WorldWideScience

Sample records for boron coated ion chambers

  1. Measuring the sensitivity of a boron-lined ion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    Boron-lined ion chambers are used to monitor external neutron flux from fissionable materials assembled at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Experiment Facility. The sensitivity of these chambers must be measured periodically in order to detect changes in filling gas and to evaluate other factors that may affect chamber performance. We delineate a procedure to measure ion chamber response using a particular neutron source ( 239 PuBe) in a particular moderating geometry of polyethylene. We also discuss use of the amplifier, high-voltage power supply, recorders, and scram circuits that comprise the complete ion chamber monitoring system

  2. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten substrates from atomic fluxes of boron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovskiy, Y.; Begrambekov, L.; Ayrapetov, A.; Gretskaya, I.; Grunin, A.; Dyachenko, M.; Puntakov, N.

    2016-09-01

    A device used for both coating deposition and material testing is presented in the paper. By using lock chambers, sputtering targets are easily exchanged with sample holder thus allowing testing of deposited samples with high power density electron or ion beams. Boron carbide coatings were deposited on tungsten samples. Methods of increasing coating adhesion are described in the paper. 2 μm boron carbide coatings sustained 450 heating cycles from 100 to 900 C. Ion beam tests have shown satisfactory results.

  3. Effects of space exposure on ion-beam-deposited silicon-carbide and boron-carbide coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, R A; Blumenstock, G M; Fleetwood, C M; Schmitt, D R

    1998-12-01

    Two recently developed optical coatings, ion-beam-deposited silicon carbide and ion-beam-deposited boron carbide, are very attractive as coatings on optical components for instruments for space astronomy and earth sciences operating in the extreme-UV spectral region because of their high reflectivity, significantly higher than any conventional coating below 105 nm. To take full advantage of these coatings in space applications, it is important to establish their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic oxygen and other environmental effects at low-earth-orbit altitudes. The first two flights of the Surface Effects Sample Monitor experiments flown on the ORFEUS-SPAS and the CRISTA-SPAS Shuttle missions provided the opportunity to study the effects of space exposure on these materials. The results indicate a need to protect ion-beam-deposited silicon-carbide-coated optical components from environmental effects in a low-earth orbit. The boron-carbide thin-film coating is a more robust coating able to withstand short-term exposure to atomic oxygen in a low-earth-orbit environment.

  4. Development of boron epoxy rocket motor chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. M.; Knoell, A. C.; Zweben, C.

    1972-01-01

    A 71 cm diameter 74 cm length boron/epoxy composite rocket motor chamber was designed based on the geometric configuration of the JPL Applications Technology Satellite titanium alloy apogee motor chamber. Because analyses showed large stress concentrations in the domes, the configuration was modified using the same basic constraints for openings and attachments. The rocket motor chamber was then fabricated by filament winding with boron/epoxy tape and hydrostatically tested to failure at 264 N/sq cm, 57.2 N/sq cm above the design value. Two more rocket motor chambers were fabricated with the same basic constraints, but shortened to 57.6 cm for a smaller propellant load. The first of these short chambers failed in proof because of filament winding fabrication difficulties. The second chamber was successfully fabricated and passed the hydrostatic proof test.

  5. Ion-stimulated gas desorption yields of coated (Au, Ag, Pd) stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Küchler, D; Malabaila, M; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy Ion Accelerator (LINAC 3), has been used to measure molecular desorption yields for 4.2 MeV/u lead ions impacting on different accelerator-type vacuum chambers. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, and palladium-coated 316LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The large effective desorption yield of 2 x 10**4 molecules/ion, previously measured for uncoated, vacuum fired stainless steel, was reduced after noble metal coating by up to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with heavy ions and the consequence of a subsequent venting on the desorption yields of a beam-scrubbed vacuum chamber are described. Practical consequences for the vacuum system of the future Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) are discussed.

  6. Method and apparatus for coating thin foil with a boron coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-16

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for applying a boron coating to a thin foil. Preferably, the process is a continuous, in-line process for applying a coating to a thin foil comprising wrapping the foil around a rotating and translating mandrel, cleaning the foil with glow discharge in an etching chamber as the mandrel with the foil moves through the chamber, sputtering the foil with boron carbide in a sputtering chamber as the mandrel moves through the sputtering chamber, and unwinding the foil off the mandrel after it has been coated. The apparatus for applying a coating to a thin foil comprises an elongated mandrel. Foil preferably passes from a reel to the mandrel by passing through a seal near the initial portion of an etching chamber. The mandrel has a translation drive system for moving the mandrel forward and a rotational drive system for rotating mandrel as it moves forward. The etching chamber utilizes glow discharge on a surface of the foil as the mandrel moves through said etching chamber. A sputtering chamber, downstream of the etching chamber, applies a thin layer comprising boron onto the surface of the foil as said mandrel moves through said sputtering chamber. Preferably, the coated foil passes from the mandrel to a second reel by passing through a seal near the terminal portion of the sputtering chamber.

  7. The corrosion resistance of zinc coatings in the presence of boron-doped detonation nanodiamonds (DND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkat, G. K.; Alexandrova, G. S.; Dolmatov, V. Yu; Osmanova, E. D.; Myllymäki, V.; Vehanen, A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of detonation nanodiamonds, doped with boron (boron-DND) in detonation synthesis on the process of zinc electrochemical deposition from zincate electrolyte is investigated. It is shown that the scattering power (coating uniformity) increases 2-4 times (depending on the concentration of DND-boron electrolyte conductivity does not change, the corrosion resistance of Zn- DND -boron coating increases 2.6 times in 3% NaCl solution (corrosion currents) and 3 times in the climatic chamber.

  8. Design and construction of a 10B coated ion chamber for the measurement of a thermal neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, M.

    1979-01-01

    A model of an ionization chamber cover with 10 B, for the measurement of thermal neutron flux is presented, the developed chamber is made of a cylindrical vessel in which interior exist 7 aluminium electrodes which by electrodeposition were covered with a coat of 10 B with a thickness of 0.68 mg/cm 2 . Once the chamber is filled with N 2 to a pressure of 1.33 atm., it was exposed to a flux of thermal neutrons at the order 10 4 n/cm 2 -seg obtaining an ionization current of 10 -11 amp. which can be easily distinguished from the leak current which order is of 10 -12 amp. The conventional electronics associated to the chamber allows to process the ionization current in pulse form. The relation of noise to signal is approximately of 8, for which the pulses can be differentiated from the electronic noise without any problem. (author)

  9. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  10. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  11. Boron carbide (B4C) coating. Deposition and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E.; Barsuk, V.; Begrambekov, L.; Buzhinsky, O.; Evsin, A.; Gordeev, A.; Grunin, A.; Klimov, N.; Kurnaev, V.; Mazul, I.; Otroshchenko, V.; Putric, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A.

    2015-08-01

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material of in-situ protecting coating for tungsten tiles of ITER divertor. To prove this concept the project including investigation of regimes of plasma deposition of B4C coating on tungsten and tests of boron carbide layer in ITER-like is started recently. The paper contends the first results of the project. The results of B4C coating irradiation by the plasma pulses of QSPU-T plasma accelerator are presented. The new device capable of B4C film deposition on tungsten and testing of the films and materials with ITER-like heat loads and ion- and electron irradiation is described. The results of B4C coating deposition and testing of both tungsten substrate and coating are shown and discussed.

  12. Boron coatings on graphite for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, H.O.; Mullendore, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation of boron coatings on graphite and the preliminary determination of some of their physical and nuclear related properties. The boron was obtained by the decomposition of diborane in argon at 500 0 C and one atm. Adhesion to the graphite (POCO AXF-5Q) was good if a slightly abraded surface was provided. The boron was pseudo-amorphous, had high purity with no visually observable porosity and the fractured surface showed no growth features. It was very hard (VHN 25 = 2400 kg/mm 2 ) and had good resistance to hydrogen ion erosion and arcing. It may, therefore, be a suitable candidate for first wall and limiter coatings in tokamak fusion reactors

  13. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  14. Ion-stimulated Gas Desorption Yields of Electropolished, Chemically Etched, and Coated (Au, Ag, Pd, TiZrV) Stainless Steel Vacuum Chambers and St707 Getter Strips Irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Küchler, D; Malabaila, M; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy Ion Accelerator LINAC 3, has been used to measure molecular desorption yields for 4.2 MeV/u lead ions impacting under grazing incidence on different accelerator-type vacuum chambers. Desorption yields for H2, CH4, CO, and CO2, which are of fundamental interest for future accelerator applications, are reported for different stainless steel surface treatments. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, palladium-, and getter-coated 316 LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analysed for chemical composition by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The large effective desorption yield of 2 x 104 molecules/Pb53+ ion, previously measured for uncoated, vacuum fired stainless steel, was reduced after noble-metal coating by up to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, pressure rise measurements, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with le...

  15. Boron carbide nanowires with uniform CNx coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, R. M.; You, L. P.; Yu, J.; Chen, H.; Yu, D. P.; Chen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Boron carbide nanowires with uniform carbon nitride coating layers were synthesized on a silicon substrate using a simple thermal process. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nanowires were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A correlation between the surface smoothness of the nanowire sidewalls and their lateral sizes has been observed and it is a consequence of the anisotropic formation of the coating layers. A growth mechanism is also proposed for these growth phenomena.

  16. Development of advanced composite rocket motor chambers using boron and graphite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Four 71-cm-diameter rocket motor chambers were designed and fabricated with advanced composite materials. The first three chambers were filament wound from boron/epoxy tape, and the fourth from graphite/epoxy tape. The first boron/epoxy chamber was 74 cm in length and was successfully hydroburst tested. The other three chambers were 57.6 cm in length for a smaller propellant load. The first shortened boron/epoxy chamber failed in proof test as a result of fabrication deficiencies. The last boron/epoxy and the graphite/epoxy chambers were successfully proof tested.

  17. Boron precipitates in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.K.; Washburn, J.

    1975-03-01

    Long rod-like defects are observed in ion implanted silicon when boron is present either as a prior dopant addition or as the implanted species. Results of recent work indicates that these defects have the characteristics of narrow extrinsic dipoles or elongated dislocation loops and that there are two different types along each of the six (110) directions. An annealing kinetics method has been used to identify the nature of these defects formed during post-implantation annealing in boron ion (100 keV) implanted silicon irradiated at room temperature to a dose of 2 x 10 14 /cm 2 . It is concluded that at least two different kinds of rod-like defects exist in boron ion implanted silicon. From the activation energy for shrinkage, it is also concluded that one type (anti A) is composed largely of boron atoms. (U.S.)

  18. Loss of ions in cavity ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, N.; Tran, N.T.; Kim, E.; Marsoem, P.; Kurosawa, T.; Koyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ion losses due to initial recombination, volume recombination, and back diffusion were each determined by measurements and calculations for different size cylindrical ionization chambers and spherical ionization chambers. By measuring signal currents from these ionization chambers irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays, two groups of ion losses were obtained. (Group 1) Ion loss due to initial recombination and diffusion, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the voltage applied to the ionization chambers; (and group 2) ion loss due to volume recombination, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the square of the applied voltage. The diffusion loss was obtained separately by computing electric field distributions in the ionization chambers. It was found that diffusion loss is larger than initial recombination loss for the cylindrical ionization chambers and vise versa for the spherical ionization chambers

  19. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  20. Progress with diamond over-coated microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A; Temmel-Ropelewski, T

    1998-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers coated, after manufacturing, with a thin diamond-like layer in order to increase their rate capability. Compared to the more widely used solution consisting in coating the insulating support with a conductive layer before photo-lithography (the so-called undercoating), over-coating has the advantage of avoiding possible problems with adherence of metals to the layer, damages during the etching process and reduced quality of the artwork resulting from imperfections or dust inclusions in the layer. Early tests have however indicated that, possibly because of damages to the layer due to electron and ion bombardment during the avalanche process, irreversible structural modifications and fatal breakdown could be encountered at very high integral radiation fluxes. The present paper summarizes these results, and describes recent developments demonstrating that a better choice of the parameters of the over-coat may allow to withstand the r...

  1. Preparation and uses of amorphous boron carbide coated substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert E.; Newkirk, Lawrence R.; Valencia, Flavio A.

    1981-09-01

    Cloth is coated at a temperature below about 1000.degree. C. with amorphous boron-carbon deposits in a process which provides a substantially uniform coating on all the filaments making up each yarn fiber bundle of the cloth. The coated cloths can be used in the as-deposited condition for example as wear surfaces where high hardness values are needed; or multiple layers of coated cloths can be hot-pressed to form billets useful for example in fusion reactor wall armor. Also provided is a method of controlling the atom ratio of B:C of boron-carbon deposits onto any of a variety of substrates, including cloths.

  2. Boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) coating. Deposition and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E.; Barsuk, V. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Begrambekov, L., E-mail: lbb@plasma.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Buzhinsky, O. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Evsin, A.; Gordeev, A.; Grunin, A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimov, N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kurnaev, V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazul, I. [Federal State Unitary Interprise Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA Efremov), St-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Otroshchenko, V.; Putric, A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Sadovskiy, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material of in-situ protecting coating for tungsten tiles of ITER divertor. To prove this concept the project including investigation of regimes of plasma deposition of B{sub 4}C coating on tungsten and tests of boron carbide layer in ITER-like is started recently. The paper contends the first results of the project. The results of B{sub 4}C coating irradiation by the plasma pulses of QSPU-T plasma accelerator are presented. The new device capable of B{sub 4}C film deposition on tungsten and testing of the films and materials with ITER-like heat loads and ion- and electron irradiation is described. The results of B{sub 4}C coating deposition and testing of both tungsten substrate and coating are shown and discussed.

  3. ICRF boronization. A new technique towards high efficiency wall coating for superconducting tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhao Yan Ping; Gu Xue Mao

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for wall conditioning that will be especially useful for future larger superconducting tokamaks, such as ITER, has been successfully developed and encouraging results have been obtained. Solid carborane powder, which is non-toxic and non-explosive, was used. Pulsed RF plasma was produced by a non-Faraday shielding RF antenna with RF power of 10 kW. The ion temperature was about 2 keV with a toroidal magnetic field of 1.8 T and a pressure of 3x10 -1 Pa. Energetic ions broke up the carborane molecules, and the resulting boron ions struck and were deposited on the first wall. In comparison with glow discharge cleaning boronization, the B/C coating film shows higher adhesion, more uniformity and longer lifetime during plasma discharges. The plasma performance was improved after ICRF boronization. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  4. NEG coating of the non-standard LSS vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2005-01-01

    The vacuum chambers of nearly all the warm magnets of the LHC (MBXW, MQW, MSI, MSD, etc…) will be coated with a Ti-Zr-V thin film by magnetron sputtering. The NEG coating is necessary to provide uniform pumping speed along the chambers and to suppress electron cloud instabilities and dynamic outgassing. The about 300 chambers will be coated using the existing facility, developed for the production of the standard LSS chambers, after minor modifications mainly due to the different cross sections. In order to cope with the present installation schedule, the production planning will allow processing of different families of chambers in parallel by using two or three coating systems simultaneously. After a brief introduction to the Ti-Zr-V characteristics and performances, the coating facility and strategy will be illustrated as well as the possible conflicts due to uncertainties in the planning of the experimental beam pipes and the standard LSS chambers.

  5. Defect characteristics by boron cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    Cluster ion implantation using decaborane (B 10 H 14 ) has been proposed as a shallow implantation technique for LSI devices with gate lengths of several-tens nanometers. Experiments and computer simulations of low-energy boron monomers and decaborane clusters implantation were performed. Molecular dynamics simulations of B 10 cluster implantation have shown similar implant depth but different damage density and damage structure compared to monomer (B 1 ) ion implantation with the same energy-per-atom. For monomer implantation, point-defects such as vacancy-interstitial pairs are mainly formed. On the other hand, B 10 generates large numbers of defects within a highly-amorphised region at the impact location. This difference in damage structure produced during implantation is expected to cause different annihilation processes

  6. Ion-stimulated gas desorption yields of electropolished, chemically etched, and coated (Au, Ag, Pd, TiZrV stainless steel vacuum chambers and St707 getter strips irradiated with 4.2  MeV/u lead ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The ion-induced desorption experiment, installed in the CERN Heavy-Ion Accelerator LINAC 3, has been used to measure molecular desorption yields for 4.2  MeV/u lead ions impacting under grazing incidence on different accelerator-type vacuum chambers. Desorption yields for H_{2}, CH_{4}, CO, and CO_{2}, which are of fundamental interest for future accelerator applications, are reported for different stainless steel surface treatments. In order to study the effect of the surface oxide layer on the gas desorption, gold-, silver-, palladium-, and getter-coated 316 LN stainless steel chambers and similarly prepared samples were tested for desorption at LINAC 3 and analyzed for chemical composition by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The large effective desorption yield of 2×10^{4}   molecules /Pb^{53+} ion, previously measured for uncoated, vacuum fired stainless steel, was reduced after noble-metal coating by up to 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, pressure rise measurements, the effectiveness of beam scrubbing with lead ions, and the consequence of a subsequent venting on the desorption yields of a beam-scrubbed vacuum chamber are described. Practical consequences for the vacuum system of the future Low Energy Ion Ring are discussed.

  7. Effect of boron nitride coating on fiber-matrix interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Brun, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Coatings can modify fiber-matrix reactions and consequently interfacial bond strengths. Commercially available mullite, silicon carbide, and carbon fibers were coated with boron nitride via low pressure chemical vapor deposition and incorporated into a mullite matrix by hot-pressing. The influence of fiber-matrix interactions for uncoated fibers on fracture morphologies was studied. These observations are related to the measured values of interfacial shear strengths

  8. Longitudinal impedance calculation of coated ceramic vacuum chamber at HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Xu Hongliang; Shang Lei; Wang Xiangqi; Li Weimin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the longitudinal coupling impedance of the coated ceramic vacuum chamber employed in new injection system of Hefei Light Source. For the regular axially symmetric boundary, the analytical results of the impedance for the coated ceramic chamber can be easily obtained by application field matching techniques to Maxwell equations in cylindrical coordinate system. For the irregular boundary used in HLS, it is very hard to obtain analytical result of impedance. Based on the impedance measurement principle of coaxial wire method, the impedance of ceramic chamber was numerically calculated. The calculated results showed that, although coating inside ceramic chamber can reduce impedance by some factor, the coated ceramic chamber is one of the main impedance sources of HLS storage ring

  9. Development of a novel reaction chamber for ion beam analysis of large samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuee, O.R.; Fathollahi, V.; Agha-Aligol, D.; Farmahini-Farahani, M.; Oliaiy, P.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel vacuum chamber for ion beam analysis of large-size industrial samples - whose analysis are not feasible in conventional ion beam analysis reaction chambers - has been designed, fabricated and successfully tested. Using the newly developed chamber, both PIXE and RBS analyses could be carried out at the same time and on the same point of the samples. Ion beam analysis using this novel chamber lacks the disadvantages of external beam analysis and benefits the advantages of in-vacuum analysis. This has been achieved by designing a tiny open port in the wall of the reaction chamber to be sealed with a small flat area of sample body where its analysis is of interest. As a case study, two samples of gas turbine blades, a corroded one at highly corrosive environment and a refurbished one after application of certain coatings are analysed using the novel chamber. Experimental results confirm the performance and capability of the reaction chamber

  10. Preparation of pure boron coating film and its characterization by XPS and TDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaidzu, M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kodama, H.; Oya, Y.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Okuno, K.

    2005-05-01

    A PACVD apparatus was designed and fabricated at Shizuoka University in order to prepare high-pure boron coating films. In the present study, some parameters, especially feeding gas concentration, substrate temperature and CVD input power, have been optimized to prepare pure boron coating films. It was found that the purity of boron coating film was controlled by the decaborane concentration of feeding gas and substrate temperature during the PACVD process, and each optimized values were 0.4 and 473 K, respectively. The atomic composition of boron in the boron coating film under the optimized condition has been achieved to be 0.94.

  11. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  12. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  13. Isotopic Enrichment of Boron in the Sputtering of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study is described to measure the isotopic enrichment of boron. Xenon ions from 100 eV to 1.5 keV were used to sputter a boron nitride target. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 microA/sq cm. Xenon ions impinged on the target surface at 50 deg angle to the surface normal. Since boron nitride is an insulator, a flood electron gun was used in our experiments to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The sputtered secondary ions of boron were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectrometer entrance aperture was located perpendicular to the ion beam direction and 10 mm away from the target surface. The secondary ion flux was observed to be enriched in the heavy isotopes at lower ion energies. The proportion of heavy isotopes in the sputtered secondary ion flux was found to decrease with increasing primary ion energy from 100 to 350 eV. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially. The light isotope enrichment factor was observed to reach an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. This trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy range.

