistent with the longer carrier lifetimes estimated for these films. The I-V curves, as a function of external magnetic field, of the pure boron carbide films and films containing DAB demonstrate that significant room temperature negative magneto-resistance (> 100% for pure samples, and > 50% for samples containing DAB) is possible in the resulting dielectric thin films. Inclusion of DAB is not essential for significant negative magneto

  12. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.


    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  13. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.


    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  14. Boron cycling in subduction zones


    Palmer, Martin R.


    Subduction zones are geologically dramatic features, with much of the drama being driven by the movement of water. The “light and lively” nature of boron, coupled with its wide variations in isotopic composition shown by the different geo-players in this drama, make it an ideal tracer for the role and movement of water during subduction. The utility of boron ranges from monitoring how the fluids that are expelled from the accretionary prism influence seawater chemistry, to the subduction of c...

  15. Highly silicic compositions on the Moon. (United States)

    Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A


    Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  17. Adsorption of aqueous silicate on hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Ticknor, K.V.


    During radioisotope sorption studies, adsorption of silicate from synthetic groundwaters by synthetic hematite was observed. To further investigate this observation, the adsorption of silicate onto hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder from a neutral, aqueous NaC1 solution (0.1 mol/dm 3 ), containing 2.56 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 of Si added as Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O, was measured at ∼21 deg C. Equilibrium adsorption of silicate amounted to ∼1.93 μmol/m 2 (one Si(O,OH) 4 moiety per 86 A 2 ). It is important to take this adsorption into account when evaluating the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other species, especially anions, from groundwaters. Silicate adsorption is known to diminish the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other anions. (author)

  18. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  19. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.


    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  20. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.


    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  1. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana


    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  2. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly (vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  3. Silicate calculi, a rare cause of kidney stones in children. (United States)

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Fuçucuoğlu, Dilara; Özman, Oktay; Sever, Lale; Önal, Bülent; Bilge, Ilmay


    Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods. Urinalysis revealed no underlying metabolic abnormalities. Analyses revealed that silicate was the major component of the stones. Siliceous deposits in urinary stones may be more common than anticipated, and the underlying pathophysiology remains to be clarified.

  4. Intrinsic luminescence of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, V.I.; Grabovskis, V.Y.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Vitol, I.K.


    This study obtains additional information on L centers and their role in electron excitation and intrinsic luminescence of a whole series. (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) of alkali silicate glasses. The authors compare the features of the interaction with radiation of specimens of glass and crystal of a similar chemical composition, since silicates of alkali metals can be obtained in both the glassy and crystalline states.

  5. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). (United States)

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G


    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality.

  6. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.


    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B + , the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 x 10 14 and of 1 x 10 15 /cm -2 . Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B + requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold

  7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.


    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  8. Boron removal from wastewater using adsorbents. (United States)

    Kluczka, J; Trojanowska, J; Zolotajkin, M; Ciba, J; Turek, M; Dydo, P


    In the present study, boron adsorption on activated alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride, tartaric acid and mannitol was investigated. The adsorbate in question was the wastewater from the chemical landfill in Tarnowskie Gory of 25-70 mg l(-1) boron content. The removal of boron from the above-described wastewater was examined in the static (batch) and dynamic (column) experiments. The static experiments were carried out to assess boron adsorption isotherms, based on which the most efficient adsorbent as well as the rough resin load was determined. On the basis of the dynamic experiment results, the boron adsorptive capacities of the examined resins were deduced. It was concluded that the use of the impregnants increased the ability of activated carbon to adsorb boron. Granulated activated carbon WG-12 impregnated with mannitol was found to be the most promising for the boron removal from wastewater of the Chemical Wastewater Plant in Tarnowskie Gory.

  9. Advanced microstructure of boron carbide. (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut; Shalamberidze, Sulkhan


    The rhombohedral elementary cell of the complex boron carbide structure is composed of B(12) or B(11)C icosahedra and CBC, CBB or B□B (□, vacancy) linear arrangements, whose shares vary depending on the actual chemical compound. The evaluation of the IR phonon spectra of isotopically pure boron carbide yields the quantitative concentrations of these components within the homogeneity range. The structure formula of B(4.3)C at the carbon-rich limit of the homogeneity range is (B(11)C) (CBC)(0.91) (B□B)(0.09) (□, vacancy); and the actual structure formula of B(13)C(2) is (B(12))(0.5)(B(11)C)(0.5)(CBC)(0.65)(CBB)(0.16) (B□B)(0.19), and deviates fundamentally from (B(12))CBC, predicted by theory to be the energetically most favourable structure of boron carbide. In reality, it is the most distorted structure in the homogeneity range. The spectra of (nat)B(x)C make it evident that boron isotopes are not randomly distributed in the structure. However, doping with 2% silicon brings about a random distribution.

  10. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.


    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  11. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrolysis was crystalline in nature, X-ray diffraction pat-. ∗. Author for correspondence ( .... Elemental boron was synthesized by the electrolysis of molten potassium fluroborate dissolved in a ... A high-throughput Renishaw micro-Raman spectrome- ter (model Invia) was employed to record Raman ...

  12. Preparation process of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignani, G.; Ardaud, P.


    High purity boron nitride, without Si and a low carbon content, is prepared by pyrolysis, under an ammoniac atmosphere, of the reaction product between a B-trihalogenoborazole and a primary amine RNH 2 when R is a hydrocarbon radical eventually substituted containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms inclusively [fr

  13. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction ...

  14. Method of separating boron isotopes (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.


    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  15. Prevention of uncontrolled boron dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, J. L.


    The paper presents a synthesis of the global analysis of uncontrolled boron dilution risk performed by (European Consortium Mochovce (EUCOM) in the frame of Safety Measures RC 01 and AA 11. Recommendation for additional improvements (mainly I and C interlocks or inhibition) are presented. (author)

  16. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  17. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions (United States)

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.


    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  18. Effects of boron-water on cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, G.H.; Weeth, H.J.


    To determine the effects of subtoxic concentrations of boron in drinking water, 12 Hereford heifers were used in a 3 x 3 latin-square experiment with four squares. Treatments were tap-water (0.8 ppm boron), 150 ppm boron-water, and 300 ppm boron-water. Periods were 30 days each. Total urine was collected during the last week of each period, and renal clearance observations (based on creatinine) were made on the last day of each period. While water consumption and total urine weight were not affected by the boron treatments, hay consumption decreased, and weight loss was noted. Plasma boron concentrations were 0.53 +/- 0.151 ppm, 11.2 +/- 0.91 ppm, and 18.9 +/- 0.60 ppm while the heifers were drinking tap-water, 150 ppm boron-water, and 300 ppm boron-water respectively. Urinary boron excretion rates were tap water, 64 +/- 5.6 mg/day; 150 ppm, 2841 +/- 181.2 mg/day; 300 ppm, 4932 +/- 173.3 mg/day. Although glomerular filtration and osmolal clearance were unaffected by the boron-waters, a relative diuresis was indicated by the free water clearance effects. The percent of filtered boron which was reabsorbed decreased with increased exogenous boron, as well as both plasma and urinary phosphate. These data indicate that 300 ppm boron is not acutely toxic to heifers when consumed via the drinking water. The safe tolerance concentration, however, must lie below 150 ppm because this concentration was responsible for some deleterious effects.

  19. Re-sintered boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride and method for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavens, T.R.; Corrigan, F.R.; Shott, R.L.; Bovenkerk, H.P.


    A method is described for making re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN) which comprises: (a) placing sintered substantially catalyst-free boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride particles in a high pressure/high temperature apparatus, the particles being substantially free of sintering inhibiting impurities; (b) subjecting the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles to a pressure and a temperature adequate to re-sinter the particles, the temperature being below the CBN reconversion temperature; (c) maintaining the temperature and pressure for a time sufficient to re-sinter the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles in the apparatus, and (d) recovering the re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride from the apparatus.

  20. The kinetic fragility of natural silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Daniele; Dingwell, Donald B


    Newtonian viscosities of 19 multicomponent natural and synthetic silicate liquids, with variable contents of SiO 2 (41-79 wt%), Al 2 O 3 (10-19 wt%), TiO 2 (0-3 wt%), FeO tot (0-11 wt%); alkali oxides (5-17 wt%), alkaline-earth oxides (0-35 wt%), and minor oxides, obtained at ambient pressure using the high-temperature concentric cylinder, the low-temperature micropenetration, and the parallel plates techniques, have been analysed. For each silicate liquid, regression of the experimentally determined viscosities using the well known Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation allowed the viscosity of all these silicates to be accurately described. The results of these fits, which provide the basis for the subsequent analysis here, permit qualitative and quantitative correlations to be made between the VFT adjustable parameters (A VFT , B VFT , and T 0 ). The values of B VFT and T 0 , calibrated via the VFT equation, are highly correlated. Kinetic fragility appears to be correlated with the number of non-bridging oxygens per tetrahedrally coordinated cation (NBO/T). This is taken to infer that melt polymerization controls melt fragility in liquid silicates. Thus NBO/T might form an useful ingredient of a structure-based model of non-Arrhenian viscosity in multicomponent silicate melts

  1. Boron clusters in luminescent materials. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy


    In recent times, luminescent materials with tunable emission properties have found applications in almost all aspects of modern material sciences. Any discussion on the recent developments in luminescent materials would be incomplete if one does not account for the versatile photophysical features of boron containing compounds. Apart from triarylboranes and tetra-coordinate borate dyes, luminescent materials consisting of boron clusters have also found immense interest in recent times. Recent studies have unveiled the opportunities hidden within boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes, etc. as active constituents of luminescent materials. From simple illustrations of luminescence, to advanced applications in LASERs, OLEDs and bioimaging, etc., the unique features of such compounds and their promising versatility have already been established. In this review, recent revelations about the excellent photophysical properties of such materials are discussed.

  2. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.


    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  3. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation. (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Yilmaz, M Tolga; Paluluoğlu, Cihan


    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm(2), but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  4. Removal of boron (B) from waste liquors. (United States)

    Jiang, J Q; Xu, Y; Simon, J; Quill, K; Shettle, K


    This paper explores the use of electrocoagulation to remove boron from waste effluent in comparison with alum coagulation. In treating model test wastes, greater boron removals were achieved with electrocoagulation at low doses than conventional alum coagulation when reaction was undertaken for the same conditions (pH 8.5, and initial boron concentration was 500 mg/L). Al electrocoagulation can achieve good boron removal performance (68.3%) at a dose of 2.1 (as molar ratio of Al:B, and for current density of 62.1 A/m2), while alum coagulation can only achieve the maximum boron removal of 56% at a dose of 2.4. Also, Al electrocoagulation can remove 15-20% more boron than alum coagulation for the same dose compared in the treatment of both model test wastes and industry effluent. The estimation of running costs shows that to achieve 75% boron removal from industry waste effluent, i.e. removing 150 g of boron from 1 m3 of effluent, electrocoagulation was 6.2 times cheaper than alum coagulation. The economic advantage of electrocoagulation in the treatment of boron-containing waste effluent is thus significant.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: boron (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.


    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  6. Conduction mechanism in boron carbide (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.


    Electrical conductivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and Hall-effect measurements have been made on single-phase boron carbides, B(1-x)C(x), in the compositional range from 0.1 to 0.2 X, and between room temperature and 1273 K. The results indicate that the predominant conduction mechanism is small-polaron hopping between carbon atoms at geometrically inequivalent sites.

  7. Photoluminescent layered Y/Er silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, Mariya H.; Ananias, Duarte; Carlos, Luis D.; Rocha, Joao


    The synthesis of new layered rare-earth silicates K 3 [Y 1-a Er a Si 3 O 8 (OH) 2 ] (AV-22 materials) has been reported. The photoluminescence properties of Y/Er-AV-22 and the material resulting from its thermal degradation, K 3 [Y 1-a Er a Si 3 O 9 ] (Y/Er-AV-23), have been studied and compared. Both materials have a similar chemical makeup and structures sharing analogous building blocks, hence providing a unique opportunity for rationalising the evolution of the photoluminescence properties of lanthanide silicates across dimensionality

  8. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.


    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  9. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and...

  10. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicate based bioceramics are promising candidates as biomaterials for tissue engineering. The combustion synthesis method provides control on the morphology and particle size of the synthesized material. This paper discusses the combustion synthesis of akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7 and Sr2MgSi2O7), which has been ...

  11. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten


    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...

  12. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  13. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eu2+. Keywords. Biomaterials; silicates; akermanite; combustion synthesis; photoluminescence. 1. Introduction. It is essential to develop biocompatible, bioactive, biore- sorbable and durable materials for orthopaedic and dental implants, that are capable of bearing high stress and loads, and that invoke positive cellular and ...

  14. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tsutsumi 1999; Xu et al 2008; Huang et al 2009). In vitro and in vivo investigations of a calcium magnesium silicate ... as a preparation process to produce homogeneous, very fine crystalline, unagglomerated, multicomponent oxide ... ing the oxides from sintering (Ekambaram and Patil 1995,. 1997; Chandrappa et al 1999).

  15. Thermoset polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    Nanocomposites are formed when phase mixing occurs on a nanometer length scale. Due to the improved phase morphology and interfacial properties, nanocomposites exhibit mechanical properties superior to conventional composites. Toyota researchers first demonstrated that organoclay could be exfoliated in a nylon-6 matrix to greatly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, which has resulted in a practical application in the automobile industry. A great deal of research has been conducted on organic-inorganic hybrid composites in which smectite clays are used as reinforcement agents. However, little work has been devoted to derivatives of other layered inorganic solids. In the present work, the first examples of organic polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites have been prepared by formation of a cured epoxy polymer network in the presence of organo cation exchange forms of magadiite. The exfoliation of silicate nanolayers in the epoxy matrix was achieved by in-situ intragallery polymerization during the thermosetting process. In general, the tensile properties, solvent resistance, barrier properties and chemical stability of the polymer matrix are greatly improved by the embedded silicate nanolayers when the matrix is flexible (sub-ambient Tg). The improvement of properties are dependent on the silicate loading, the degree of nanolayer separation and interfacial properties. Interestingly, the exfoliation also affects the polymer elasticity in a favorable way. The mechanism leading to nanocomposite formation is proposed. One exfoliated epoxy-magadiite nanocomposite/composition possessed unique transparent optical properties. The exfoliation chemistry was successfully extended to the other members of the layered silicic acid family. A new approach also was developed to prepare thermoset epoxy polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites in which curing agents can be directly intercalated into the intragallery without the need for alkylammonium ions

  16. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the miniature rose.

  18. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  20. Silicate glasses obtained from fine silica powder modified with galvanic waste addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Castanho, S.R.H. Mello


    This work presents a study of waste incorporation in silicate glass process based on the formulations of soda-lime glass compositions using two different industrial solid residues. Glass silicates were produced from the residue of silica powders retained in the filter sleeves of sanitary ceramic factories. An other waste also used as the starting material was the solid galvanic residue from metallurgical processes. Besides part of the silica contents was replaced by boron oxide to improve melting of the glasses and the behavior of both the formulations was analyzed. The temperatures for the fusion were selected based on the equilibria diagrams and the flux characteristics of the melting as a function of the glass compositions. Temperatures up to 1500 o C and annealing treatments were used. The composition and the structure of the glass specimens were studied using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction methods. The resistances of the glasses at environmental conditions by hydrolysis, acid and alkaline attack experiments were analyzed. Glasses with up to 40wt% of added galvanic solid waste and 28wt% of fine silica powder with a good chemical resistance were obtained

  1. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.


    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B 4 C by carbothermic reduction of B 2 O 3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B 4 C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author) [pt

  2. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials (United States)

    Wood, Charles


    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  3. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition (United States)


    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  4. Hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; El-Wahabi, M.; Cabrera, J.M.


    This research work studies the effect of boron contents on the hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, uniaxial hot-compression tests were carried out in a low carbon steel microalloyed with four different amounts of boron over a wide range of temperatures (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg. C) and constant true strain rates (10 -3 , 10 -2 and 10 -1 s -1 ). Experimental results revealed that both peak stress and peak strain tend to decrease as boron content increases, which indicates that boron additions have a solid solution softening effect. Likewise, the flow curves show a delaying effect on the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) when increasing boron content. Deformed microstructures show a finer austenitic grain size in the steel with higher boron content (grain refinement effect). Results are discussed in terms of boron segregation towards austenitic grain boundaries during plastic deformation, which increases the movement of dislocations, enhances the grain boundary cohesion and modificates the grain boundary structure

  5. Compression and associated properties of boron carbide (United States)

    Ciezak, Jennifer; Dandekar, Dattatraya


    The observed loss of shear strength of boron carbide around 22 GPa has been attributed to presence of amorphous material in the shock recovered, and statically indented and pressurized boron carbide. The present work presents a more direct association of the observed loss of shear strength in boron carbide under plane shock wave compression to amorphization in boron carbide under triaxial stress compression. This evidence is obtained from in-situ measurement of Raman, and infrared vibrational spectra of boron carbide confined in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressures. X-ray-diffraction measurements do show a shift in the compression of boron carbide around 27 GPa. However, X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the amorphization does not extend to micron scale, as there is no evidence of a loss of crystallinity in the recorded diffraction pattern of boron carbide to 47 GPa. Our work shows that shear plays a very dominant role in the stress-induced amorphization of boron carbide.

  6. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC


    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  7. Spectral tailoring for boron Neutron capture therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.


    In several places in the world, such as Petten and Delft in the Netherlands, investigations are in progress in the fight against certain types of cancer with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The basic idea is very simple: boron is loaded only into the cancer cells, using a special drug, after which

  8. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.


    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  9. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  10. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun


    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  11. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  12. Continuum modeling of boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Wu, J; Hwang, K C; Huang, Y


    Boron nitride nanotubes display unique properties and have many potential applications. A finite-deformation shell theory is developed for boron nitride nanotubes directly from the interatomic potential to account for the effect of bending and curvature. Its constitutive relation accounts for the nonlinear, multi-body atomistic interactions, and therefore can model the important effect of tube chirality and radius. The theory is then used to determine whether a single-wall boron nitride nanotube can be modeled as a linear elastic isotropic shell. Instabilities of boron nitride nanotubes under different loadings (e.g., tension, compression, and torsion) are also studied. It is shown that the tension instability of boron nitride nanotubes is material instability, while the compression and torsion instabilities are structural instabilities.

  13. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping. (United States)

    Proctor, J E; Bhakhri, V; Hao, R; Prior, T J; Scheler, T; Gregoryanz, E; Chhowalla, M; Giulani, F


    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  14. Analysis of boron nitride by flame spectrometry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Chapysheva, G.Ya.; Shilkina, N.N.


    A rapid method has been developed for determination of free and total boron contents as well as trace impurities in boron nitride by using autoclave sample decomposition followed by atomic emission and atomic absorption determination. The relative standard deviation is not greater than 0.03 in the determination of free boron 0.012 in the determination of total boron content

  15. Chemical vapor deposited boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Smith, K.L.


    Detailed analytical electron microscope (AEM) studies of yellow whiskers produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) show that two basic types of whiskers are produced at low temperatures (between 1200 0 C and 1400 0 C) and low boron to carbon gas ratios. Both whisker types show planar microstructures such as twin planes and stacking faults oriented parallel to, or at a rhombohedral angle to, the growth direction. For both whisker types, the presence of droplet-like terminations containing both Si and Ni indicate that the growth process during CVD is via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanisms

  16. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  17. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.


    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  18. Positron annihilation in boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Electron and positron charge densities are calculated as a function of position in the unit cell for boron nitride. Wave functions are derived from pseudopotential band structure calculations and the independent particle approximation (IPM, respectively, for electrons and positrons. It is observed that the positron density is maximum in the open interstices and is excluded not only from ion cores but also to a considerable degree from valence bonds. Electron-positron momentum densities are calculated for (001,110 planes. The results are used in order to analyse the positron effects in BN.

  19. Boron nutrition and yield of alfalfa cultivar crioula in relation to boron supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Anacleto Ranulfo dos


    Full Text Available Alfalfa cultivar Crioula (Medicago sativa cv. Crioula is grown in South Brazil and only a few studies on the plants' boron requirement are available. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with alfalfa to measure boron acquisition, production and distribution in the plant; data on critical level and production potentials were recorded. Plants were grown in ground quartz added with 1 L of solution, with the following boron rates: 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mg L-1. Plants were harvested at 46 days of growth. Forage dry mass was increased by boron supply and dry matter accumulation was considerably low in control. Boron concentration in the leaves was higher than in the stems or roots. Boron utilization from the external solution reached 90% at 0.0625 mg L-1 and sharply decreased with further increasing boron rates. Boron concentration and content in the leaves and in plant tops were at maximum when applied boron was between 1.5 and 1.6 mg L-1. Critical levels of boron in plant were 61 mg kg-1 in the leaves and 39 mg kg-1 in plant tops for this cultivar of alfalfa.

  20. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.


    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  1. Study of ceramic mixed boron element as a neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Samihah Mustaffha; Yusof Abdullah; Mohamad Rabaie Shari; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Nurliyana Abdullah; Hearie Hassan


    Shielding upon radiation should not be underestimated as it can causes hazard to health. Precautions on the released of radioactive materials should be well concerned and considered. Therefore, the combination of ceramic and boron make them very useful for shielding purpose in areas of low and intermediate neutron. A six grades of ceramic tile have been produced namely IMN05 - 5 % boron, IMN06 - 6 % boron, IMN07 - 7 % boron, IMN08 - 8 % boron, IMN09 - 9 % boron, IMN10 - 10 % boron from mixing, press and sintered process. Boron is a material that capable of absorbing and capturing neutron, so that neutron and gamma test were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of boron material in combination with ceramic as shielding. From the finding, percent reduction number of count per minute shows the ceramic tiles are capable to capture neutron. Apart from all the percentage of boron used, 10 % is the most effective shields since the percent reduction indicating greater neutron captured increased. (author)

  2. Analysis of Boron Distribution in Steel using Neutron at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Seong, Baek-Seok; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Boron is very useful element in steels to improve the mechanical properties. In steel matrix, boron exist several types such as solute, segregation in grain boundary and many kinds of precipitate, which influence the properties of the steel. But, detecting of boron using X-ray or ion-beam is not easy because boron is very light atom than iron. However neutron gives the clear image of boron distribution from the particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) method. The PTA method of boron uses the phenomenon that boron irradiated by neutron emits Liion and alpha particle. Boron distribution can be obtained by observing the traces of the emitted Li-ion and alpha particle. At HANARO, the study for observing of boron distribution has been performed several years ago. Recently, the experimental techniques were improved for the reactor power of 30 MW. In this paper, improved experimental techniques were described and some results for boron added low-carbon steel plate were introduced.

  3. Studies on Separation Process and Production Technology of Boron Isotope


    LI Jian-ping


    The boron isotopes separation test was performed by chemical exchange reaction in the benzene ether -three boron fluoride system, which resulted to the boron isotopic enrichment of -10 in the liquid phase, the boron isotopic enrichment of -11 in the gas phase. After then, boron isotope separation trial production has been finished. In this process, the exchange column and complex tower normal operating parameters and the complex tower technology have been obtained, the problems of material di...

  4. Composite boron nitride neutron detectors (United States)

    Roth, M.; Mojaev, E.; Khakhan, O.; Fleider, A.; Dul`kin, E.; Schieber, M.


    Single phase polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride (BN) or mixed with boron carbide (BxC) embedded in an insulating polymeric matrix acting as a binder and forming a composite material as well as pure submicron size polycrystalline BN has been tested as a thermal neutron converter in a multilayer thermal neutron detector design. Metal sheet electrodes were covered with 20-50 μm thick layers of composite materials and assembled in a multi-layer sandwich configuration. High voltage was applied to the metal electrodes to create an interspacing electric field. The spacing volume could be filled with air, nitrogen or argon. Thermal neutrons were captured in converter layers due to the presence of the 10B isotope. The resulting nuclear reaction produced α-particles and 7Li ions which ionized the gas in the spacing volume. Electron-ion pairs were collected by the field to create an electrical signal proportional to the intensity of the neutron source. The detection efficiency of the multilayer neutron detectors is found to increase with the number of active converter layers. Pixel structures of such neutron detectors necessary for imaging applications and incorporation of internal moderator materials for field measurements of fast neutron flux intensities are discussed as well.

  5. Silicon isotope fractionation by marine siliceous sponges (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Maldonado, M.


    The stable isotope composition of benthic sponge spicule silica is a potential source of palaeoceanographic information about past deep seawater chemistry. The silicon isotope composition of spicules has been shown to relate to the silicic acid concentration of ambient water. However, existing calibrations do exhibit a degree of scatter in the relationship, and there are many open questions surrounding the mechanism behind isotopic fractionation during biosilicification. Here, we present a new study of silicon isotopes in siliceous sponges, covering a range of ancestral lineages, marine environments and geographical locations, and the impact of cleaning methods of silicon isotope compositions. We show that the cleaning method has minimal impact on silicon isotope composition of sponge spicules. Our results highlight the importance of environmental and biological factors on silicon isotope fractionation, and we discuss the implications of these results on the use of palaeoceanographic applications of sponge spicules.

  6. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses. (United States)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.


    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  7. Tailored Nanocomposites of Polypropylene with Layered Silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L.; Nakajima, H; Manias, E; Krishnamoorti, R


    The melt rheological properties of layered silicate nanocomposites with maleic anhydride (MA) functionalized polypropylene are contrasted to those based on ammonium-terminated polypropylene. While the MA functionalized PP based nanocomposites exhibit solid-like linear viscoelastic behavior, consistent with the formation of a long-lived percolated nanoparticle network, the single-end ammonium functionalized PP based nanocomposites demonstrated liquid-like behavior at comparable montmorillonite concentrations. The differences in the linear viscoelasticity are attributed to the presence of bridging interactions in MA functionalized nanocomposites. Further, the transient shear stress of the MA functionalized nanocomposites in start-up of steady shear is a function of the shear strain alone, and the steady shear response is consistent with that of non-Brownian systems. The weak dependence of the steady first normal stress difference on the steady shear stress suggests that the polymer chain mediated silicate network contributes to such unique flow behavior.

  8. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten


    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  9. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.


    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  10. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax (United States)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.


    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  11. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr


    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  12. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.


    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B 10 and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B 10 content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.


    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  14. Neutron diffraction studies of silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnes, S.; Herstad, O.


    The different ratios between the scattering amplitudes of X-rays and neutrons for various atomic constituents of glasses have been utilized to study the atomic ordering in silicate glasses. A comparison of corresponding atomic radial distribution curves obtained from neutron diffraction and electron radial distribution curves obtained with X-rays is made. The interatomic distances derived from the two methods are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    and these are supported by several experimental studies (Annen et al., 2006). A silicic calc-alkalic magma can form by differentiation from a more mafic parent magma and by crustal anatexis. Several evidences show the origin of some rhyolitic and andesitic magma... to be related due to similar tectonic settings. Fractional crystallisation: This process produces a series of residual liquids of variable compositions as compared to their parental magmas and is best explained by the Bowen’s reaction principle (Bowen, 1922...

  16. Proceedings of workshop on 'Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Y.


    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 12, in 1991. In this workshop, our attention was focused on the chemical nature of boron compounds and the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). First, clinical experiences of BNCT in KURRI in 1990 and 1991 were reported (Chap. 3). The feasibility of the gadolinium neutron capture therapy for brain tumors was discussed (Chap. 4). In the chemical field, a rapid spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of borons in biological samples is described (Chap. 5). The chemical behaviours of p-boronophenylalanine and its analogs in aqueous solutions were investigated by a paper electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy (Chap. 6). On the molecular design and synthesis of new boron carriers for BNCT, several new synthetic methods for B-10 containing nucleoside derivatives were shown (Chap. 7). (author)

  17. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Jabbar [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Yarmohammadi, Zahra [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures. - Highlights: • Electronic properties of graphene, silicon boron, and boron nitride planes are compared. • Tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism are implemented. • This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  18. The determination of boron and carbon in reactor grade boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.; Wood, A.J.; McInnes, C.A.J.; Jones, I.G.


    The sealed tube method of dissolution at high temperature and pressure has been successfully applied in the analysis of reactor grade boron carbide for the determination of boron. A 50 mg sample of boron carbide is completely dissolved by heating with concentrated nitric acid in a sealed tube at 300 0 C. The boron content of the resultant sample solution is determined by the mannitol potentiometric titration method. The precision of the method for the determination of 2.5 mg of boron using the Harwell automatic potentiometric titrator is 0.2% (coefficient of variation). The carbon content of a boron carbide sample is determined by combustion of the sample at 1050 0 C in a stream of oxygen using vanadium pentoxide to ensure the complete oxidation of the sample. The carbon dioxide produced from the sample is measured manometrically and the precision of the method for the determination of 4 mg of carbon is 0.4% (coefficient of variation). (author)

  19. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domka, Ludwik [Department of Metalorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Skrzypczak, Andrzej [Institute of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)


    Highlights: • The intercalation of dimeric surfactants changed the morphology of MMT samples. • XRD indicated structures formed by surfactant molecules in interlayer space. • The four-step thermal decomposition of dimeric surfactant, confirms intercalation. - Abstract: The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay – hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d{sub 001}) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH{sub 2} and CH{sub 3} groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  20. Lead-silicate glass optical microbubble resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic [Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Feng, Xian; Brambilla, Gilberto [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Farrell, Gerald [Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)


    Microbubble whispering gallery resonators have the potential to become key components in a variety of active and passive photonic circuit devices by offering a range of significant functionalities. Here, we report on the fabrication, optical characterization, and theoretical analysis of lead-silicate glass and optical microbubble resonators. Evanescent field coupling to the microbubbles was achieved using a 1 μm diameter, silica microfiber at a wavelength of circa 775 nm. High Q-factor modes were efficiently excited in both single-stem and two-stem, lead-silicate glass, and microbubble resonators, with bubble diameters of 38 μm (single-stem) and 48 μm (two-stem). Whispering gallery mode resonances with Q-factors as high as 2.3 × 10{sup 5} (single-stem) and 7 × 10{sup 6} (two-stem) were observed. By exploiting the high-nonlinearity of the lead-silicate glass, this work will act as a catalyst for studying a range of nonlinear optical effects in microbubbles, such as Raman scattering and four-wave mixing, at low optical powers.

  1. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okka, M.; Genceli, M.; Eren, E.; Bayulken, A.


    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  2. Effect of boron concentration on physicochemical properties of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keru, Godfrey; Ndungu, Patrick G.; Nyamori, Vincent O., E-mail:


    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. Toluene was used as the carbon source, triphenylborane as boron as well as the carbon source while ferrocene was used as the catalyst. The amount of triphenylborane used was varied in a solution of toluene and ferrocene. Ferrocene was kept constant at 2.5 wt.%. while a maximum temperature of 900 °C was used for the synthesis of the shaped carbon nanomaterial (SCNMs). SCNMs obtained were characterized by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution-electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ay spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and inverse gas chromatography. TEM and SEM analysis confirmed SCNMs obtained were a mixture of B-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (B-CNF). EDX and ICP-OES results showed that boron was successively incorporated into the carbon hexagonal network of CNTs and its concentration was dependent on the amount of triphenylborane used. From the VSM results, the boron doping within the CNTs introduced ferromagnetic properties, and as the percentage of boron increased the magnetic coactivity and squareness changed. In addition, boron doping changed the conductivity and the surface energy among other physicochemical properties of B-CNTs. - Highlights: • Boron-doping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) changes their physiochemical properties. • Amount of boron-doping was dependent on the wt.% of boron precursor used. • Boron-doping changed CNTs surfaces and the distribution of dispersive energy sites. • Boron-doping affected the conductivity and ferromagnetic properties. • Increased boron-doping results in a more favourable interaction with polar probes.

  3. Boron Isotope Fractionation in Bell Pepper


    Geilert, Sonja; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Voerkelius, Susanne; Eichert, Thomas


    Various plant compartments of a single bell pepper plant were studied to verify the variability of boron isotope composition in plants and to identify possible intra-plant isotope fractionation. Boron mass fractions varied from 9.8 mg/kg in the fruits to 70.0 mg/kg in the leaves. Boron (B) isotope ratios reported as δ11B ranged from -11.0‰ to +16.0‰ (U ≤ 1.9‰, k=2) and showed a distinct trend to heavier δ11B values the higher the plant compartments were located in the plant. A fractionatio...

  4. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian


    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  5. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation. (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi


    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  6. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection


    Cruz,Maria Fernanda; Rodrigues,Fabrício Ávila; Diniz,Ana Paula Cardoso; Moreira,Maurilio Alves; Barros,Everaldo Gonçalves


    The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS) and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS) on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection ...

  7. In Situ XANES of U and Th in Silicate Liquids at High Pressure and Temperature (United States)

    Mallmann, G.; Wykes, J.; Berry, A.; O'Neill, H. S.; Cline, C. J., II; Turner, S.; Rushmer, T. A.


    Although the chemical environments of elements in silicate melts at specific conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity (fO2) are often inferred from measurements after quenching the melts to glasses, it is widely recognized that changes may occur during the quenching process, making measurements in situ at high pressure and temperature highly desirable. A case of importance in geochemistry is the speciation of uranium in silicate melts as a function of pressure. Evidence from mineral-melt partitioning and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure) spectroscopy of glasses suggests that U5+ may be stable at low pressures in the Earth's crust (along with U4+ or U6+, depending on fO2) where basaltic liquids crystallize, but not in the Earth's upper mantle where peridotite partially melts to produce such liquids. To test these observations we recorded in situ transmission U and Th L3-edge XANES spectra of U and Th-doped silicate liquids at 1.6 GPa and 1350°C using the D-DIA apparatus at the X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Data for thorium, which occurs exclusively as a tetravalent cation under terrestrial fO2 conditions, were collected as a `control' to monitor for changes in coordination. The cell assembly consisted of a boron-epoxy cube as pressure medium, alumina sleeve and cylindrical graphite heater. The starting mix, a powdered synthetic average MORB silicate glass doped with 2 wt.% of U and Th, was loaded into San Carlos olivine capsules along with solid oxygen buffers (either Re-ReO2 or Ru-RuO2) in a sandwich arrangement. The capsule was then placed inside the graphite heater and insulated with crushable MgO powder. Temperature was monitored using a type D thermocouple. U and Th L3-edge XANES spectra were recorded throughout the heating/compression cycle and then after quenching. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the U-XANES spectra recorded for the liquid in situ at high pressure and temperature and

  8. Boron Doped Graphene 3-Dimensi untuk Superkapasitor Kapasitas Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Pramita Sari


    Full Text Available Chemical doping is an effective approach to improve the property of carbon material. In this study boron doped graphene with 3D structure used as the electrode was investigated. Boron doped graphene was prepared through freeze-dried process followed by pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO with three types of chemical substances; boron oxide, boric acid, and boron powder in an argon and hydrogen atmosphere at 1000 C for 3 hours. The difference of chemical composition generated a different percentage of boron bond with GO. The results shows that the highest electrochemical performance was found in graphene samples with the addition of boric acid (BA 86 F/g, followed by boron oxide (BO 59.2 F/g, and boron powder (BP 2 F/g. It can be caused by boron concentration bound with graphene. The higher concentration of boron could be increased the electrochemical performance due to better of ion movement.

  9. Breaking the icosahedra in boron carbide. (United States)

    Xie, Kelvin Y; An, Qi; Sato, Takanori; Breen, Andrew J; Ringer, Simon P; Goddard, William A; Cairney, Julie M; Hemker, Kevin J


    Findings of laser-assisted atom probe tomography experiments on boron carbide elucidate an approach for characterizing the atomic structure and interatomic bonding of molecules associated with extraordinary structural stability. The discovery of crystallographic planes in these boron carbide datasets substantiates that crystallinity is maintained to the point of field evaporation, and characterization of individual ionization events gives unexpected evidence of the destruction of individual icosahedra. Statistical analyses of the ions created during the field evaporation process have been used to deduce relative atomic bond strengths and show that the icosahedra in boron carbide are not as stable as anticipated. Combined with quantum mechanics simulations, this result provides insight into the structural instability and amorphization of boron carbide. The temporal, spatial, and compositional information provided by atom probe tomography makes it a unique platform for elucidating the relative stability and interactions of primary building blocks in hierarchically crystalline materials.

  10. Boron adsorption on hematite and clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, G.M.


    This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the suitability of boron as a potential reactive tracer for use in saturated-zone C-well reactive tracer studies for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Experiments were performed to identify the prevalent sorption mechanism of boron and to determine adsorption of boron on hematite and clinoptilolite as a function of pH. These minerals are present in the Yucca Mountain tuff in which the C-well studies will be conducted. Evaluation of this sorption mechanism was done by determining the equilibration time of boron-mineral suspensions, by measuring changes in equilibrium to titrations, and by measuring electrophoretic mobility. Experiments were performed with the minerals suspended in NaCl electrolytes of concentrations ranging from 0.1 N NaCl to 0.001 N NaCl. Experimentalconditions included pH values between 3 and 12 and temperature of about 38 degrees C

  11. Determination of boron in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazhulene, S.S.; Grossman, O.V.; Kuntscher, K.K.; Malygina, L.I.; Muller, E.N.; Telegin, G.F.


    In the determination of boron in amorphous alloys containingFe, Co, B, Si, Ni, and P having unusal magnetic and electrical properties, precise analysis and rapid analysis are necessary. To improve the metrological properties of the existing procedure, to find a rapid determination of boron in amorphous alloys, and to verify the accuracy of the results, in the present work the optimization of the photometric determination after extraction of the BF/sup -//sub 4/ ion pair with methylene blue has been studied, and a boron determination by flame photometry using selective methylation has been developed. The determination of boron by the flame photometric and spectrophotometric methods is shown. When a highly precise determination is needed, the spectrophotometric procedure can be used. This procedure is distinguished by its labor intensity and duration. When the need for reproducibility is less severe, the rapid flame photometric procedure is best.

  12. Boron precipitates in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.K.; Washburn, J.


    Long rod-like defects are observed in ion implanted silicon when boron is present either as a prior dopant addition or as the implanted species. Results of recent work indicates that these defects have the characteristics of narrow extrinsic dipoles or elongated dislocation loops and that there are two different types along each of the six (110) directions. An annealing kinetics method has been used to identify the nature of these defects formed during post-implantation annealing in boron ion (100 keV) implanted silicon irradiated at room temperature to a dose of 2 x 10 14 /cm 2 . It is concluded that at least two different kinds of rod-like defects exist in boron ion implanted silicon. From the activation energy for shrinkage, it is also concluded that one type (anti A) is composed largely of boron atoms. (U.S.)

  13. Spectromicroscopy in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Redondo, Jose; Andres, Roger; Suda, Takashi; Neumann, Michael; Steen, Steffi; Gabel, Detlef; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, Teresa; Perfetti, Paolo; Margaritondo, Giorgio; de Stasio, Gelsomina


    The MEPHISTO synchrotron imaging spectromicroscope can analyse ashed cells or tissue sections to reveal the microdistribution of trace elements. MEPHISTO performs core level x-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, and uses an electron optics system to provide magnified photoelectron images. An application of the MEPHISTO spectromicroscope is in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a binary cancer therapy that will selectively destroy cancer cells provided that compounds containing a boron isotope are selectively accumulated in tumor tissue. Important factors for the success of BNCT include the ability to target every cancer cell, and the distribution of boron inside the cell. To investigate the boron distribution in tissue, sections of human glioblastoma containing a BNCT compound, and stained with nickel against a protein found in the nuclei of proliferating (cancer) cells, were studied with MEPHISTO.

  14. Behaviour of boron in Mandovi estuary (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.

    and alkalinity gave positive correlations with a linear variation. Though the overall behavioural pattern of boron indicated non-conservative nature, it showed a quasi-conservative character during premonsoon and a non-conservative during rest of the seasons...

  15. Boron (United States)

    ... feeding women over 19 years of age. For adolescents 14 to 18 years of age and pregnant or breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years of age, the ... be expected, is 17 mg per day for adolescents 14 to 18 years of age and pregnant or breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years of age. For ...

  16. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide (United States)

    Duran, Edward L.


    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  17. Boron-rich oligomers for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, M.; Perleberg, O.; Gabel, D.


    The synthesis of two BSH derivatives is described, which can be used for oligomerization in DNA-synthesizers. Synthesis pathways lead to final products in five and six steps, respectively. Because of chirality interesting results were expected. NMR-measurements confirm this expectation. Possible oligomers with high concentrations of boron can be attached to biomolecules. These oligomers can be explored with several imaging methods (EELS, PEM) to determine the lower detection limit of boron with these methods. (author)

  18. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.


    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  19. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.


    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  20. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning


    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  1. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals (United States)

    White, A. F.


    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  2. CO2 sequestration by magnesium silicate mineral carbonation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kohlmann, J.


    Fixation Of CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion in the form of solid carbonates appears to be a realistic option for the capture and storage of this greenhouse gas. Vast amounts of magnesium silicate minerals exist worldwide that may be carbonated, with magnesium carbonate as stable and environmentally harmless product. Also in Finland magnesium silicate resources exist that could support Finnish commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes the option Of CO 2 sequestration with magnesium silicates in Finland. Addressed are mineral resources, mineral quality and the mineral carbonation process, including some experimental results on magnesium silicate carbonation kinetics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  4. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate (United States)

    Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.


    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  5. Pozzolanic activity of various siliceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S.K. [Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee (India)


    The accelerated pozzolanic activity of various siliceous materials, like silica fume, fly ash (as received and fine ground), quartz, precipitated silica, metakaolin and rice husk ash (RHA; various fineness and carbon content), has been determined. The compressive strength of accelerated tests has been compared with cubes cured in water at 7 and 28 days. Maximum activity has been observed in case of RHA ({lt}45 g), followed by quartz and silica fume. The 10% replacement of cement by sand has shown accelerated pozzolanic index of 92% compared with 85% required in ASTM for silica fume as mineral admixture.

  6. Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V.; Heuschele, Jan; Gillard, Jeroen


    Diatoms are highly abundant unicellular algae that often dominate pelagic as well as benthic primary production in the oceans and inland waters. Being strictly dependent on silica to build their biomineralized cell walls, marine diatoms precipitate 240 × 10(12) mol Si per year, which makes them...... the major sink in the global Si cycle. Dissolved silicic acid (dSi) availability frequently limits diatom productivity and influences species composition of communities. We show that benthic diatoms selectively perceive and behaviourally react to gradients of dSi. Cell speed increases under d...

  7. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klur, I.


    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.)

  8. Structure peculiarities of mixed alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, V.A.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Egorov, V.


    The thermal porperties and structure of alkali and mixed alkali (Li, Na, K) silicate glasses by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the positron annihilation method, X-ray fluorescence and infrared (300-30 cm -1 ) spectroscopy were studied. Introduction of different alkali cations in glass results in nonadditive change in their electron structure (bond covalence degree growth) and the thermal behaviour. The different manifestations of mixed alkali effect can be explained by the lessening of long distance Coulomb interactions and strengthening the short-range forces in the mixed alkali glasses. (orig.)

  9. Real-time boronization in PBX-M using erosion of solid boronized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.