  14. Ion chamber repairs in Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.; Edwards, T.; Kerker, J.; Pletch, R.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses identification and successful remediation of leakage of shield tank water on vertical and horizontal Ion Chambers in Bruce A. In doing so, it discusses real events moving from the initial investigation to understand the problem, through looking at options for solutions, and moving to site work and actual resolution.. In multiunit 900 MW class CANDU® reactors, the calandria vessel is suspended within a larger shield tank. Due to temperature changes or changes in moderator fluid levels in the calandria, the calandria can move relative to the shield tank and its reactivity deck. Thimbles which contain the reactivity sensors and controls connect the two vessels and allow the reactivity drives and controls connections to be placed on the deck structure on the top of the reactor assembly for RRS and SDS1 and horizontally for SDS2. These thimbles have expansion joints with metal bellows where they meet the deck structure or shield tank walls. The deck structure lies on a vault containment boundary. The horizontal ion chambers are not in the containment boundary as they connect the outside of the calandria and shield tank around mid plane in the reactor vault, but due to geometry difference provides a more challenging work environment. Bruce had a beetle alarm (1-63851-MIA2-ME30 in alarm state (vertical IC housing)) at the start of April 2012 on Unit 1 channel F vertical Ion chamber expansion joint at the deck connection. This occurred after the moderator levels had been raised after the several years long refurbishment outage and the expansion joint had a significant travel. The investigation showed shield tank water in the collection chamber at the beetle. In addition, Channel J of the horizontal ion chamber had a seized instrument, which on removal was found to relate to oxide build up as a result of minor water leakage into the site. Repairs in both cases were performed as part of the long Bruce 1 & 2 refurbishment outage to completely stop the

  15. Performance characteristics of selected integrating ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Liberace, R.

    1977-01-01

    Certain types of integrating ion chambers have been identified as acceptable equipment for a nationwide medical X-ray exposure survey program. In this study, Victoreen 2.5, 5 and 10 R condenser R-chambers, the Victoreen 666 Diagnostic Probe (used in the integrating mode) and the Bendix 200 mR and 5 R low energy dosimeters were evaluated for recombination losses and for energy dependence. Recombination losses were determined for exposure rates ranging from 0.3 to 80 R/sec. Energy dependence was determined for X-ray beam qualities ranging from 45 kVp and 0.83 mm Al first half value layer to 125 kVp and 4.8 mm Al first half value layer. The data enable selection of instruments so that errors from recombination losses and energy dependence can be minimized. (author)

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2001-01-01

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with ∼100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented

  17. Boronized steels with corundum-baddeleyite coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Kolísko, J.; Bouška, P.; Brožek, Vlastimil; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Mastný, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 341-344 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Bobororonized steel * corundum-baddeleyite coating * anti-corrosion properties * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  18. Boronized steels with corundum-baddeleyite coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Kolísko, J.; Bouška, P.; Brožek, Vlastimil; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Mastný, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 341-344 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Bobororonized steel * corundum-baddeleyite coating * anti- corrosion properties * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  19. Vacuum chamber for ion manipulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-09

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. A predetermined number of pairs of surfaces are disposed in one or more chambers, forming a multiple-layer ion mobility cyclotron device.

  20. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  1. Carbon coating of the SPS dipole chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P.; Chiggiato, P.; Edwards, P.; Mensi, M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.

    2013-04-22

    The Electron Multipacting (EM) phenomenon is a limiting factor for the achievement of high luminosity in accelerators for positively charged particles and for the performance of RF devices. At CERN, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) must be upgraded in order to feed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 25 ns bunch spaced beams. At such small bunch spacing, EM may limit the performance of the SPS and consequently that of the LHC. To mitigate this phenomenon CERN is developing a carbon thin film coating with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) to coat the internal walls of the SPS dipoles beam pipes. This paper presents the progresses in the coating technology, the performance of the carbon coatings and the strategy for a large scale production.

  2. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    sample is included in Figure 5.5.3. After one minute exposure, there was no detectable change in the surface of the coating or the polycarbonate. After...surface de 1/600 000 square meter of a blackbody at the 1/600 000 rnitre carr-6 d’un corps noir L ha temperature of freezing platinum under a temp6rature

  3. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  4. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  5. Boron nitride - boron hybrid coating on uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide fuel. Final report for the period 1 November 1996 - 1 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, G.

    1997-11-01

    The report describes work to develop laboratory-scale technology of the deposition of hybrid boron nitrate-metallic boron coating onto the surface of uranium dioxide ore uranium dioxide - gadolinia dioxide fuel pellets. Methods of chemical vapour deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were used in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. An excellent adherence of boron onto the boron nitrate layer and boron nitrate layer onto the fuel pellet surface was demonstrated. Fine grain-type structure of boron coating and its excellent adherence are good indices for integrated fuel burnable absorber fuels

  6. Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon, boron carbide, and titanium carbide coatings against glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.K.; Brown, D.W.; Kimock, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Protection of glass substrates by direct ion beam deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings was observed using a commercial pin-on-disk instrument at ambient conditions without lubrication. Ion beam sputter-deposited titanium carbide and boron carbide coatings reduced sliding friction, and provided tribological protection of silicon substrates, but the improvement factor was less than that found for DLC. Observations of unlubricated sliding of hemispherical glass pins at ambient conditions on uncoated glass and silicon substrates, and ion beam deposited coatings showed decreased wear in the order: uncoated glass>uncoated silicon>boron carbide>titanium carbide>DLC>uncoated sapphire. Failure mechanisms varied widely and are discussed. Generally, the amount of wear decreased as the sliding friction decreased, with the exception of uncoated sapphire substrates, for which the wear was low despite very high friction. There is clear evidence that DLC coatings continue to protect the underlying substrate long after the damage first penetrates through the coating. The test results correlate with field use data on commercial products which have shown that the DLC coatings provide substantial extension of the useful lifetime of glass and other substrates. copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  7. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here

  8. Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur; Tuffias, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    An improved material system has been developed for rocket engine combustion chambers for burning oxygen/ hydrogen mixtures or novel monopropellants, which are highly oxidizing at operating temperatures. The baseline for developing the improved material system is a prior iridium/rhenium system for chambers burning nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine mixtures, which are less oxidizing. The baseline combustion chamber comprises an outer layer of rhenium that provides structural support, plus an inner layer of iridium that acts as a barrier to oxidation of the rhenium. In the improved material system, the layer of iridium is thin and is coated with a thermal fatigue-resistant refractory oxide (specifically, hafnium oxide) that serves partly as a thermal barrier to decrease the temperature and thus the rate of oxidation of the rhenium. The oxide layer also acts as a barrier against the transport of oxidizing species to the surface of the iridium. Tests in which various oxygen/hydrogen mixtures were burned in iridium/rhenium combustion chambers lined with hafnium oxide showed that the operational lifetimes of combustion chambers of the improved material system are an order of magnitude greater than those of the baseline combustion chambers.

  9. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    CERN Document Server

    Klepper, C C; Yadlowsky, E J; Carlson, E P; Keitz, M D; Williams, J M; Zuhr, R A; Poker, D B

    2002-01-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresp...

  10. AUTOCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BORON-CONTAINING COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Covaliov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of the plating conditions, chemical composition and properties of Ni-B coatings and Ni-Re-B, Ni-Mo-B and Ni-W-B alloys are given. It was shown that introduction of alloying elements (Re, Мо and W in the composition of Ni-containing coatings modifies the catalytic activity of the alloys’ surface, with regard to the parallel reactions of dimethylamino-borane (DMAB heterogeneous hydrolysis, Ni reduction and evolving of the molecular hydrogen. It was found that with the increase in concentration of alloying element, boron content in the coatings is decreased to the trace amounts. The effect of alloys composition on hydrogen evolving overvoltage was studied. Due to the low overvoltage of hydrogen evolving (HE on the alloy Ni-Re-B surface (11 at.% Re, it can be used as electrode for hydrogen generation from water in the electrolytic cell with novel design and improved technical-economic indicators.

  11. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400-1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  12. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B., E-mail: lbb@plasma.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Buzhinskiy, O. I. [State Research Center Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400–1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  13. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-02-02

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air.

  14. Method of accurate thickness measurement of boron carbide coating on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Regmi, Murari

    2017-11-07

    A method is disclosed of measuring the thickness of a thin coating on a substrate comprising dissolving the coating and substrate in a reagent and using the post-dissolution concentration of the coating in the reagent to calculate an effective thickness of the coating. The preferred method includes measuring non-conducting films on flexible and rough substrates, but other kinds of thin films can be measure by matching a reliable film-substrate dissolution technique. One preferred method includes determining the thickness of Boron Carbide films deposited on copper foil. The preferred method uses a standard technique known as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) to measure boron concentration in a liquid sample prepared by dissolving boron carbide films and the Copper substrates, preferably using a chemical etch known as ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). Measured boron concentration values can then be calculated.

  15. Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium Boron Based Coatings on 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    for protection of high-strength steel . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Niobium-Boron Based Coatings; 4340 Steel ; CSA Group 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Technical Report ARWSB-TR-17026 Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium-Boron Based Coatings on 4340 Steel C.P. Mulligan... Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) C.P. Mulligan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  16. Recombination and photosensitivity centres in boron nitride irradiated with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.; Konusov, F.; Lopatin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The physical-chemical processes, taking place during the irradiation of dielectrics with ions distort the electron structure of the compounds and generate additional localise state in the forbidden zone (FZ). Consequently, the semiconductor layer with the specific surface density of σ ≥ 10 -10 S/ forms on the surface of the dielectric. In addition to his, the high concentration of the radiation-induced defects changes the optical and photoelectric properties of the materials and also the energy characteristics. Analysis of the photoelectric properties indicates that the recombination processes take part in electric transport. These processes restricted the increase of the photosensitivity and changing the kinetics of relaxation of photo conductivity (σ hv ). The practical application of the boron nitride (BN) the in the thermonuclear systems (for example, Ref. 7), stimulates research into the reasons for the deceleration of its properties under the effect of radiation of various types. The conductivity of non-irradiated boron nitride is of the electron-hole nature with a large fraction of the activation component in exchange of the charge carriers between the levels of the defects and the forbidden zones. On the basis of the correlation of the energy and kinetic parameters of luminescence and , the authors of Ref. 8 constructed a model of electron transfers accompanying the electric transport of the boron nitride. In addition to ion-thermal modification, the conductivity of boron nitride is also of the electron-hole nature and is accompanied by luminescence. Examination of the characteristics of luminescence may be useful for obtaining more information on the transport mechanism. In this work, in order to clarify the main parameters of the forbidden band, detailed investigations were carried out into the spectrum of the electronic states of radiation defects which determine the photoelectric and luminescence properties of the modified boron nitride. The

  17. An examination of medical linear accelerator ion-chamber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolis, C.; Lee, C.; Rinks, A.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The company ( Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services Pty Ltd) provides medical physics services to four radiotherapy centres in NSW with a total of 6 high energy medical linear accelerators manufactured by three different companies. As part of the services, the stability of the accelerator ion chamber system is regularly examined for constancy and periodically for absolute calibration. Each accelerator ion chamber has exhibited undesirable behaviour from time to time, sometimes leading to its replacement. This presentation describes the performance of the ion chambers for some of the linacs over a period of 12-18 months and the steps taken by the manufacturer to address the problems encountered. As part of our commissioning procedure of new linacs, an absolute calibration of the accelerator output (photon and electron beams) is repeated several times over the period following examination of the physical properties of the radiation beams. These calibrations were undertaken in water using the groups calibrated ion chamber/electrometer system and were accompanied by constancy checks using an acrylic phantom and field instruments. Constancy checks were performed daily for a period of 8 weeks during the initial life of the accelerator and thereafter weekly. For one accelerator, the ion chamber was replaced 6 times in the first eighteen months of its life due to severe drifts in output, found to be due to pressure changes in one half of the chamber In another accelerator, erratic swings of 2% were observed for a period of nine months, particularly with the electron beams, before the manufacturer offered to change the chamber with another constructed from different materials. In yet another accelerator the ion chamber has shown consistent erratic behaviour, but this has not been addressed by the manufacturer. In another popular accelerator, the dosimetry was found to be very stable until some changes in the tuning were introduced resulting in small

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation of boron for ribbon silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbouz K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report for the first time on the solar cell fabrication on n-type silicon RST (for Ribbon on Sacrificial Template using plasma immersion ion implantation. The experiments were also carried out on FZ silicon as a reference. Boron was implanted at energies from 10 to 15 kV and doses from 1015 to 1016 cm-2, then activated by a thermal annealing in a conventional furnace at 900 and 950 °C for 30 min. The n+ region acting as a back surface field was achieved by phosphorus spin-coating. The frontside boron emitter was passivated either by applying a 10 nm deposited SiOX plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD or with a 10 nm grown thermal oxide. The anti-reflection coating layer formed a 60 nm thick SiNX layer. We show that energies less than 15 kV and doses around 5 × 1015 cm-2 are appropriate to achieve open circuit voltage higher than 590 mV and efficiency around 16.7% on FZ-Si. The photovoltaic performances on ribbon silicon are so far limited by the bulk quality of the material and by the quality of the junction through the presence of silicon carbide precipitates at the surface. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that plasma immersion ion implantation is very promising for solar cell fabrication on ultrathin silicon wafers such as ribbons.

  19. Ion collection efficiency of ionization chambers in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Cecatti, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    When ionization chambers are used in pulsed radiation beams the high-density of ions produced per pulse permits ion recombination, demanding the use of a correction factor. An experimental technique using the charge collected at two different voltages permits the calculation of the ion collection efficiency. The ion collection efficiency of some common ionization chambers in pulsed electron beams were studied as a function of electron energy, dose rate and depth. Accelerators with magnetic scanning system, in which the instantaneous dose rate is much greater than the average dose rate, present a smaller collection efficiency than accelerators with scattering foil. The results lead to the introduction of a correction factor for ion recombination that is the reciprocal of the ion collection efficiency. It is also suggested a simple technique to connect an external variable DC power supply in a Baldwin Farmer dosemeter. (Author) [pt

  20. A novel metal ion source for preparing hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.C.; Wong, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    A novel metal ion source, Electron Beam Evaporation Metal Ion Source, has been developed for material modifications. This ion source is based on the electron beam evaporation technology. It can provide gaseous, solid or gaseous and solid mixed intense ion beams for preparing a variety of thin films. In this ion source, a focusing electron beam is used to bombard and vaporize the metal or other solid element within same chamber where the metal or solid atoms are ionized and plasma medium from which ions are extracted is formed by arc discharge. A small aperture diameter extraction system is used for extracting the ion beam from this source. Ion beams of a series of elements, which include C, W, Ta, Mo, Cr, Ti, B, Cu, Ni, Al, Ar, N, C+N, Ti+N, Cr+N, etc., have been extracted. The source has a 3.6 cm extraction diameter. The beam energy ranges from 0.3 to 4 keV for single charge state ions, and the maximum beam current extractable is over 90 mA. The source has been used for preparing hard coatings. The films of carbon nitride and titanium nitride have been synthesized by direct deposition with C+N and Ti+N mixed ion beams. The results have shown to exhibit very high hardness value for carbon nitride films. The microhardness is up to HK 5800 kgf/mm 2 . In comparison with other methods, it is also to exhibit higher hardness value for titanium nitride coating. The highest hardness value obtained for titanium nitride is about 3000 kgf/mm 2 . The AES profile shows that there is a good intermixture between coating and substrate for both films. The principle, structure and performance of this ion source will be described. The preliminary results for forming hard coatings are also presented in this article

  1. Plasma-sprayed boron carbide coatings for first-wall protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, J. G.; Schnedecker, G.; van Osch, E. V.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.

    1994-08-01

    Plasma-sprayed boron carbide coatings have been manufactured by different suppliers onto substrates of type 316L stainless steel. The coating thickness ranges from 0.3 to 2.0 mm. The larger thicknesses could only be achieved by application of an adaptive or gradient bond-layer between substrate and the boron carbide top coating. Measurements of the thermal diffusivity of coating materials are reported. Several high heat flux facilities have been used to study the thermal shock and erosion behaviour of the coated samples. A supporting numerical analysis of the thermal behaviour of the coating under normal and off-normal heat loads is presented, focussing on the differences between electron beam and laser beam tests due to volumetric energy deposition. Some aspects of the applicability of plasma sprayed B 4C coatings for first-wall protection in a next step device are discussed.

  2. Dual chamber laser ion source at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: yuri.kudryavtsev@fys.kuleuven.be; Cocolios, T.E.; Gentens, J.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Pauwels, D. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sonoda, T. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-09-01

    A new type of gas cell for the resonance ionization laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) has been developed and tested under off-line and on-line conditions. Two-step selective laser ionization is applied to produce purified beams of radioactive isotopes. The selectivity of the ion source has been increased by more than one order of magnitude by separation of the stopping and laser ionization regions. This allows the use of electrical fields for further ion purification.

  3. Boron ion beam generation using a self-sputtering planar magnetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, Aleksey; Nikolaev, Aleksey; Oks, Efim; Savkin, Konstantin; Shandrikov, Maxim; Yushkov, Georgy

    2014-02-01

    A boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge with solid boron target has been developed. To obtain a sufficient conductivity of the boron target for high current discharge ignition, the target was heated to the temperature more than 350 °C. To reach this temperature, thermally isolated target was heated by low-current high-voltage magnetron DC discharge. Applying a high-current pulse (100 μs range) provides a self-sputtering mode of the discharge, which generates the boron plasma. Boron ion beam with current more than 150 mA was extracted from the plasma by applying an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The boron ion fraction in the beam reached 95%, averaged over the pulse length, and the rest ions were working gas (Kr(+)). It was shown that "keeping alive" DC discharge completely eliminates a time delay of pulsed discharge current onset, and reduces the pulsed discharge minimal working pressure.

  4. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 42 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Laurent, Jean Michel; Madsen, N

    2003-01-01

    In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2 MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow discharges, nonevaporable getter coating) are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H/sub 2 /, CH/sub 4/, CO, Ar, and CO/sub 2/. (16 refs).

  5. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  6. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  7. Influence of high power density plasma irradiation on the boron carbide coating on tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Grunin, A. V.; Puntakov, N. A.; Sadovskiy, Ya A.; Utkov, N. S.

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers an influence of T-10 tokamak plasma disruption on boron carbide (B4C) coating on tungsten. The power density of coating irradiation reached 100 MW/m2. The relief and composition of the boron carbide coating sample areas heated up to different temperature due to influence of disruption is determined. Conclusion is made that B4C does not change integrity, when heated to temperatures of up to 2000 K. Local melting was observed in areas heated up to 2500 K. In the range of 2500-3600 K most of the coating was melted and collected into droplets. Composition rate is reduced to B:C = 1:1. In all temperature ranges the coating remained continuous and provided protection of tungsten from direct plasma irradiation.

  8. Marine corrosion protective coatings of hexagonal boron nitride thin films on stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Esam; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Taha-Tijerina, Jose Jaime; Vinod, Soumya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-05-22

    Recently, two-dimensional, layered materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have been identified as interesting materials for a range of applications. Here, we demonstrate the corrosion prevention applications of h-BN in marine coatings. The performance of h-BN/polymer hybrid coatings, applied on stainless steel, were evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated seawater media [marine media]. h-BN/polymer coating shows an efficient corrosion protection with a low corrosion current density of 5.14 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) and corrosion rate of 1.19 × 10(-3) mm/year and it is attributed to the hydrofobic, inert and dielectric nature of boron nitride. The results indicated that the stainless steel with coatings exhibited improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic analysis were used to propose a mechanism for the increased corrosion resistance of h-BN coatings.

  9. The production, characterization, and neutronic performance of boron nitride coated uranium dioxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Colak, U.; Tombakoglu, M.; Gunduz, G.

    1995-01-01

    The fuel pellets produced by sol-gel technique were coated with boron nitride (BN). This was achieved through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using boron trichloride and ammonia. Mixing and chemical reaction take place at a temperature around 875 K. The coated samples were then sintered at 1600 K. Thermal reactor physics lattice-cell code WIMS-D/4 was used in the neutronic analysis of CANDU fuel bundle to observe the neutronic performance of the coated fuel. Three types of fuel were considered; fuel made of natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium (SEU, enrichment: 0.82 % U-235), and SEU with various BN coatings. The burnup calculations showed that feasible coating thickness is between 1 to 2 μm. (author)

  10. Improvements in Boron Plate Coating Technology for Higher Efficiency Neutron Detection and Coincidence Counting Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This informal report presents the measurement data and information to document the performance of the advanced Precision Data Technology, Inc. (PDT) sealed cell boron-10 plate neutron detector that makes use of the advanced coating materials and procedures. In 2015, PDT changed the boron coating materials and application procedures to significantly increase the efficiency of their basic corrugated plate detector performance. A prototype sealed cell unit was supplied to LANL for testing and comparison with prior detector cells. Also, LANL had reference detector slabs from the original neutron collar (UNCL) and the new Antech UNCL with the removable 3He tubes. The comparison data is presented in this report.

  11. Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Frolova, V P

    2016-02-01

    Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.

  12. Thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion-resistant layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1982-08-25

    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anticorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  14. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse ...

  15. Tribological behaviour of mechanically synthesized titanium-boron carbide nanostructured coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliofkhazraei, M; Rouhaghdam, A Sabour

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, titanium-boron carbide (Ti/B4C) nanocomposite coatings with different B4C nanoparticles contents were fabricated by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) method by using B4C nanoparticles with average nanoparticle size of 40 nm. The characteristics of the nanopowder and coatings were evaluated by microhardness test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Friction and wear performances of nanocomposite coatings and pure titanium substrate were comparatively investigated, with the effect of the boron carbide content on the friction and wear behaviours to be emphasized. The results show the microhardness, friction and wear behaviours of nanocomposite coatings are closely related with boron carbide nanoparticle content. Nanocomposite coating with low B4C content shows somewhat (slight) increased microhardness and wear resistance than pure titanium substrate, while nanocomposite coating with high B4C content has much better (sharp increase) wear resistance than pure titanium substrate. The effect of B4C nanoparticles on microhardness and wear resistance was discussed.

  16. Boron carbide-based coatings on graphite for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, P.G.; Trester, P.W.; Winter, J.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Wallura, E.; Philipps, V.

    1994-01-01

    In the effort to evaluate boron-rich coatings as plasma facing surfaces in fusion devices, a new process for applying boron carbide (B 4 C) coatings to graphite was developed. The process entails eutectic melting of the carbon (C) substrate surface with a precursor layer of B 4 C particles. Adherent coatings were achieved which consisted of two layers: a surface layer and a graded penetration zone in the outer portion of the substrate. The surface-layer microstructure was multiphase and ranged from reaction-sintered structures of sintered B 4 C particles in an eutectic-formed matrix to that of hypereutectic carbon particles in a B 4 C-C eutectic matrix. Because of high surface energy, the coating generally developed a nonuniform thickness. Quantitative evaluations of the coating were performed with limiters in the TEXTOR fusion device and with coupons in electron beam tests. Test results revealed the following: good adherence of the coating even after remelting; and, during remelting, diagnostics detected a corresponding interaction of boron with the plasma

  17. Study of the effects of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Gordillo, N.; Maira, A.; Moreno-Cerrada, D.; Ramos, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a material with a great technological and industrial interest because of its exceptional chemical, physical and structural properties. At modest boron concentrations, insulating diamond becomes a p-type semiconductor and at higher concentrations a superconducting metal at low temperature. The most conventional preparation method used so far, has been the homogeneous incorporation of boron doping during the diamond synthesis carried out either with high-pressure sintering of crystals or by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of films. With these methods, high boron concentration can be included without distorting significantly the diamond crystalline lattice. However, it is complicated to manufacture boron-doped microstructures. A promising alternative to produce such microstructures could be the implantation of focused high-energy boron ions, although boron fluences are limited by the damage produced in diamond. In this work, the effect of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in single crystals of diamond is studied under different irradiation fluences and conditions. Micro-Raman spectra of the sample were measured before and after annealing at 1000 °C as a function of irradiation fluence, for both superficial and buried boron implantation, to assess the changes in the diamond lattice by the creation of vacancies and defects and their degree of recovery after annealing.

  18. Amorphisation of boron carbide under slow heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosset, D., E-mail: Dominique.gosset@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, LA2M, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191, Gif/Yvette (France); Miro, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMP, Laboratoire JANNUS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191, Gif/Yvette (France); Doriot, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, LA2M, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191, Gif/Yvette (France); Moncoffre, N. [CNRS/IN2P3/IPNL, 69622, Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-08-01

    Boron carbide B{sub 4}C is widely used as a neutron absorber in nuclear plants. Most of the post-irradiation examinations have shown that the structure of the material remains crystalline, in spite of very high atomic displacement rates. Here, we have irradiated B{sub 4}C samples with 4 MeV Au ions with different fluences at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. The Raman analyses show a high structural disorder at low fluence, around 10{sup −2} displacements per atoms (dpa). However, the TEM observations show that the material remains crystalline up to a few dpa. At high fluence, small amorphous areas a few nanometers large appear in the damaged zone but the long range order is preserved. Moreover, the size and density of the amorphous zones do not significantly grow when the damage increases. On the other hand, full amorphisation is observed in the implanted zone at a Au concentration of about 0.0005. It can be inferred from those results that short range and long range damages arise at highly different fluences, that heavy ions implantation has drastic effects on the structure stability and that in this material self-healing mechanisms are active in the damaged zone.

  19. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  20. Boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge in self-sputtering mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushenets, V I; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    An ion source based on a planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated target has been designed and demonstrated. For a boron sputtering target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, increasing with temperature. The target is well-insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to attain the required surface temperature (400 degrees C), followed by transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode for which the magnetron enters a self-sputtering operational mode. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system; the maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. We have plans to make the ion source steady state and test with a bending magnet. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF(3), and could be useful for semiconductor industry application.

  1. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.; Igarzabal, M.; Suarez Sandin, J.C.; Somacal, H.R.; Thatar Vento, V.; Huck, H.; Valda, A.A.; Repetto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  2. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergueiro, J; Igarzabal, M; Sandin, J C Suarez; Somacal, H R; Vento, V Thatar; Huck, H; Valda, A A; Repetto, M; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Special design issues. Ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Peterson, R.R.; Kessler, G.

    1995-01-01

    Design issues of the interface between ion beam drivers and the reaction chamber for heavy ion beam and light ion beam inertial fusion drivers are discussed. The interface must provide for radiation protection of final focusing magnets, pumping of evaporated material and non-condensable gas that enter the beam ports, thermal insulation, heat removal, a.o.. Beam ports and focal magnets must be protected by neutronically thick shielding between the beam path and the magnet conductor. The required thickness of the shielding determines the minimum spacing between individual beams in a cluster of beams. The cone angle of this cluster can affect target performance. The beamlines are subjected to evaporated material, debris, and rapidly moving droplets. The reaction chambers used here are HYLIFE-II for indirect, HIBALL-II for direct drive. The light ion beam interface is based on the LIBRA and LIBRA-LiTE studies. In the case of HYLIFE-II, liquid jets must be demonstrated with a thickness of 0.5 m and with an edge that comes to within 10 mm of the beam edges to protect the ports. Design of compact focal arrays with enough shielding to give magnets an adequate lifetime must be achieved. As shielding is added the size of the beam array will grow and the target will drop. For HIBALL neutron shielding of the focal magnets provides an adequate lifetime. Replaceable special INPORT units will have to be developed in the region of the beam ports. For light ions transport issues have led to structures being placed close enough to the target that they experience a higher neutron damage rate and must be replaced once or twice a year, which would require remote maintenance. Light ion concepts could greatly benefit from a self-pinched transport scheme, though the details are unclear and the effect on availability is uncertain. Light and heavy ions have similar problems in keeping the gas in the drivers at a low density. Both will require active means to preserve this low density, while

  4. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  5. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-11-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  6. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  7. Multilayer Optical Coating Fabrication By Ion Beam Sputter Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juergen; Scheuer, Volker

    1989-02-01

    Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (IBSD) was proven to be a useful technique for producing high performance optical coatings. However, compared to other deposition techniques, several problems remain to be solved, such as low deposition rates, small areas with homogeneous deposition rate and the problem of contamination. In the work described here, a cubic vacuum chamber has been equipped with a commercially available ion beam source, a triple stage target holder and a rotating substrate holder. The primary interest was to get a reasonable deposition rate over a sufficiently large area. Single layers of SiO2, Ta205 and TiO2 and multilayers of Si02/Ta205 were produced. Contaminants in the films were analyzed by various techniques mainly by Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Optical properties of the coatings were investigated to study the influence of the contaminants on the performance of the optical coatings. The optical properties were characterized by the refractive index, the absorption coefficient and the scattering behaviour. Scattering losses were measured by means of Total Integrated Scattering (TIS) and Angle Resolved Scattering (ARS). The damage threshold against high-power laser pulses of 1.06 pm was determined.

  8. 2π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Surface contamination; windowless proportional counter; beta counting chamber; large area coated sources. Abstract. Detection system for measuring absolute emission rate from large-area-coated β sources has been indigenously developed. The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with ...

  9. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2  MeV/u lead ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2  MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow discharges, nonevaporable getter coating are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H_{2}, CH_{4}, CO, Ar, and CO_{2}. Unexpected large values of molecular yields per incident ion up to 2×10^{4} molecules/ion have been observed. The reduction of the ion-induced desorption yield due to continuous bombardment with lead ions (beam cleaning has been investigated for five different stainless steel vacuum chambers. The implications of these results for the vacuum system of the future Low Energy Ion Ring and possible remedies to reduce the vacuum degradation are discussed.

  10. Structure and characteristics of chromium steel coatings alloyed with boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Losev, A. S.; Borodikhin, S. A.; Matalasova, A. E.; Ponomarev, I. A.; Ivlev, K. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the problems arising from the increase of wear resistance on the coatings of details of a wide range of applications, obtained by surfacing the Fe - Cr system with flux-cored wires. It has shown that insignificant wear resistance of such steel under conditions of metal friction against another metal is due to their relatively low hardness and the absence of strengthening phases. It also shows the effect of boron carbide on the structure and the characteristics of chromium steel obtained by the surfacing process. It was established that the use of high-chromium flux-cored wires alloyed with boron carbide aids the production of a deposited metal of a composite type, with a dispersed hardening based on chromium carboboride. The deposited metal with such structure has a high wear resistance and the hardness of 55 … 58 HRC and can be used for surfacing cladding the hardening, corrosion-resistant coatings.

  11. Coating of titanium implants with boron nitride by RF-magnetron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coating of titanium implants with boron nitride by RF-magnetron sputtering. CEREN GÖKMENO ˘GLU1,∗, NURDAN ÖZMERIÇ2, GAYE ÇAKAL3, NIHAN DÖKMETAS4,. CANSU ERGENE4 and BILGIN KAFTANO ˘GLU4. 1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, Güzelyalı Bulvarı 52100, Ordu, ...

  12. Mechanical behavior enhancement of defective graphene sheet employing boron nitride coating via atomistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoodeh, A. R.; Badjian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The most stable form of boron nitride polymorph naming hexagonal boron nitride sheet has recently been widely concerned like graphite due to its interesting features such as electrical insulation and high thermal conductivity. In this study, the molecular dynamic simulations are implemented to investigate the mechanical properties of single-layer graphene sheets under tensile and compressive loadings in the absence and presence of boron–nitride coating layers. In this introduced hybrid nanostructure, the benefit of combining both individual interesting features of graphene and boron–nitride sheets such as exceptional mechanical and electrical properties can be simultaneously achieved for future potential application in nano devices. The influences of chiral indices, boundary conditions and presence of mono-atomic vacancy defects as well as coating dimension on the mechanical behavior of the resulted hybrid structure are reported. The interatomic forces between the atoms are modeled by employing the AIREBO and Tersoff–Brenner potentials for carbon–carbon and boron–nitrogen atoms in each layer, respectively. Furthermore, the van der Waal interlayer forces of carbon–boron and carbon–nitrogen are estimated by the Lennard–Jones potential field. Besides the potential improvement in electrical and physical properties of the nanostructure, it is demonstrated that the buckling load capacity of the fully coated graphene sheet with 3% concentration of mono-atomic vacancy defects noticeably enhances by amounts of 24.1%.

  13. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  14. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Jong-Joo [Surface Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sangnam-Dong, Changwon-Shi, Kyungnam-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Don [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Sug [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75{sup 0}. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  15. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  16. A model for electron/ion recombination in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, W.C.

    1988-05-01

    The recombination of free electrons and positive ions along charged particle tracks in gases has been modeled using electron tranport equations, which assume homogeneous distribution in the vicinity of the tracks. The equations include space charge terms, which have been negelected in previous models. A formula for the electron yield as a function of detector applied potential is obtained from a perturbation solution valid when the ratio of the Debye length to the charge column radius is larger then unity. When this ratio is very large, the formula reduces to that of previous models. Pulse height measurements in a 3 He ionization chamber indicate 2% to 30% losses to recombination which vary with applied field, particle type, and energy. Using reasonable values for the electron transport coefficients, the calculated loss of signal to recommendation is generally in agreement with experiment, but the variation with applied bias is stronger in the experiment

  17. Scattering chamber for the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.; Corum, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a 62-in.-diam. general purpose scattering chamber to be used for nuclear research with heavy ions. The detector rotation mechanism is based on large diameter (approx. 58 in.) peripherally driven rings. This leaves the central region open for detectors and other apparatus and permits the use of a perpendicular ring for rotating a detector out of the reaction plane. A precision target slide with provisions for removing the entire slide under vacuum is part of the design. Access and viewing ports on the dished top and in the reaction plane will be provided. Cryogenic pumping will be used to keep the vacuum free from hydrocarbon vapors, water vapor, and oxygen

  18. Improvement in energy release properties of boron-based propellant by oxidant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jzliu@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Binghong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, KClO{sub 4} and HMX coated B were used to prepare propellant samples. • FTIR, XRD and SEM were used for the microstructure analysis of the prepared B. • Thermal oxidation and combustion characteristics of the propellants were studied. • HMX coating was the most beneficial to the energy release of the samples. - Abstract: The energy release properties of a propellant can be improved by coating boron (B) particles with oxidants. In the study, B was coated with four different oxidants, namely, NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, LiClO{sub 4}, and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), and the corresponding propellant samples were prepared. First, the structural and morphological analyses of the pretreated B were carried out. Then, the thermal analysis and laser ignition experiments of the propellant samples were carried out. Coating with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} showed a better performance than mechanical mixing with the same component. Coating with KNO{sub 3} efficiently improved the ignition characteristics of the samples. Coating with LiClO{sub 4} was the most beneficial in reducing the degree of difficulty of B oxidation. Coating with HMX was the most beneficial in the heat release of the samples. The KNO{sub 3}-coated sample had a very high combustion intensity in the beginning, but then it rapidly became weak. Large amounts of sparks were ejected during the combustion of the LiClO{sub 4}-coated sample. The HMX-coated sample had the longest self-sustaining combustion time (4332 ms) and the highest average combustion temperature (1163.92 °C).

  19. Formation of boron nitride coatings on silicon carbide fibers using trimethylborate vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Mengjiao; Zhou, Tong; He, Jing; Chen, Lifu, E-mail: lfchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-09-30

    High quality boron nitride (BN) coatings have been grown on silicon carbide (SiC) fibers by carbothermal nitridation and at atmospheric pressure. SiC fibers were first treated in chlorine gas to form CDC (carbide-derived carbon) film on the fiber surface. The CDC-coated SiC fibers were then reacted with trimethylborate vapor and ammonia vapor at high temperature, forming BN coatings by carbothermal reduction. The FT-IR, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM and AES were used to investigate the formation of the obtained coatings. It has been found that the obtained coatings are composed of phase mixture of h-BN and amorphous carbon, very uniform in thickness, have smooth surface and adhere well with the SiC fiber substrates. The BN-coated SiC fibers retain ∼80% strength of the as-received SiC fibers and show an obvious interfacial debonding and fiber pullout in the SiC{sub f}/SiOC composites. This method may be useful for the large scale production of high quality BN coating on silicon carbide fiber.

  20. The improvement of wave-absorbing ability of silicon carbide fibers by depositing boron nitride coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Zhang, Litong; Yin, Xiaowei; Liu, Yongsheng; Cheng, Laifei

    2013-04-01

    This work investigated electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorption and mechanical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) fibers with and without boron nitride (BN) coating by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). The dielectric property and EM shielding effectiveness of SiC fiber bundles before and after being coated by BN were measured by wave guide method. The EM reflection coefficient of SiC fiber laminates with and without BN coating was determined by model calculation and NRL-arc method, respectively. Tensile properties of SiC fiber bundles with and without BN coating were tested at room temperature. Results show that SiC fibers with BN coating had a great improvement of EMW absorbing property because the composites achieved the impedance matching. BN with the low permittivity and dielectric loss contributed to the enhancive introduction and reduced reflection of EMW. The tensile strength and Weibull modulus of SiC fiber bundles coated by BN increased owing to the decrease of defects in SiC fibers and the protection of coating during loading.

  1. Physical and Electromagnetic Properties of Customized Coatings for SNS Injection Ceramic Chambers and Extraction Ferrite Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; He, Ping; Henderson, Stuart; Pai, Chien; Raparia, Deepak; Todd, Robert J; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Weiss, Daniel; Yung Lee, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The inner surfaces of the 248 m SNS accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with ~100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. All the ring inner surfaces are made of stainless or inconel, except those of the injection and extraction kickers. Ceramic vacuum chambers are used for the 8 injection kickers to avoid shielding of a fast-changing kicker field and to reduce eddy current heating. The internal diameter was coated with Cu to reduce the beam coupling impedance and provide passage for beam image current, and a TiN overlayer to reduce SEY. The ferrite surfaces of the 14 extraction kicker modules were coated with TiN to reduce SEY. Customized masks were used to produce coating strips of 1 cm x 5 cm with 1 to 1.5 mm separation among the strips. The masks maximized the coated area to more than 80%, while minimizing the eddy current effect to the kicker rise time. The coating method, as well as the physical and electromagnetic properties of the coating...

  2. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of pre-coated boron steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Sheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: zhubin26@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cracking failure of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping process was investigated. • Microcracks initiated inside the coating during the austenitization. • Microcrack initiation in the hot deformation correlated to the Fe–Al intermetallics. • Macrocracks extended along the Mode I path led to the coating break into segments. • Macrocracks growth followed Mode II path resulted in the interfacial debonding. - Abstract: This study is focused on the mechanisms of cracks initiation, propagation and interfacial debonding of the Al–Si coating in hot stamping of the pre-coated boron steel. The investigation was performed isothermally at three deformation temperatures (700, 750, 800 °C) at a strain rate of 0.1/s. Cracking and interfacial debonding of the coating were observed with optical and scanning electron microscope, to reveal the damage evolution under applied tensile strains. Microstructures and phase inside the coating before and after austenitization were determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that austenitization led to micro-cracks and Kirkendall voids initiation inside the Al–Si coating because of thermal loading, and the cracks were arrested by α-Fe diffusion layer. When the coating on substrate system was submitted to the uniaxial tensile test, the surface coating exhibited multiple cracking normal to the tensile direction. The Kirkendall voids seemed to promote the macro-crack growth through the diffusion layer. The macro-cracks followed a Mode I path, leading to the coating deteriorates to cracked segments. The macro-cracks then continued to propagate following a Mode II path that along the diffusion layer/substrate interface because of shear stress transferred from the deformed substrate, resulting in the interfacial debonding of the coating segments. The crack density firstly increased with the increasing tensile strain and then reached saturation. Decreasing deformation

  3. Pinched Ion Beam Transport in the Target Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, M.; Lee, E. P.; Briggs, R. J.

    2000-10-01

    Ion beam pulses for fusion reactors have a very high charge per unit length and may carry a high current. In order to avoid thermal blowup and focus to a small spot, it is required to be charge neutral and desirable to have a pinching magnetic field. This requires that the neutralizing electrons flow relative to the ions, and of course the pinch behavior depends on the return current path. Since the electrons have small gyroradii a fluid, charge neutral model is adopted. After the pulse has been well detached from the chamber entrance hole and is distant from all emitting surfaces fields, we look for a steady-state solution in the beam frame with electrons recirculating. We find the conditions for such "plasmoid" solutions, indicating the desirability of shaping the radial profile and find that while the outer part of the beam pulse is blown out, the core may be reasonably well pinch-confined. The effects of interactions with background gas and plasma are discussed. We plan to study possible instabilities-kink, sausage, Rayleigh-Taylor and filamentation.

  4. Low-Energy Sputtering Studies of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of boron nitride with xenon ions was investigated using secondary ion (SIMS) and secondary neutral (SNMS) mass spectrometry. The ions generated from the ion gun were incident on the target at an angle of 50' with respect to the surface'normal. The energy of ions ranged from 100 eV to 3 keV. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge build-up on the target surface. The intensities of sputtered neutral and charged particles, including single atoms, molecules, and clusters, were measured as a function of ion energy. Positive SIMS spectra were dominated by the two boron isotopes whereas BN- and B- were the two major constituents of the negative SIMS spectra. Nitrogen could be detected only in the SNMS spectra. The intensity-energy curves of the sputtered particles were similar in shape. The knees in P-SIMS and SNMS intensity-energy curves appear at around I keV which is significantly higher that 100 to 200 eV energy range at which knees appear in the sputtering of medium and heavy elements by ions of argon and xenon. This difference in the position of the sputter yield knee between boron nitride and heavier targets is due to the reduced ion energy differences. The isotopic composition of secondary ions of boron were measured by bombarding boron nitride with xenon ions at energies ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The secondary ion flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident ion energies. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary ion energy. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. The trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy

  5. The preferential permeation of ions across carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Azamat, Jafar; Rastkar, Alireza; Yousefnia, Negar Rad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The permeation of ions through carbon and boron nitride nanotubes has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. ► The considered ions have been included Ca 2+ and Cl − . ► It has been shown that the ions permeate selectively. ► The radial distribution functions and the potential of mean force of the ions have been evaluated. -- Abstract: The preferential permeation of Ca 2+ and Cl − ions across (7, 7) and (8, 8) carbon and boron nitride nanotubes have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation method. The simulated systems composed from a carbon, or boron nitride nanotube inserted in a silicon nitride membrane immersed in the aqueous ionic solution, in the presence of an electrical field. The water structure inside nanotubes has been analyzed and the retention time of the ions, the radial distribution functions and normalized transport rate of water with respect to the number of transported ions have been calculated. The results show that the permeation of ions across the nanotubes is dependent on the diameter of the considered nanotubes. The considered nanotubes have been fixed in a silicon-nitride membrane and an external electrical field has been applied on the systems along the axis of nanotubes.

  6. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for {sup 3}He-based neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L., E-mail: jlacy@proportionaltech.com [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of {sup 3}He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of {sup 3}He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on {sup 3}He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of {sup 10}B-enriched boron carbide ({sup 10}B{sub 4}C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of {sup 10}B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional {sup 3}He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as {sup 10}BF{sub 3} tubes and {sup 10}B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed {sup 3}He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter {sup 3}He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  7. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for 3He-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B.

    2011-01-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of 3 He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of 3 He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on 3 He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of 10 B-enriched boron carbide ( 10 B 4 C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of 10 B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional 3 He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as 10 BF 3 tubes and 10 B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed 3 He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter 3 He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  8. Boron-coated straws as a replacement for 3He-based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Sun, Liang; Martin, Christopher S.; Lyons, Tom D.; Foss, Michael A.; Haygood, Hal B.