    Thirty one real-time boronizations were applied to PBX-M using the plasma ablation of solid target probes. More than 17 g of boron was deposited in PBX-M using this technique. The probes were positioned at the edge plasma to optimize ablation and minimize spallation. Auger depth profile analysis of poloidal and toroidal deposition sample coupon arrays indicate that boron was transported by the plasma around the torus and deep into the divertors. During discharges with continuous real-time boronization, low-Z and high-Z impurities decreased rapidly as plasma surfaces were covered during the first 20--30 discharges. After boronization, a short-term improvement in plasma conditions persisted prior to significant boron erosion from plasma surfaces, and a longer term, but less significant, improvement persisted as boron farther from the edge continued gettering. Real-time solid target boronization has been found to be very effective for accelerating conditioning to new regimes and maintaining high performance plasma conditions

  10. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet (United States)

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  11. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.


    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Spectral-Luminescent, Photochemical, and Lasing Characteristics of Boron Dipyrromethene Difluoro (III) Derivatives in Liquid and Solid-State Media (United States)

    Kuznetsova, R. T.; Aksenova, Yu. V.; Prokopenko, A. A.; Bashkirtsev, D. E.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Arabei, S. M.; Pavich, T. A.; Solovyov, K. N.; Antina, E. V.


    Optical properties of some boron dipyrromethene difluoro (III) (BF2-dipyrromethene) derivatives are studied depending on the ligand structure, the medium in which they are incorporated, irradiation time, and radiation wavelength. Prospects for application of the prepared solid-state media painted by the examined compounds in various optical devices used in modern technologies are demonstrated. These are active laser media in the range 550-565 nm based on three-component silicate matrices with high laser damage threshold and sensor media based on boron difluoride complexes of halogen-substituted dipyrromethenes incorporated into an organic polymer for the determination of oxygen concentration in a gas mixture. Spectral, energy, and resource characteristics of lasing of solid-state elements are presented. The effect of reversible dye photounpainting in three-component silicate matrices with subsequent restoration in the darkness is discovered. Possible reasons for this effect are discussed with allowance for which laser media with increased photostability can be prepared. A high sensitivity of the sensor medium based on diiodinated complex of BF2-dipyrromethene incorporated into polyvinyl butyral is obtained. Reasons for the increase in the response time to the change of the gas mixture when going over to neutral argon and possibilities of its elimination are discussed.

  13. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)


    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  14. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki


    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  15. Boron-containing thioureas for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketz, H.


    Melanin is produced in large amounts in malignant melanotic melanomas. Because thiourea compounds are covalently incorporated into melanin during its biosynthesis, the preparation of boronated thiourea-derivatives is of particular interest for the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). Accumulation of boron in tumors by means of boronated thiourea-derivatives may therefore provide levels of 10 B which are useful for BNCT. In BNCT the tumor containing the boron compound is irradiated with epithermal neutrons to generate He- and Li-nuclei from the 10 B which can then destroy the tumor cells. Because of the short ranges of these particles (approximately one cell diameter) the damage will be almost exclusively confined to the tumor leaving normal tissue unharmed. High accumulation of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole) in melanotic melanomas has been described in the literature. Boronated derivatives of methimazole were therefore synthesized. Boron was in the form of a boronic acid, a nido-carbonate and a mercaptoundeca hydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH). The synthesis of the boron cluster derivatives of methimazole (nido-carborate- and BSH-derivatives) with 9 resp. 12 boron atoms in the molecule were expected to achieve higher concentrations of boron in the tumor than in the case of the boronic acid compound with its single boron atom. (orig.) [de

  16. Atmospheric contribution to boron enrichment in aboveground wheat tissues. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Mindong; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Browne, Patrick


    Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat. The results showed that the concentrations of boron in aboveground wheat tissues from the highly industrialized region were significantly higher than those from the agriculture-dominated region, even though there was no significant difference in boron content in soils. Using the model based on the translocation coefficients of boron in the soil-wheat system, we estimated that the contribution of atmosphere to boron accumulation in wheat straw in the highly industrialized region exceeded that in the agriculture-dominated region by 36%. In addition, from the environmental implication of the model, it was estimated that the development of boron-utilizing industries had elevated the concentration of boron in aboveground wheat tissues by 28-53%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma. (United States)

    Tuffen, Hugh; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R


    It has long been assumed that seismogenic faulting is confined to cool, brittle rocks, with a temperature upper limit of approximately 600 degrees C (ref. 1). This thinking underpins our understanding of volcanic earthquakes, which are assumed to occur in cold rocks surrounding moving magma. However, the recent discovery of abundant brittle-ductile fault textures in silicic lavas has led to the counter-intuitive hypothesis that seismic events may be triggered by fracture and faulting within the erupting magma itself. This hypothesis is supported by recent observations of growing lava domes, where microearthquake swarms have coincided with the emplacement of gouge-covered lava spines, leading to models of seismogenic stick-slip along shallow shear zones in the magma. But can fracturing or faulting in high-temperature, eruptible magma really generate measurable seismic events? Here we deform high-temperature silica-rich magmas under simulated volcanic conditions in order to test the hypothesis that high-temperature magma fracture is seismogenic. The acoustic emissions recorded during experiments show that seismogenic rupture may occur in both crystal-rich and crystal-free silicic magmas at eruptive temperatures, extending the range of known conditions for seismogenic faulting.

  18. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (United States)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra


    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  19. SPM nanolithography of hydroxy-silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdrè, G; Moro, D; Hounsome, C M; Antognozzi, M


    Bio-nanopatterning of surfaces is becoming a crucial technique with applications ranging from molecular and cell biology to medicine. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is one of the most useful tools for nanopatterning of flat surfaces. However, these patterns are usually built on homogeneous surfaces and require chemical functionalization to ensure specific affinity. Layered magnesium–aluminum hydroxide–silicates have already shown unique self-assembly properties on DNA molecules, due to their peculiar crystal chemistry based on alternating positive and negative crystal layers. However, patterns on these surfaces tend to be randomly organized. Here we show etching and oxidation at the nanometer scale of magnesium–aluminum hydroxide–silicates using the same SPM probe for the creation of organized nanopatterns. In particular, it is possible to produce three-dimensional structures in a reproducible way, with a depth resolution of 0.4 nm, lateral resolution of tens of nm, and a speed of about 10 μm s −1 . We report, as an example, the construction of an atomically flat charged pattern, designed to guide DNA deposition along predetermined directions without the need of any chemical functionalization of the surface. (paper)

  20. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions (United States)

    Gokturk, H.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  1. Structure and properties of alumino-boro-silicate glasses and melts (United States)

    neuville, D. R.; Florian, P.; Cadars, S.; Massiot, D.


    The relationship between physical properties and structure of glasses and melts in the system MO-T2O3-SiO2 (with M= Na2, Ca and T= Al, B) are technologically and geologically important, in particular to understand the microscopic origin of the configurational thermodynamic properties. The connection of these network former is fundamental to understand the physical properties of magmatic liquids. The configurational properties of melts and glasses provide fundamental information needed to characterize magmatic processes. A principal difficulty, however is to link the "macroscopic" configurational entropy with the structure of melts. This has been done by combining viscometry with Raman and NMR spectroscopy studies. From the viscosity measurements at low and high temperatures, we have obtained the configurational entropy, Sconf (log η = Ae + Be/TSconf, were η is the viscosity, T the temperature and Ae, Be two constants). Silicon, aluminum, and boron are 3 network formers playing different role on the silicate network, whereas Si is the strongest network former in coordination 4, 5 or 6 as a function of T, P; Al can play different function as a network former in 4- or 5-fold coordination and probably as a network modifier in 6 fold coordination. Boron observed in 3 or 4 fold coordination is always a network former but for very "fragile" glasses. For the glass the Al/B substitution produce a small decrease of the molar volume while this substitution produced a strong decrease of viscosity and glass transition temperature while the fragility of the network is less affected by this chemical change. Raman spectra show significant change in the D1 and D2 bands. NMR spectroscopies show also significant change as a function of chemical change and temperature. All this observations will be discussed and interpreted in order to link microscopic versus macroscopic changes.

  2. 15th International Conference on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Štíbr, Bohumil


    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 121 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * boron * boron materials * carboranes * IMEBORON XV * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  3. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using cryptocrystalline magnesite to remove boron ions from aqueous systems. Batch experimental protocols were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of magnesite for boron. Parameters...

  4. Boron: out of the sky and onto the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, D.K.


    Now an accepted, engineered material for aerospace applications, boron is taking its place on the ground. Both current production applications, prototype (development) applications, and speculative applications abound. In the leisure product market, boron epoxy or boron aluminum has been used or tried in golf clubs (in combination with graphite epoxy or to reinforce aluminum or steel), in tennis racquets, in bicycles, racing shells, skis and skipoles, bows and arrows, and others. In the industrial area, boron has been used to reduce fatigue, increase stiffness, or for its abrasive properties. Textile machinery, honing tools, and cut off wheels or saws are among the applications. In the medical field, prosthetics and orthotic braces, wheel chairs, canes, and crutches are all good applications for boron. Applications for boron in transportation, construction, and heavy industry are also possible. The volume of boron used in these applications could have a major impact on prices, making boron composite parts cost competitive with conventional materials. (U.S.)

  5. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K


    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  6. [Adsorption characteristic and form distribution of silicate in lakes sediments]. (United States)

    Lü, Chang-Wei; Cui, Meng; Gao, Ji-Mei; Zhang, Xi-Yan; Wan, Li-Li; He, Jiang; Meng, Ting-Ting; Bai, Fan; Yang, Xu


    Taking surface sediments from the Wuliangsuhai Lake and Daihai Lake as adsorbent, the isothermal adsorption experiments of silicate on sediments were carried out and the adsorption behavior was explained by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin crossover-type equations, then the form distribution characters of silicate were studied after adsorption in this work. The results showed that the adsorption behavior of silicate on the two lakes sediments can be linear fitting in the lower concentration dose (Temkin crossover-type equations can be used to explain the adsorption behavior of silicate on the two lakes sediments, and the native adsorption silicate (NAS) and equilibrium silicate concentration (ESC(0)) calculated by the three equations could be used to explain the sink and source effects of the sediments from the two lakes; the silicate form distribution in the sediments after adsorption indicated that silicate adsorbed on particles were mainly added on the form of IEF-Si, CF-Si, IMOF-Si and OSF-Si, and the IMOF-Si and OSF-Si had important potential bioavailability.

  7. Petrology and Geochemistry of Calc-Silicate Schists and Calc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemically the calc-silicate schists are characterized by relatively high CaO, MgO, Cr, Ni, Sr, La, Ce and Nd contents compared with the mica schist regionally associated with the marble as well as the Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS). Relative to the ultramafic schist the calc-silicate schists are characterized by higher ...

  8. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe (United States)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.


    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  9. Impact scenarios in boron carbide: A computational study


    Bell, R. G.; Sugden, I. J.; Plant, D. F.


    The effect of radiative impacts on the structure of boron carbide has been studied by both classical and ab initio simulations. As a part of this study, a new forcefield was developed for use in studying boron carbide materials. Impact scenarios in boron carbide were simulated in order to investigate the exceptional resistance of this material, and other icosahedral boron solids, to high-energy impact events. It was observed that interstitial defects created by radiative impacts are likely to...

  10. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabergenov, M.K.; Balakaeva, T.G.


    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P 2 O 5 ) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  11. Determination of free carbon content in boron carbide ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Lima, N.B. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.


    Boron carbide is a ceramic material of technological importance due to its hardness and high chemical and thermal stabilities. Free carbon is always found as a process dependent impurity in boron carbide. The development of procedures for its detection is required because its presence leads to a degradation of the boron carbide properties. In this work, several procedures for determining free carbon content in boron carbide specimens are reported and discussed for comparison purposes. (author) [pt

  12. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina


    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  13. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W; Maya, L; Sloop, F V J


    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon respons...

  14. Hot ductility behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Chipres, E.; Mejia, I.; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Cabrera, J.M.


    The current study analyses the influence of boron contents (between 29 and 105 ppm) on the hot ductility of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, hot tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures (700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C) at a constant true strain rate of 0.001 s -1 . In general, results revealed an improvement of the hot ductility of steels at increasing boron content. At 700, 900 and 1000 deg. C the ductility is higher than at 800 deg. C, where boron microalloyed steels exhibit a region of ductility loss (trough region). Likewise, dynamic recrystallization only occurred at 900 and 1000 deg. C. The fracture surfaces of the tested steels at temperatures giving the high temperature ductility regime show that the fracture mode is a result of ductile failure, whereas it is ductile-brittle failure in the trough region. Results are discussed in terms of dynamic recrystallization and boron segregation towards austenite grain boundaries, which may retard the formation of pro-eutectoid ferrite and increase grain boundary cohesion

  15. Update on human health effects of boron. (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H


    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Spectral properties of porphyrins in the systems with layered silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceklovsky, A.


    This work is focused on investigation of hybrid materials based on layered silicates, representing host inorganic component, and porphyrin dyes as organic guest. Aqueous colloidal dispersions, as well as thin solid films of layered silicate/porphyrin systems were studied. Modification of photophysical properties, such as absorption and fluorescence of molecules, adsorbed or incorporated in layered silicate hosts, were studied mainly to spread the knowledge about the environments suitable for incorporating aromatic compounds, providing photoactive properties of potential technological interest. TMPyP cations interact with the surfaces of layered silicates via electrostatic interactions. The extent of dye adsorption on colloidal particles of the silicates is influenced by the CEC values and swelling ability of silicates. Interaction of porphyrins with layered silicate hosts leads to significant changes of dye spectral properties. One of the key parameters that has a crucial impact on this interaction is the layer charge of silicate template. Other factors influence the resulting spectral properties of hybrid systems, such as the method of hybrid material preparation, the material's type (colloid, film), and the modification of the silicate host. Molecular orientation studies using linearly-polarized spectroscopies in VIS and IR regions revealed that TMPyP molecules were oriented in almost parallel fashion with respect to the silicate surface plane. Slightly higher values of the orientation angle of TMPyP transition moment were observed for the TMPyP/FHT system. Thus, flattening of the guest TMPyP molecules is the next important factor (mainly in the systems with lower layer charge), influencing its spectral properties upon the interaction with layered silicates. Fluorescence was effectively quenched in the systems based on solid films prepared from the high concentration of the dye (10-3 The quenching is most probably related to the structure of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar


    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  18. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori


    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  19. Simulating the effect of boron doping in superconducting carbon (United States)

    Sakai, Yuki; Chelikowsky, James R.; Cohen, Marvin L.


    We examine the effect of boron doping in superconducting forms of amorphous carbon. By judiciously optimizing boron substitutional sites in simulated amorphous carbon, we predict a superconducting transition temperature near 37 K at 14% boron concentration. Our findings have direct implications for understanding the recently discovered high-Tc superconductivity in Q-carbon.

  20. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Body weight was not affected by dietary boron supplementation at 16 and 40 weeks of age. ... and human nutrition. In bone metabolism, boron interacts with Ca, vitamin D and Mg (Chapin et al., 1998). In animals and plants, boron affects at least 26 enzymes involved in substrate metabolism, insulin release, oxidation and.

  1. Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals (United States)


    occurs in ballistic impact, and accompanies amorphization in diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments (Yan et al., 2009). Fracture in boron carbide ...Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals by J. D. Clayton ARL-RP-440 May 2013...Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-RP-440 May 2013 Mesoscale Modeling of Dynamic Compression of Boron Carbide Polycrystals J. D. Clayton

  2. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa


    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  3. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh (United States)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  4. Dietary boron: possible roles in human and animal physiology (United States)

    Boron is a bioactive element of low molecular weight. Since discovery of the first boron biomolecule, boromycin, in 1967, several other similar biomolecules are now well-characterized. Most recently described was a bacterial cell-to-cell communication signal that requires boron, autoinducer-II. Boro...

  5. Stress-corrosion mechanisms in silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccotti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.ciccotti@univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, UMR 5587, CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France)


    The present review is intended to revisit the advances and debates in the comprehension of the mechanisms of subcritical crack propagation in silicate glasses almost a century after its initial developments. Glass has inspired the initial insights of Griffith into the origin of brittleness and the ensuing development of modern fracture mechanics. Yet, through the decades the real nature of the fundamental mechanisms of crack propagation in glass has escaped a clear comprehension which could gather general agreement on subtle problems such as the role of plasticity, the role of the glass composition, the environmental condition at the crack tip and its relation to the complex mechanisms of corrosion and leaching. The different processes are analysed here with a special focus on their relevant space and time scales in order to question their domain of action and their contribution in both the kinetic laws and the energetic aspects.

  6. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets (United States)

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.


    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  7. Biological evaluation of boronated unnatural amino acids as new boron carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W. [Departments of Radiology and Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)], E-mail:; Yao, M.-L.; Marepally, S.R. [Departments of Radiology and Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chandra, S. [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    There is a pressing need for new and more efficient boron delivery agents to tumor cells for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A class of boronated unnatural cyclic amino acids has demonstrated a remarkable selectivity toward tumors in animal and cell culture models, far superior to currently used agents in clinical BNCT. One of these amino acids, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC), has shown a tumor to blood ratio of 8 and a tumor to normal brain ratio of nearly 21 in a melanoma bearing mouse model. This work represents further biological characterization of this compound for tumor targeting in an EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma mouse model and a T98G human glioblastoma cell line. Female BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors were injected with the fructose complex form of racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers of ABCPC in identical concentrations. Boron concentrations were measured in the tumor, blood, brain, skin, and liver tissues at 1, 3, and 5 h post-injection. These observations revealed a remarkable difference in racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers in tumor targeting by boron. This implies that further separation of the L and D forms of this compound may enhance tumor targeting to an even higher degree than that provided by the racemic mixtures. Since the uptake measurements were made in homogenized tumor and normal tissues, little is known about the subcellular location of the boron arising from the various isomeric forms of the amino acid. To study subcellular delivery of boron from ABCPC in T98G human glioblastoma cells, we employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of ion microscopy, which is capable of quantitatively imaging isotopic (elemental) gradients in cells and tissues at 500 nm spatial resolution. The T98G cells were exposed to the nutrient medium containing 100 ppm boron equivalent of a mixture of both L and D isomers of ABCPC in the form of a fructose complex for 1 h. Following this treatment

  8. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Winter, J.


    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  9. Biological Evaluation of Boronated Unnatural Amino Acids as New Boron Carriers (United States)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Yao, M.-L.; Marepally, S.R.; Chandra, S.


    There is a pressing need for new and more efficient boron delivery agents to tumor cells for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A class of boronated unnatural cyclic amino acids has demonstrated a remarkable selectivity toward tumors in animal and cell culture models, far superior to currently used agents in clinical BNCT. One of these amino acids, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC), has shown a tumor to blood ratio of 8 and a tumor to normal brain ratio of nearly 21 in a melanoma bearing mouse model. This work represents further biological characterization of this compound for tumor targeting in an EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma mouse model and a T98G human glioblastoma cell line. Female BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors were injected with the fructose complex form of racemic mixtures of cis- and trans isomers of ABCPC in identical concentrations. Boron concentrations were measured in the tumor, blood, brain, skin, and liver tissues at 1, 3, and 5 hr post injection. These observations revealed a remarkable difference in racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers in tumor targeting by boron. This implies that further separation of the L and D forms of this compound may enhance tumor targeting to an even higher degree than that provided by the racemic mixtures. Since the uptake measurements were made in homogenized tumor and normal tissues, little is known about the subcellular location of the boron arising from the various isomeric forms of the amino acid. To study subcellular delivery of boron from ABCPC in T98G human glioblastoma cells, we employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of ion microscopy, which is capable of quantitatively imaging isotopic (elemental) gradients in cells and tissues at 500 nm spatial resolution. The T98G cells were exposed to the nutrient medium containing 100 ppm boron equivalent of a mixture of both L and D isomers of ABCPC in the form of a fructose complex for 1 hr. Following this

  10. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy (United States)

    Edgecock, Rob


    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  11. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.


    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  12. Structure of Boron Carbide: Where's the Carbon? (United States)

    Marx, David; Seidler, Gerald; Fister, Timothy; Nagle, Kenneth; Segre, Carlo


    Although the structure of the boron carbide series, B12-xCx with 0.06 x x-ray scattering (LERIX) spectrometer on the PNC-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab has enabled differentiation of the boron and carbon absorption edge data for the various crystallographic sites. The structure (R-3m) consists of twelve-atom icosahedra and three-atom chains. Boron carbide may have a maximum of three carbon atoms, which may be located on the two end of chain sites and in one of two inequivalent sites on the icosahedra. At least one carbon atom must be present in the structure for it to be stable. In this presentation, structural results from non-resonant x-ray scattering for seven samples, ranging from B4C to B10.1C will be presented.

  13. On the Mechanism of Boron Ignition (United States)

    Keil, D. G.; Dreizin, E. L.; Felder, W.; Vicenzi, E. P.


    Boron filaments were electrically heated in air and argon/oxygen mixtures while their resistance, temperature, and radiation at the wavelengths of BO and BO2 bands were monitored. The filaments 'burned' in two distinct stages. Samples of the filaments were quenched at different times before and during the burning and analyzed using electron microscopy. The beginning of the first stage combustion characterized by a local resistance minimum, a sharp spike in boron oxide radiation emission, and a rapid rise in temperature, occurred at 1500 +/- 70 deg. C, independent of pre-heating history and oxygen content (540%) in the gas environment. The data suggest that a phase transition occurs in the filaments at this temperature that triggers stage one combustion. Significant amounts of oxygen were found inside quenched filaments. Large spherical voids formed in the boron filaments during their second stage combustion which is interpreted to indicate a crucial role for the gas dissolution processes in the combustion scenario.

  14. Reactive belite stabilization mechanisms by boron-bearing dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, Ana; Losilla, Enrique R.; Aranda, Miguel A.G.; Sanz, Jesús; De la Torre, Ángeles G.