    2011-10-01

    US and international government efforts to equip major seaports with large area neutron detectors, aimed to intercept the smuggling of nuclear materials, have precipitated a critical shortage of 3He gas. It is estimated that the annual demand of 3He for US security applications alone is more than the worldwide supply. This is strongly limiting the prospects of neutron science, safeguards, and other applications that rely heavily on 3He-based detectors. Clearly, alternate neutron detection technologies that can support large sensitive areas, and have low gamma sensitivity and low cost must be developed. We propose a low-cost technology based on long copper tubes (straws), coated on the inside with a thin layer of 10B-enriched boron carbide ( 10B 4C). In addition to the high abundance of boron on Earth and low cost of 10B enrichment, the boron-coated straw (BCS) detector offers distinct advantages over conventional 3He-based detectors, and alternate technologies such as 10BF 3 tubes and 10B-coated rigid tubes. These include better distribution inside moderator assemblies, many-times faster electronic signals, no pressurization, improved gamma-ray rejection, no toxic or flammable gases, and ease of serviceability. We present the performance of BCS detectors dispersed in a solid plastic moderator to address the need for portal monitoring. The design adopts the outer dimensions of currently deployed 3He-based monitors, but takes advantage of the small BCS diameter to achieve a more uniform distribution of neutron converter throughout the moderating material. We show that approximately 63 BCS detectors, each 205 cm long, distributed inside the moderator, can match or exceed the detection efficiency of typical monitors fitted with a 5 cm diameter 3He tube, 187 cm long, pressurized to 3 atm.

  9. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment

  10. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianwei; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non- 3 He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235 U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  11. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  12. 2π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. 2 π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources ... A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological ...

  13. Boron carbide-coated carbon material, manufacturing method therefor and plasma facing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Hyakki, Yasuo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plasma facing material suitable to a thermonuclear device. The material comprises a carbon material formed by converting the surface of a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon material comprising a carbon matrix and carbon fibers to a boron carbide, the material has a surface comprising vertically or substantially vertically oriented carbon fibers, and the thickness of the surface converted to boron carbide is reduced in the carbon fiber portion than in the carbon matrix portion. Alternatively, a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon material containing carbon fibers having a higher graphitizing degree than the carbon matrix is converted to boron carbide on the surface where the carbon fibers are oriented vertically or substantially vertically. The carbon fiber-reinforced material is used as a base material, and a resin material impregnated into a shaped carbon fiber product is carbonized or thermally decomposed carbon is filled as a matrix. The material of the present invention has high heat conduction and excellent in heat resistance thereby being suitable to a plasma facing material for a thermonuclear device. Electric specific resistivity of the entire coating layer can be lowered, occurrence of arc discharge is prevented and melting can be prevented. (N.H.)

  14. Methods for separating boron from borated paraffin wax and its determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boron compounds are found to be useful in shielding against high-energy neutrons. In radiotherapy treatments, in order to protect occupational workers and patients from the undesirable neutron and gamma doses, paraffin wax containing B 4 C/boric acid is used. Low-level borate wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been immobilized with paraffin wax using a concentrate waste drying system (CWDS). Borated paraffin waxes are prepared by mixing calculated amounts of either boric acid or boron carbide with the molten wax. This necessitates the determination of boron at different locations in order to check the homogeneous distribution of B over the borated wax. The determination of boron in nuclear materials is inevitable due to its high neutron absorption cross section. For the determination of boron in borated waxes, not many methods have been reported. A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H 3 BO 3 and B 4 C. The B 4 C optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U 3 O 8 , which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O 2 at 950℃ for 60 and 90 min for wax with H 3 BO 3 and wax with B 4 C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H 3 BO 3 . In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N=3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD)

  15. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  16. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and ∼5.10 17 ions/cm 2 fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co 3 W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load

  17. Ion implantation artifacts observed in depth profiling boron in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.; Simons, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison study of depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) was recently conducted. The specimens were portions of 5 cm diameter single crystal silicon slices in which B-10 had been implanted at various fluences and energies. NDP measurements were made on a 13 mm diameter area at the center of the wafers. SIMS measurements were taken from a 60 μm diameter area approximately 16 mm from the center of the wafer. One observation that emerged from this work was an apparent discrepancy between the profiles of B-10 measured by DNP and SIMS. The peaks of the SIMS profiles were typically deeper than those of NDP by as much as 30 nm, which is 10% of the projected range for a 70 keV implant. Moreover, the profiles could not be made to coincide by either a constant shift or a proportional change of one depth scale with respect to the other. The lateral inhomogeneity of boron that these experiments have demonstrated arises from the variable contribution of ion channeling during implantation

  18. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  19. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission

  20. Investigation of the structure and properties of boron-containing coatings obtained by electron-beam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivezhenko, Dina S.; Drobyaz, Ekaterina A.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Chuchkova, Lyubov V.

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of surface-hardened materials obtained by cladding with an electron beam injected into the air atmosphere was carried out. Structural investigations of coatings revealed that an increase in boron carbide concentration in a saturating mixture contributed to a rise of a volume fraction of iron borides in coatings. The maximum hardened depth reached 2 mm. Hardened layers were characterized by the formation of heterogeneous structure which consisted of iron borides and titanium carbides distributed uniformly in the eutectic matrix. Areas of titanium boride conglomerations were detected. It was found that an increase in the boron carbide content led to an enhancement in hardness of the investigated materials. Friction testing against loosely fixed abrasive particles showed that electron-beam cladding of powder mixtures containing boron carbides, titanium, and iron in air atmosphere allowed enhancing a resistance of materials hardened in two times.

  1. Study of ion implantation in grown layers of multilayer coatings under ion-plasma vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Erokhin, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The model of ion implantation into growing layers of a multilayer coating produced with vacuum ion-plasma deposition was developed. The model takes into account a possibility for ions to pass through the growing layer and alloys to find the distribution of implanted atoms over the coating thickness. The experimental vitrification of the model was carried out on deposition of Ti and TiN coatings

  2. Molecular desorption of stainless steel vacuum chambers irradiated with 4.2 MeV/u lead ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Laurent, Jean Michel; Madsen, N

    2003-01-01

    In preparation for the heavy ion program of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, accumulation and cooling tests with lead ion beams have been performed in the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). These tests have revealed that due to the unexpected large outgassing of the vacuum system, the dynamic pressure of the ring could not be maintained low enough to reach the required beam intensities. To determine the actions necessary to lower the dynamic pressure rise, an experimental program has been initiated for measuring the molecular desorption yields of stainless steel vacuum chambers by the impact of 4.2 MeV/u lead ions with the charge states +27 and +53. The test chambers were exposed either at grazing or at perpendicular incidence. Different surface treatments (glow-discharges, non-evaporable getter coating) are reported in terms of the molecular desorption yields for H2, CH4, CO, Ar and CO2. Unexpected large values of molecular yields per incident ion up to 2 104 molecules/ion have been observed. The red...

  3. Targeted and non-targeted boron complex formation followed by electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry: a novel approach for identifying boron esters with natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Andras; Lucio, Marianna; Harir, Mourad; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The formation of boron esters was investigated in peat-soluble humified materials with a detailed molecular-level description of boron-organic interactions. Thousands of individually baseline separated signals were obtained from the analysis of natural organic matter of peat samples, using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. This technique offers unsurpassed isotope-specific mass resolution that can lead to precise molecular formula assignments by means of mathematical data analysis and visualisation techniques, such as mass defect (Kendrick) or elemental ratio (van Krevelen) plots. The analysis of potential boron binding structures within the sample of natural organic matter was described based on prior results. Herein, we describe an algorithm that can be used to effectively distinguish and filter complexes through data obtained from boron-enriched systems with highly intricate mass spectra, such as natural organic matter.

  4. Boron profiles in doped amorphous-silicon solar cells formed by plasma ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, C.T.H.; Hunt, C.P.; Coleman, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous silicon p-n junction solar cells of large area (100 cm 2 ) and having a quantum efficiency approaching 100% in the blue region have been prepared by plasma ion-plating, the p layer being formed from diborane and silane gases in a cathode glow-discharge. Surface secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with ion beam etching was found to be a very sensitive method with high in-depth resolution for obtaining the initial boron-silicon profile of the solar cell p-n junction. (author)

  5. Evidence of amorphisation of B{sub 4}C boron carbide under slow, heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosset, D., E-mail: dominique.gosset@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Miro, S. [CEA, DEN, DMN-SRMP-JANNUS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Doriot, S. [CEA, DEN, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Victor, G. [CNRS-IN2P3-IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Motte, V. [CEA, DEN, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    Boron carbide is widely used either as armor-plate or neutron absorber. In both cases, a good structural stability is required. However, a few studies have shown amorphisation may occur in severe conditions. Hard impacts lead to the formation of amorphous bands. Some irradiations in electronic regime with H or He ions have also shown amorphisation of the material. Most authors however consider the structure is not drastically affected by irradiations in the ballistic regime. Here, we have irradiated at room temperature dense boron carbide pellets with Au 4 MeV ions, for which most of the damage is in the ballistic regime. This study is part of a program devoted to the behavior of boron carbide under irradiation. Raman observations have been performed after the irradiations together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman observations show a strong structural damage at moderate fluences (10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}, about 0.1 dpa), in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, TEM shows the structure remains crystalline up to 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2} then partially amorphises. The amorphisation is heterogeneous, with the formation of nanometric amorphous zones with increasing density. It then appears short range and long range disorder occurs at quite different damage levels. Further experiments are in progress aiming at studying the structural stability of boron carbide and isostructural materials (α-B, B{sub 6}Si,…).

  6. Dynamic oxygenation measurements using a phosphorescent coating within a mammary window chamber mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Rachel; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorescent lifetime imaging was employed to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of oxygen partial pressure in tissue under the coverslip of a mammary window chamber breast cancer mouse model. A thin platinum-porphyrin coating, whose phosphorescent lifetime varies monotonically with oxygen partial pressure, was applied to the coverslip surface. Dynamic temporal responses to induced modulations in oxygenation levels were measured using this approach. PMID:25780753

  7. Rate-dependent performance of ion chambers for particle-ID at the GSI fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, Jan-Paul; Allred, Timothy; Enders, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhaeuser, Roman; Maurus, Steffen [Physik Department, TU Muenchen (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    At the GSI Fragment Separator (FRS), multi-sampling ion chambers (MUSIC) employing a Frisch grid are used for charge identification of secondary ion beams. At the FAIR Super-FRS, higher rates are expected, and an event-by-event determination of the charge of secondary ions will be needed at rates of several 100000 events per second. The comparison of results from test measurements for the MUSIC performance with that of a recently constructed tilted-electrode gas ion chamber (TEGIC), which was designed similar to the one discussed, is presented.

  8. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire's multiple scattering theory and Vavilov's energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program's accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented

  9. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  10. Ion-Bombardment of X-Ray Multilayer Coatings - Comparison of Ion Etching and Ion Assisted Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puik, E. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Zeijlemaker, H.; Verhoeven, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two forms of ion bombardment treatment on the reflectivity of multilayer X-ray coatings were compared: ion etching of the metal layers, taking place after deposition, and ion bombardment during deposition, the so-called ion assisted deposition. The ion beam was an Ar+ beam of 200 eV,

  11. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  12. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Siming [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Guangan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xue, Qunji, E-mail: qjxue@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were well dispersed by using water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer as dispersant. • The best corrosion performance of waterborne epoxy coatings was achieved with the addition of 1 wt% h-BN. • The decrease of the pores and defects of coating matrix inhibits the diffusion and water absorption of corrosive medium in the coating. - Abstract: Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT{sup −}) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT{sup −}, as proved by Raman and UV–vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2}) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  13. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Impregnated Silane Composite Coating for Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Saadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are attractive potential materials for construction of biodegradable temporary implant devices. However, their rapid degradation in human body fluid before the desired service life is reached necessitate the application of suitable coatings. To this end, WZ21 magnesium alloy surface was modified by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-impregnated silane coating. The coating was chemically characterised by Raman spectroscopy. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS of the coated alloy in Hanks’ solution showed a five-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the alloy due to the composite coating. Post-corrosion analyses corroborated the electrochemical data and provided a mechanistic insight of the improvement provided by the composite coating.

  14. Performance of a Boron-Coated-Straw-Based HLNCC for International Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela T. [ORNL; Croft, Stephen [ORNL; McElroy, Robert Dennis [ORNL; Sun, Liang [Proportional Technologies Inc.; Hayward, Jason P. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    3He gas has been used in various scientific and security applications for decades, but it is now in short supply. Alternatives to 3He detectors are currently being integrated and tested in neutron coincidence counter designs, of a type which are widely used in nuclear safeguards for nuclear materials assay. A boron-coated-straw-based design, similar to the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter-II, was built by Proportional Technologies Inc., and has been tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at both the JRC in Ispra and ORNL. Characterization measurements, along with nondestructive assays of various plutonium samples, have been conducted to determine the performance of this coincidence counter replacement in comparison with other similar counters. This paper presents results of these measurements.

  15. Ion-induced stress relaxation during the growth of cubic boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abendroth, B.E.

    2004-08-01

    in this thesis the deposition of cubic boron nitride films by magnetron sputtering is described. The deposition process is analyzed by Langmuir-probe measurement and energy resolved mass spectroscopy. the films are studied by stress measurement, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Discussed are the stress relaxation and the microstructure and bonding characteristics together with the effects of ion bombardement. (HSI)

  16. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuelin; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2013-07-25

    Thin boron doped diamond (BDD) film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD) film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD) coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools.

  17. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin boron doped diamond (BDD film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools.

  18. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuelin; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Thin boron doped diamond (BDD) film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD) film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD) coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools. PMID:28811426

  19. Study on ion floating-time of chamber using noise techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; An Jigang; Liu Yisi

    2001-01-01

    A new method, which is used to measure the ion floating-time of ionization chamber in frequency domain, was proposed and realized. Comparing with the other method in time domain, this method that was proposed in this paper is more convenient. The relative physical model was created by using the noise analysis techniques and by combining with the physical features of gas-filled chamber. The experiment result shows that this method provides an effective means for measuring the ion floating-time of chamber in frequency domain

  20. Improved tensile and buckling behavior of defected carbon nanotubes utilizing boron nitride coating – A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badjian, H.; Setoodeh, A.R., E-mail: setoodeh@sutech.ac.ir

    2017-02-15

    Synthesizing inorganic nanostructures such as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have led to immense studies due to their many interesting functional features such as piezoelectricity, high temperature resistance to oxygen, electrical insulation, high thermal conductivity and very long lengths as physical features. In order to utilize the superior properties of pristine and defected carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a hybrid nanotube is proposed in this study by forming BNNTs surface coating on the CNTs. The benefits of such coating on the tensile and buckling behavior of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) are illustrated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the resulted nanostructures during the deformation. The AIREBO and Tersoff-Brenner potentials are employed to model the interatomic forces between the carbon and boron nitride atoms, respectively. The effects of chiral indices, aspect ratio, presence of mono-vacancy defects and coating dimension on coated/non-coated CNTs are examined. It is demonstrated that the coated defective CNTs exhibit remarkably enhanced ultimate strength, buckling load capacity and Young's modulus. The proposed coating not only enhances the mechanical properties of the resulted nanostructure, but also conceals it from few external factors impacting the behavior of the CNT such as humidity and high temperature.

  1. Equilibrium charge state distributions for boron and carbon ions emerging from carbon and aluminum targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Chris; LaVerne, Jay A.; Robertson, Daniel; Bowers, Matthew; Lu Wenting; Collon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state distributions of boron and carbon ions through carbon and aluminum targets were measured with an energy range of 3-6 MeV. Comparisons of the data with relevant semi-empirical models for the equilibrium mean charge states and for the charge state distribution widths could provide valuable insight on the underlying mechanisms for a fast ion to lose or capture electrons. In-depth examinations of the experimental results in combination with semi-empirical models suggest that equilibrium charge state distributions are well represented by Gaussian distributions.

  2. Imaging with a multiplane multiwire proportional chamber using heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 16-plane multiwire proportional chamber has been developed to accurately map intensity profiles of heavy ion beams at the Bevalac. The imaging capability of the system has been tested for reconstruction of 3-dimensional representation of a canine thorax region using heavy ion beams

  3. Friction and wear of stainless steel, titanium and aluminium with various surface treatments, ion implantation and overlay hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of the wear properties of 304 stainless steel, commercial grade titanium and commercial grade aluminium without and with different surface treatments, i.e., ion implantation of boron and nitrogen, and overlay coating of superhard materials, titanium carbide and nitride by the Biased Activated Reactive Evaporation (BARE) process. Wear properties were evaluated in adhesive, erosive and abrasive modes of wear. In the case of adhesive wear, ion implantation resulted in an improved wear behaviour in lubricated conditions but had no beneficial effect in dry wear conditions. Overlay coatings on the other hand resulted in improved wear behaviour for both the dry and lubricating conditions. In the case of erosive wear with SiC particles at high velocities, overlay coatings showed higher erosion rates (typical of brittle materials in normal impingement) whereas ion implanted materials behaved similarly as untreated materials; i.e., a lower wear rate than the specimens with overlay coatings. In the case of abrasive wear, it was again observed that the wear rates of overlay coatings is far lower than the wear rates of untreated or ion implanted materials. (author)

  4. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of graphite nanoflakes by coating hexagonal boron nitride nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-05-31

    We report herein the synthesis of a novel hexagonal boron nitride nanocrystal/graphite nanoflake (h-BNNC/GNF) composite through a wet-chemistry coating of graphite nanoflakes and subsequent in-situ thermal treatment process. The characterization results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate that h-BNNCs with diameter of tens of nanometers are highly crystallized and anchored on the surfaces of graphite nanoflakes without obvious aggregation. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of the h-BNNC/GNF based absorbers could reach −32.38dB (>99.99% attenuation) with the absorber thickness of 2.0mm. This result is superior to the other graphite based and some dielectric loss microwave absorption materials recently reported. Moreover, the frequency range where the RL is less than −10dB is 3.49-17.28GHz with the corresponding thickness of 5.0 to 1.5mm. This reveals a better electromagnetic microwave absorption performance of h-BNNC/GNFs from the X-band to the Ku-band. The remarkable enhancement of the electromagnetic microwave absorption properties of h-BNNC/GNFs can be assigned to the increase of multiple scattering, interface polarization as well as the improvement of the electromagnetic impedance matching of graphite nanoflakes after being coated with h-BNNCs.

  5. Review of Electret ion chamber technology for measuring technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.

    2002-01-01

    Electret ion chamber (EIC) is a passive integrating ionization chamber used extensively for measuring technologically enhanced radioactivity. Commercially available electret ion chambers called 1E-PERM (Electret-Passive Environmental Radiation Monitors) electret ion chambers are relatively new and are in use only from the past 10 years. The EIC consists of a stable electret (electrically charged Teflon disc) mounted inside an electrically conducting chamber. The electret serves both as a source of the electric field and as a sensor. The ions produced inside the chamber are collected by the electret. The reduction in charge of the electret is related to total ionization during the period of exposure. This charge reduction is measured using a battery operated electret reader. Using appropriate calibration factors and the exposure time, the desired parameters such as radon concentration in air is calculated. These low cost monitors require neither power nor battery and several hundreds of these can be used simultaneously and serviced by one reader. These monitors do not provide on line readings, but provide an average value over a period of time. The EICs have been used for measuring: (a) indoor and outdoor radon, (b) thoron, (c) dissolved radon and radium in water, (d) environmental gamma, (e) radon emanating radon concentration in soil samples and in pipes, (f) radon flux from surfaces and building materials. The purpose of this paper is to describe these methods and give selected reference to the related publications for more detailed reading. (author)

  6. Chemical stability and osteogenic activity of plasma-sprayed boron-modified calcium silicate-based coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Li, Kai; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, CaSiO 3 bio-ceramic coatings have attracted great attention because of their good bioactivity. However, their high degradation rates in physiological environment restrict their practical applications. In this work, boron-modified CaSiO 3 ceramic (Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 , B-CS) coating was developed on Ti substrates by plasma-spraying technique attempting to obtain enhanced chemical stability and osteogenic activity. The B-CS coating possessed significantly increased chemical stability due to the introduction of boron and consequently the modified crystal structure, while maintaining good bioactivity. Scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence studies showed that better cellular adhesion and extinctive filopodia-like processes were observed on the B-CS coating. Compared with the pure CaSiO 3 (CS) coating, the B-CS coating promoted MC3T3-E1 cells attachment and proliferation. In addition, enhanced collagen I (COL-I) secretion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization levels were detected from the B-CS coating. According to RT-PCR results, notable up-regulation expressions of mineralized tissue-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) were observed on the B-CS coating compared with the CS coating. The above results suggested that Ca 11 Si 4 B 2 O 22 coatings possess excellent osteogenic activity and might be a promising candidate for orthopedic applications.

  7. Deposition and Characterization of the Titanium-Based Coating by a Multi-Chamber Detonation Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseenko M.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces some of the aspects of the deposition of titanium-based coating (80-120 μm thick on aluminium samples using a multi-chamber detonation sprayer (MCDS. The characteristic feature of MCDS is that the powder is accelerated by using combustion products that are formed in MCDS chambers and are converged before entering the nozzle, where they interact with the two-phase gas-powder cloud. The microstructures and properties of the coating were characterized with the use of scanning electronic microscopes (SEM, optical microscope (OM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD techniques, and Vickers hardness tester with a 50 g test load. Wear tests were carried out using a computer controlled pin-on-disc type tribometer. It was established that MCDS has provided the conditions for formation of a dense titanium-based coating with a porosity of less than 1.0%, microhardness 810±250 HV0.05 and a specific wear rate of 2.077∙10-4 mm3(m∙N-1.

  8. Boron carbide coatings for enhanced performance of radio-frequency antennas in magnetic fusion energy devices. Final report [SBIR[STTR] Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, C Christopher

    2002-02-25

    This DOE STTR program has produced a new technology for efficient deposition of dense boron carbide films. Such films can be used as protective coatings; they are resistant to most acids and compatible with high temperatures (over 2000{deg}C). This new technology is based on a vacuum arc discharge using boron carbide cathode as the solid feed material. This avoids the use of boron-based feedstock gases, most of which are toxic or explosive. It is superior to plasma-arc spraying, which makes low-density (porous) films and potentially more economical than magnetron sputtering, due to the low sputtering rate for boron carbide.

  9. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  10. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  11. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  12. Multi-wire chamber system for heavy ion beam monitoring at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperus, J.; Morgado, R.

    1975-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical integrated beam-current profiles are generated by a system of multi-wire chambers (32 wires/profile) operating in either the ionization or proportional mode. Sixteen distinct displays (1024 words) are digitally stored and any four may be simultaneously displayed. A new display can be generated at 64 ms intervals. A central control unit selects the mode of operation, the amount of delay after an appropriate trigger, the chamber integration time, and the particular chambers to be displayed. Operating in the proportional mode, the system can detect relativistic heavy-ion beam intensities as low as 10 4 charges cm -2 sec -1 . (U.S.)

  13. Effect of Boron on Microstructure and Microhardness Properties of Mo-Si-B Based Coatings Produced Via TIG Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mo-Si-B based coatings were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG process on the medium carbon steel because the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are particularly favourable for high-temperature structural applications. It is aimed to investigate of microstructure and microhardness properties of Mo-Si-B based coatings. Optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to characterize the microstructures of Mo-Si-B based coatings. The XRD results showed that microstructure of Mo–Si–B coating consists of α-Mo, α-Fe, Mo2B, Mo3Si and Mo5SiB2 phases. It was reported that the grains in the microstructure were finer with increasing amounts of boron which caused to occur phase precipitations in the grain boundary. Besides, the average microhardness of coatings changed between 735 HV0.3 and 1140 HV0.3 depending on boron content.

  14. RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF AN ALLOYING OF THE FUSED COATINGS RECEIVED FROM THE SUPERFICIAL ALLOYED WIRE BY BORON WITH IN ADDITIONALLY APPLIED ELECTROPLATED COATING OF CHROME AND COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stefanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on distribution of chrome and copper in the fused coating received from the superficial alloyed wire by boron with in additionally applied electroplated coating of chrome and copper were executed. The structure of the fused coating consists of dendrites on which borders the boride eutectic is located. It is established that the content of chrome in dendrites is 1,5– 1,6 times less than in the borid; distribution of copper on structure is uniformed. Coefficients of digestion of chrome and copper at an argon-arc welding from a wire electrode with electroplated coating are established. The assimilation coefficient for chrome is equal to 0,9–1,0; for copper – 0,6–0,75.

  15. Secondary electron emission from boron-doped diamond under ion impact: Applications in single-ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, T.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.; Butler, J.E.; Vestyck, D.J. , Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary electron emission from a 2 μm thick boron-doped diamond film under ion (4.6 endash 7.7 MeV He + )impact is reported. The yield under ions impact is found to be remarkably high, stable over a period of many months, and independent of which side of the film (i.e., growth or substrate side) is exposed to the ion flux. By taking advantage of the high secondary-electron yield, the passage of each ion through the film could be detected with an efficiency of close to 100%, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest efficiency recorded to date for any thin-film window. This finding has an immediate application in single-ion irradiation systems where a thin vacuum window is required to allow extraction of an ion beam from the vacuum into air and at the same time offer 100% efficiency for the detection of the passage of the ion through the window. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Structural modifications induced by ion irradiation and temperature in boron carbide B{sub 4}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, G., E-mail: g.victor@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT) Lyon-1, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); CEA-DEN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moncoffre, N. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Djourelov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko chaussee blvd, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); ELI-NP, IFIN-HH, 30 Reactorului Str, MG-6 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Miro, S. [CEA-DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Baillet, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL), Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pradeilles, N.; Rapaud, O.; Maître, A. [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Européen de la céramique, University of Limoges (France); Gosset, D. [CEA, Saclay, DMN-SRMA-LA2M, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    Already used as neutron absorber in the current French nuclear reactors, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) is also considered in the future Sodium Fast Reactors of the next generation (Gen IV). Due to severe irradiation conditions occurring in these reactors, it is of primary importance that this material presents a high structural resistance under irradiation, both in the ballistic and electronic damage regimes. Previous works have shown an important structural resistance of boron carbide even at high neutron fluences. Nevertheless, the structural modification mechanisms due to irradiation are not well understood. Therefore the aim of this paper is to study structural modifications induced in B{sub 4}C samples in different damage regimes. The boron carbide pellets were shaped and sintered by using spark plasma sintering method. They were then irradiated in several conditions at room temperature or 800 °C, either by favoring the creation of ballistic damage (between 1 and 3 dpa), or by favoring the electronic excitations using 100 MeV swift iodine ions (S{sub e} ≈ 15 keV/nm). Ex situ micro-Raman spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation technique with variable energy slow positrons were coupled to follow the evolution of the B{sub 4}C structure under irradiation.

  17. Theoretical isotopic fractionation between structural boron in carbonates and aqueous boric acid and borate ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Etienne; Noireaux, Johanna; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Montouillout, Valérie; Blanchard, Marc; Pietrucci, Fabio; Gervais, Christel; Rustad, James R.; Schott, Jacques; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    The 11B/10B ratio in calcite and aragonite is an important proxy of oceanic water pH. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms underpinning this approach are still poorly known. In the present study, we theoretically determine the equilibrium isotopic fractionation properties of structural boron species in calcium carbonates, BO33-, BO2(OH)2- and B(OH)4- anions substituted for carbonate groups, as well as those of B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 species in vacuum. Significant variability of equilibrium isotopic fractionation properties is observed among these structural species which is related to their contrasted coordination state, Bsbnd O bond lengths and atomic-scale environment. The isotopic composition of structural boron does not only depend on its coordination number but also on its medium range environment, i.e. farther than its first coordination shell. The isotopic fractionation between aqueous species and their counterparts in vacuum are assessed using previous investigations based on similar quantum-mechanical modeling approaches. At 300 K, the equilibrium isotope composition of structural trigonal species is 7-15‰ lighter than that of aqueous boric acid molecules, whereas substituted tetrahedral borate ions are heavier than their aqueous counterparts by 10-13‰. Although significant uncertainties are known to affect the theoretical prediction of fractionation factors between solids and solutions, the usually assumed lack of isotopic fractionation during borate incorporation in carbonates is challenged by these theoretical results. The present theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors between structural boron and aqueous species differ from those inferred from experiments which may indicate that isotopic equilibrium, unlike chemical equilibrium, was not reached in most experiments. Further research into the isotopic fractionation processes at the interface between calcium carbonates and aqueous solution as well as long duration experiments aimed at

  18. Electrochemical Properties of Boron-Doped Fullerene Derivatives for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Parveen; Kim, Ki Chul; Jang, Seung Soon

    2017-12-07

    The high electron affinity of fullerene C 60 coupled with the rich chemistry of carbon makes it a promising material for cathode applications in lithium-ion batteries. Since boron has one electron less than carbon, the presence of boron on C 60 cages is expected to generate electron deficiency in C 60 , and thereby to enhance its electron affinity. By using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the redox potentials and electronic properties of C 60 and C 59 B. We have found that doping C 60 with one boron atom results in a substantial increase in redox potential from 2.462 V to 3.709 V, which was attributed to the formation of an open shell system. We also investigated the redox and electronic properties of C 59 B functionalized with various redox-active oxygen containing functional groups (OCFGs). For the combination of functionalization with OCFGs and boron doping, it is found that the enhancement of redox potential is reduced, which is mainly attributed to the open shell structure being changed to a closed-shell one. Nevertheless, the redox potentials are still higher than that of pristine C 60 . From the observation that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of closed-shell OCFG- functionalized C 59 B is correlated well with the redox potential, it was confirmed that the spin state is crucial to be considered to understand the relationship between electronic structure and redox properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of ion implantation on thin hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auner, G.; Hsieh, Y.F.; Padmanabhan, K.R.; Chevallier, J.; Soerensen, G.

    1983-01-01

    The surface mechanical properties of thin hard coatings of carbides, nitrides and borides deposited by r.f. sputtering were improved after deposition by ion implantation. The thickness and the stoichiometry of the films were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis before and after ion bombardment. The post ion bombardment was achieved with heavy inert ions such as Kr + and Xe + with an energy sufficient to penetrate the film and to reach the substrate. Both the film adhesion and the microhardness were consistently improved. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding, Rb + and Ni + ions were also used as projectiles, and it was found that these ions were more effective than the inert gas ions. (Auth.)

  20. Experimental study of boron-coated straws with a neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Jianrong; Song, Yushou; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Sun, Liang; Sun, Zhijia; Hu, Bitao; Chen, Yuanbo

    2018-04-01

    Multiple types of high quality neutron detectors are proposed for the first phase of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), which will be commissioned in 2018. Considering the shortage of 3He supply, a detector module composed of 49 boron-coated straws (BCS) was developed by Proportional Technologies Inc. (PTI). Each straw has a length of 1000 mm and a diameter of 7.5 mm. Seven straws are tightly packed in a tube, and seven tubes are organized in a row to form a detector module. The charge division method is used for longitudinal positioning. A specific readout system was utilized to output the signal and simultaneously encode each straw. The performance of this detector module was studied using a moderated 252Cf source at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The signal amplitude spectrum indicates its n-gamma discrimination capability. Despite the complex readout method, a longitudinal resolution of FWHM=6.1 ± 0.5 mm was obtained. The three-dimensional positioning ability qualifies this BCS detector module as a promising detector for small angle neutron scattering.

  1. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  2. Comparison of dose measurements in CT using a novel semiconductor detector and a small ion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoal, Cinthia M. M. [Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral-CE, CEP 62040-370, (Brazil); Ferreira, Fernanda Carla L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para, Maraba-PA, CEP 68500-970, (Brazil); Santos, Luiz A. P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao-SE, CEP 49100-000, (Brazil); Souza, Divanizia N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao-SE, CEP 49100-000, (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The advance of multislice computed tomography (CT) has become inadequate the currently dosimetric protocol used in CT. Instead of dosimetry based on the measurement of CTDI using a pencil ion chamber of 100 m of length, it was proposed the use of a small ion chamber (IC) and the calculating the dose equilibrium (Deq) at the location of the chamber. The objective of this work was to compare the performance of a short IC and a commercial photodiode to measure the accumulated dose at the center of the scan length L, DL(0), and to obtain the equilibrium dose Deq using the two detectors. The result for L=100 mm was compared with the result of a pencil chamber. The results indicate that the commercial photodiode is suitable to measure the accumulated dose at the center of the scan length L as compared with the ion chambers. This methodology allows measurements of the accumulated dose for any desired scan length, allowing measuring the equilibrium dose Deq if the phantom is long enough to allow it. (authors)

  3. Positive ion species in high-density discharges containing chlorine and boron endash trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Nichols, C.A.; Hamilton, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We have used a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the positive ion species striking the wafer in a high-density plasma processing discharge containing chlorine and boron endash trichloride. Since the relative transmission of our mass spectrometer versus ion mass is known, we are able to report the relative concentrations of the ion species striking the wafer. Our measurements were made in an inductively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference Reference Cell operating at pressures between 15 and 50 mTorr and at electron densities up to 10 11 /cm 3 . The ion spectrum in these discharges is normally dominated by Cl + , Cl 2 + , BCl 2 + , and etch products. However, reactor wall or wafer surface conditions can strongly affect the ion species in the discharge. When a stainless steel open-quotes waferclose quotes was replaced with a bare Si wafer, the dominant chlorine ion changed from Cl + to Cl 2 + . A bare aluminum wafer strongly quenched both Cl + and Cl 2 + signals. copyright 1998 American Vacuum Society

  4. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  5. A new reaction chamber for heavy ion, light particles - gamma ray coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, M.; Simion, V.; Andronic, A.; Berceanu, I.; Buta, A.; Duma, M.; Moisa, D.; Pop, A.; Migneco, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Bellia, G.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. In order to perform heavy ion, light particles -gamma ray coincidence measurements the experimental set-up DRACULA is foreseen to be connected with the gamma ray filter existing at LNS Catania. For this purpose a new reaction chamber was constructed. It consists of a spherical body (200 mm in diameter), an exit part toward the big ionization chamber, an entrance part having three beam pipes, a target holder part and an inspecting window. As one can see from the figure attached, the chamber gives the possibility to perform measurements at three different angles. Around the chamber a number of 13 big NaI(Tl) crystals and 4-6 Ge(Li) detectors hold by a special frame are foreseen to be installed. (Author) 1 Fig., 2 Refs

  6. Development of industrial ion implantation and ion assisted coating processes: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, K.O.; Solnick-Legg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beam processes have gone through a series of developmental stages, from being the mainstay of the semiconductor industry for production of integrated circuits, to new commercial processes for biomedical, aerospace and other industries. Although research is still continuing on surface modification using ion beam methods, ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for treatment of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites must now be considered viable industrial processes of benefit in a wide variety of applications. However, ion implantation methods face various barriers to acceptability, in terms not only of other surface treatment processes, but for implantation itself. This paper will discuss some of the challenges faced by a small company whose primary business is development and marketing of ion implantation and ion-assisted coating processes. (orig.)

  7. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  8. Photostructured coating on a voltage degrader for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Manaranche, C; Loquet, J L; Serdiouk, V; Scandurra, M; Zucchelli, P

    2002-01-01

    Fibreglass-reinforced epoxy (Stesalit) tubes and rods were coated with a photostructured metal layer system of copper, nickel and gold for a voltage degrader built in a particle detector at CERN, Geneva. The metal layers were applied with galvanotechnical processes involving an original photolithographic exposure in three dimensions to produce a complex electrical circuit design able to provide the correct potential to 420 different conductors. The Stesalit substrate material, even after a first layer of electroless copper, is electrically quite resistive, creating problems for the electrodeposition of the subsequent nickel layer. A mathematical simulation of the plating thickness distribution showed that the electrolytic nickel deposition was suitable for short rods but electroless nickel was needed for the long rods. The functional properties of the metallized Stesalit components are satisfactory: no degradation of the gas quality within the Time Projection Chamber is observed; the potential distribution al...

  9. Influence of boron content on the microstructure and tribological properties of Cr-B-N coatings in water lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision and Micro-Manufacturing Technology, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhou, Fei, E-mail: fzhou@nuaa.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision and Micro-Manufacturing Technology, Nanjing 210016 (China); Gao, Song; Wu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qianzhi [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision and Micro-Manufacturing Technology, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Kangmin [Center of Analysis, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhifeng; Li, Lawrence Kwok-Yan [Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Cr-B-N coatings were deposited via adjusting the CrB{sub 2} target current. • Cr-B-N nanocomposite coatings consisted of CrN nanograins and amorphous BN phase. • The hardness of Cr-B-N coating increased firstly, and then decreased with increasing CrB{sub 2} target current. • The frictional behavior of Cr-B-N coatings deposited at different CrB{sub 2} target currents was compared in deionized water. • In comparison to CrN coatings, Cr-B-N coatings exhibited superior tribological properties in water. - Abstract: Cr-B-N coatings with different boron contents were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafers and 316 L stainless steels using unbalanced magnetron sputtering system by way of adjusting the CrB{sub 2} target currents. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-B-N coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), white light interferometric three dimensional profilometer and nano-indentation tester, respectively. The tribological properties of Cr-B-N/SiC tribopairs in water were studied using ball-on-disk tribometer. The results showed that the Cr-B-N coatings showed a fine nanocomposite structure consisted of CrN nanograins and amorphous BN phase regardless of boron contents, and the typical columnar structure became featureless with increasing the CrB{sub 2} target current. The hardness and reduced elastic modulus first increased to 28.9 GPa and 330 GPa at the CrB{sub 2} target current of 2 A, and then decreased gradually with further increasing the CrB{sub 2} target current to 4 A. As compared with the CrN/SiC tribopairs, the lowest friction coefficient of Cr-B-N/SiC ball tribopairs in water was 0.15, and the wear resistance of Cr-B-N coatings was effectively enhanced.

  10. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, R.; Hofmann, H.; Kolleck, R.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating. In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  11. Evaluation of AS-CAST U-Mo alloys processed in graphite crucible coated with boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Kleiner M., E-mail: kleiner.marra@prof.una.br [Centro Universitario UNA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Mecânica; Reis, Sérgio C.; Paula, João B. de; Pedrosa, Tércio A., E-mail: reissc@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.br, E-mail: tap@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports the production of uranium-molybdenum alloys, which have been considered promising fuel for test and research nuclear reactors. U-Mo alloys were produced in three molybdenum contents: 5w%, 7w%, and 10w%, using an electric vacuum induction furnace. A boron nitride-coated graphite crucible was employed in the production of the alloys and, after melting, the material was immediately poured into a boron nitride-coated graphite mold. The incorporation of carbon was observed, but it happened in a lower intensity than in the case of the non-coated crucible/mold. It is observed that the carbon incorporation increased and alloys density decreased with Mo addition. It was also noticed that the increase in the carbon or molybdenum content did not seem to change the as-cast structure in terms of granulation. The three alloys presented body-centered cubic crystal structure (γ-phase), after solidification, besides a seeming negative microsegregation of molybdenum, from the center to the periphery of the grains. There were signs of macrosegregation, from the base to the top of the ingots. (author)

  12. The role of ions in new particle formation in the CLOUD chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Yan, Chao; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Duplissy, Jonathan; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kangasluoma, Juha; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Dada, Lubna; Kontkanen, Jenni; Manninen, Hanna E.; Dias, Antonio; Amorim, Antonio; Bauer, Paulus S.; Bergen, Anton; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Brilke, Sophia; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Chen, Xuemeng; Draper, Danielle C.; Fischer, Lukas; Frege, Carla; Fuchs, Claudia; Garmash, Olga; Gordon, Hamish; Hakala, Jani; Heikkinen, Liine; Heinritzi, Martin; Hofbauer, Victoria; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kvashnin, Alexander N.; Laurila, Tiia; Lawler, Michael J.; Mai, Huajun; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mauldin, Roy L., III; Molteni, Ugo; Nichman, Leonid; Nie, Wei; Ojdanic, Andrea; Onnela, Antti; Piel, Felix; Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tröstl, Jasmin; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vogel, Alexander L.; Wagner, Andrea C.; Xiao, Mao; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Gallagher, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Smith, James N.; Tomé, António; Winkler, Paul M.; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2017-12-01

    The formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere accounts for more than half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Experiments at the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber have underlined the importance of ions for new particle formation, but quantifying their effect in the atmosphere remains challenging. By using a novel instrument setup consisting of two nanoparticle counters, one of them equipped with an ion filter, we were able to further investigate the ion-related mechanisms of new particle formation. In autumn 2015, we carried out experiments at CLOUD on four systems of different chemical compositions involving monoterpenes, sulfuric acid, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. We measured the influence of ions on the nucleation rates under precisely controlled and atmospherically relevant conditions. Our results indicate that ions enhance the nucleation process when the charge is necessary to stabilize newly formed clusters, i.e., in conditions in which neutral clusters are unstable. For charged clusters that were formed by ion-induced nucleation, we were able to measure, for the first time, their progressive neutralization due to recombination with oppositely charged ions. A large fraction of the clusters carried a charge at 1.5 nm diameter. However, depending on particle growth rates and ion concentrations, charged clusters were largely neutralized by ion-ion recombination before they grew to 2.5 nm. At this size, more than 90 % of particles were neutral. In other words, particles may originate from ion-induced nucleation, although they are neutral upon detection at diameters larger than 2.5 nm. Observations at Hyytiälä, Finland, showed lower ion concentrations and a lower contribution of ion-induced nucleation than measured at CLOUD under similar conditions. Although this can be partly explained by the observation that ion-induced fractions decrease towards lower ion concentrations, further investigations are needed to resolve the origin of

  13. The gridless plasma ion source (GIS) for plasma ion assisted optical coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Dawei; Li Xiaoqian; Wang Yu; Lin Yongchang

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm (diameter), a high ion current density ∼0.5 mA/cm 2 , 20 eV-200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of 1 kW-7.5 kW, a current of 10 A- 70 A and an ion density of 200 μA/cm 2 -500 μA/cm 2 . Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500 μA/cm 2 in the medium power (∼4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO 2 , SiO 2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure. (authors)

  14. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  15. Effects of nano-sized boron nitride (BN) reinforcement in expandable graphite based in-tumescent fire retardant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, E. S.; Ahmad, F.; Gillani, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of in-tumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is to protect substrate from fire attack by limiting heat transfer. A range of coating formulations have been prepared using Bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188 and polyamide solidifier H-2310 as two-part binder, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as acid source, melamine (MEL) as the blowing agent, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source and nano-boron nitride (BN) as inorganic nano filler. The filler was used to improve the performances of the APP-EG-MEL coating. The effects of nano-BN on the char morphology and thermal degradation were investigated by fire test, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that by substituting or reinforcing of 4% weight percentage of nano-BN, residual weight of the char increases by 23.82% compared to APP-EG-MEL coating without filler. Higher carbon content was obtained in the char and a more compact char was produced. The results indicated that nano-BN could be used as a filler to improve thermal stability of the APP-EG-MEL coating.