    Belite-rich cements hold promise for reduced energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, but their use is hindered by the slow hydration rates of ordinary belites. This drawback may be overcome by activation of belite by doping. Here, the doping mechanism of B and Na/B in belites is reported. For B-doping, three solid solutions have been tested: Ca 2-x/2 □ x/2 (SiO 4 ) 1-x (BO 3 ) x , Ca 2 (SiO 4 ) 1-x (BO 3 ) x O x/2 and Ca 2-x B x (SiO 4 ) 1-x (BO 4 ) x . The experimental results support the substitution of silicate groups by tetrahedral borate groups with the concomitant substitution of calcium by boron for charge compensation, Ca 2-x B x (SiO 4 ) 1-x (BO 4 ) x . Otherwise, the coupled Na/B-doping of belite has also been investigated and Ca 2-x Na x (SiO 4 ) 1-x (BO 3 ) x series is confirmed to exist for a large range of x values. Along this series, α' H -C 2 S is the main phase (for x ≥ 0.10) and is single phase for x = 0.25. Finally, a new structural description for borax doping in belite has been developed for α' H -Ca 1.85 Na 0.15 (SiO 4 ) 0.85 (BO 3 ) 0.15 , which fits better borax activated belite cements in Rietveld mineralogical analysis.

  15. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.


    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and

  16. Chemical and mechanical analysis of boron-rich boron carbide processed via spark plasma sintering (United States)

    Munhollon, Tyler Lee

    Boron carbide is a material of choice for many industrial and specialty applications due to the exceptional properties it exhibits such as high hardness, chemical inertness, low specific gravity, high neutron cross section and more. The combination of high hardness and low specific gravity makes it especially attractive for high pressure/high strain rate applications. However, boron carbide exhibits anomalous behavior when high pressures are applied. Impact pressures over the Hugoniot elastic limit result in catastrophic failure of the material. This failure has been linked to amorphization in cleavage planes and loss of shear strength. Atomistic modeling has suggested boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) may be a better performing material than the commonly used B4C due to the elimination of amorphization and an increase in shear strength. Therefore, a clear experimental understanding of the factors that lead to the degradation of mechanical properties as well as the effects of chemistry changes in boron carbide is needed. For this reason, the goal of this thesis was to produce high purity boron carbide with varying stoichiometries for chemical and mechanical property characterization. Utilizing rapid carbothermal reduction and pressure assisted sintering, dense boron carbides with varying stoichiometries were produced. Microstructural characteristics such as impurity inclusions, porosity and grain size were controlled. The chemistry and common static mechanical properties that are of importance to superhard materials including elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness of the resulting boron-rich boron carbides were characterized. A series of six boron carbide samples were processed with varying amounts of amorphous boron (up to 45 wt. % amorphous boron). Samples with greater than 40 wt.% boron additions were shown to exhibit abnormal sintering behavior, making it difficult to characterize these samples. Near theoretical densities were achieved in samples with

  17. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery. (United States)

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed


    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories. (United States)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald


    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  19. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana


    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  20. Thermal conductivity behavior of boron carbides (United States)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.


    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbides is necessary to evaluate its potential for high temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The thermal diffusivity of hot pressed boron carbide B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/ samples as a function of composition, temperature and temperature cycling was measured. These data in concert with density and specific heat data yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results in terms of a structural model to explain the electrical transport data and novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are discussed.

  1. Designing your boron-charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.


    High-pressure positive-displacement pumps used in the boron-charging setups of pressurized-water (PWR) nuclear plants because of their inherently high efficiencies over a wide range of pressures and speeds are described. Hydrogen-saturated water containing 4-12% boric acid is fed to the pump from a volume-control tank under a gas blanket. Complicated piping and the pulsation difficulties associated with reciprocating pumps make hydrogen-saturated boron-charging systems a challenge to the designer. The article describes the unusual hydraulics of the systems to help assure a trouble-free design

  2. Unveiling polytype transformation assisted growth mechanism in boron carbide nanowires (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Li, Xiaodong


    We demonstrate direct evidence that the lattice distortion, induced by boron carbide (BxCy) stoichiometry, assists the growth of boron carbide nanowires. The transformation between different polytypic boron carbide phases lowers the energy barrier for boron diffusion, promoting boron migration in the nanowire growth. An atomistic mass transport model has been established to explain such volume-diffusion-induced nanowire growth which cannot be explained by the conventional surface diffusion model alone. These findings significantly advance our understanding of nanowire growth processes and mass transport mechanisms and provide new guidelines for the design of nanowire-structured devices.

  3. Model for calculating the boron concentration in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Martins Junior, L.L. dos; Vanni, E.A.


    A PWR boron concentration model has been developed for use with RETRAN code. The concentration model calculates the boron mass balance in the primary circuit as the injected boron mixes and is transported through the same circuit. RETRAN control blocks are used to calculate the boron concentration in fluid volumes during steady-state and transient conditions. The boron reactivity worth is obtained from the core concentration and used in RETRAN point kinetics model. A FSAR type analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident in Angra I plant was selected to test the model and the results obtained indicate a sucessfull performance. (Author) [pt

  4. Removal properties of dissolved boron by glucomannan gel. (United States)

    Oishi, Kyoko; Maehata, Yugo


    Boron ions have long been known to form complexes with the cis-diol group of a polysaccharide. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) which is one of polysaccharides was used to remove dissolved boron in this study. KGM forms a complex with boron, but does not remove boron from contaminated waters as well as other polysaccharides because of its high water solubility. Therefore, the removal efficiencies of dissolved boron were examined using both an insoluble KGM gel and KGM semi-gel. The former did not remove dissolved boron, but the latter did. The difference in the ability of boron removal was due to the presence of diol group inside. KGM loses free diol group during the process of gelation. On the other hand, the semi-gel gelated only surface layer in water has diol group inside. The boron removal capacity of the semi-gel was highest at pHs⩾11, when the boron species is present as B(OH)4(-). The capacity was slightly increased by the addition of Al, Ca and Mg under high pH conditions. This was due to co-precipitation of boron with Ca dissolved from the semi-gel. The boron adsorbed to the semi-gel easily was desorbed under low pH conditions and the hysteresis was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of boron concentration in biopsy-sized tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yougjin; Fong, Katrina; Edwards, Benjamin; Autry-Conwell, Susan; Boggan, James


    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the most sensitive analytical method for boron determination. However, because boron is volatile and ubiquitous in nature, low-concentration boron sample measurement remains a challenge. In this study, an improved ICP-MS method was developed for quantitation of tissue samples with low (less than 10 ppb) and high (100 ppb) boron concentrations. The addition of an ammonia-mannitol solution converts volatile boric acid to the non-volatile ammonium borate in the spray chamber and with the formation of a boron-mannitol complex, the boron memory effect and background are greatly reduced. This results in measurements that are more accurate, repeatable, and efficient. This improved analysis method has facilitated rapid and reliable tissue biodistribution analyses of newly developed boronated compounds for potential use in neutron capture therapy. (author)

  6. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten substrates from atomic fluxes of boron and carbon (United States)

    Sadovskiy, Y.; Begrambekov, L.; Ayrapetov, A.; Gretskaya, I.; Grunin, A.; Dyachenko, M.; Puntakov, N.


    A device used for both coating deposition and material testing is presented in the paper. By using lock chambers, sputtering targets are easily exchanged with sample holder thus allowing testing of deposited samples with high power density electron or ion beams. Boron carbide coatings were deposited on tungsten samples. Methods of increasing coating adhesion are described in the paper. 2 μm boron carbide coatings sustained 450 heating cycles from 100 to 900 C. Ion beam tests have shown satisfactory results.

  7. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.


    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  8. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.


    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of gliomas and glioblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment of levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 S H must be known in several compartments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumin was established. This method is simples, reproducible and has adequate sensitivity for this control. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Effect of low temperature oxidation (LTO) in reducing boron skin in boron spin on dopant diffused emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan Singh [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Mumbai-400076, Maharashtra (India)


    Formation of boron skin is an unavoidable phenomenon in p-type emitter formation with boron dopant source. The boron skin thickness is generally less than 100 nm and difficult to remove by chemical and physical means. Low temperature oxidation (LTO) used in this work is useful in removing boron skin thickness up to 30 nm and improves the emitter performance. The effective minority carrier lifetime gets improved by more than 30% after using LTO and leakage current of the emitter gets lowered by 100 times thereby showing the importance of low temperature oxidation in boron spin on dopant diffused emitters.

  10. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing


    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  11. Stable emulsions in extraction systems containing zirconium and silicic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinegribova, O.A.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Kotenko, A.A.


    The effect of zirconium nitrate compound nature and silicic acid on the rate of emulsions stratification in extraction systems depending on the components concentration, solution acidity, its past history, is studied. It is stated that stable multinuclear zirconium compounds have an influence on formation of stable emulsions in systems containing silicic acid. On the basis of results of chemical analysis and properties of interphase precipitates, being part of stable emulsion, suppositions on mechanism of interaction of zirconium nitrate compounds with silicic acid β-form are made

  12. Boron exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and birth size. (United States)

    Igra, Annachiara Malin; Harari, Florencia; Lu, Ying; Casimiro, Esperanza; Vahter, Marie


    Boron is a metalloid found at highly varying concentrations in soil and water. Experimental data indicate that boron is a developmental toxicant, but the few human toxicity data available concern mostly male reproduction. To evaluate potential effects of boron exposure through drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n=194), 1-3 samples of serum, whole blood and urine were collected per woman during pregnancy and analyzed for boron and other elements to which exposure occurred, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth. Drinking water boron ranged 377-10,929μg/L. The serum boron concentrations during pregnancy ranged 0.73-605μg/L (median 133μg/L) and correlated strongly with whole-blood and urinary boron, and, to a lesser extent, with water boron. In multivariable-adjusted linear spline regression analysis (non-linear association), we found that serum boron concentrations above 80μg/L were inversely associated with birth length (B-0.69cm, 95% CI -1.4; -0.024, p=0.043, per 100μg/L increase in serum boron). The impact of boron appeared stronger when we restricted the exposure to the third trimester, when the serum boron concentrations were the highest (0.73-447μg/L). An increase in serum boron of 100μg/L in the third trimester corresponded to 0.9cm shorter and 120g lighter newborns (p=0.001 and 0.021, respectively). Considering that elevated boron concentrations in drinking water are common in many areas of the world, although more screening is warranted, our novel findings warrant additional research on early-life exposure in other populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid mass-spectrometric determination of boron isotopic distribution in boron carbide. (United States)

    Rein, J E; Abernathey, R M


    Boron isotopic ratios are measured in boron carbide by thermionic ionization mass spectrometry with no prior chemical separation. A powder blend of boron carbide and sodium hydroxide is prepared, a small portion is transferred to a tantalum filament, the filament is heated to produce sodium borate, and the filament is transferred to the mass spectrometer where the(11)B/(10)B ratio is measured, using the Na(2)BO(2)(+) ion. Variables investigated for their effect on preferential volatilization of (10)B include the sodium hydroxide-boron carbide ratio and the temperature and duration of filament heating. A series of boron carbide pellets containing natural boron, of the type proposed for the control rods of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor, were analysed with an apparently unbiased result of 4.0560 for the (11)B/(10)B ratio (standard deviation 0.0087). The pellets contained over 3% metal impurities typically found in this material. Time of analysis is 45 min per sample, with one analyst.

  14. The investigation of physical conditions of boron uptake region in proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Young Jung


    Full Text Available We conducted a quantitative study to identify the effectiveness of proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT. Four simulation scenarios were designed to investigate the escalation in total dose with the proton boron reaction using a Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX 2.6.0 simulation. The peak integrated dose was obtained for three different physical conditions (i.e., boron uptake region (BUR thickness, BUR location, and boron concentration with differing proton beam energy (60–90 MeV. We found that the peak integrated dose was increased by up to 96.62% compared to the pristine proton Bragg-peak. For the synergetic effect to take place with 60–70 MeV proton beam, the BUR had to be at least 0.3 cm thick while spanning the Bragg-peak. Similarly to the thickness, the BUR location needed to be within 0.3 cm from the Bragg-peak when the thickness was maintained at 0.9 cm. An effective proton boron reaction required the boron concentration to be equal to or greater than 14.4 mg/g. These results demonstrate the impact of various physical and beam conditions of the PBFT, which are critical environmental factors for the treatment planning. We envision that this study will advance our understanding of the PBFT, which can be an invaluable treatment method for maximizing the potential of proton therapy.

  15. Testing boron carbide under triaxial compression (United States)

    Anderson, Charles; Chocron, Sidney; Dannemann, Kathryn A.; Nicholls, Arthur E.


    This article focuses on the pressure dependence and summarizes the characterization work conducted on intact and predamaged specimens of boron carbide under confinement in a pressure vessel and in a thick steel sleeve. The failure curves obtained are presented, and the data compared to experimental data from the literature.

  16. Kinetic analysis of boron carbide sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, W.; Kerler, A.R.


    The kinetics of the sintering of boron carbide were investigated by shrinkage measurements with a high-temperature dilatometer under argon atmosphere in dependence on temperature, grain size, and pressure. The activation energies and the reaction mechanisms of the different stages of sintering were determined. (orig.) [de

  17. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian


    report on attempts to compact amorphous iron–boron particles prepared by chemical reduction of Fe(II) ions in aqueous solution by NaBH4 (Ref. 2). The particles prepared in this way are pyrophoric, but can be passivated. The small particle size (10–100 nm), characteristic of this preparation technique...

  18. Boron nitride nanosheets reinforced glass matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saggar, Richa; Porwal, H.; Tatarko, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.


    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S26-S32 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK155 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Boron nitride nanosheets * Borosilicate glass * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2015

  19. Energetics of Boron Doping of Carbon Pores (United States)

    Wexler, Carlos; St. John, Alexander; Connolly, Matthew


    Carbon-based materials show promise, given their light weight, large surface areas and low cost for storage of hydrogen and other gases, e.g., for energy applications. Alas, the interaction of H2 and carbon, 4-5kJ/mol, is insufficient for room-temperature operation. Boron doping of carbon materials could raise the binding energy of H2 to 12-15kJ/mol. The nature of the incorporation of boron into a carbon structure has not been studied so far. In this talk we will address the energetics of boron incorporation into a carbon matrix via adsorption and decomposition of decaborane by first principles calculations. These demonstrate: (a) A strong adsorption of decaborane to carbon (70-80kJ/mol) resulting in easy incorporation of decaborane, sufficient for up to 10-20% B:C at low decaborane vapour pressures. (b) Identification that boron acts as an electron acceptor when incorporated substitutionally into a graphene-like material, as expected due to its valence. (c) The electrostatic field near the molecule is responsible for ca. 2/3 of the enhancement of the H2-adsorbent interaction in aromatic compounds such as pyrene, coronene and ovalene. Supported by DOE DE-FG36-08GO18142, ACS-PRF 52696-ND5, and NSF 1069091.

  20. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.


    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  1. Reaction of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, A.V.; Melekhin, V.F.; Pegov, V.S.


    The investigation results of interaction in the B 4 C-MoSi 2 system during sintering in vacuum are presented. Sintering of boron carbide with molybdenum disilicide is shown to lead to the formation of MoB 2 , SiC, Mo 5 Si 3 compounds, the presence of carbon-containing covering plays an important role in sintering

  2. New insight into pecan boron nutrition (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...


    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...


    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  5. Perfomance analysis of boron carbide in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Birney, K.R.


    Reactivity control in the FFTF and LMFBR's will be maintained by control elements utilizing boron carbide pellets contained in stainless steel pins. Computer performance codes predict irradiation service conditions of absorber pellets and identify required experimental testing. Test results are incorporated in the codes to improve performance prediction capabilities

  6. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  7. Investigation into organic boron compounds complexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakova, G.A.; Belonovich, M.I.; Rybakova, M.N.; Morozova, T.L.; Lapkin, I.I.


    Triarylboranes interact with 4-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole With the formation of complexes of the composition 1:1. Ligand forms coordination bond with boron at the expense of pyridine atom of triazole cycle nitrogen. IR spectra, yields and decomposition temperatures of the complexes are presented

  8. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf


    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre......-incubated with boron nanoparticles for 12 hours, were injected subcutaneously into C57BL16J mice. The tumour sites were exposed to different doses of neutron radiation one, four, or eight days after tumour cell inoculation. Results: When the tumour site was irradiated with thermal neutrons one day after injection......, tumour growth was delayed and the treated mice survived longer than untreated controls (median survival time 20 days (N=8) compared with 10 days (N=7) for untreated mice). Conclusion: Boron nanoparticles significantly delay the growth of an aggressive B16-OVA tumour in vivo by boron neutron capture...

  9. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz


    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization (United States)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  11. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Bae


    Full Text Available This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA into tricalcium silicate (C3S paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C3S in the C3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the pure C3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.

  12. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Skeletal remains of siliceous algae form biogenic fine grained highly porous pelagic siliceous ooze sediments that were found above the reservoir of the Ormen Lange gas field which is located in the southern part of the Norwegian Sea (Figure 1a). The Palaeocene sandstone of the “Egga” Formation...... structure is complex and the solids are mechanically fragile and hydrous. Normal petrophysical methods used in formation evaluation might not be suitable for interpreting siliceous ooze. For example, density and neutron logging tools are calibrated to give correct porosity readings in a limestone formation......, but apparent porosity indications in any other lithology, such as siliceous ooze, are wrong and they should be corrected. The apparent bulk density log should be influenced by the hydrogen in opal as also the neutron porosity tools because they are sensitive to the amount of hydrogen in a formation...

  13. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Taguchi


    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  14. Nanostructure of Er3+ doped silicates. (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Hou, Kirk; Haines, Christopher D; Etessami, Nathan; Ranganathan, Varadh; Halpern, Susan B; Kear, Bernard H; Klein, Lisa C; Sigel, George H


    We demonstrate nanostructural evolution resulting in highly increased photoluminescence in silicates doped with Er3+ ions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, nano-energy dispersed X-ray (NEDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence analysis confirm the local composition and structure changes of the Er3+ ions upon thermal annealing. We studied two types of amorphous nanopowder: the first is of the composition SiO2/18Al2O3/2Er2O3 (SAE), synthesized by combustion flame-chemical vapor condensation, and the second is with a composition of SiO2/8Y2O3/2Er2O3 (SYE), synthesized by sol-gel synthesis (composition in mol%). Electron diffraction and HRTEM imaging clearly show the formation of nanocrystallites with an average diameter of approximately 8 nm in SAE samples annealed at 1000 degrees C and SYE samples annealed at 1200 degrees C. The volume fraction of the nanocrystalline phase increased with each heat treatment, eventually leading to complete devitrification at 1400 degrees C. Further XRD and NEDX analysis indicates that the nanocrystalline phase has the pyrochlore structure with the formula Er(x)Al(2-x)Si2O7 or Er(x)Y(2-x)Si2O7 and a surrounding silica matrix.

  15. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth (United States)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.


    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  16. Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek. (United States)

    Nazaralian, Sanam; Majd, Ahmad; Irian, Saeed; Najafi, Farzaneh; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria


    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO 2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO 2 -nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.


    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  18. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.


    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    silicate reaction bands have higher contents of CaO and Sr and lower concentrations of K2O, Rb, Ni, and Ba relative to the calc-silicate schists; and relatively higher SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 and lower ...

  20. Raman spectroscopy of boron-doped single-layer graphene. (United States)

    Kim, Yoong Ahm; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Katsumi; Terrones, Mauricio; Behrends, Jan; Eckmann, Axel; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Novoselov, Kostya S; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    The introduction of foreign atoms, such as nitrogen, into the hexagonal network of an sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom monolayer has been demonstrated and constitutes an effective tool for tailoring the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here, we report that boron atoms can be efficiently substituted for carbon in graphene. Single-layer graphene substitutionally doped with boron was prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of boron-doped graphite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the amount of substitutional boron in graphite was ~0.22 atom %. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the boron atoms were spaced 4.76 nm apart in single-layer graphene. The 7-fold higher intensity of the D-band when compared to the G-band was explained by the elastically scattered photoexcited electrons by boron atoms before emitting a phonon. The frequency of the G-band in single-layer substitutionally boron-doped graphene was unchanged, which could be explained by the p-type boron doping (stiffening) counteracting the tensile strain effect of the larger carbon-boron bond length (softening). Boron-doped graphene appears to be a useful tool for engineering the physical and chemical properties of graphene.

  1. Laser-induced photochemical enrichment of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, S.M.; Ritter, J.J.


    A boron trichloride starting material containing both boron-10 isotopes and boron-11 isotopes is selectively enriched in one or the other of these isotopes by a laser-induced photochemical method involving the reaction of laser-excited boron trichloride with either H 2 S or D 2 S. The method is carried out by subjecting a low pressure gaseous mixture of boron trichloride starting material and the sulfide to infrared radiation from a carbon dioxide TE laser. The wave length of the radiation is selected so as to selectively excite one or the other of boron-10 BCl 3 molecules or boron-11 BCl 3 molecules, thereby making them preferentially more reactive with the sulfide. The laser-induced reaction produces both a boron-containing solid phase reaction product and a gaseous phase containing mostly unreacted BCl 3 and small amounts of sulfhydroboranes. Pure boron trichloride selectively enriched in one of the isotopes is recovered as the primary product of the method from the gaseous phase by a multi-step recovery procedure. Pure boron trichloride enriched in the other isotope is recovered as a secondary product of the method by the subsequent chlorination of the solid phase reaction product followed by separation of BCl 3 from the mixture of gaseous products resulting from the chlorination

  2. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo


    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation. (United States)

    Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiangcheng; Luan, Zhaokun; Zhao, Changwei; Ren, Xiaojing


    The removal of boron from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was studied with self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes in the present work. The effect of pH, boron concentration, temperature and salt concentration of the feed solution on the boron rejection was investigated. The experimental results indicated that boron rejection was less dependent on the feed pH and salt concentration. DCMD process had high boron removal efficiency (>99.8%) and the permeate boron was below the maximum permissible level even at feed concentration as high as 750 mg/L. Although the permeate flux was enhanced exponentially with the feed temperature increasing, the influence of feed temperature on the boron rejection could be neglected. Finally, the natural groundwater sample containing 12.7 mg/L of boron was treated by DCMD process. The permeate boron kept below 20 microg/L whether the feed was acidified or not, but pre-acidification was helpful to maintain the permeate flux stability. All the experimental results indicated that DCMD could be efficiently used for boron removal from aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The application of silicon and silicates in dentistry: a review. (United States)

    Lührs, A-K; Geurtsen, Werner


    Silicates and silicate-based compounds are frequently used materials in dentistry. One of their major applications is their use as fillers in different dental filling materials such as glass-ionomer cements, compomers, composites, and adhesive systems. In these materials, the fillers react with acids during the setting process or they improve the mechanical properties by increasing physical resistance, thermal expansion coefficient and radiopacity in acrylic filling materials. They also reduce polymerization shrinkage, and increase esthetics as well as handling properties. Furthermore, silicates are used for the tribochemical silication of different surfaces such as ceramics or alloys. The silicate layer formed in this process is the chemical basis for silanes that form a bond between this layer and the organic composite matrix. It also provides a micromechanical bond between the surface of the material and the composite matrix. Silicates are also a component of dental ceramics, which are frequently used in dentistry, for instance for veneers, inlays, and onlays, for denture teeth, and for full-ceramic crowns or as crown veneering materials.

  5. Silicates in orthopedics and bone tissue engineering materials. (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Zhang, Nianli; Mankoci, Steven; Sahai, Nita


    Following the success of silicate-based glasses as bioactive materials, silicates are believed to play important roles in promoting bone formation and have therefore been considered to provide a hydroxyapatite (HAP) surface layer capable of binding to bone as well as potentially being a pro-osteoinductive factor. Natural silicate minerals and silicate-substituted HAPs are also being actively investigated as orthopaedic bone and dental biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the mechanisms for the proposed roles of silicate in these materials have not been fully understood and are controversial. Here, we review the potential roles of silicate for bone tissue engineering applications and recent breakthroughs in identifying the cellular-level molecular mechanisms for the osteoinductivity of silica. The goal of this article is to inspire new ideas for the rational design of third-generation cell-and gene-affecting biomaterials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2090-2102, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Silicate Removal in Aluminum Hydroxide Co-Precipitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiharu Tokoro


    Full Text Available The removal mechanisms of silicate using an aluminum hydroxide co-precipitation process was investigated and compared with an adsorption process, in order to establish an effective and validated method for silicate removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms, XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that silicate uptake occurred by adsorption to boehmite for initial Si/Al molar ratios smaller than two, but by precipitation of poorly crystalline kaolinite for the ratios larger than two, in both co-precipitation and adsorption processes. Silicate was removed by two steps: (i an initial rapid uptake in a few seconds; and (ii a slow uptake over several hours in both processes. The uptake rate in the first step was higher in the co-precipitation process than in adsorption process, presumably due to increased silicate adsorption to boehmite and rapid precipitation of kaolinite. These results suggest that silicate removal using aluminum salts could be effectively achieved if the pH adjustment and aluminum concentration are strictly controlled.

  7. Effect of moisture and chitosan layered silicate on morphology and properties of chitosan/layered silicates films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.M.B. da; Santos, B.F.F. dos; Leite, I.F.


    Thin chitosan films have been for some time an object of practical assessments. However, to obtain biopolymers capable of competing with common polymers a significant improvement in their properties is required. Currently, the technology of obtaining polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites has proven to be a good alternative. This work aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan content (CS) and layered silicates (AN) on the morphology and properties of chitosan/ layered silicate films. CS/AN bionanocomposites were prepared by the intercalation by solution in the proportion 1:1 and 5:1. Then were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffraction (XRD) and X-ray thermogravimetry (TG). It is expected from the acquisition of films, based on different levels of chitosan and layered silicates, choose the best composition to serve as a matrix for packaging drugs and thus be used for future research. (author)

  8. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure (United States)

    Chu, T. L.


    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  9. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz


    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  10. Analytical techniques for boron and boron 10 analysis in a solid experimental tumor EO.771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, W.; Marx, J.; Feinendegen, L.E.


    If a tumor can be preferentially loaded with a suitable boron-10 compound and irradiated with thermal neutrons, malignant cells can be selectively destroyed via the α-particle + Li 7-nucleus from the reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li. Neutron capture therapy with two boron-10 amino acid analogs of low toxicity has been tested in recent years: (a) trimethylamine carboxyborane, (A3) and (b) amine-carboxyborane, (A7). Now the boron-10 glycineamide analog (A8), amineboryl carboxamide has been synthsized; it contains 13.81% boron (90% Boron 10+10% Boron 11) and shows a very low toxicity in mice. The effects of this compund were tested on the syngeneic solid adenocarcinoma EO 771 on the right hind leg of male C57 BL/6J mice under standard conditions, by measuring tumor volume growth delay and cell cycle changes using flow cytometry. Boron distribution between tumor and muscle was analyzed by emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) following injection of a suspension of peanut oil emulsion. In addition, boron-10 concentration in the tumor were analyzed with prompt γ-activation analysis and neutron capture radiography (Kodak-Pathe LR115) at the MRR reactor in Brookhaven after i.p. injection of 0.4 mg/g A8. Application of A8 alone (0.4 mg/g i.p.) or thermal neutron irradiation of the tumor EO. 771 produced a tumor growth delay of 1-2 days for tumor volume doubling. Application of the boron 10 glycine-amide analog A8 i.p. plus 5x10 12 n/cm 2 resulted in a growth delay of 3-6 days. In contrast intratumoral application of A8 plus 4x10 12 n/cm 2 neutrons gave a growth delay of 7-14 days; the fraction of (G2+M) cells rose from 35% (neutrons alone) to 52%, as evaluated from flow cytometry. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion Boronizing of H11 Hot Work Tool Steel (United States)

    Jurči, Peter; Hudáková, Mária


    The H11 hot work tool steel was boronized at various processing parameters, austenitized, quenched, and tempered to a core hardness of 47-48 HRC. Microstructure, phase constitution, and microhardness of boronized layers were investigated. Effect of boronized region on the bulk properties was determined by the Charpy impact test. Structure of boronized regions is formed by the compound layers and diffusion inter-layer. The compound layers consisted of only (Fe,Cr)2B phase, but in the case of longer processing time, they contained also of the (Fe,Cr)B-phase. The inter-layer contained enhanced portion of carbides, formed due to carbon diffusion from the boride compounds toward the substrate. Microhardness of boronized layers exceeded considerably 2000 HV 0.1. However, boronizing led to a substantial lowering of the Charpy impact toughness of the material.

  12. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs. (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P


    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Influence of dopants, particularly carbon, on β-rhombohedral boron (United States)

    Werheit, H.; Flachbart, K.; Pristáš, G.; Lotnyk, D.; Filipov, V.; Kuhlmann, U.; Shitsevalova, N.; Lundström, T.


    Due to the high affinity of carbon to boron, the preparation of carbon-free boron is problematic. Even high-purity (6 N) β-rhombohedral boron contains 30-60 ppm of C. Hence, carbon affects the boron physical properties published so far more or less significantly. We studied well-defined carbon-doped boron samples based on pure starting material carefully annealed with up to about 1% C, thus assuring homogeneity. We present and discuss their electrical conductivity, optical absorption, luminescence and phonon spectra. Earlier attempts of other authors to determine the conductivity of C-doped boron are revised. Our results allow estimating the effects of oxygen and iron doping on the electrical conductivity using results taken from literature. Discontinuities at low T impair the electronic properties.

  14. Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.


    The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Boron nitride - Composition, optical properties, and mechanical behavior (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.


    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at. percent. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at. percent range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  16. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.


    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  17. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)


    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  18. Strongly Phosphorescent Transition Metal π-Complexes of Boron-Boron Triple Bonds. (United States)

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dellermann, Theresa; Dewhurst, Rian D; Hupp, Benjamin; Kramer, Thomas; Mattock, James D; Mies, Jan; Phukan, Ashwini K; Steffen, Andreas; Vargas, Alfredo


    Herein are reported the first π-complexes of compounds with boron-boron triple bonds with transition metals, in this case Cu I . Three different compounds were isolated that differ in the number of copper atoms bound to the BB unit. Metalation of the B-B triple bonds causes lengthening of the B-B and B-C NHC bonds, as well as large upfield shifts of the 11 B NMR signals, suggesting greater orbital interactions between the boron and transition metal atoms than those observed with recently published diboryne/alkali metal cation complexes. In contrast to previously reported fluorescent copper(I) π-complexes of boron-boron double bonds, the Cu n -π-diboryne compounds (n = 2, 3) show intense phosphorescence in the red to near-IR region from their triplet excited states, according to their microsecond lifetimes, with quantum yields of up to 58%. While the Cu diborene bond is dominated by electrostatic interactions, giving rise to S 1 and T 1 states of pure IL(π-π*) nature, DFT studies show that the Cu I π-complexes of diborynes reported herein exhibit enhanced metal d orbital contributions to HOMO and HOMO-1, which results in S 1 and T 1 having significant MLCT character, enabling strong spin-orbit coupling for highly efficient intersystem-crossing S 1 → T n and phosphorescence T 1 → S 0 .

  19. Separation and Analysis of Boron Isotope in High Plant by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry


    Xu, Qingcai; Dong, Yuliang; Zhu, Huayu; Sun, Aide


    Knowledge of boron and its isotope in plants is useful to better understand the transposition and translocation of boron within plant, the geochemical behavior in the interface between soil and plant, and the biogeochemical cycle of boron. It is critical to develop a useful method to separate boron from the plant for the geochemical application of boron and its isotope. A method was developed for the extraction of boron in plant sample, whose isotope was determined by thermal ionization mass ...

  20. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide. (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O


    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals.

  1. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin


    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  2. Behavior of disordered boron carbide under stress. (United States)

    Fanchini, Giovanni; McCauley, James W; Chhowalla, Manish


    Gibbs free-energy calculations based on density functional theory have been used to determine the possible source of failure of boron carbide just above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL). A range of B4C polytypes is found to be stable at room pressure. The energetic barrier for shock amorphization of boron carbide is by far the lowest for the B12(CCC) polytype, requiring only 6 GPa approximately = P(HEL) for collapse under hydrostatic conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that the collapse of the B12(CCC) phase leads to segregation of B12 and amorphous carbon in the form of 2-3 nm bands along the (113) lattice direction, in excellent agreement with recent transmission electron microscopy results.

  3. Steam activation of boron doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tatsuya; Zhang Junfeng; Takasu, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Wataru


    Highlights: → Steam activation of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. → Steam activated BDD has a porous columnar texture. → Steam activated BDD has a wide potential window. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were activated in steam at various temperatures, resulting in high quality BDD electrodes with a porous microstructure. Distinct columnar structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemically active surface area of the steam-activated BDD was up to 20 times larger than the pristine BDD electrode owing to the porous texture. In addition, a widening of the potential window was observed after steam activation, suggesting that the quality of BDD was enhanced due to oxidative removal of graphitic impurities during the activation process.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  5. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.


    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  6. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications (United States)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; hide


    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of boron nitrides nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, T.H.; Sousa, E.M.B.


    This paper presents a new synthesis for the production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) from boron powder, ammonium nitrate and hematite tube furnace CVD method. The samples were subjected to some characterization techniques as infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission. By analyzing the results can explain the chemical reactions involved in the process and confirm the formation of BNNT with several layers and about 30 nanometers in diameter. Due to excellent mechanical properties and its chemical and thermal stability this material is promising for various applications. However, BNNT has received much less attention than carbon nanotubes, it is because of great difficulty to synthesize appreciable quantities from the techniques currently known, and this is one of the main reasons this work.(author)

  8. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V


    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  9. Development of boron epoxy rocket motor chambers. (United States)

    Jensen, W. M.; Knoell, A. C.; Zweben, C.


    A 71 cm diameter 74 cm length boron/epoxy composite rocket motor chamber was designed based on the geometric configuration of the JPL Applications Technology Satellite titanium alloy apogee motor chamber. Because analyses showed large stress concentrations in the domes, the configuration was modified using the same basic constraints for openings and attachments. The rocket motor chamber was then fabricated by filament winding with boron/epoxy tape and hydrostatically tested to failure at 264 N/sq cm, 57.2 N/sq cm above the design value. Two more rocket motor chambers were fabricated with the same basic constraints, but shortened to 57.6 cm for a smaller propellant load. The first of these short chambers failed in proof because of filament winding fabrication difficulties. The second chamber was successfully fabricated and passed the hydrostatic proof test.

  10. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.


    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  12. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.


    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  13. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Piezoelectric Boron Nirtride Nanotubes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conduct a systematic computational study on the physical and electro-mechanical properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) to evaluate their functional...

  14. Cobalt Doping of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Using Cobaltocene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, Lonnie


    .... This temperature dependent surface photovoltage effect is not compelling evidence for the majority carrier type but does suggest an increase in the carrier concentration in semiconducting boron...

  15. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide (United States)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David


    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  16. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.


    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  17. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)


    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  18. Boron isotopes as an artificial tracer. (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Lansey, Kevin; Arnold, Robert; Bassett, Randy L; Rincon, Martha


    A field study was conducted using a combination of intrinsic and artificial tracers to estimate travel times and dilution during transport of infiltrate from a reclaimed water infiltration basin to nearby monitoring wells. A major study objective was to validate boric acid enriched in (10)B as an artificial tracer. Basin 10E at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Whittier, California, was the site of the test. The basin normally receives a mixture of treated municipal waste water, purchased State Project water, and local runoff from the San Gabriel River. Approximately 3.5 kg of (10)B-enriched boric acid was dispersed among 2.05 x 10(5) m(3) of basin water to initiate the experiment. The resultant median delta(11)B in the infiltration basin was -71 per thousand. Prior to tracer addition, the basin water had an intrinsic delta(11)B of +2 per thousand. Local monitoring wells that were used to assess travel times had delta(11)B values of +5 per thousand and +8 per thousand at the time of tracer addition. Analytic results supported an assumption that boron is conserved during ground water transport and that boron enriched in (10)B is a useful artificial tracer. Several intrinsic tracers were used to reinforce the boric acid tracer findings. These included stable isotopes of oxygen (delta(18)O) and hydrogen (deltaD), sulfate concentration, and the boron to chloride ratio. Xenon isotopes, (136)Xe and (124)Xe, also supported boron isotope results. Xenon isotopes were added to the recharge basin as dissolved gases by investigators from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Boron Isotopes Enrichment via Continuous Annular Chromatography


    Sağlam, Gonca


    ABSTRACT Boron has two stable isotopes namely 10B and 11B isotopes. The large cross section of 10B isotope for thermal neutrons is used for reactor control in nuclear fission reactors. The thermal neutrons absorption cross sections of pure 10B and 11B are 3837 and 0.005 barns respectively. In the literature, amongst others, batch elution chromatography techniques are reported for 10B isotope enrichment. This work focuses on continuous chromatographic 10B isotope separation system via continuo...

  20. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.; Clendenon, N.


    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  1. Nanotwins soften boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) (United States)

    An, Qi; Goddard, William A.


    Extensive studies of metals and alloys have observed that nanotwins lead to strengthening, but the role of nanotwins in ceramics is not well established. We compare here the shear strength and the deformation mechanism of nanotwinned boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) with the perfect crystal under both pure shear and biaxial shear deformations. We find that the intrinsic shear strength of crystalline B13C2 is higher than that of crystalline boron carbide (B4C). But nanotwins in B13C2 lower the strength, making it softer than crystalline B4C. This reduction in strength of nanotwinned B13C2 arises from the interaction of the twin boundary with the C-B-C chains that connect the B12 icosahedra.

  2. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets (United States)

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.


    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  3. Boron determination in U3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Nadia S.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Rosa, Daniele S.; Ulrich, Joao C.


    There exist specifications of the concentration as far the limit of impurities in the used uranium compounds is concerned. Among those impurities the boron element is detached. that in the uranium compounds acts as neutron absorber in nuclear reactions. Therefore, the determination of this element in uranium compounds, it is fundamental for the quality and performance of the nuclear fuels. However, the determination of this element is many times prejudiced by the presence of the uranium. For solving this problem, it is performed a chemical separation of the uranium (matrix) out of the interest. The most used methods to accomplish that separation are the solvent extraction and the ion exchange. In this work, the boron concentration will be done through the ion exchange technique, using polypropylene columns and Dowex AG 50W - X8 100-200 mesh cation resin in chloricide medium 0.25 M. The boron concentration will be determined through high resolution inductive coupling plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS)

  4. A fundamental study of industrial boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.; Kormann, R.; Lesueur, D.


    Some of the physical properties of boron carbide, before and after irradiation are reviewed on the basis of several new experiments performed in our laboratory. The layered aspect of the grains of this ceramic, due to a microtwinning of the rhomboedral structure, is emphasized first. Then, the location of free carbon in samples of composition close to B 4 C is discussed in relation with new sputtering experiments. Coupled studies of the electric conductivities and the electron spin resonance lines have demonstrated the important role of free carbon in the electronic properties of boron carbide and revealed the existence of a homogeneous short range disorder, the origin of which is not very clear (amorphous concept). The elementary processes responsible of the swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated boron carbide are rather well understood. The role of the point defects in these processes is reported. The displacement threshold energies and formation volumes are discussed in relation with electron irradiation experiments, and displacement rates are calculated in different irradiation situations including neutron irradiations [fr

  5. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de.


    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  6. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome (United States)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.


    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  7. Silicate fertilizer and irrigation depth in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Eloy Dantas Júnior


    Full Text Available Calcium-magnesium silicates improve the soil physicochemical properties and provide benefits to plant nutrition, since they are sources of silica, calcium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn fertilized with calcium-magnesium silicate. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil, using plastic pots containing 80 kg of soil. The treatments consisted of the combination of four irrigation depths, related to water replacement of 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the crop evapotranspiration, with fertilizer levels of 0, 82, 164 and 246 g of calcium-magnesium silicate, with three replications. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with the irrigation depths distributed in bands while the silicon levels constituted the subplots. Corn yield was influenced by calcium-magnesium silicate and by irrigation depth, obtaining the greatest grain yield with the dose of 164 g pot-1 irrigated at the highest water level. The water-use efficiency of in corn production tended to decrease when the irrigation depth was increased. The best water-use efficiency was observed when the irrigation level was between 87 and 174 mm, and the dose of silicate was 164 g pot-1.

  8. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates (United States)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.


    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  9. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  10. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.


    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, α) in the 10 B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a 239 Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue

  11. Effect of antimony-oxide on the shielding properties of some sodium-boro-silicate glasses. (United States)

    Zoulfakar, A M; Abdel-Ghany, A M; Abou-Elnasr, T Z; Mostafa, A G; Salem, S M; El-Bahnaswy, H H


    Some sodium-silicate-boro-antimonate glasses having the molecular composition [(20) Na 2 O - (20) SiO 2 - (60-x) B 2 O 3 - (x) Sb 2 O 3 (where x takes the values 0, 5 … or 20)] have been prepared by the melt quenching method. The melting and annealing temperatures were 1500 and 650K respectively. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the experimental and empirical density and molar volume values showed gradual increase with increasing Sb 2 O 3 content. The empirical densities showed higher values than those obtained experimentally, while the empirical molar volume values appeared lower than those obtained experimentally, which confirm the amorphous nature and randomness character of the studied samples. The experimentally obtained shielding parameters were approximately coincident with those obtained theoretically by applying WinXCom program. At low gamma-ray energies (0.356 and 0.662MeV) Sb 2 O 3 has approximately no effect on the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient, while at high energies it acts to increase the total Mass Attenuation Coefficient gradually. The obtained Half Value Layer and Mean Free Path values showed gradual decrease as Sb 2 O 3 was gradually increased. Also, the Total Mass Attenuation Coefficient values obtained between about 0.8 and 3.0MeV gamma-ray energy showed a slight decrease, as gamma-ray photon energy increased. This may be due to the differences between the Attenuation Coefficients of both antimony and boron oxides at various gamma-ray photon energies. However, it can be stated that the addition of Sb 2 O 3 into sodium-boro-silicate glasses increases the gamma-ray Attenuation Coefficient and the best sample is that contains 20 mol% of Sb 2 O 3 , which is operating well at 0.356 and 0.662MeV gamma-ray. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zołotajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina


    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2.

  13. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon


    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration

  14. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan


    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  15. Copper Containing Silicates as Catalysts for Liquid Phase Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Rosenira S. da


    Full Text Available Copper containing silicates have been prepared by an acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, N2-physisorption, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, temperature-programmed reduction, FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The silicates were shown to be efficient catalysts for the oxidation of cyclohexane with tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. Cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone were obtained as the main products. The metal was shown to be weakly bound to the silicate matrix and metal leaching was observed. Leaching was quantified by X-ray fluorescence and leaching tests showed that the catalytic activity is due to supported copper species. Leached copper showed no activity in the homogeneous phase.

  16. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering. (United States)

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J; Banwart, Steve A; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Leake, Jonathan R


    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to 'trenching' of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO(2) and climate history.