  16. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  17. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Formation of Ti-Al-Cr-B-N coatings by ion-magnetron sputtering of composite targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Oleg V.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.; Voronov, Andrey V.; Sergeev, Victor P.; Panin, Victor E.

    2017-12-01

    The research addresses the influence of bombardment by high-energy ions (Cr + B)+ with a low fluence 4 × 1017 cm-2 on the tribological and mechanical properties of Ti-Al-N coatings. The wear resistance decreases 2.6 times whereas the microhardness decreases 1.2 times. The structural-phase state and the chemical composition of the surface layer of the modified coating are determined. The research is carried out by transmission and scanning of the electron microscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the ion-modified coating layer the average concentration of titanium, aluminum and nitrogen decreases and those of chromium and boron increase when at a fluence of 4 × 1017 cm-2 the maximum values of Cr and B reach 16 and 23 at %, respectively, and the minimum values of Ti, Al and N amount to 15, 7 and 39 at %. In this layer the columnar structure is broken; its volume is divided into the alternative local nanosize zone-crystalline and amorphous. The phase composition of the crystalline regions is represented by TiN and AlN phases and a new CrB4 phase. The observed decrease of the tribomechanical properties can be due to both the amorphization of the surface layer and the transformation of a high-strength phase in a brittle one.

  19. Removal of Boron from Waste Waters by Ion- Exchange in a Batch System

    OpenAIRE

    Pelin Demirçivi; Gülhayat Nasün-Saygılı

    2008-01-01

    Boron minerals are very useful for various industrial activities, such as glass industry and detergent industry, due to its mechanical and chemical properties. During the production of boron compounds, many of these are introduced into the environment in the form of waste. Boron is also an important micro nutrient for the plants to vegetate but if it exists in high concentrations, it could have toxic effects. The maximum boron level in drinking water for human health is g...

  20. Nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in olefin metathesis: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazio, A; Woźniak, K; Grela, K; Trzaskowski, B

    2015-12-14

    We used the density functional theory to evaluate the suitability of nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. We demonstrate that these analogues induce only minor structural changes in Hoveyda-Grubbs-like precatalysts, but have major impact on precatalyst initiation. Nitrenium ion-modified precatalysts are characterized by a weak Ru-N bond resulting in a relatively strong Ru-O bond and large free energy barriers for initiation, making them good candidates for efficient latent Ru-based catalysts. On the other hand the trivalent boron ligand, bearing a formal -1 charge, binds strongly to the ruthenium ion, weakening the Ru-O bond and facilitating its dissociation, to promote fast reaction initiation. We show that the calculated bond dissociation energy of the Ru-C/N/B bond may serve as an accurate indicator of the Ru-O bond strength and the rate of metathesis initiation.

  1. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO{sub 2} coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qianli [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Elkhooly, Tarek A. [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Ceramics, Inorganic Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Liu, Xujie [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO{sub 2} coating (B-TiO{sub 2} coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO{sub 2} coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO{sub 2} coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO{sub 2} coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO{sub 2} coating was faster than that on TiO{sub 2} coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO{sub 2} decreased after 5 days of culture compared to that on TiO{sub 2} coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO{sub 2} coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO{sub 2} coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO{sub 2} coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. - Highlights: • SaOS-2 cell response to pure TiO{sub 2} and B-TiO{sub 2} coatings was investigated. • Initial cell spreading on B-TiO{sub 2} coating was accelerated compared to that on TiO{sub 2} coating. • Cell proliferation on B-TiO{sub 2} coating was inhibited compared to that on TiO{sub 2} coating. • Cell differentiation on B-TiO{sub 2} coating was enhanced compared to that on TiO{sub 2} coating.

  2. Deposition of Multicomponent Chromium Carbide Coatings Using a Non-Conventional Source of Chromium and Silicon with Micro-Additions of Boron

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruíz,Jesús Eduardo; Rodríguez Cristo,Alejandro; Paz Ramos,Adrian; Quintana Puchol,Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The chromium carbide coatings are widely used in the mechanical industry due to its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In this work, we evaluated a new source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron on the deposition of multi-component coatings of chromium carbides in W108 steel. The coatings were obtained by the pack cementation method, using a simultaneous deposition at 1000 oC for 4h. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectr...

  3. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an optical instrument by generating reactive ions using photon radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Hollenshead, Jeromy T.; Umstadter, Karl R.; Starodub, Elena; Zhuang, Guorong V.

    2015-10-13

    An optical instrument, including a chamber, an object exposed to an interior of the chamber, a source of low-pressure gas, the gas comprising at least one of low-pressure molecular hydrogen gas, low-pressure molecular oxygen and a low-pressure noble gas, the source of low pressure gas being fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the object and a remaining portion of the instrument that is exposed to the interior of the chamber so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an EUV/VUV light source adapted to direct EUV/VUV light through the low pressure gas in the chamber onto the object. In such a system, when the EUV/VUV light source is activated ions of the low-pressure gas are formed and directed to the object. The ions may be ions of Hydrogen, Oxygen or a noble gas.

  4. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  5. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface energy of deposited coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Guchenko, S. A.; Kasymov, S. S.; Yurov, V. M.; Vedyashkin, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated multi-element coatings exposed to argon ion bombardment. The coatings were irradiated using a multi-ampere hollow-cathode ion source. The arc current was 1 A, and the potential of the substrate was maintained equal to 300 V. The surface tension (surface energy) of the coatings was measured before and after irradiation through the size-dependence of the microhardness and electrical resistivity of coatings on their thickness. Ion irradiation was found to affect the surface energy of the coatings in different ways. This is due to both the structure of the coating and its elemental composition.

  6. Development of a simple technique for the coating of monolithic silica with pristine boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs): HPLC chromatographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Yves Claude; André, Claire

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel and very simple homogeneous coating of a monolithic silica HPLC support using pristine boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) was d0.escribed. The chromatographic support was coated with BNNTs in a non covalent way to preserve the nanotube structure. A solution of BNNTs dispersed in dimethylacetamide (DMAc) was pumped through the column at a flow-rate of 0.3mL/min for 24h at room temperature. Strong interaction between amino groups and the BNNT surfaces induces the adsorption of the BNNTs on the silica, while the stable solvation in DMAc hampers further adsorption of the tubes. The excellent stability of the non covalent BNNT-coating on the monolithic silica in view of application for HPLC was also demonstrated. It was shown that this novel stationary phase was efficient for the HPLC isocratic or gradient mode separation of molecules of different structure such as phenol derivatives, alkylbenzene or doping agents (steroids). As well, this simple technique of BNNT immobilization offers new perspectives for the BNNT-coating on the surfaces of a wide range of solid substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the thermal diffusion cloud chamber to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yefei.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal diffusion cloud chamber is steady-state device and has been extensively used for nucleation research. In order to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay, a new chamber was designed with improved both upper and bottom plates, the system of circulating fluid, the gasketting, the temperature measurement and the insulation. An alternative method of using oxygen as carrier gas was examined. Therefore, the heavy carrier gas including nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and air can be used to study radon radiolysis-induced nucleation for the water or organic compounds in the TDCC. The effects of the pressure and temperature ranges on the density, supersaturation, temperature and partial pressure profile for the water-oxygen-helium in the TDCC have been examined. Based on the classical theory, the rate profile of ion-induced nucleation by radon decays was calculated and compared with the homogeneous nucleation. From measured indoor concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), thermodynamic theory models were used to assess the possibility that these compounds will form ultrafine particles in indoor air by ion-induced nucleation. The energy, number of molecules and equilibrium radius of clusters have been calculated based on Such and Thomson theories. These two sets of values have been compared. Ion cluster radii corresponding to 1--3 VOC molecules are in range of 3--5 x 10 -8 cm. 43 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Effect of chitosan coating and bamboo FSC (fruit storage chamber) to expand banana shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Larasati, Dwinita; Islamia, Hana Cahya; Martien, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Chitosan has been widely used as fruit preserver and proven to extend the shelf life of many fruits, such as banana. However, banana producers and many industries in Indonesia still facing storage problems which may lead to mechanical damage of the fruits and ripening acceleration. Therefore, we have designed food storage chamber (FSC) based on bamboo material. Bamboo was selected because of material abundance in Indonesia, economically effective, and not causing an autocatalytic reaction to the ethylene gas produced by the banana. In this research, Cavendish banana that has reached the maturity level of mature green were coated with 1% chitosan and placed inside the FSC. As control treatments, uncoated banana was also placed inside the FSC as well as uncoated banana that were placed at open space. All of the treatments were placed at 25°C temperature and observed for 9 days. Water produced by respiration was reduced by the addition of charcoal inside a fabric pouch. The result showed that treatment using FSC and chitosan can delay ripening process.

  9. H-isotope retention and thermal/ion-induced release in boronized films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Wampler, W.R.; Hays, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has been clearly demonstrated that the composition of the very near surface (∼100nm) of plasma-interactive components plays a determinant role in most processes which occur in the plasma-edge of Tokamaks. Two very successful techniques to effect control of the plasma-wall interaction are (1) in-situ deposition of amorphous carbon or boron-carbon films and (2) the use of He/C conditioning discharges or He glow discharge cleaning to modify the near surface of bulk graphite components. We have deposited boronized layers into Si using plasma-assisted CVD and sputter deposition. The PCVD deposition conditions were as close as possible to those used in TFTR, and some films deposited in TFTR have also been studied. Using these two deposition techniques, B x CH y films have been produced with x varying from 1/2 -- 4, and y from ∼1 (sputtered) to ∼3 (PCVD). Most films also contained significant amounts of 0. Thermal and ion-induced release of H-isotopes from BC films is qualitatively similar to that measured for graphite. Implanted H saturates in these films at a H/host atom ratio of 0.7 which is considerably higher than that of graphite(∼0.4). As-deposited PCVD films are already saturated with H, while sputtered films are not. Sputtered BC films therefore possess an inherent H-pumping capability which could prove to be extremely beneficial to TFTR. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga.vadim@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Maslennikova, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, 10/1 Minina Sq., 603005 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volovecky, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-21

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D–D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm{sup 2} is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.

  11. Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K.

    1992-10-01

    A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision

  12. Effect of radiation induced defects and incompatibility elastic stresses on the diffusion of ion implantated boron in silicon at the pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stel'makh, V.F.; Suprun-Belevich, Yu.R.; Chelyadinskij, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    For determination of radiation defects effect on diffusion of the implanted boron in silicon at the pulse annealing, silicon crystals, implanted with boron, preliminary irradiated by silicon ions of different flows for checked defects implantation, were investigated. Silicon crystals additionally implanted by Ge + ions were investigated to research the effect of the incompatibility elastic stresses, emerging in implanted structures due to lattice periods noncoincidence in matrix and alloyed layers, on implanted boron diffusion. It is shown, that abnormally high values of boron diffusion coefficients in silicon at the pulse annealing are explained by silicon interstitial atom participation in redistribution of diffusing boron atoms by two diffusion channels - interstitial and vacation - and by incompatibility elastic stresses effect on diffusion

  13. Electrophoretic deposits of boron on duralumin plates used for measuring neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, F.M.; Magnier, P.; Finck, C.

    1956-01-01

    Preparation of boron thin film deposits of around 1 mg per cm 2 on duralumin plates with a diameter of 8 cm. The boron coated plates for ionization chambers were originally prepared at the CEA by pulverization of boron carbides on sodium silicates. This method is not controlling precisely enough the quantity of boron deposit. Thus, an electrophoretic method is considered for a better control of the quantity of boron deposit in the scope of using in the future boron 10 which is costly and rare. The method described by O. Flint is not satisfying enough and a similar electrophoretic process has been developed. Full description of the method is given as well as explanation of the use of dried methanol as solvent, tannin as electrolyte and magnesium chloride to avoid alumina formation. (M.P.)

  14. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  15. Tuning the Colors of the Dark Isomers of Photochromic Boron Compounds with Fluoride Ions: Four-State Color Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerup, Soren K; Rao, Ying-Li; Amarne, Hazem; Wang, Suning

    2016-09-02

    Combining a three-coordinated boron (BMes2) moiety with a four-coordinated photochromic organoboron unit leads to a series of new diboron compounds that undergo four-state reversible color switching in response to stimuli of light, heat, and fluoride ions. Thus, these hybrid diboron systems allow both convenient color tuning/switching of such photochromic systems, as well as visual fluoride sensing by color or fluorescent emission color change.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  17. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular-scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Ahmad, T; Barth, R F; Kabalka, G W

    2014-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 ((10)B) atoms to individual tumour cells. Cell killing results from the (10)B (n, α)(7) Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of (10)B atoms are localized in the tumour cells. Intranuclear (10)B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of (10)B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumour cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular-scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high-grade gliomas, recurrent tumours of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumour cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This

  18. Prediction of the performance of an ion chamber amplifier under γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Sundarsingh, V.P.; Ramachandran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The ion chamber amplifier (ICA) plays a major role in the proper functioning of a nuclear reactor as it monitors the radiations from the nuclear reactor by measuring the ionic activity inside the ion chamber. The signal conditioning circuitry of the ICA detects and conditions the weak ionic currents coming from the ion chamber dome. Degradation in the performance of the semiconductor devices used in this part of the ICA, can lead to inaccurate monitoring of the reactor operation, resulting in a possible catastrophe due to malfunction. Further, the response of the ICA under irradiation also depends upon the strength of the input signal (ionic) current it is required to handle. The active devices used in the ICA under study are operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) such as DN8500A and OPA111, instrumentation amplifier INA101, transistor 2N2920A and a voltage reference device, AD584. Since these devices may be sensitive to radiation, one must know their radiation behaviour so that the performance of the ICA can be predicted. This paper examines the performance of the ICA by characterising the radiation profiles of its vital components, viz. the Op-Amps, instrumentation amplifiers, transistors, etc. by monitoring their parametric changes on-line, i.e. when the source is on, and the devices are biased. The simulation runs involve the simulation of the entire ICA circuitry using the changed values of the vital parameters such as input bias current and input offset voltage. The main advantage of this method is that it obviates irradiating the whole ICA circuit to study its irradiation performance, and simulates an environment of radiation leakage around the ICA. Based on this study, results are presented to predict the performance of the ICA

  19. Carbon-coated boron using low-cost naphthalene for substantial enhancement of Jc in MgB2 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranot, Mahipal; Shinde, K. P.; Oh, Y. S.; Kang, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Chung, K. C. [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Carbon coating approach is used to prepare carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} bulk samples using low-cost naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a carbon source. The coating of carbon (C) on boron (B) powders was achieved by direct pyrolysis of naphthalene at 120 degrees C and then the C-coated B powders were mixed well with appropriate amount of Mg by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is a noticeable shift in (100) and (110) Bragg reflections towards higher angles, while no shift was observed in (002) reflections for MgB2 doped with carbon. As compared to un-doped MgB{sub 2}, a systematic enhancement in Jc(H) properties with increasing carbon doping level was observed for naphthalene-derived C-doped MgB{sub 2} samples. The substantial enhancement in Jc is most likely due to the incorporation of C into MgB{sub 2} lattice and the reduction in crystallite size, as evidenced by the increase in the FWHM values for doped samples.

  20. Ion-chamber-based loss monitor system for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.A.; Brown, D.; Browman, A.; Macek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new loss monitor system has been designed and installed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The detectors are ion chambers filled with N 2 gas. The electronics modules have a threshold range of 1:100, and they can resolve changes in beam loss of about 2% of the threshold settings. They can generate a trip signal in 2 μs if the beam loss is large enough; if the response time of the Fast Protect System is included the beam will be shut off in about 37 μs

  1. Optimization of phase analysis of refractory alloys in the gas-ion-reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenkamp, H.J.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Nickel, H.

    1980-04-01

    Reactor components outside the core which are under high thermal and mechanical stresses are made from refractory alloys. For basic research and for quality control, these materials are investigated by metallography, which is an independent group of characterization procedures as well as basis for many other methods. An important way of increasing the information about a material yielded by metallography is the expansions of phase contrast, in particular the phase contrasting in the gas-ion-reaction chamber. In this paper, the experimental procedure is described and the process of optimizing the procedure with respect to the Ni- and Fe-based refractory alloys examined in the IRW is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Image timing and detector performance of a matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Oncology Centre of Auckland Hospital recently purchased a Varian PortalVision TM electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Image acquisition times, input-output characteristics and contrast-detail curves of this matrix liquid ion-chamber EPID have been measured to examine the variation in imaging performance with acquisition mode. The variation in detector performance with acquisition mode has been examined. The HV cycle time can be increased to improve image quality. Consideration should be given to the acquisition mode and HV cycle time used when imaging to ensure adequate imaging performance with reasonable imaging time. (author)

  3. Development of a Time Projection Chamber using CF4 gas for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Kametani, S.; Kajihara, F.; Gunji, T.; Kurihara, N.; Oda, S.X.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) using pure CF 4 gas was developed for possible use in heavy ion experiments. Basic characteristics such as gain, drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and attenuation length of produced electrons were measured with the TPC. At an electric field of 900V/cm, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion for 1cm drift were obtained as 10cm/μs and 60μm, respectively. The relatively large gain fluctuation is explained to be due to the electron attachment process in CF 4 . These characteristics are encouraging for the measurement of the charged particle trajectories under high multiplicity conditions at RHIC

  4. Black Carbon Aging from SOA Coatings and Coagulation with Diesel BC Emissions during SAAS at the PNNL Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Dubey, M. K.; Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Gourihar, K.; Pekour, M. S.; Subramanian, R.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is considered to be potentially the 2nd most important global warming factor behind CO2 (Bond et al., 2013). Uncertainties exist due to BC morphology and mixing state on the extent of the warming that it causes, e.g. Cappa et al., 2012. Core-shell BC is expected to enhance absorption by up to a factor of 2, but has yet to be observed to this extent from ambient data. Experiments were conducted during the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS) Laboratory Campaign at Pactific Northwest National Laboratory's Environmental Chamber in the winter of 2013-2014 to investigate the relationship between coatings and enhancements from diesel emissions. Direct on-line measurements were made with the single particle soot photometer (SP2) from fresh and aged BC from coating and coagulation experiments with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the chamber. BC measurements are coupled with photoactoustic measurements spanning the visible region to probe BC enhancements when mixed with SOA. Here we focus on the enhancements at 781 nm, that are tracked throughout SOA growth on BC, as determined from SP2 coating thicknesses. Thermal denuder (TD) experiments are conducted and enhancements are calculated from two different methods that agree well with each other, confirming the observed results. BC measurements are also compared with co-located measurements from SPLAT-II and filter analysis using SEM and TEM. BC coagulated with SOA produces minimal absorption enhancement values, whereas coatings are observed to have significant enhancement values at 300 degrees C, e.g. 1.3 for thickly coated BC. BC particles were coagulated with SOA in the chamber since this morphology has been observed in wildfire emissions (Sedlacek et al., 2012). Since we did not observe appreciable enhancements for the coagulated BC, we expect that ambient emissions dominated by this particle type to have enhancements due to other sources, such as brown carbon (BrC) that is often co-emitted (Saleh et

  5. Employment of boron-doped carbon materials for the anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yu-Jin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 176 Gajung-dong, 217 Gajungro, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Ok [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), 176 Gajung-dong, 217 Gajungro, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Plasma carbon and boron doped carbon were formed by vapor phase synthesis using the plasma arc torch. • We investigated that graphite sheets formed as increasing content of boron using the TEM images. • We have confirmed by XRD and Raman analysis that with the increasing amount of boron, carbon increases degree graphtization. • The boron-doped carbons exhibit higher reversible capacity and better rate capability due to improved crystallinity. -- Abstract: Plasma carbon and boron-doped carbons are prepared by gas phase synthesis technique using a plasma arc torch apparatus. The effects of boron doping on the microstructure and electrochemical performance are investigated. Transmission electron microscopy results indicate that crystalline graphitic sheets are formed when the content of boron in the carbon is higher than around 1.00 wt.% X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis also reveal that the increased amount of boron doping results in decreased interlayer spacing and increased crystallite size of the boron-doped carbons. The boron-doped carbons exhibit not only higher reversible capacity, but also better rate capability than undoped plasma carbon, due to the formation of nano-structured carbon composite composed of both spherically shaped amorphous (hard carbon-like) and paper-shaped crystalline (graphite-like) phases. The reversible capacity remained over 390 mAh g{sup −1} even after 200 cycles at a current density of 300 mA g{sup −1} for the 1.00 wt.% boron-doped carbon.

  6. Formation of metal nanoparticles by short-distance sputter deposition in a reactive ion etching chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Min; Meng, Dennis Desheng; Sun Kai

    2009-01-01

    A new method is reported to form metal nanoparticles by sputter deposition inside a reactive ion etching chamber with a very short target-substrate distance. The distribution and morphology of nanoparticles are found to be affected by the distance, the ion concentration, and the sputtering time. Densely distributed nanoparticles of various compositions were fabricated on the substrates that were kept at a distance of 130 μm or smaller from the target. When the distance was increased to 510 μm, island structures were formed, indicating the tendency to form continuous thin film with longer distance. The observed trend for nanoparticle formation is opposite to the previously reported mechanism for the formation of nanoparticles by sputtering. A new mechanism based on the seeding effect of the substrate is proposed to interpret the experimental results.