  17. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  18. Infrared spectra of carbon stars with silicate-like emission (United States)

    Noguchi, Kunio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Noda, Manabu; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Watabe, Toyoki


    Near-infrared photometry was carried out for 15 carbon stars, including three peculiar carbon stars (BM Gem, V778 Cyg, and EU And) which have a 10-micron emission feature similar to the silicate emission characteristic of oxygen-rich stars. It was found that these carbon stars with silicatelike emission have excesses at both the 12- and 25-micron bands regarding IRAS photometric data which are characteristic of M-type stars with strong silicate emission features. This fact supports the suggestion that the silicatelike emission in peculiar carbon stars is the same as the silicate emission in M-type stars. The near-infrared spectra of these three peculiar carbon stars between 1.9 micron and 4.2 microns were obtained with a grating spectrometer. The spectra of these stars show a 3-micron absorption feature characteristic of carbon stars.

  19. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W


    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  20. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie


    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  1. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans


    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  2. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    structure is complex and the solids are mechanically fragile and hydrous. Normal petrophysical methods used in formation evaluation might not be suitable for interpreting siliceous ooze. For example, density and neutron logging tools are calibrated to give correct porosity readings in a limestone formation...... present in the solid. Some minerals of siliceous ooze, such as opal, have hydrogen in their structures which influences the measured hydrogen index (HI). The neutron tool obtains the combined signal of the HI of the solid phase and of the water that occupies the true porosity. The HI is equal to true...

  3. Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Rare Earth Silicates (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Bansal, Narottam P.


    Rare earth silicates are considered promising candidate materials for environmental barrier coatings applications at elevated temperature for ceramic matrix composites. High temperature thermophysical properties are of great importance for coating system design and development. In this study, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of hot-pressed rare earth silicate materials were characterized at temperatures up to 1400 C. The effects of specimen porosity, composition and microstructure on the properties were also investigated. The materials processing and testing issues affecting the measurements will also be discussed.

  4. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  5. Removal of boron species by layered double hydroxides: a review. (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L


    Boron, which is an essential element for plants, is toxic to humans and animals at high concentrations. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and thermally activated LDHs have shown good uptake of a range of boron species in laboratory scale experiments when compared to current available methods, which are for the most part ineffective or prohibitively expensive. LDHs were able to remove anions from water by anion exchange, the reformation (or memory) effect and direct precipitation. The main mechanism of boron uptake appeared to be anion exchange, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Solution pH appeared to have little effect on boron sorption while thermal activation did not always significantly improve boron uptake. In addition, perpetration of numerous LDHs with varying boron anions in the interlayer region by direct co-precipitation and anion exchange have been reported by a number of groups. The composition and orientation of the interlayer boron ions could be identified with reasonable certainty by applying a number of characterisation techniques including: powder XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. There is still considerable scope for future research on the application of LDHs for the removal of boron contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation and deprotection of F-BODIPYs using boron trihalides. (United States)

    Lundrigan, Travis; Cameron, T Stanley; Thompson, Alison


    The activation of F-BODIPYs with boron trihalides, followed by treatment with a nucleophile, effects facile substitution at boron; using water as the nucleophile promotes deprotective removal of the -BF2 moiety and thereby production of the corresponding parent dipyrrin salt in quantitative yield under extremely mild conditions.

  7. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride (United States)

    Freund, S.M.


    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  8. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl


    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally...

  9. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson


    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  10. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12 (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.


    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  11. New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.


    Florine Duval - New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids – Summary Chapter 1 introduces the theory and known applications of the interaction between boronic acids and diols, and explains the context of this thesis. Diagnosis of

  12. Appraisal of SIMS applicability to boron studies in plants. (United States)

    Dérue, Cedric; Gibouin, David; Verdus, Marie-Claire; Lefebvre, Fabrice; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Thellier, Michel


    In the search for a new methodological approach applicable to the determination of the still poorly known primary role of boron in plant physiology, we have undertaken to appraise the potential of the SIMS method for the analytical imaging of the boron isotopes, (10)B and (11)B, at physiological concentrations in plants. With our own, CAMECA IMS4F SIMS ion analyser, and using O(2)(+) as primary ions for the detection of B(+) (plus (12)C(+) and (40)Ca(+)) secondary ions, we have been able to map quantitatively the two boron isotopes in control and boron-enriched plants, to evaluate boron concentrations at the level of individual cells and to determine boron isotopic ratios. This provides the opportunity to carry out the simultaneous labeling and imaging of boron, using enrichment with the stable isotopes, (10)B and (11)B. The method has also the potential for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of the boron isotopes and of the borate-binding sites in plant cells. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Feasibility study of SMART core with soluble boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Quun


    The excess reactivity of SMART core without soluble boron is effectively controlled by 49 CEDM. We suggest another method to control the core excess reactivity using both the checkerboard type of 25 CEDM and soluble boron and perform a feasibility calculation. The soluble boron operation is categorized into the on-line and the off-line mechanisms. The former is to successively control the boron concentration according to the excess reactivity during operation and the latter is to add and change some soluble boron during refueling and repairing. Since the on-line soluble boron control system of SMART is conceptually identical to that of the commercial pressurized water reactor, we did not perform the analysis. Since the soluble boron in the complete off-line system increases the moderator temperature coefficient, the reactivity defect between hot and cold moderator temperature is decreased. However, the decrease of the reactivity is not big to satisfy the core reactivity limits. When using 25 CEDM, the possible mechanism is to control the excess reactivity by both control rod and on-line boron control mechanism between cold and hot zero power and by only control rod at hot full power. We selected the loading pattern satisfying the requirement in the view of nuclear design

  14. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally


    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  15. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    weight armour plates etc (Alizadeh et al 2004). It can also be used as a reinforcing material for ceramic matrix composites. It is an excellent neutron absorption material in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  16. Eleventh international conference on boron chemistry. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Abstracts of reports at the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry are presented. Born chemistry as a connecting bridge between many fields maintains one of the leading positions in modern chemistry. Methods of synthesis of different boron compounds, properties of the compounds, their use in other regions of chemistry and medicine are widely presented in reports [ru

  17. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of gel material. A K KHANRA. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 21 August 2006; revised 29 January 2007. Abstract. Boron carbide (B4C) powder has been produced ...

  18. Vacancy complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG


    Full Text Available The effect of divacancies on the stability, structural and electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes is studied using the ab initio density functional method. VBBN is more stable in the boron-rich and less stable in the nitrogen...

  19. Research on weed species for phytoremediation of boron polluted soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... This research was aimed to investigate the application of weed species for phytoremediation of soil polluted with boron. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of increasing boron. (B) application on the growth and B uptake of common weed species, Sorghum halepense L. Pers.,.

  20. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.


    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  1. Isotopic Enrichment of Boron in the Sputtering of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions (United States)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.


    An experimental study is described to measure the isotopic enrichment of boron. Xenon ions from 100 eV to 1.5 keV were used to sputter a boron nitride target. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 microA/sq cm. Xenon ions impinged on the target surface at 50 deg angle to the surface normal. Since boron nitride is an insulator, a flood electron gun was used in our experiments to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The sputtered secondary ions of boron were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectrometer entrance aperture was located perpendicular to the ion beam direction and 10 mm away from the target surface. The secondary ion flux was observed to be enriched in the heavy isotopes at lower ion energies. The proportion of heavy isotopes in the sputtered secondary ion flux was found to decrease with increasing primary ion energy from 100 to 350 eV. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially. The light isotope enrichment factor was observed to reach an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. This trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy range.

  2. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acid or borax, and a nitrogen-containing compound such as melamine, urea or dicyandiamide are heated in an atmo- sphere of non-oxidizing gas such as nitrogen or ammonia. ∗. Author for correspondence ( These h-BN powders have low crystallinity and crystal- lographically it belongs to boron nitride ...

  3. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  4. From boron analogues of amino acids to boronated DNA: potential new pharmaceuticals and neutron capture agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, B.F.; Sood, Anup; Duke Univ., Durham, NC; Shaw, B.R.; Hall, I.H.


    Isoelectronic and isostructural boron analogues of the α-amino acids ranging from simple glycine analogues such as H 3 NBH 2 COOH and Me 2 NHBH 2 COOH to alanine analogues have been synthesised. A diverse variety of analogues, including precursors and derivatives (such as peptides) have potent pharmacological activity, including anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypolipidemic activity in animal model studies and in vitro cell cultures. Boronated nucleosides and (oligo)nucleotides, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues of ''antisense'' agents interact with a complementary nucleic acid sequence blocking the biological effect of the target sequence. Nucleosides boronated on the pyrimidine and purine bases have been prepared. It has been established that an entirely new class of nucleic acid derivatives is feasible in which one of the non-bridging oxygens in the internucleotide phosphodiester linkage can be replaced by an isoelectronic analogue, the borane group, (BH 3 ). The boronated oligonucleotides can be viewed as hybrids of the normal oxygen oligonucleotides and the methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. (author)

  5. Dietary boron: progress in establishing essential roles in human physiology. (United States)

    Hunt, Curtiss D


    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal biological functions. These include roles in calcium metabolism, bone growth and maintenance, insulin metabolism, and completion of the life cycle. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood but the nature of boron biochemistry suggests further characterization of the cell signaling molecules capable of complexing with boron. Such characterization may provide insights into the biochemical function(s) of boron in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics. (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.


    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  8. Fracture toughness of borides formed on boronized ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ugur; Sen, Saduman; Koksal, Sakip; Yilmaz, Fevzi


    In this study, fracture toughness properties of boronized ductile iron were investigated. Boronizing was realized in a salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid and ferro-silicon. Boronizing heat treatment was carried out between 850 and 950 deg. C under the atmospheric pressure for 2-8 h. Borides e.g. FeB, Fe 2 B formed on ductile iron was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM and optical microscope. Experimental results revealed that longer boronizing time resulted in thicker boride layers. Optical microscope cross-sectional observation of borided layers showed dentricular morphology. Both microhardness and fracture toughness of borided surfaces were measured via Vickers indenter. The harnesses of borides formed on the ductile iron were in the range of 1160-2140 HV 0.1 and fracture toughness were in the range of 2.19-4.47 MPa m 1/2 depending on boronizing time and temperature

  9. Metal-Free Boron-Containing Heterogeneous Catalysts. (United States)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Wang, Xinchen


    Metal-free catalysts have distinct advantages over metal and metal oxide catalysts, such as lower cost as well as higher reliability and sustainability. Among the nonmetal compounds used in catalysis, boron-containing compounds with a few unique properties have been developed. In this Minireview, the recent advances in the field of boron-containing metal-free catalysts are presented, including binary and ternary boron-containing catalytic materials. Additionally, the three main applications in catalysis are considered, namely, electrocatalysis, thermal catalysis, and photocatalysis, with the role of boron discussed in depth for each specific catalytic application. Boron-containing compounds could have a substantial impact on the field of metal-free catalysts in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL


    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  11. Problems and possibilities of development of boron nitride ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusanova, L.N.; Romashin, A.G.; Kulikova, G.I.; Golubeva, O.P.


    The modern state of developments in the field of technology of ceramics produced from boron nitride is analyzed. Substantial difficulties in production of pure ceramics from hexagonal and wurtzite-like boron nitride are stated as related to the structure peculiarities and inhomogeneity of chemical bonds in elementary crystal cells of various modifications. Advantages and disadvantages of familiar technological procedures in production of boron nitride ceramics are compared. A new technology is suggested, which is based on the use of electroorganic compounds for hardening and protection of porous high-purity boron-nitride die from oxidation, and as high-efficient sintered elements for treatment of powders of various structures and further pyrolisis. The method is called thermal molecular lacing (TML). Properties of ceramics produced by the TML method are compared with characteristics of well-known brands of boron nitride ceramics

  12. Density functional calculations of hydrogen adsorption on boron nanotubes and boron sheets (United States)

    Cabria, I.; López, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.


    Hydrogen adsorption on the recently discovered boron nanotubes, BNTs, and on boron sheets is investigated by density functional calculations. Both molecular physisorption and dissociative atomic chemisorption are considered. The geometric and electronic structures of BNTs and boron sheets have been elucidated. These two novel boron structures present buckled surfaces with alternating up and down rows of B atoms, with a large buckling height of about 0.8 Å. The buckled structures are about 0.20 eV/atom more stable than the corresponding flat ones. However, the helicity of some BNTs does not allow for the formation of alternating up and down B rows in the surface and, therefore, these nanotubes have flat surfaces. The buckled and flat nanostructures have different geometric and bonding characteristics, but both are metallic. Molecular hydrogen physisorption energies are about 30-60 meV/molecule on boron sheets and nanotubes, actually lower than in graphene and in carbon nanotubes and far from the energies of 300-400 meV/molecule necessary for efficient hydrogen storage at room temperature and moderate pressures for onboard automotive applications. Chemisorption binding energies on BNTs are about 2.4-2.9 eV/H atom, similar to the ones obtained in CNTs. Finally, the energy barrier from molecular physisorption to dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen is about 1.0 eV /molecule. Therefore, the calculations predict physisorption as the leading adsorption mechanism of hydrogen at moderate temperatures and pressures. The expected hydrogen adsorption capacity of these novel B materials is even smaller than that of CNTs.

  13. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mark W.; Shelly, Kenneth; Kane, Robert R.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick


    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  14. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.


    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  15. The Combined Action of Duplicated Boron Transporters Is Required for Maize Growth in Boron-Deficient Conditions. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Qiujie; Menello, Caitlin; Galli, Mary; Gallavotti, Andrea


    The micronutrient boron is essential in maintaining the structure of plant cell walls and is critical for high yields in crop species. Boron can move into plants by diffusion or by active and facilitated transport mechanisms. We recently showed that mutations in the maize boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR (RTE) cause severe developmental defects and sterility. RTE is part of a small gene family containing five additional members ( RTE2 - RTE6 ) that show tissue-specific expression. The close paralogous gene RTE2 encodes a protein with 95% amino acid identity with RTE and is similarly expressed in shoot and root cells surrounding the vasculature. Despite sharing a similar function with RTE , mutations in the RTE2 gene do not cause growth defects in the shoot, even in boron-deficient conditions. However, rte2 mutants strongly enhance the rte phenotype in soils with low boron content, producing shorter plants that fail to form all reproductive structures. The joint action of RTE and RTE2 is also required in root development. These defects can be fully complemented by supplying boric acid, suggesting that diffusion or additional transport mechanisms overcome active boron transport deficiencies in the presence of an excess of boron. Overall, these results suggest that RTE2 and RTE function are essential for maize shoot and root growth in boron-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  17. Obtainment and characterization of pure and doped gadolinium oxy ortho silicates with terbium III, precursor of luminescent silicates with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoneti, J.A.


    Silicate and sulfide lattices are uniquely efficient luminescent materials to excitation by cathodic rays and furthermore the cathodoluminescence study of these compounds have been few investigated. In this work it has been prepared, characterized and investigated some spectroscopic properties of pure and Tb a+ - activated Gd 2 Si O 3 system and it has been tried to substitute oxygen by sulphur in order to obtain this or sulfide-silicate lattices. Products were characterized by vibrational infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electronic emission in UV-VIS region. (author)


    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  19. Quantitative Estimation of the Reinforcing Effect of Layered Silicates in PP Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela


    Various polypropylene/layered silicate composites were prepared with different silicate contents. Montmorillonites with and without organophilization as well as three maleinated polypropylenes were used to change the extent of exfoliation and hence the properties of the composites. Structure was

  20. E-Beam-Cured Layered-Silicate and Spherical Silica Epoxy Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang; Anderson, David P


    .... The nanofillers can be two dimensional (layered-silicate) and zero dimensional (spherical silica). Both the spherical silica epoxy nanocomposite and the layered-silicate epoxy nanocomposite can be cured to a high degree of curing...

  1. Exploiting the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases via boron oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Dudek, Hanna; Reis, Joel S.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.


    The enantioselective carbon-boron bond oxidation of several chiral boron-containing compounds by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was evaluated. PAMO and M446G PAMO conveniently oxidized 1-phenylethyl boronate into the corresponding 1-(phenyl)ethanol (ee = 82-91%). Cyclopropyl boronic esters were also

  2. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P.; Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A.


    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  3. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others


    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  4. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin


    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  5. Wettability of Pyrolytic Boron Nitride by Aluminum (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.


    The wetting of pyrolytic boron nitride by molten 99.9999 percent pure aluminum was investigated by using the sessile drop method in a vacuum operating at approximately 660 micro-Pa at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 C. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with an increase in temperature. For temperatures at 900 C or less, the equilibrium contact angle was greater than 90 deg. At 1000 C a nonwetting-to-wetting transition occurred and the contact angle stabilized at 49 deg.

  6. Fabrication of boron nitride planar field emitters (United States)

    Yokota, Yuuko; Tagawa, Shigeru; Sugino, Takashi


    Boron nitride (BN) films are grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). BN films are doped with sulfur. Insertion of the GaN layer between the BN film and sapphire leads to a tight adhesion of the BN film. The electrical resistivity of the sulfur-doped BN film is reduced to 10 3 Ω cm. The cathode electrode is formed on the BN film and the anode electrode on the sapphire substrate by evaporating Ti and Au. An emission current of 1 μA is obtained at an electric field strength of 16 V/μm.

  7. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin


    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  8. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Hari Mohan; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Srivastava, Pankaj


    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  9. Processing of boron carbide-aluminum composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.


    The processing problems associated with boron carbide and the limitations of its mechanical properties can be significantly reduced when a metal phase (e.g., aluminum) is added. Lower densification temperatures and higher fracture toughness will result. Based on fundamental capillarity thermodynamics, reaction thermodynamics, and densification kinetics, we have established reliable criteria for fabricating B 4 C-Al particulate composites. Because chemical reactions cannot be eliminated, it is necessary to process B 4 C-Al by rapidly heating to near 1200 degrees C (to ensure wetting) and subsequently heat-treating below 1200 degrees C (for microstructural development)

  10. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)


    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  11. Synthesis of a boron modified phenolic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto


    Full Text Available Phenolic resin has long been used as matrix for composites mainly because of its flame retardant behavior and high char yield after pyrolysis, which results in a self supporting structure. The addition of ceramic powders, such as SiC and B4C, as fillers to the phenolic resin, results in better thermo-oxidative stability, but as drawbacks, it has poor homogeneity, adhesion and processing difficulties during molding of the composites. The addition of single elements, such as boron, silicon and phosphorus in the main backbone of the thermo-set resin is a new strategy to obtain special high performance resins, which results in higher mechanical properties, avoiding the drawbacks of simply adding fillers, which results in enhanced thermo-oxidative stability compared to conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins. Therefore, the product can have several applications, including the use as ablative thermal protection for thermo-structural composites. This work describes the preparation of a boron-modified phenolic resin (BPR using salicyl alcohol and boric acid. The reaction was performed in refluxing toluene for a period of four hours, which produced a very high viscosity amber resin in 90% yield.The final structure of the compound, the boric acid double, substituted at the hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring, was determined with the help of the Infrared Spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, TGA-DSC and boron elemental analysis. The absorption band of the group B-O at 1349 cm ˉ¹ can be visualized at the FT-IR spectrum. ¹H-NMR spectra showed peaks at 4.97-5.04 ppm and 3.60-3.90 ppm assigned to belong to CH2OH groups from the alcohol. The elemental analysis was also performed for boron determination.The product has also been tested in carbon and silicon fibers composite for the use in thermal structure. The results of the tests showed composites with superior mechanical properties when compared with the conventional phenolic resin.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of cubic boron nitride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meiyan; Cui Deliang; Kai Li; Yin Yansheng; Wang Qilong; Lei Chu


    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystals have been successfully synthesized by in situ hydrothermal method. In order to obtain cBN pure phase crystals, two comparative experiments were carried out. The experimental results indicated that compared to one-step in situ hydrothermal method, multi-step in situ hydrothermal method was beneficial to the synthesis of cBN. It is believed that the multi-step in situ hydrothermal method is the optimal route to synthesize pure cBN bulk crystals

  13. Boron carbide nanowires with uniform CNx coatings (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, R. M.; You, L. P.; Yu, J.; Chen, H.; Yu, D. P.; Chen, Y.


    Boron carbide nanowires with uniform carbon nitride coating layers were synthesized on a silicon substrate using a simple thermal process. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanowires were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A correlation between the surface smoothness of the nanowire sidewalls and their lateral sizes has been observed and it is a consequence of the anisotropic formation of the coating layers. A growth mechanism is also proposed for these growth phenomena.

  14. Boron nitride - boron hybrid coating on uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide fuel. Final report for the period 1 November 1996 - 1 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, G.


    The report describes work to develop laboratory-scale technology of the deposition of hybrid boron nitrate-metallic boron coating onto the surface of uranium dioxide ore uranium dioxide - gadolinia dioxide fuel pellets. Methods of chemical vapour deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were used in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. An excellent adherence of boron onto the boron nitrate layer and boron nitrate layer onto the fuel pellet surface was demonstrated. Fine grain-type structure of boron coating and its excellent adherence are good indices for integrated fuel burnable absorber fuels

  15. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)


    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  16. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)


    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  17. Preparation and characterization of magnesium–aluminium–silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A three-stage heating schedule involving calcination, nucleation and crystallization, has been evolved for the preparation of magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) glass ceramic with MgF2 as a nucleating agent. The effect of sintering temperature on the density of compacted material was studied. Microstructure and ...

  18. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg


    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  19. The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Bovet, Nicolas Emile


    The aim of this study is to illuminate how calcite precipitation depends on the identity and structure of the growth substrate. Calcite was precipitated at 25°C from supersaturated aqueous solutions in the presence of seeds of either calcite or one of six silicate materials: augite, enstatite...

  20. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 21, 2015 ... content does not affect the incidence of powdery mildew. Root rot disease. Effect of each silicate solution on the root rot of miniature rose. The disease incidence of root rot on the aboveground parts and roots of miniature rose was examined. For the aboveground parts, the disease incidence of the pathogen ...

  1. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.


    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  2. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka. Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    online, č. 2 (2007), s. 4-9 ISSN 1335-9053 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Zircon * Silicates * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  4. Vesuvianite–wollastonite–grossular-bearing calc-silicate rock near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the occurrence of vesuvianite + wollastonite + grossular + diopside + micro- cline + quartz assemblage in an enclave of calc-silicate rocks occurring within quartzofeldspathic gneiss near Tatapani in the western part of Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex. The enclave contains phlogopite-absent and ...

  5. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel


    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films

  6. Forming the Moon for terrestrial silicate-rich material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.; Anisichkin, V.F.; van Westrenen, W.


    Recent high-precision measurements of the isotopic composition of lunar rocks demonstrate that the bulk silicate Earth and the Moon show an unexpectedly high degree of similarity. This is inconsistent with one of the primary results of classic dynamical simulations of the widely accepted giant

  7. Preparation of β-belite using liquid alkali silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koutník


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the preparation of β-belite by a solid-state reaction using powdered limestone, amorphous silica and liquid alkali silicates. The raw materials were blended, the mixtures were agglomerated and then burnt. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Free lime content in the β-belite samples was also determined. The effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (1.6–2.1, burning temperature (800–1400 °C, utilization of different raw materials (silica fume, synthetic silica, potassium silicate, sodium silicate, potassium hydroxide and burning time (0.5–16 h on free lime content and mineralogical composition were investigated. The purest ?-belite samples were prepared from a mixture of powdered limestone, silica fume and liquid potassium silicate with a ratio CaO/SiO2 = 2 by burning at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 °C for more than 2 h. Decreasing of the CaO/SiO2 ratio led to rankinite formation and lower a burning temperature led to the formation of wollastonite.

  8. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone. (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S


    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Vesuvianite–wollastonite–grossular-bearing calc-silicate rock near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The enclave contains phlogopite-absent and phlogopite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, the latter being much more abundant than the former. The above assemblage occurs in the phlogopite-absent rock. Phlogopite-bearing rock contains the assemblage phlogopite + salite + microcline + plagioclase + quartz. A strong ...

  10. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the presence of a 3-5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  11. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus


    Full Text Available The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR and neutralization power (NP, indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC. Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicate particle-size fractions. Six correction sources were evaluated: three slags from distinct origins, dolomitic and calcitic lime separated into four particle-size fractions (2, 0.84, 0.30 and <0.30-mm sieves, and wollastonite, as an additional treatment. The treatments were applied to three soils with different texture classes. The dose of neutralizing material (calcium and magnesium oxides was applied at equal quantities, and the only variation was the particle-size material. After a 90-day incubation period, the RER was calculated for each particle-size fraction, as well as the RR and ECC of each source. The neutralization of soil acidity of the same particle-size fraction for different sources showed distinct solubility and a distinct reaction between silicates and lime. The RER for slag were higher than the limits established by Brazilian legislation, indicating that the method used for limes should not be used for the slags studied here.

  12. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  13. Detection of boron removal capacities of different microorganisms in wastewater and effective removal process. (United States)

    Laçin, Bengü; Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül


    In this study boron removal capacities of different microorganisms were tested. Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus versicolor were examined for their boron bioaccumulation capacities in simulated municipal wastewater. A. versicolor and B. cereus were found as the most boron-tolerant microorganisms in the experiments. Also boron bioaccumulation yield of A. versicolor was 49.25% at 15 mg/L boron concentration. On the other hand biosorption experiments revealed that A. versicolor was more capable of boron removal in inactive form at the highest boron concentrations. In this paper maximum boron bioaccumulation yield was detected as 39.08% at 24.17 mg/L and the maximum boron biosorption yield was detected as 41.36% at 24.01 mg/L boron concentrations.

  14. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsu, Ming-Hua


    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  15. Silicate Dispersion and Mechanical Reinforcement in Polysiloxane/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Daniel F.


    We report the first in-depth comparison of the mechanical properties and equilibrium solvent uptake of a range of polysiloxane nanocomposites based on treated and untreated montmorillonite and fumed silica nanofillers. We demonstrate the ability of equilibrium solvent uptake data (and, thus, overall physical and chemical cross-link density) to serve as a proxy for modulus (combining rubber elasticity and Flory-Rehner theory), hardness (via the theory of Boussinesq), and elongation at break, despite the nonideal nature of these networks. In contrast, we find that tensile and tear strength are not well-correlated with solvent uptake. Interfacial strength seems to dominate equilibrium solvent uptake and the mechanical properties it predicts. In the montmorillonite systems in particular, this results in the surprising consequence that equilibrium solvent uptake and mechanical properties are independent of dispersion state. We conclude that edge interactions play a more significant role than degree of exfoliation, a result unique in the field of polymer nanocomposites. This demonstrates that even a combination of polymer/nanofiller compatibility and thermodynamically stable nanofiller dispersion levels may not give rise to reinforcement. These findings provide an important caveat when attempting to connect structure and properties in polymer nanocomposites, and useful guidance in the design of optimized polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites in particular. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  17. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous-Ooze Sediments, More Basin, Norwegian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Pelagic siliceous-ooze sediments occur above the hydrocarbon reservoir of the Ormen Lange gas field in More Basin, Norwegian Sea. A possible hydrocarbon prospect of siliceous ooze was proposed, but siliceous ooze is significantly different in texture from most commonly known reservoir rocks...

  18. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.


    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  19. Metal/Silicate Partitioning at High Pressures and Temperatures (United States)

    Shofner, G.; Campbell, A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Rahman, Z.


    The behavior of siderophile elements during metal-silicate segregation, and their resulting distributions provide insight into core formation processes. Determination of partition coefficients allows the calculation of element distributions that can be compared to established values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Moderately siderophile elements, including W, are particularly useful in constraining core formation conditions because they are sensitive to variations in T, P, oxygen fugacity (fO2), and silicate composition. To constrain the effect of pressure on W metal/silicate partitioning, we performed experiments at high pressures and temperatures using a multi anvil press (MAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center and laser-heated diamond anvil cells (LHDAC) at the University of Maryland. Starting materials consisted of natural peridotite mixed with Fe and W metals. Pressure conditions in the MAP experiments ranged from 10 to 16 GPa at 2400 K. Pressures in the LHDAC experiments ranged from 26 to 58 GPa, and peak temperatures ranged up to 5000 K. LHDAC experimental run products were sectioned by focused ion beam (FIB) at NASA JSC. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients for W were calculated from element abundances determined by microprobe analyses, and corrected to a common fO2 condition of IW-2 assuming +4 valence for W. Within analytical uncertainties, W partitioning shows a flat trend with increasing pressure from 10 to 16 GPa. At higher pressures, W becomes more siderophile, with an increase in partition coefficient of approximately 0.5 log units.

  20. Laboratory Analysis of Silicate Stardust Grains of Diverse Stellar Origins (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko


    Silicate dust is ubiquitous in a multitude of environments across the cosmos, including evolved oxygen-rich stars, interstellar space, protoplanetary disks, comets, and asteroids. The identification of bona fide silicate stardust grains in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites, and dust returned from comet Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft has revolutionized the study of stars, interstellar space, and the history of dust in the Galaxy. These stardust grains have exotic isotopic compositions that are records of nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the depths of their now extinct parent stars. Moreover, the chemical compositions and mineralogies of silicate stardust are consequences of the physical and chemical nature of the stellar condensation environment, as well as secondary alteration processes that can occur in interstellar space, the solar nebula, and on the asteroid or comet parent body in which they were incorporated. In this talk I will discuss our use of advanced nano-scale instrumentation in the laboratory to conduct coordinated isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of silicate stardust grains from AGB stars, supernovae, and novae. By analyzing the isotopic compositions of multiple elements in individual grains, we have been able to constrain their stellar sources, explore stellar nucleosynthetic and mixing processes, and Galactic chemical evolution. Through our mineralogical studies, we have found these presolar silicate grains to have wide-ranging chemical and mineral characteristics. This diversity is the result of primary condensation characteristics and in some cases secondary features imparted by alteration in space and in our Solar System. The laboratory analysis of actual samples of stars directly complements astronomical observations and astrophysical models and offers an unprecedented level of detail into the lifecycles of dust in the Galaxy.

  1. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S.


    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation

  2. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela)


    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation.

  3. Analysis of boron carbides' electronic structure (United States)

    Howard, Iris A.; Beckel, Charles L.


    The electronic properties of boron-rich icosahedral clusters were studied as a means of understanding the electronic structure of the icosahedral borides such as boron carbide. A lower bound was estimated on bipolaron formation energies in B12 and B11C icosahedra, and the associated distortions. While the magnitude of the distortion associated with bipolaron formation is similar in both cases, the calculated formation energies differ greatly, formation being much more favorable on B11C icosahedra. The stable positions of a divalent atom relative to an icosahedral borane was also investigated, with the result that a stable energy minimum was found when the atom is at the center of the borane, internal to the B12 cage. If incorporation of dopant atoms into B12 cages in icosahedral boride solids is feasible, novel materials might result. In addition, the normal modes of a B12H12 cluster, of the C2B10 cage in para-carborane, and of a B12 icosahedron of reduced (D sub 3d) symmetry, such as is found in the icosahedral borides, were calculated. The nature of these vibrational modes will be important in determining, for instance, the character of the electron-lattice coupling in the borides, and in analyzing the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity.

  4. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, R.L.; Kota, C.


    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  5. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.


    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo 5 Si 3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi 2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo 5 Si 3 for structural integrity. 7 figs

  6. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Initial Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.


    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results of initial testing of an Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Several configurations of the ABUNCL models, which use 10B-lined proportional counters in place of 3He proportional counters for the neutron detection elements, were previously reported. The ABUNCL tested is of a different design than previously modeled. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was performed, and modeling will be conducted. Testing of the system reconfigured for active testing will be performed in the near future, followed by testing with nuclear fuel.

  7. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.


    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  8. Transport properties of polycrystalline boron doped diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.R. de [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Berengue, O.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP Departamento de Física, Guaratinguetá 12.516-410 (Brazil); Moro, J. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Bragança Paulista 12929-600 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Física, São Carlos 13565-905 (Brazil); Baldan, M.R., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPE/LAS, S.J. Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Synthetic boron doped diamond films were grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • We characterized the films by hall effects as a function of temperature and magnetic field. • The resistivity was investigated. • The conduction mechanism was dominated by variable range hopping (VRH). - Abstract: The influence of doping level in the electronic conductivity and resistivity properties of synthetic diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was investigated. Eight different doping level concentrations varied from 500 to 30,000 ppm were considered. The polycrystalline morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra was strongly affected by the addition of boron. The electric characterization by Hall effect as a function of temperature and magnetic field showed that at sufficiently low temperatures, electrical conduction is dominated by variable range hopping (VRH) conducting process. The resistivity was also investigated by temperature-dependent transport measurements in order to investigate the conduction mechanism in the doped samples. The samples exhibited the VRH (m = 1/4) mechanism in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. The interface between metal, and our HFCVD diamond was also investigated for the lower doped samples.

  9. Aluminum/boron composite - fatigue life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumtree, A.; Glinka, G.


    The fatigue behaviour of a 6061-0 aluminum alloy reinforce with 0.25 volume fraction undirectional boron fibres of 100 μm diameter has been investigated. The specimens were tested under constant stress amplitude using a stress ratio (minimum/maximum stress) of 0.2 with the fibres oriented at an angle to the loading direction in order to study the matrix dominated fatigue behaviour. Two sets of data were obtained for unidirectional specimens tested with fibre to load axis angles of 200 and 450 A third set of data was obtained with V 45 angle-ply specimens. It is shown that a microstress/strain analysis in conjunction with a multiaxial fatigue parameter can be applied to successfully predict the fatigue lives of these boron reinforced aluminum alloy composites. The multiaxial parameter enables a generalized strain-life relationship to be determined using limited experimental data. Once this generalized relationship is known, the life of the composite cycled under different loads and load-fibre angles can be predicted. (author)

  10. The boron connection: Roots (routes), grounds, horizons (United States)

    Zdetsis, Aristides D.


    Isoelectronic and isolobal silicon-based analogues to boranes and borane complexes are considered and studied. The framework and the implementation of such isoelectronic and isolobal analogies initially between silicon clusters (cluster dianions) and isovalent boranes, known under the scoptical and synoptical name "boron connection" is critically analyzed and reviewed in considerable depth and breadth, paying special attention to its conceptual simplicity, origin, and originality. It is illustrated that such a concept can be extended to several borane complexes producing analogous silicon based (nano)structures. This is achieved by considering and evaluating several vertical, horizontal and diagonal relationships on the periodical table rooted on Si. It is shown that this type of simple and transparent relationships can lead to far reaching extensions and generalizations of the "boron connection" to encompass structural and electronic relationships between additional simple and mixed clusters based in addition to Si on other group 14 elements. Such clusters include, among others, simple Gen2- and Snn2- dianions and mixed Si-Bi, Ge-Bi and Sn-Bi clusters. Special emphasis is placed on molecular and material engineering and functionalization, in analogy to similar functionalization of borane based molecules and materials. It is illustrated that this enlarged and expanded project is very promising and could be very successful for the design of a practically unlimited number of new group-14-based complexes as well as the rationalization and fictionalization of newly synthesized materials.

  11. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.


    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  12. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang


    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  13. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)


    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  14. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama. (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W


    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkić Lela Munjas


    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon (Si is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4, as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K, the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel, silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide, and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4 in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Baradyntseva


    Full Text Available The research conducted in laboratory of metallurgical science by which the factors exerting impact on hardenability of steel microalloyed by boron were analysed. The research was made because the implementation of this process in mass production is connected with the certain difficulties. The conducted researches have allowed to draw a conclusion that changing content of various chemical elements, such as nitrogen, boron, the titan and aluminum in steel containing boron, produced by JSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC» at the stage of preparation of chart flowsheet make it possible to predict terms of hardenability of the final product.

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of boron-10 in neutron detectors electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Vinhas, L.A.; Vieira, J.M.


    Process of boron-10 electrophoresis on large area of aluminum substrates was developed with the aim of using them in the construction of neutron detectors. After definition and optimization of the boron electrophoresis parameters, depositions of boron-10 on aluminum cylinders were performed and used as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. These prototypes were designed and builded at IPEN-CNEN-SP, and submited for characterization tests at IEA-R1 reactor, and they fulfil the technical specifications of the project. (author) [pt

  18. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.


    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  19. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide (United States)

    Grady, Dennis E.


    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20-60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable mechanistic

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Xiang [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)


    Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, B{sub x}Al{sub y}H{sub z}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions. (United States)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Li, Xiang; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Kandalam, Anil K


    Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, BxAlyHz(-), were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

  2. Coordination Networks Based on Boronate and Benzoxaborolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sene


    Full Text Available Despite the extensive range of investigations on boronic acids (R-B(OH2, some aspects of their reactivity still need to be explored. This is the case for the coordination chemistry of boronate anions (R-B(OH3−, which has only recently been started to be studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the key features of boronate ligands (and of their cyclic derivatives, benzoxaborolates in materials: (i coordination properties; (ii spectroscopic signatures; and (iii emerging applications.

  3. Kinetics of chemical vapor deposition of boron on molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, W.; Nakaanishi, N.; Kato, E.


    Experimental rate data of chemical vapor deposition of boron by reduction of boron trichloride with hydrogen are analyzed to determine the reaction mechanism. The reaction orders with respect to the partial pressures of hydrogen and boron trichloride are one half and one third, respectively. It has been found that the outer layer of a deposited film is Mo/sub 2/B/sub 5/ and the inner layer is MoB by the use of X-ray diffraction and EPMA line analysis

  4. Determination of boron in silicon related nuclear materials by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P.S.; Sayi, Y.S.; Ramakumar, K.L.


    Boron is one of the important specifications in all-nuclear materials. The present paper describes in detail about the determination of boron in U-Al-Si and SILUMIN. The sample is treated with H 2 O 2 and 3 M HCl. Silicon will be left as precipitate. It was removed by centrifugation. Boron was selectively separated by solvent extraction with 10% 2-ethyl hexane 1,3-diol and was quantitatively determined by spectrophotometry using curcumin as complexing agent. Since standard reference materials are not available, standard addition method was employed to confirm the results. (author)

  5. Boron-doped nanodiamonds as possible agents for local hyperthermia (United States)

    Vervald, A. M.; Burikov, S. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Ekimov, E. A.; Shenderova, O. A.; Dolenko, T. A.


    In this work, the effective heating of surrounding water by heavily-boron-doped nanodiamonds (NDs) under laser irradiation of visible wavelength was found. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy of aqueous suspensions of boron-doped NDs, it was found that this abnormally high heating results in the weakening of hydrogen bonds much more so (2-5 times stronger) than for undoped NDs. The property of boron-doped NDs to heat a solvent under the influence of laser radiation (1-5 W cm-2) opens broad prospects for their use to create nanoagents for medical oncology and local hyperthermia.

  6. First Principles Atomistic Model for Carbon-Doped Boron Suboxide (United States)


    Sutherland DG, Van Buuren T, Carlisle JA, Terminello LJ, Himpsel FJ. Photoemission and x - ray -absorption study of boron carbide and its surface thermal...along the C-C chain. If the interstitial dopant is either B or C, a local boron carbide (B4C)-like structure with either a C-B-C or C-C-C chain is...strength, high oxidation resistance (򒱰 °C), and chemical inertness.1–8 However, unlike other high-performance ceramics, boron carbide (B4C) and

  7. Click Reactions and Boronic Acids: Applications, Issues, and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Dai


    Full Text Available Boronic acids have been widely used in a wide range of organic reactions, in the preparation of sensors for carbohydrates, and as potential pharmaceutical agents. With the growing importance of click reactions, inevitably they are also applied to the synthesis of compounds containing the boronic acid moiety. However, such applications have unique problems. Chief among them is the issue of copper-mediated boronic acid degradation in copper-assisted [2,3]-cycloadditions involving an alkyne and an azido compound as the starting materials. This review summarizes recent developments, analyzes potential issues, and discusses known as well as possible solutions.

  8. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierig, D.


    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated.

  9. On certain topological indices of boron triangular nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, Adnan [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Natural Sciences and Humanities; Ahmad, Safyan [GC Univ. Lahore (Pakistan). Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences; Gao, Wei [Yunnan Normal Univ., Kunming (China). School of Information Science and Technology


    The topological index gives information about the whole structure of a chemical graph, especially degree-based topological indices that are very useful. Boron triangular nanotubes are now replacing usual carbon nanotubes due to their excellent properties. We have computed general Randic (R{sub a}), first Zagreb (M{sub 1}) and second Zagreb (M{sub 2}), atom-bond connectivity (ABC), and geometric-arithmetic (GA) indices of boron triangular nanotubes. Also, we have computed the fourth version of atom-bond connectivity (ABC{sub 4}) and the fifth version of geometric-arithmetic (GA{sub 5}) indices of boron triangular nanotubes.

  10. Development of laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for boron isotopic measurement in marine biocarbonates: new improvements and application to a modern Porites coral. (United States)

    Thil, François; Blamart, Dominique; Assailly, Caroline; Lazareth, Claire E; Leblanc, Thierry; Butsher, John; Douville, Eric


    Laser Ablation coupled to Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) is a powerful tool for the high-precision measurement of the isotopic ratios of many elements in geological samples, with the isotope ratio ((11) B/(10) B) of boron being used as an indicator of the pH of oceanic waters. Most geological samples or standards are polished and ablation occurs on flat surfaces. However, the shape and the irregularities of marine biocarbonates (e.g., corals, foraminifera) can make precise isotopic measurements of boron difficult. Even after polishing, the porosity properties and the presence of holes or micro-fractures affect the signal and the isotopic ratio when ablating the material, especially in raster mode. The effect of porosity and of the crater itself on the (11) B signal and the isotopic ratio acquired by LA-MC-ICPMS in both raster and spot mode was studied. Characterization of the craters was then performed with an optical profilometer to determine their shapes and depths. Surface state effects were examined by analyzing the isotopic fractionation of boron in silicate (NIST-SRM 612 and 610 standards) and in carbonate (corals). Surface irregularities led to a considerable loss of signal when the crater depth exceeded 20 µm. The stability and precision were degraded when ablation occurred in a deep cavity. The effect of laser focusing and of blank correction was also highlighted and our observations indicate that the accuracy of the boron isotopic ratio does not depend on the shape of the surface. After validation of the analytical protocol for boron isotopes, a raster application on a Porites coral, which grew for 18 months in an aquarium after field sampling, was carried out. This original LA-MC-ICPMS study revealed a well-marked boron isotope ratio temporal variability, probably related to growth rate and density changes, irrespective of the pH of the surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  11. The boron and lithium isotopic composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts and the mantle (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Wanless, V. Dorsey; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Elliott, Tim; Monteleone, Brian D.


    A global selection of 56 mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses were analysed for Li and B abundances and isotopic compositions. Analytical accuracy and precision of analyses constitute an improvement over previously published MORB data and allow a more detailed discussion of the Li and B systematics of the crust-mantle system. Refined estimates for primitive mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.39 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.19 ± 0.02 μg/g) and depleted mantle abundances ([ Li ] = 1.20 ± 0.10 μg/g and [ B ] = 0.077 ± 0.010 μg/g) are presented based on mass balance and on partial melting models that utilise observed element ratios in MORB. Assimilation of seawater (or brine) or seawater-altered material beneath the ridge, identified by high Cl / K , causes significant elevation of MORB δ11 B and variable elevation in δ7 Li . The B isotope ratio is, hence, identified as a reliable indicator of assimilation in MORB and values higher than -6‰ are strongly indicative of shallow contamination of the magma. The global set of samples investigated here were produced at various degrees of partial melting and include depleted and enriched MORB from slow and fast-spreading ridge segments with a range of radiogenic isotope signatures and trace element compositions. Uncontaminated (low- Cl / K) MORB show no significant boron isotope variation at the current level of analytical precision, and hence a homogenous B isotopic composition of δ11 B = - 7.1 ± 0.9 ‰ (mean of six ridge segments; 2SD). Boron isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basalt fractionation likely is small, and this δ11 B value reflects the B isotopic composition of the depleted mantle and the bulk silicate Earth, probably within ±0.4‰. Our sample set shows a mean δ7 Li = + 3.5 ± 1.0 ‰ (mean of five ridge segments; 2SD), excluding high- Cl / K samples. A significant variation of 1.0-1.5‰ exists among various ridge segments and among samples within individual ridge segments, but this

  12. Thermoelectric properties of β-boron and some boron compounds. Final report, August 1981-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, G.A.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Miller, M.L.; Huseby, I.C.