  7. High and Stable Ionic Conductivity in 2D Nanofluidic Ion Channels between Boron Nitride Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si; Liu, Dan; Wang, Guang; Portehault, David; Garvey, Christopher J; Gogotsi, Yury; Lei, Weiwei; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-10

    Achieving a high rate of ionic transport through porous membranes and ionic channels is important in numerous applications ranging from energy storage to water desalination, but it still remains a challenge. Herein we show that ions can quickly pass through interlayer spaces in hydrated boron nitride (BN) membranes. Measurements of surface-charge governed ionic currents between BN nanosheets in a variety of salt solutions (KCl, NaCl and CaCl 2 ) at low salt concentrations (<10 -4 M) showed several orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity compared to that of the bulk solution. Moreover, due to the outstanding chemical and thermal stability of BN, the ionic conduits remain fully functional at temperatures up to 90 °C. The BN conduits can operate in acidic and basic environments and do not degrade after immersing in solutions with extreme pH (pH ∼ 0 or 14) for 1 week. Those excellent properties make the BN ionic conduits attractive for applications in nanofluidic devices and membrane separation.

  8. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Yoganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s. Real-time position management (RPM system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams.

  9. A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Sann, H.; Young, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon 139 La and 139 La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with σ≅100 μm. (orig.)

  10. Multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) for measuring the charge of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, W.B.; Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Tull, C.E.; Castaneda, C.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Webb, M.L.; Drummond, J.R.; Crawford, H.J.; Flores, I.

    1987-04-01

    A large area (1 m x 2 m) multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) has been constructed and tested. The MUSIC detector makes multiple measurements of energy 'loss', dE/dx, for a relativistic heavy ion. Given the velocity, the charge of the ion can be extracted from the energy loss distributions. The widths of the distributions we observe are much narrower than predicted by Vavilov's theory for energy loss while agreeing well with the theory of Badhwar which deals with the energy deposited. The versatile design of MUSIC allows a variety of anode configurations which results in a large dynamic range of charge. In our tests to date we have observed charge resolutions of 0.25e fwhm for 727 MeV/nucleon /sup 40/Ar and 0.30e fwhm for 1.08 GeV/nucleon /sup 139/La and /sup 139/La fragments. Vertical position and multiple track determination are obtained by using time projection chamber electronics. Preliminary tests indicate that the position resolution is also very good with sigmaapprox. =100 ..mu..m.

  11. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  12. Effect of boron on enhancing infrared emissivity of Ni-Cr system coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjia; Ouyang, Taoyuan; Wang, Xiaohuan; Li, Shuhao; Mao, Jiawei; Cheng, Xudong

    2018-03-01

    High infrared emissivity coating possesses great value in practical application, whether in the military or civilian areas. In this study, B-NiCr precursor powder containing NiO, Cr2O3 and ZrB2 was calcined at 1300 °C and then used to prepare a high infrared emissivity B-NiCr coating via atmospheric plasma spraying. A large number of test methods were employed to analyze the powder and coating, including TG-DSC, XRD, FE-SEM, infrared spectrometer and so on. The result of infrared emissivity measurement indicates that the coating possesses maximum infrared emissivity of 0.908 at 1000 °C while the infrared emissivity is 0.901 after thermal shock test. Comparing with NiCr coating, Ni2CrO2(BO3) formed during calcination may be the main factor to improve the infrared emissivity of B-NiCr coating. The B-NiCr coating possesses good thermal shock resistance and can withstand 50 times thermal shock at least without falling off, from 800 °C to room temperature.

  13. Deposition of multicomponent chromium carbide coatings using a non-conventional source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, Jesus Eduardo, E-mail: jesus.gonzalez@biomat.uh.cu [Biomaterials Center, University of Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez Cristo, Alejandro [Mechanical Plants Company, Road of the Sub-Plan, Farm La Cana, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ramos, Adrian Paz [Department of Chemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Quintana Puchol, Rafael [Welding Research Center, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2017-01-15

    The chromium carbide coatings are widely used in the mechanical industry due to its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In this work, we evaluated a new source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron on the deposition of multi-component coatings of chromium carbides in W108 steel. The coatings were obtained by the pack cementation method, using a simultaneous deposition at 1000 deg for 4 hours. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, optical microscopy, microhardness test method and pin-on-disc wear test. It was found that the coatings formed on W108 steel were mainly constituted by (Cr,Fe){sub 23}C{sub 6} , (Cr,Fe){sub 7} C{sub 3} , Cr{sub 5-x}Si{sub 3-x} C{sub x+z}, Cr{sub 3} B{sub 0,44}C{sub 1,4} and (or) Cr{sub 7} BC{sub 4} . The carbide layers showed thicknesses between 14 and 15 μm and maximum values of microhardness between 15.8 and 18.8 GPa. Also, the micro-additions of boron to the mixtures showed statistically significant influence on the thickness, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance of the carbide coatings. (author)

  14. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  15. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-01-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10 8 V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW ® platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  16. Wear of nitrogen ion implanted copper with tribological Cu-Mo-S coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, Stanislav Yu.; Sergeev, Victor P.; Sungatulin, Alfred R.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the effect of nitrogen ion implantation in copper samples before depositing a solid lubricant Cu-Mo-S coating on their wear resistance during wear testing in pairs with a copper counterface in the argon atmosphere. It was found that wear resistance of samples with Cu-Mo-S coating decreased with the increase in fluence of nitrogen ion implantation.

  17. Plasma-Arc Deposited Elemental Boron Film for use as a Durable Nonstick Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klepper, C. C

    2007-01-01

    Report developed under Small Business Innovation Research Contract. Under this Phase I SBIR contract, HY-Tech Research performed development of an abrasion resistant, non-stick coating for cookware used by the U.S. Army in the field...

  18. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xuelin; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Thin boron doped diamond (BDD) film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive streng...

  19. Development of a multi-layer ion chamber for measurement of depth dose distributions of heavy-ion therapeutic beam for individual patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Munefumi; Futami, Yasuyuki; Yusa, Ken; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Urakabe, Eriko; Yamashita, Haruo; Akagi, Takashi; Higashi, Akio

    2000-01-01

    In heavy-ion radiotherapy, an accelerated beam is modified to realize a desired dose distribution in patients. The set-up of the beam-modifying devices in the irradiation system is changed according to the patient, and it is important to check the depth dose distributions in the patient. In order to measure dose distributions realized by an irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy, a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC) was developed. The MLIC consists of 64 ionization chambers, which are stacked mutually. The interval between each ionization chamber is about 4.1 mm water. There are signal and high voltage plates in the MLIC, which are used as electrodes of the ionization chambers and phantom. Depth dose distribution from 5.09 mm to 261.92 mm water can be measured in about 30 seconds using this MLIC. Thus, it is possible to check beam quality in a short amount of time. (author)

  20. Boron isotope separation by ion exchange chromatography using weakly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Aida, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1980-01-01

    Isotopic plateau displacement chromatography, a useful method for isotope separation is presented. The boric acid band formed in a column of weakly basic anion exchange resin Diaion WA21 can be eluted with pure water. In order to obtain good accumulation of the isotope effect, a series of experiments with different migration length were carried out. The boron-10 enriched part of the boric acid absorbed band was always preceded by the isotopic plateau part, in which the atomic fraction of boron-10 was maintained at its original value. The atomic fraction of boron-10 at the end of the chromatogram increased with migration length, and in the case of 256-m migration, boron-10 was enriched from its original atomic fraction of 19.84 to 91.00%, the separation factor S being constant irrespective of migration length: S = 1.0100 +- 0.0005. (author)

  1. Accurate and precise determination of boron isotopic ratios at low concentration by positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using static multicollection of Cs2BO2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mao-yong; Xiao, Ying-kai; Jin, Zhang-dong; Ma, Yun-qi; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Luo, Chong-guang; Zhang, Fei

    2013-07-02

    A static double-collector system for accurate, precise, and rapid boron isotope analysis has been established by employing a newly fixed Faraday H3 and H4 cup enabling simultaneously collected Cs2BO2(+) ion beams (m/z = 308 and 309) on a Finnigan-MAT Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer of boron (Triton B). The experimental result indicated that Cs2BO2(+) ion beams (m/z = 308 and 309) were simultaneously collected using a fixed Faraday H3 and H4 cup without using the "Zoom Quad" function and reduced accelerating voltage. Furthermore, the method enabled the measurement of samples containing as little as 20 ng of boron. An analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material (NIST SRM) 951 standard showed external reproducibility (2RSD) of ±0.013‰, ± 0.013‰, and ±0.019‰ for 100, 50, and 20 ng of boron, respectively. The present method of static multicollection of Cs2BO2(+) ions is applicable to a wide field of boron isotopic research that requires high precision and accuracy to analyze samples with low boron concentrations, including pore fluids, foraminifera, rivers, rainwater, and other natural samples.

  2. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  3. Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many mixed n/γ dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and 60 Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/γ three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references

  4. Validation of Am-241 measurement in ion chamber type smoke detector by using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2005-01-01

    Smoke detectors are useful devices in modern days that able to save many lives. Even though, the use of ion chamber type smoke detector (usually contain Americium-241) was exempted in Malaysia, but the trading of this device was controlled by regulation, under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304). The activity of the Am-241 can be measured by using the Gamma Spectrometry System since it was much easier, compared to Alpha Spectrometry System. To do so, the system was first need to be calibrated using the standard reference source to find the efficiency of the germanium detector. The method used for the measurement was first validated for several relevant parameters, which include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, working range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness to ensure it was fit for the purpose. The measured Am-241 activity inside the smoke detector will be reported together with a reasonable expanded uncertainty arise from the measurement. (Author)

  5. Development of multi-layer ionization chamber for heavy-ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Kaori; Kusano, Yohsuke; Shimojyu, Takuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2007-01-01

    In heavy-ion radiotherapy, depth dose distributions measured in water phantom are applied to estimate the dose distributions in a patient body. In order to obtain depth dose distributions in water phantom easily and rapidly, Multi-Layer Ionization Chamber (MLIC) was developed and had been adapted as a field dosimeter at NIRS since 2002. Production cross section of fragments in high Z material of the MLIC, however, is very different from those in water material. Then, empirical correction should be required. In order to obtain depth dose distributions with high accuracy, we have to use low Z material as a phantom, which are thought to produce similar fragments with water phantom. From this point of view, we have developed a new MLIC made up of low Z materials, PMMA and graphite film. (author)

  6. Improved Thermal Performance of Diamond-Copper Composites with Boron Carbide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Kong, Jian

    2013-11-01

    B4C-coated diamond (diamond@B4C) particles are used to improve the interfacial bonding and thermal properties of diamond/Cu composites. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to characterize the formed B4C coating on diamond particles. It is found that the B4C coating strongly improves the interfacial bonding between the Cu matrix and diamond particles. The resulting diamond@B4C/Cu composites show high thermal conductivity of 665 W/mK and low coefficient of thermal expansion of 7.5 × 10-6/K at 60% diamond volume fraction, which are significantly superior to those of the composites with uncoated diamond particles. The experimental thermal conductivity is also theoretically analyzed to account for the thermal resistance at the diamond@B4C-Cu interface boundary.

  7. Novel single-cell mega-size chambers for electrochemical etching of panorama position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    A novel development is made here by inventing panorama single-cell mega-size electrochemical etching (MS-ECE) chamber systems for processing panorama position-sensitive mega-size polycarbonate ion image detectors (MS-PCIDs) of potential for many neutron and ion detection applications in particular hydrogen ions or proton tracks and images detected for the first time in polycarbonates in this study. The MS-PCID is simply a large polycarbonate sheet of a desired size. The single-cell MS-ECE invented consists of two large equally sized transparent Plexiglas sheets as chamber walls holding a MS-PCID and the ECE chamber components tightly together. One wall has a large flat stainless steel electrode (dry cell) attached to it which is directly in contact with the MS-PCID and the other wall has a rod electrode with two holes to facilitate feeding and draining out the etching solution from the wet cell. A silicon rubber washer plays the role of the wet cell to hold the etchant and the electrical insulator to isolate the dry cell from the wet cell. A simple 50 Hz-HV home-made generator provides an adequate field strength through the two electrodes across the MS-ECE chamber. Two panorama single-cell MS-ECE chamber systems (circular and rectangular shapes) constructed were efficiently applied to processing the MS-PCIDs for 4π ion emission image detection of different gases in particular hydrogen ions or protons in a 3.5 kJ plasma focus device (PFD as uniquely observed by the unaided eyes). The panorama MS-PCID/MS-ECE image detection systems invented are novel with high potential for many applications in particular as applied to 4π panorama ion emission angular distribution image detection studies in PFD space, some results of which are presented and discussed.

  8. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Nigel Oswald [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ~17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ~200 g/cm3 and ~20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ~350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  9. Construction of a scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials in undergraduate physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrake, Scott M.; Vineyard, Michael F.; Turley, Colin F.; Moore, Robert D.; Johnson, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    We have developed a new scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials with the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The chamber was constructed from a ten-inch, Conflat, multi-port cross and includes a three-axis target manipulator and target ladder assembly, an eight-inch turbo pump, an Amptek X-ray detector, and multiple charged particle detectors. Recent projects performed by our undergraduate research team include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses of atmospheric aerosols collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor in Upstate New York. We will describe the construction of the chamber and discuss the results of some commissioning experiments.

  10. Construction of a scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials in undergraduate physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrake, Scott M.; Vineyard, Michael F.; Turley, Colin F.; Moore, Robert D.; Johnson, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a new scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials with the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The chamber was constructed from a ten-inch, Conflat, multi-port cross and includes a three-axis target manipulator and target ladder assembly, an eight-inch turbo pump, an Amptek X-ray detector, and multiple charged particle detectors. Recent projects performed by our undergraduate research team include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses of atmospheric aerosols collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor in Upstate New York. We will describe the construction of the chamber and discuss the results of some commissioning experiments.

  11. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. Procedure for the ion implantation of semiconductor wafers coated with insulating layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.; Tunnat, K.

    1987-01-01

    This invention is directed to the ion implantation of semiconductor wafers coated with insulating layers. The aim is to limit the spark puncturing by the ion beam due to electric charge and thus to protect the component structures. A conductive contact between semiconductor wafer and wafer carrier of the ion implantation facility is established by the partial removal of the insulating layer. 4 figs

  14. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel; Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 , and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed

  15. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel [Laboratório de Radiobiologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG){sub 1000}, and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  17. [Study on the slow release of silver ion from silver containing antibacterial HA coating material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zi-yuan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Zheng, Xue-bin

    2009-02-01

    To study the slow release of silver ion from silver containing antibacterial HA coating material. Ti coated with HA samples were prepared using vacuum plasma spraying. In group 1, HA coating materials contained 5%(wt%) silver-zirconium phosphate antimicrobial. In Group 2, pure HA coating materials were used. The samples were immersed into the newborn calf serum and stored under anaerobic environment at constant temperatures of 37 degrees centigrade, avoiding light. The newborn calf serum was set as control. The Ag(+) ion concentration was detected and calculated using atomic absorption spectroscopy at 1,7,14 days. The Ag(+) ion contents of group 1 were 250 ng, 425 ng and 417 ng respectively at the end of 1,7,14 days. The release rate of Ag(+) ion became slow with the lapse of time. The release of Ag(+) ion became stable during 7-14 days. The Ag(+) ion content decreased on the 14th day. The Ag(+) ion content of group 2 could be ignored. The release of Ag(+) ion from silver containing HA coating materials is little and becomes stable on the 7th day. There might be reabsorption of Ag(+) ion on the 14th day.

  18. IMRT implementation and patient specific dose verification with film and ion chamber array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminathan, S.; Manickam, R.; Chandraraj, V.; Supe, S. S.; Keshava, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of Intensity Modulation Radiotherapy (IMRT) and patient dose verification was carried out with film and I'mariXX using linear accelerator with 120-leaf Millennium dynamic multi leaf collimator (dMLC). The basic mechanical and electrical commissioning and quality assurance tests of linear accelerator were carried out. The leaf position accuracy and leaf position repeatability checks were performed for static MLC positions. Picket fence test and garden fence test were performed to check the stability of the dMLC and the reproducibility of the gap between leaves. The radiation checks were performed to verify the position accuracy of MLCs in the collimator system. The dMLC dosimetric checks like output stability, average leaf transmission and dosimetric leaf separation were also investigated. The variation of output with gravitation at different gantry angles was found to be within 0.9%. The measured average leaf transmission for 6 MV was 1.6% and 1.8% for 18 MV beam. The dosimetric leaf separation was found to be 2.2 mm and 2.3 mm for 6 MV and 18 MV beams. In order to check the consistency of the stability and the precision of the dMLC, it is necessary to carryout regular weekly and monthly checks. The dynalog files analysis for Garden fence, leaf gap width and step wedge test patterns carried out weekly were in good agreement. Pretreatment verification was performed for 50 patients with ion chamber and I'matiXX device. The variations of calculated absolute dose for all treatment fields with the ion chamber measurement were within the acceptable criterion. Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculated dose distribution pattern was comparable with the I'matriXX measured dose distribution pattern. Out of 50 patients for which the comparison was made, 36 patients were agreed with the gamma pixel match of>95% and 14 patients were with the gamma pixel match of 90-95% with the criteria of 3% delta dose (DD) and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA). Commissioning and

  19. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S.; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-01

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions.

  20. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  1. Ion Clusters in Nucleation Experiments in the CERN Cloud Chamber: Sulfuric Acid + Ammonia + Dimethyl Amine + Oxidized Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Ehrhart, S.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Nucleation from gaseous precursors is an important source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The CLOUD experiment at CERN provides exceptionally clean and well-defined experimental conditions for studies of atmospheric nucleation and initial growth, in a 26 m3 stainless-steel chamber. In addition, the influence of cosmic rays on nucleation and nanoparticle growth can be simulated by exposing the chamber to a pion beam produced by the CERN Proton Synchrotron. A key to understanding the mechanism by which nucleation proceeds in the CLOUD chamber is the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation, including the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The APi-TOF is developed by Tofwerk AG, and Aerodyne Research, Inc., and typically obtains resolutions between 4000 and 6000 Th/Th and mass accuracies APi-TOF detected ion clusters that could directly be linked to nucleation. The composition of these ion clusters could be determined based on their exact masses and isotopic patterns. Aided by the chamber's cleanliness and the possibility of enhancing ion concentrations by using CERN's pion beam, a remarkably large fraction of the ion spectra could be identified, even for more complex chemical systems studied. For the ammonia-sulfuric acid-water system, for instance, growing clusters containing ammonia (NH3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) were observed up to 3300 Th. Adding dimethyl amine and/or pinanediol into the CLOUD chamber, altered the chemical compositions of the observed ion clusters accordingly. Cluster growth then included mixtures of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine and/or a wide range of pinanediol oxidation products. The initial growth of clusters/particles was studied from smallest clusters upwards, using a range of employed instrumentation. Condensation particle counters (such as the Particle Size Magnifier, PSM, by Airmodus Oy), for instance, were specially modified to obtain aerosol number size distributions down to the size

  2. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  3. Electrophoretic deposits of boron on duralumin plates used for measuring neutron flux; Depots electrophoretiques de bore sur plaques de duralumin destines a des mesures de flux de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F.M.; Magnier, P.; Finck, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Preparation of boron thin film deposits of around 1 mg per cm{sup 2} on duralumin plates with a diameter of 8 cm. The boron coated plates for ionization chambers were originally prepared at the CEA by pulverization of boron carbides on sodium silicates. This method is not controlling precisely enough the quantity of boron deposit. Thus, an electrophoretic method is considered for a better control of the quantity of boron deposit in the scope of using in the future boron 10 which is costly and rare. The method described by O. Flint is not satisfying enough and a similar electrophoretic process has been developed. Full description of the method is given as well as explanation of the use of dried methanol as solvent, tannin as electrolyte and magnesium chloride to avoid alumina formation. (M.P.)

  4. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of ∼200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues

  5. 2π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tional regulations [1] (ISO 1988), calibration of contamination monitor needs a minimum active source area of 100 cm2. Standard laboratories worldwide use gas flow-type large proportional counters to determine absolute surface emission rates from the large-area- coated α-β sources [2–6]. Extended source is introduced ...

  6. Durable Silver Mirror Coating Via Ion Assisted, Electron Beam Evaporation For Large Aperture Optics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I research, Surface Optics Corporation (SOC) demonstrated a durable silver mirror coating based an ion assisted, thermal evaporation process. The recipe...

  7. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J. [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-07-15

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C{sub 3}H{sub y}{sup +} ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm{sup −3}. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp{sup 3} content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  9. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte.

  10. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation; Oberflaechenmodifikation des Hartmetalls Wolframkarbid-Kobalt durch Bor-Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-09-07

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and {approx}5.10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co{sub 3}W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load.

  11. Electret ionization chamber: a new method for detection and dosimetry of thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1988-01-01

    An electret ionization chamber with boron coated walls is presented as a new method for detecting thermal neutrons. The efficiency of electret ionization chambers with different wall materials for the external electrode was inferred from the results. Detection of slow neutrons with discrimination against the detection of γ-rays and energetic neutrons was shown to depend on the selection of these materials. The charge stability over a long period of time and the charge decay owing to natural radiation were also studied. Numerical analysis was developed by the use of a micro-computer PC-XT. Both the experimental and numerical results show that the sensitivity of the electret ionization chamber for detection of thermal neutrons is comparable with that of the BF 3 ionization chamber and that new technologies for deposition of the boron layer will produce higher efficiency detectors. (author). 102 refs, 32 fig, 10 tabs

  12. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  13. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  14. Electrochemical Corrosion Characteristics of Arc-Ion-Plated AlTiN Coating for Marine Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Kim, MyoungJun; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) coating was deposited by arc ion plating onto mirror finish STS 304 plate. The surface and cross-section of the coating was characterized by SEM and EDX analysis. Several electrochemical corrosion experiments were performed including rest potential measurement, potentiodynamic polarization experiment and Tafel analysis. The result of the experiments indicated that the AlTiN coating presented lower corrosion current density than the substrate material (STS 304) under uniform corrosion environment. It was also observed that AlTiN coating may have a risk of being attacked by localized corrosion attack such as pitting when pores or micro/nano particles in the coating are exposed to chloride ion containing corrosion environment, especially marine environment.