    The thermoelectric properties, that is the Seebeck coefficient, and electrical and thermal conductivity, of doped β-boron have been measured from 300 to 1600 K. Most of the useful doping elements are transition metals and occupy interstitial sites in the lattice. The highest figure of merit so far achieved at 1000 K is ZT = 0.11 for P-type, polycrystalline, hot-pressed β-boron doped with copper. Higher values may be achievable once a better P-type dopant is found. Some experiments on B 68 Y, α-B 12 Al, B 4 C, and B 6 Si are described. Transition metals appear to be effective dopants for B 68 Y and B 4 C

  13. Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby; Provis, John L.; Rose, Volker


    Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO 2 -rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO 2 /Na 2 O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na + present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na + for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

  14. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Luka


    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008 and 2 to determine response and relations among the traits when four of the female inbred lines are treated by foliar boron fertilization - three times in 10-days interval with 0.5% Solubor solution (17.5% B during one growing season (2008. The investigations were performed on Experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek, (soil type: eutrical cambisol. Highly significant differences among the nine female inbred lines were detected for B concentration in ear-leaf (from 14.7 to 46.7 mg B kg-1 and grain (from 1.20 to 2.06 mg B kg-1 as well as for grain yield (from 3.33 to 4.83 t ha-1 and grain moisture (from 14.7% to 26.6%. However, there were also significant effects of growing season and the genotype by environment interaction for all four traits. Positive and moderate correlations were found between the boron status in plant and grain yield. Although B concentrations were considerably increased by foliar boron fertilization (averages 41.7 and 125.3 mg B kg-1 in leaves, 1.79 and 2.80 mg B kg-1 in grain, for control and fertilization, respectively, in general grain yield differences among treatments were non-significant. (averages 5.21 and 5.15 t ha-1, respectively.

  15. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines


    Andrić Luka; Kovačević Vlado; Kadar Imre; Jambrović Antun; Plavšić Hrvoje; Šimić Domagoj


    Boron (B) deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008) and 2) to determine response and relation...

  16. B-decachloro-o-carborane derivatives as suitable boron carriers for the preparation of water-soluble boron-conjugated macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, D.; Walczyna, R.; Wellmann, F.; Riesenberg, H.; Hocke, I.


    The preparation of boron-containing macromolecules, especially immunoglobulins, for boron neutron capture therapy, has so far been rather unsuccessful, because of the increased water insolubility of heavily substituted proteins. By using polar boron compounds, some of the difficulties previously encountered in the preparation of boron-conjugated immunoglobulins might be overcome. To this end, the authors have investigated the use of B-decachloro-o-carborane (B 10 Cl 10 C 2 H 2 ) for the preparation of water-soluble macromolecules

  17. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori


    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Novel boron channel-based structure of boron carbide at high pressures (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun; Cheng, Taimin; Chen, Hui


    Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the hardest materials known to date. The extreme hardness of B4C arises from architecturally efficient B12 or B11C icosahedrons and strong inter-icosahedral B-C bonding. As an excellent material for use in ballistic armor, the mechanic limit of B4C and possible phase transitions under extreme stress conditions are of great interest. Here we systematically explored the post-icosahedral solid structures of B4C under high pressure, using an unbiased structure search method. A new structure composed of extended framework of B and zigzag chains of C is predicted to be stable above 96 GPa. The new structure was predicted to have a high Vickers hardness of 55 GPa and simultaneously to retain a metallic ground state. The exceptional mechanical properties found in this structure are attributed to strong sp 3 covalent network formed under extreme pressure conditions. The predicted structure represents a new type of superhard boron carbides that form under high pressure without the presence of boron icosahedrons, which encourages experimental exploration in this direction.

  19. Biocompatibility of functionalized boron phosphate (BPO4) nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application. (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Grandi, Stefania; Ciana, Annarita; Guidetti, Gianni F; Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Cansolino, Laura; Tomasi, Corrado; Balduini, Alessandra; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Merli, Daniele; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Canobbio, Ilaria; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing the death of the neoplastic cell. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used boron-containing compounds. Here we report the development and the characterization of BPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel possible alternative drug for BNCT. An extensive analysis of BPO4 NP biocompatibility was performed using both mature blood cells (erythrocytes, neutrophils and platelets) and a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity study was performed on neoplastic coloncarcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BPO4 functionalization with folic acid, introduced to improve the uptake by tumor cells, appeared to effectively limit the unwanted effects of NPs on the analyzed blood components. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality based on the accumulation of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, inducing the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing neoplastic cell death. This team of authors reports on a folic acid functionalized BPO4 nanoparticle with improved characteristics compared with conventional BNCT approaches, as demonstrated in tumor cell lines, and hopefully to be followed by translational human studies. © 2014.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Boron carbide nanoparticles for use as a novel agent in T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Sørensen, P. G.; Björkdahl, O.


    Boron carbide nanoparticles are proposed as a system for T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy. Nanoparticles were produced by ball milling in various atmospheres of commercially available boron carbide. The physical and chemical properties of the particles were investigated using...

  1. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers (United States)

    Feingold, E.


    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  2. On surface Raman scattering and luminescence radiation in boron carbide. (United States)

    Werheit, H; Filipov, V; Schwarz, U; Armbrüster, M; Leithe-Jasper, A; Tanaka, T; Shalamberidze, S O


    The discrepancy between Raman spectra of boron carbide obtained by Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman spectrometry is systematically investigated. While at photon energies below the exciton energy (1.560 eV), Raman scattering of bulk phonons of boron carbide occurs, photon energies exceeding the fundamental absorption edge (2.09 eV) evoke additional patterns, which may essentially be attributed to luminescence or to the excitation of Raman-active processes in the surface region. The reason for this is the very high fundamental absorption in boron carbide inducing a very small penetration depth of the exciting laser radiation. Raman excitations essentially restricted to the boron carbide surface region yield spectra which considerably differ from bulk phonon ones, thus indicating structural modifications.

  3. Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide. (United States)

    Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W


    Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses.

  4. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus. (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R


    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  5. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  6. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomura, T.; Furutani, H.; Osawa, M.; Ono, K.; Fukuda, K.


    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  7. Microstructural characterization aluminium alloys from the addition of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, A.G.P.; Pipano, T.F.; Mota, M.A.; Mariano, N.A.; Ramos, E.C.T.


    In the electrical industry, the aluminum becomes attractive because it has excellent characteristics for transmitting electricity. The liquid aluminum has in its composition transition elements (zirconium, titanium, vanadium and chromium) that interfere negatively on the quality of the product. The addition of aluminum-boron alloys have been used to remove transition metals through the formation of borides, enabling an increase in electrical conductivity. However, no detailed reports of reactions between boron, transition metals and primary aluminum engines. However, the objective is to determine the stoichiometric composition that enables an increase in electrical conductivity of an aluminum alloy. Samples with different concentrations of boron were characterized by optical emission spectrometry, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The addition of boron in excess reduces the time in the formation of borides, and enable an increase in electrical conductivity. (author)

  8. Spectrographic determination of traces of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Roca, M.


    A spectrographic method has been developed to determine quantitatively boron in steels in the 0.5 to 250 ppm concentration range. The samples are dissolved in acids and transformed into oxides, avoiding boron losses by the addition of mannitol. For the fluoride evolution of boron in the dc arc the following compounds have been considered: CuF 2 , LiF, NaF, and SrF 2 . CuF 2 , at a concentration of 10%, provides the highest line-to-background intensity ratio. An arc current of 5 amperes eliminates the interference from iron spectrum on the most sensitive boron line - B 2497.7 A. Variations in chromium and nickel contents have no effect on the analytical results. (author)

  9. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.


    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of boron release and biological resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOT) and a commercial water repellent compound. Leachates sampled from the leaching cycles for 10 days and extracts from treated wood specimens were analyzed for boron content. Treated wood specimens were exposed to wood degrading ...

  11. Effect of Boronization on Ohmic Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Blanchard, W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; LaMarche, P.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Nishino, N.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.


    Boronization of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has enabled access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas. A glow discharge with 4 mTorr helium and 10% deuterated trimethyl boron deposited 1.7 g of boron on the plasma facing surfaces. Ion beam analysis of witness coupons showed a B+C areal density of 10 to the 18 (B+C) cm to the -2 corresponding to a film thickness of 100 nm. Subsequent ohmic discharges showed oxygen emission lines reduced by x15, carbon emission reduced by two and copper reduced to undetectable levels. After boronization, the plasma current flattop time increased by 70% enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas

  12. Preparation of boron nitride fiber by organic precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, boron nitride polymer precursor was made by boric acid, melamine, twelve sodium alkyl sulfate as raw materials and pure water as medium which is heated to 70 °C. Boron nitride precursor polymer was soluble in formic acid solution. The boron nitride precursor can be electrostatically spun at the voltage in 23 kV and the distance between the positive and negative poles is 15 cm. The formed fiber is very uniform. The properties of the precursors were analyzed through electron microscope, infrared spectrum, X-ray and ultraviolet spectrum. The aim of the job is to got the precursor of BN and spun it. Keywords: Melamine, Boric acid, Boron nitride precursor, Electrostatic spinning

  13. Calculation of local boron dilution accidents with the Hextran code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Stenius, T.


    Possibilities of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) due to local boron dilution slugs entering the core of PWRs have been widely studied in recent years. In Finland the main analysis tool for reactor dynamics RIA calculations has been the three dimensional HEXTRAN code which also includes full circuit models. Reliable calculation of propagating boron fronts is very difficult with standard numerical algorithms because numerical diffusion tends to smoothen the front. Thus the reactivity effect of the boron dilution can be significantly lowered and conservatism of the analyses cannot be guaranteed. In normal flow conditions this problem has been avoided in HEXTRAN analyses by simulating the dilution front directly to the core inlet. In natural circulation conditions there occurs significant numerical diffusion even during the propagation of boron front inside the core. Therefore a new hydraulics solution method PLIM (Piecewise Linear Interpolation Method) has been applied to HEXTRAN. Examples are given of analyses made with HEXTRAN in both flow conditions

  14. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinomura, T.; Furutani, H.; Osawa, M.; Ono, K.; Fukuda, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  15. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Yingkai, X.

    The abundance and isotopic compositions of boron in sediments from the salt lakes of Qaidam Basin, China have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate. The results show large variations in the isotopic compositions...

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing


    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  17. Defect complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG


    Full Text Available The effect of defect complexes on the stability, structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes is investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method implemented...

  18. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.


    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  19. Defect characteristics by boron cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao


    Cluster ion implantation using decaborane (B 10 H 14 ) has been proposed as a shallow implantation technique for LSI devices with gate lengths of several-tens nanometers. Experiments and computer simulations of low-energy boron monomers and decaborane clusters implantation were performed. Molecular dynamics simulations of B 10 cluster implantation have shown similar implant depth but different damage density and damage structure compared to monomer (B 1 ) ion implantation with the same energy-per-atom. For monomer implantation, point-defects such as vacancy-interstitial pairs are mainly formed. On the other hand, B 10 generates large numbers of defects within a highly-amorphised region at the impact location. This difference in damage structure produced during implantation is expected to cause different annihilation processes

  20. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D


    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  1. Calculation of inherent boron dilution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Toth, E.L.; Telbisz, M.; Trosztel, I.


    Two inherent boron dilution scenarios have been investigated in the frame of the PH2.08 PHARE project supported by the EC[1]. The Small Break LOCA (SBLOCA) initiating event was investigated by the SMABRE[2] and ATHLET[3] codes, while the SMATRA[4] code was used for the study of an ATWS initiating event. The results show that in case of SBLOCA slug formation is possible if the operator starts to cool down the secondary loop but the slug does not enter the core because it is removed by the Low Pressure Safety Injection. In case of ATWS, it was concluded that the maximum void fraction in the hot leg remained below 95% and that there was sufficient water in the two-phase flow to prevent formation of un borated slugs. Furthermore at the time the condensation of steam was already impossible in the steam generators because of drying out. (Authors)

  2. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.


    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  3. Participation of bacteria in weathering processes of silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Javorský


    Full Text Available Biological processes presented by the metabolic activity of different species of bacteria adhered at the mineral surfaces are a part of the geochemical processes. These bacteria accelerate, by the production of organic acids into the minerals structural bonds, the leaching of elements and their subsequent and gradual transformation to the secondary minerals. Microbial destructions of silicates are studied in order to processing low-quality mineral raw-materials and the remediation of soils, sediments and waters contaminated by industrial pollutants. The samples of material, used in our research, were obtained at 9 deposits of non-metallic raw-materials in Slovakia. The sediment sample was taken from the area of Baikal Lake. The presence of microorganisms in the matrix most frequently was determined by a subsequent isolation of microorganisms and identification of bacterial species presented in the silicate matrix. The species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas genus were the common representative of the microorganisms.

  4. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morejon-Alonso, L.; Bareiro, O.; Santos, L.A. dos; Carrodeguas R, Garcia


    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca 3 SiO 5 , obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na 2 HPO 4 solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca 3 SiO 5 would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  5. Charge trapping and dielectric breakdown in lead silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.A.; Kinser, D.L.; Lee, J.M.


    When irradiated with beams of energetic electrons or gamma rays, many insulating glasses and plastics exhibit a spontaneous electrical discharge producing permanent patterns in the materials (Lichtenberg figures). In the case of inorganic glasses, this effect is not observed in pure silicate, germanate, or phosphate glasses nor in their crystalline forms and has only been reported in mixed-oxide glasses with low alkali content. In a series of lead silicate glasses of composition [PbO]/sub (x)/[SiO 2 ]/sub [1-(x)]/, the effect is observed only for 0 less than x less than or equal to 0.40. Changes in electrical properties are related to structural changes in these glasses. Electron microscopy of these glasses confirms the existence of microphase separation in the range 0.2 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.5

  6. Chemical bonding and structural ordering of cations in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calas, G.; Cormier, L.; Galoisy, L.; Ramos, A.; Rossano, St.


    The specific surrounding of cations in multicomponent silicate glasses is briefly presented. Information about interatomic distances and site geometry may be gained by using spectroscopic methods among which x-ray absorption spectroscopy may be used for the largest number of glass components. Scattering of x-rays and neutrons may also be used to determine the importance of medium range order around specific cations. All the existing data show that cations occur in sites with a well-defined geometry, which are in most cases connected to the silicate polymeric network. Medium range order has been detected around cations such as Ti, Ca and Ni, indicating that these elements have an heterogeneous distribution within the glassy matrix. (authors)

  7. The solubility of gold in silicate melts: First results (United States)

    Borisov, A.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.


    The effects of oxygen fugacity and temperature on the solubility of Au in silicate melts were determined. Pd-Au alloys were equilibrated with silicate of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at different T-fO2 conditions. The behavior of Au was found to be similar to that of Pd reported recently. Au solubilities for alloys with 30 to 40 at. percent Au decrease at 1400 C from 12 ppm in air to 160 ppb at a log fO2 = -8.7. The slope of the log(Me-solubility) vs. log(fO2) curve is close to 1/4 for Au and the simultaneously determined Pd suggesting a formal valence of Au and Pd of 1+. Near the IW buffer Pd and Au solubilities become even less dependent on fO2 perhaps reflecting the presence of some metallic Au and Pd.

  8. Modeling the viscosity of silicate melts containing manganese oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wan-Yi


    Full Text Available Our recently developed model for the viscosity of silicate melts is applied to describe and predict the viscosities of oxide melts containing manganese oxide. The model requires three pairs of adjustable parameters that describe the viscosities in three systems: pure MnO, MnO-SiO2 and MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. The viscosity of other ternary and multicomponent silicate melts containing MnO is then predicted by the model without any additional adjustable model parameters. Experimental viscosity data are reviewed for melts formed by MnO with SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, PbO, Na2O and K2O. The deviation of the available experimental data from the viscosities predicted by the model is shown to be within experimental error limits.

  9. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.


    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  10. Enhanced reactivity of boron, through adding nano-aluminum and wet ball milling (United States)

    Zhang, Baoyun; Huang, Chuan; Yan, Shi; Li, Yanchun; Cheng, Yi


    Boron is a significant component of energetic materials due to its high energy release on both a mass and volumetric basis. However, due to long-term exposure in air, boron is easily oxidized to form thick surface oxidation layer which significantly decreases the activity of boron. In this study, we demonstrate the wet high-energy milling method to purify the long-term storage boron and assemble the nanoaluminum and boron together to improve the activity of boron. The results show that after wet ball milling, the surface of boron particles becomes rough, and the aluminum is uniformly distributed on the surface of boron observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Determined by simultaneous thermal analysis thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC) in oxygen, the heat release of boron is 444% higher than the boron without any processing. Combustion analyses of delay compositions consisting of boron powder with and without wet ball milling combined with barium dichromate were conducted to study the reactivity activity. The result shows that the average combustion rate for delay composition containing functionalization boron is 2.4 to 3.4 times than the others containing common boron. Overall, our work demonstrates that wet ball milling with adding nanoaluminum can be used an effective method to improve the reactivity activity of long-storage boron.

  11. Enhanced reactivity of boron, through adding nano-aluminum and wet ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baoyun; Huang, Chuan [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao lingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yan, Shi [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Yanchun, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao lingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Cheng, Yi [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiao lingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)


    Boron is a significant component of energetic materials due to its high energy release on both a mass and volumetric basis. However, due to long-term exposure in air, boron is easily oxidized to form thick surface oxidation layer which significantly decreases the activity of boron. In this study, we demonstrate the wet high-energy milling method to purify the long-term storage boron and assemble the nanoaluminum and boron together to improve the activity of boron. The results show that after wet ball milling, the surface of boron particles becomes rough, and the aluminum is uniformly distributed on the surface of boron observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Determined by simultaneous thermal analysis thermogravimetric–differential scanning calorimetric (TG–DSC) in oxygen, the heat release of boron is 444% higher than the boron without any processing. Combustion analyses of delay compositions consisting of boron powder with and without wet ball milling combined with barium dichromate were conducted to study the reactivity activity. The result shows that the average combustion rate for delay composition containing functionalization boron is 2.4 to 3.4 times than the others containing common boron. Overall, our work demonstrates that wet ball milling with adding nanoaluminum can be used an effective method to improve the reactivity activity of long-storage boron.

  12. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney


    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  13. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of (10)B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  14. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciofani Gianni


    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  15. From MTA to New Biomaterials Based on Calcium Silicate


    Tanomaru DDS, MSD, PhD, Mario; Viapiana DDS, MSD, PhD, Raqueli; Guerreiro DDS, MSD, PhD, Juliane


    One of the most revolutionary materials introduced in Endodontics was the Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). The investigations regarding MTA formulation allowed researchers to disclose the composition and also some clinical problems related to the clinical application of this material. The augmentation on MTA’s studies resulted in the development a new generation of Endodontic materials, the calcium silicate-based cements. Thus, a brief description of new cements and the perspectives on calci...

  16. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a. Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through. 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aseev


    Full Text Available We created and synthesized luminescent composite of the "phosphor in glass" type, based on the lead-silicate matrix and fine-dispersed powder of cerium-activated yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal. Lead-silicate system (40SiO2- 20PbO-(40-x PbF2-xAlF3, x = 0-25 was chosen as the glassy matrix. Initial glass was reduced to powder (frit for "phosphor in glass" composite with a particle size about 50 µm. Glass frit and powder of commercial YAG:Ce3+ phosphor were mixed in a ratio of 30 to 70 (wt %. Then this composite was pressed in a tablet and sintered on a quartz substrate at 823 К for 30 minutes. Thus, the plane parallel sheet for composite of the "phosphor in glass" was obtained with a diameter equal to 10 mm. For the purpose to reduce the loss of light in the presence of dispersion at a glass-phosphor boundary, optimization of glass mixture was done by adjusting the refractive index. X-ray phase and spectral-luminescent analysis of the derived composite were done. The results of these studies showed that there was no degradation of YAG: Ce powder during sintering. Dependence of luminescence intensity from temperature in the range from room temperature to 473 К was studied. It was shown, that with the phosphor in glass usage thermal quenching of luminescence was reduced in comparison with the silicone. The model of white LED was created with the "phosphor in glass" composite based on lead-silicate glasses with low temperature of vitrifying. The derived LED emits white light with a color temperature of 4370 K, and the luminous efficiency is equal to 58 lm/W. The developed luminescent composite based on the lead-silicate matrix can be used for the production of high-power white light LED.

  18. Thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion-resistant layer (United States)

    Not Available


    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anticorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  19. Modeling solid-state boron carbide low energy neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.; Harken, A.; Day, E.; Robertson, B.W.; Adenwalla, S.


    Two independent techniques for modeling boron-based solid-state neutron detectors are presented-one using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit and the other one an analytical approach using a simplified physical model. Results of these techniques are compared for three different types of solid-state boron carbide detector. These results provide the basis for distinguishing between conversion layer and other solid-state detectors

  20. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.


    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.