  15. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  16. Vacuum Sputtered and Ion-Plated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1982-01-01

    The plasma or ion-assisted coating techniques such as sputtering and ion plating are discussed in view of wear and corrosion protection. The basic processes and the unique features of the technique are discussed in regard to the synthesis and development of high reliability wear and corrosion resistant films. The ions of the plasma which transfer energy, momentum, and charge to the substrate and the growing films can be beneficially used. As a result, coating adherence and cohesion is improved. Favorable morphological growth such as high density and porosity-free films can be developed, and residual stresses can be reduced.

  17. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Electrolyzing synthesis of boron-doped graphene quantum dots for fluorescence determination of Fe3+ions in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wu, Chuanli; Du, Pan; Feng, Xiaowei; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2017-03-01

    This work reports a facile electrolyzing method to synthesize boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) and uses the BGQDs as a fluorescent probe to determine Fe 3+ ion levels in water samples. The BGQDs were produced by oxidizing graphite in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The amount of the B in the BGQDs can be adjusted by changing the concentration of borax used for the electrolyte. The excitation wavelength- and B amount-dependent fluorescence characteristics of BQGDs were studied. The fluorescence intensity of the BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of Fe 3+ ions in the system but not to other possible coexisting metal ions. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of Fe 3+ ions to BGQDs is studied and explained based on electrochemical voltammetry and DFT simulations. The analytical signal, which is defined as F 0 /F, where F 0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with Fe 3+ ions, respectively, displays a good linear relationship in the Fe 3+ ion concentration range of 0.01-100µm with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a limit of detection (LOD) of ~(0.005±0.001) μM. The LOD value is much lower than the water quality standards for Fe 3+ ions (0.3ppm, ~5.36µm) in drinking water suggested by the WHO (World Health Organization) and EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), implying that this method has great potential for applications in real sample assays. For example, the determination of the Fe 3+ ion levels in three water samples (tap water, groundwater, and lake water) gives approximately the same results as those determined by the EPA-recommended AAS (atomic adsorption spectroscopy) method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhi, Mingyu; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  4. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  5. Measurements of ion mobility and GEM discharge studies for the upgrade of the ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00507268

    2018-02-20

    ALICE is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quark-gluon plasma, which is predominantly produced in lead-lead collisions at LHC, is of particular interest for ALICE. After the long shut-down 2 (2019-2021) the LHC will provide lead-lead collisions at an increased interaction rate of 50 kHz. In order to examine every event at this interaction rate the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) needs to be upgraded. The TPC’s ReadOut Chambers (ROCs) are currently multi-wire proportional chambers. To prevent space charge build-up of slow ions, drifting from the ROCs into the TPC, a gating grid is used. The corresponding closure time imposes a dead time on the TPC read out, which prohibits data taking at a readout rate higher than 3 kHz. New ROCs have therefore been designed, relying on stacks of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for the gas amplification, allowing for continuous readout. With the new ROCs, a certain fraction of ions will be drifting at all time into the TPC. Knowing t...

  6. Ion assisted deposition of refractory oxide thin film coatings for improved optical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Thakur, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Das, N.C.

    1999-03-01

    Ion assisted deposition technique (IAD) has emerged as a powerful tool to control the optical and structural properties of thin film coatings. Keeping in view the complexity of the interaction of ions with the films being deposited, sophisticated ion sources have been developed that cater to the need of modern optical coatings with stringent spectral and environmental specifications. In the present work, the results of ion assisted deposition (IAD) of two commonly used refractory oxides, namely TiO 2 and ZrO 2 , using cold cathode ion source (CC-102R) are presented. Through successive feedback and calibration techniques, various ion beams as well as deposition parameters have been optimized to achieve the best optical and structural film properties in the prevalent deposition geometry of the coating system. It has been possible to eliminate the unwanted optical and structural inhomogeneities from these films using and optimized set of process parameters. Interference modulated spectrophotometric and phase modulated ellipsometric techniques have been very successfully utilized to analyze the optical and structural parameters of the films. Several precision multilayer coatings have been developed and are being used for laser and spectroscopic applications. (author)

  7. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • XPS, ATR and SIMS characterization of samples from the first wall of RFX-mod device. • Amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus other carbon type bonds. • Results suggest to increase the number of electrode used for boronization. - Abstract: In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment–modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  8. Corrosion properties of aluminium coatings deposited on sintered NdFeB by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shoudong; Yang Hengxiu; Li Jinlong; Huang Feng [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China); Song Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Pure Al coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering to protect sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of Ar{sup +} ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) on the structure and the corrosion behaviour of Al coatings were investigated. The Al coating prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with IBAD (IBAD-Al-coating) had fewer voids than the coating without IBAD (Al-coating). The corrosion behaviour of the Al-coated NdFeB specimens was investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation, a neutral salt spray (NSS) test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting corrosion of the Al coatings always began at the voids of the grain boundaries. Bombardment by the Ar{sup +} ion-beams effectively improved the corrosion resistance of the IBAD-Al-coating.

  9. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  10. SU-F-T-179: Fast and Accurate Profile Acquisition for Proton Beam Using Multi-Ion Chamber Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Zou, J; Chen, T; Yue, N; Zhang, M; Mo, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Proton beam profile measurement is more time-consuming than photon beam. Due to the energy modulation during proton delivery, chambers have to move step-by-step instead of continuously. Multi-ion chamber arrays are appealing to this task since multiple measurements can be performed at once. However, their utilization suffers from sparse spatial resolution and potential intrinsic volume-averaging effect of the disk-shaped ion chambers. We proposed an approach to measure proton beam profiles accurately and efficiently. Methods: Mevion S250 proton system and IBA Matrixx ion chamber arrays were used in this study. Matrixx has interchamber distance of 7.62 mm, and chamber diameter of 4.5 mm. We measured the same beam profile by moving the Matrixx seven times with 1 mm each time along y axis. All 7 measurements were superimposed to get a “finer” profile with 1 mm spatial resolution. Coarser resolution profiles of 2 mm and 3 mm were also generated by using subsets of measurements. Those profiles were compared to the TPS calculated beam profile. Gamma analysis was performed for 2D dose maps to evaluate the difference to TPS dose plane. Results: Preliminary results showed a large discrepancy between the TPS calculated profile and the single measurement profile with 7.6 mm resolution. A good match could be achieved when the resolution reduced to 3 mm by adding one extra measurement. Gamma analysis for 2D dose map of a 10×10 field showed a passing rate (γ ≤ 1) of 90.6% using a 3% and 3mm criterion for single measurement, which increased to 92.3% for 2-measurement superimposition, and slightly further increased to 92.9% for 7-measurement superimposition. Conclusion: The results indicated that 2 measurements shifted by 3mm using Matrixx generated a smooth proton beam profile with good matching to Eclipse beam profile. We suggest using this 2-measurement approach in clinic for double scattering proton beam profile measurement.

  11. Detection of AU(III) ions using a poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-coated QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Hideaki; Kitamura, Eri; Seida, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    A polymer-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor has been developed for the detection of Au(III) ions in a HCl aqueous solution. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (poly(DMAA)) gel was used as a sensing material. The poly(DMAA) gel adsorbs Au(III) ions in the HCl aqueous solution, whereas it is inactive toward most other metal ions. The equilibrium adsorption of Au(III) ions onto the poly(DMAA) gel can be expressed by the Henry-type isotherm. The oscillation behavior of the poly(DMAA)-coated QCM sensor was investigated, and linear relationships between the resonance frequency shift and the concentration of Au(III) ions were obtained for concentrations of less than 0.032 mol/m(3) (6.3 mg/m(3)) in the single and multicomponent metal systems. The poly(DMAA)-coated QCM sensor detects Au(III) ions successfully with high selectivity and sensitivity even in the presence of other metal ions and organic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation on Nano-Self-Lubricant Coating Synthesized by Laser Cladding and Ion Sulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite processing between laser cladding and low temperature (300°C ion sulfurization was applied to prepare wear resistant and self-lubricating coating. The microstructure, morphology, phase composition, valence states, and wear resistance of the composite coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS, and friction and wear apparatus. The results indicate that the laser cladding Ni-based coatings and the maximum hardness of 46.5 HRC were obtained when the percent of pure W powder was 10%, composed of columnar dendrites crystals and ultrafine dendritic structure. After ion sulfurization at 300°C for 4 h, the loose and porous composite coating is formed with nanograins and the granularity of all grains is less than 100 nm, which consists of γ-(Fe, Ni, M23C6 carbides, FeS, FeS2, and WS2. Furthermore, the wear resistance of the composite coating is better than the laser cladding Ni55 + 10%W coating, and the friction coefficient and mass losses under the conditions of dry and oil lubrication are lower than those of laser cladding Ni55 + 10%W coating.

  13. Li4Ti5O12-coated graphite anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu Han; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite core–shell prepared by sol–gel process. • LTO-coated graphite is used in Li-ion battery to improve the cycle life under 55 °C. • Graphite coated with LTO shows smaller resistance than graphite after cell cycling. • The LTO coating suppress the disorder of SP 2 structure in graphite during cycling. • Resistance and structure stabilization results in good cycle life of the Li-ion cell. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesized and characterized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite as an anode material for Li-batteries. The surface of graphite powders was uniformly coated by the LTO nanoparticles to form a core–shelled structure via a sol–gel process, followed by calcination. The average size of graphite core was 20 μm while the thickness of LTO shell was 60 nm to 100 nm. We found that LTO-coated graphite has better rate-capability and cycle life at RT and 55 °C, compared with the pristine graphite. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results of the cell with LTO-coated graphite anode showed a significant suppression of the impedance rise after 60 cycles. In addition, the Raman spectrum showed that after 60 charge–discharge cycles at 55 °C, the I D /I G ratio of the LTO-coated graphite electrode increased slightly, while that of the pristine graphite electrode increased significantly. The batteries with LTO-coated graphite anode exhibited excellent cyclic ability and high temperature performance

  14. Mechanical and structural properties of fluorine-ion-implanted boron suboxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is depicted in Figure 1(b) [15, 28]. 3.1.3. Raman Spectroscopy Analysis. Raman scattering spec- troscopy is very sensitive to the nature of crystalline struc- ture, disorder, and amorphization and is often employed to characterize ion...-implantation-induced defects and any irregularity in the crystalline symmetry. The rather popular technique offers a rapid, nondestructive, and simple diagnos- tic probe for the evaluation of the structural modifications imposed by ion implantation and for optical...

  15. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  16. Coating Strategies to Improve Lithium-ion Battery Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Jonathan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated the effects of Al2O3 ALD coatings on the performance and thermal abuse tolerance of graphite based anodes and Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based cathodes. It was found that 5 cycles of Al2O3 ALD on the graphite anode increased the onset temperature of thermal runaway by approximately 20 °C and drastically reduced the anode’s contribution to the overall amount of heat released during thermal runaway. Although Al2O3 ALD improves the cycling stability of NMC based cathodes, the thermal abuse tolerance was not greatly improved. A series of conductive aluminum oxide/carbon composites were created and characterized as potential thicker protective coatings for use on NMC based cathode materials. A series of electrodes were coated with manganese monoxide ALD to test the efficacy of an oxygen scavenging coating on NMC based cathodes.

  17. Influence of salinity and boron on germination, seedling growth and transplanting mortality of guayule: a combined growth chamber and greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A.Gray), a drought tolerant plant, originating from southwestern United States and northern Mexico, is considered to be a promising rubber-producing plant for arid and semiarid areas. To evaluate the potential of guayule as an alternative crop for saline boron-laden so...

  18. Assessment of scaling laws and propagation windows for focussing of ion beams in fusion target chambers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Intense beams of multi-GeV high atomic weight ions are being actively investigated as possible ignitors for pellet fusion reactors. Beam transport models were developed for the final focussing of these beams in the reactor chamber, and investigated the role of microinstabilities, filamentation, conductivity, multiple scattering, and knockon electrons. Two propagation windows exist, namely the vacuum window at pressures below about 10 -3 - 10 -4 torr and a window around 1 torr. The 1 torr window (which is desirable from a reactor viewpoint) became less certain this year due to our discovery of the major role played by knock-on electrons which are sufficiently numerous to produce a reversed (ion-defocussing) magnetic field ahead of the ion pulse. Unless most of the knock-on current is wiped out by self-fields, this effect appears to eliminate use of self-pinched ion beams, and may degrade ballistic mode spot sizes as well. Intermediate energy knock-on electrons (0.3 less than or equal to v/sub z//V/sub b/ less than or equal to 1) may also dominate the electrical conductvity in the ion pulse, and will influence micro-instability and filamentation calculations

  19. Boron ion beam production with the supernanogan ECR ion source for the CERN BIO-LEIR facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stafford-Haworth, J; Scrivens, R; Toivanen, V; Röhrich, J

    2014-01-01

    To deliver B3+ ions for medical research the compounds decaborane and m-carborane were tested using the metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC) method with the Supernanogan 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. Using decaborane the source delivered less than 10 A intensity of B3+ and after operation large deposits of material were found inside the source. Using m-carborane 50 A of B3+ were delivered without support gas. For m-carborane, helium and oxygen support gasses were also tested, and the effects of different source tuning parameters are discussed. The average consumption of m-carborane was 0:1 mg/Ah over all operation.

  20. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  1. Improved critical current densities of bulk MgB.sub.2./sub. using carbon-coated amorphous boron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muralidhar, M.; Higuchi, M.; Jirsa, Miloš; Diko, P.; Kokal, I.; Murakami, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 6201104. ISSN 1051-8223 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbon-encapsulated boron * critical current density * flux pinning * micro-structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2015

  2. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  3. Performance of thin-ceramic-coated combustion chamber with gasoline and methanol as fuels in a two-stroke SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K. V.

    The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly reduced, by about 3 to 4% volume, for both gasoline and methanol fuels due to relatively lean operation and more complete combustion. NO(x) emissions were not measured. The results show that moderate thermal insulation of the two-stroke SI engine's combustion chamber is better suited to methanol fuel with respect to thermal efficiency, CO emissions, and knock-free operation compared to gasoline fuel.

  4. Polyacene coated carbon/LiFePO4 cathode for Li ion batteries: Understanding the stabilized double coating structure and enhanced lithium ion diffusion kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhaoyong; Du, Binglin; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Huali; Li, Lingjun; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of the double coating process of PAS/carbon coated LiFePO 4 . -- Highlights: • The LiFePO 4 synthesized by hydrothermal route using starch as surfactant has smaller particle size compared with that synthesized by solid state method. • The starch acts as constrained nano-layer restricting the growth of the LiFePO 4 particles. • The polyacene/carbon double layers are coated on the surface of LiFePO 4 successfully. • The polyacene/carbon double coated LiFePO 4 exhibits better capacity retention with 99.7% at 1C after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: Polyacene (PAS)/carbon coated lithium iron phosphate composites were synthesized with starch as surfactant using hydrothermal route at 180 °C for 5 h followed by calcining phenolic resin surface coated LiFePO 4 at 750 °C for 6 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was performed to investigate the structure and phase purity of all samples. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization show that the polyacene (PAS) and carbon double layer are coated on the surface of LiFePO 4 successfully. The sample synthesized in hydrothermal route shows small particle size (100–150 nm) as demonstrated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, which can be ascribed to the coated starch nano-layer restricting the growth of the LiFePO 4 particles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as well as charge and discharge tests was carried out to investigate the electrochemical performance of all samples. High initial discharge capacity (161.7 mAh g −1 at 0.2C) and good cycling stability are observed in PAS/carbon double coated LiFePO 4 synthesized using the hydrothermal route. Compared with the S-PLFP, the lower charge transfer resistance (R ct ) and the higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient of the H-PCLFP can be ascribed to the double coating layer (PAS and carbon) on the surface of H-PCLFP and the small grain size

  5. Conformal surface coatings to enable high volume expansion Li-ion anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leah A; Cavanagh, Andrew S; George, Steven M; Jung, Yoon Seok; Yan, Yanfa; Lee, Se-Hee; Dillon, Anne C

    2010-07-12

    An alumina surface coating is demonstrated to improve electrochemical performance of MoO(3) nanoparticles as high capacity/high-volume expansion anodes for Li-ion batteries. Thin, conformal surface coatings were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) that relies on self-limiting surface reactions. ALD coatings were tested on both individual nanoparticles and prefabricated electrodes containing conductive additive and binder. The coated and non-coated materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. Importantly, increased stability and capacity retention was only observed when the fully fabricated electrode was coated. The alumina layer both improves the adhesion of the entire electrode, during volume expansion/contraction and protects the nanoparticle surfaces. Coating the entire electrode also allows for an important carbothermal reduction process that occurs during electrode pre-heat treatment. ALD is thus demonstrated as a novel and necessary method that may be employed to coat the tortuous network of a battery electrode.

  6. Sensing of heavy metal ions by intrinsic TMV coat protein fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Serene S; Green, Philippe; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher

    2018-04-15

    We propose the use of a cysteine mutant of TMV coat protein as a signal transducer for the selective sensing and quantification of the heavy metal ions, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ based on intrinsic tryptophan quenching. TMV coat protein is inexpensive, can be mass-produced since it is expressed and extracted from E-coli. It also displays several different functional groups, enabling a wide repertoire of bioconjugation chemistries; thus it can be easily integrated into functional devices. In addition, TMV-ion interactions have been widely reported and utilized for metallization to generate organic-inorganic hybrid composite novel materials. Building on these previous observations, we herein determine, for the first time, the TMV-ion binding constants assuming the static fluorescence quenching model. We also show that by comparing TMV-ion interactions between native and denatured coat protein, we can distinguish between chemically similar heavy metal ions such as cadmium and zinc ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tungsten-coated nano-boron carbide as a non-noble metal bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions in alkaline media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhui; Han, Chan; Jia, Shaopei; Zhou, Shuyu; Zang, Jianbing

    2017-12-14

    Herein, tungsten-coated nano-boron carbide (W-WB 4 -WC x /B 4 C) particles were prepared by heating a mixture of B 4 C and W powder using a spark plasma coating (SPC) method. During the discharge treatment process, metal W in the mixture is activated and reacts with B 4 C to form WC x , WB 4 , and graphite nanoribbons. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance of W-WB 4 -WC x /B 4 C is tested in an alkaline solution, and the results show that the W-WB 4 -WC x /B 4 C composite electrocatalyst exhibits a low overpotential of 0.36 V at 10 mA cm -2 for the OER, a small overpotential of -0.19 V (j = 10 mA cm -2 ) for the HER, as well as good stability. The significantly enhanced electrocatalytic performance of the W-WB 4 -WC x /B 4 C composites is attributed to their unique structure, in which WC x and WB 4 not only improve the catalytic activity for the OER and HER, but also effectively anchor the W coating on the substrate.

  8. Fluorine and boron co-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed glow discharge plasma immersion ion processing

    CERN Document Server

    He, X M; Peters, A M; Taylor, B; Nastasi, M

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine (F) and boron (B) co-doped diamond-like carbon (FB-DLC) films were prepared on different substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) technique. A pulse glow discharge plasma was used for the PIIP deposition and was produced at a pressure of 1.33 Pa from acetylene (C sub 2 H sub 2), diborane (B sub 2 H sub 6), and hexafluoroethane (C sub 2 F sub 6) gas. Films of FB-DLC were deposited with different chemical compositions by varying the flow ratios of the C sub 2 H sub 2 , B sub 2 H sub 6 , and C sub 2 F sub 6 source gases. The incorporation of B sub 2 H sub 6 and C sub 2 F sub 6 into PIIP deposited DLC resulted in the formation of F-C and B-C hybridized bonding structures. The levels of the F and B concentrations effected the chemical bonding and the physical properties as was evident from the changes observed in density, hardness, stress, friction coefficient, and contact angle of water on films. Compared to B-doped or F-doped DLC films, the F and B co-doping of DLC during PIIP deposition...

  9. Study of high energy ion implantation of boron and oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, P.

    1991-06-01

    Three aspects of high energy (0.5-3 MeV) light ions ( 11 B + and 16 O + ) implantation in silicon are examined: (1)Spatial repartition; (2) Target damage and (3) Synthesis by oxygen implantation of a buried silicon oxide layer

  10. Preparation of nitrilotriacetic acid/Co2+-linked, silica/boron-coated magnetite nanoparticles for purification of 6 x histidine-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yiqun; Cheng, Yangjian; Li, Qingge

    2007-03-02

    In this report, we describe the preparation of novel nitrilotriacetic acid/Co2+-linked, silica/boron-coated magnetite nanoparticles for purification of 6 x His-tagged proteins. The nanoparticles were approximately 200 nm in size and were stable against hydrochloric acid and had negligible non-specific binding for protein. Elimination of non-specific binding by nucleic acids was readily achieved by digestion of samples with DNase and RNase. The modified nanoparticles were used to purify two model proteins: one had a C-terminal 6 x His tag, and the other had an internal 6 x His tag. Both proteins were purified within one hour into single band purity on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel.

  11. Quantitative subcellular secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging of boron-10 and boron-11 isotopes in the same cell delivered by two combined BNCT drugs: in vitro studies on human glioblastoma T98G cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey II, Daniel R; Smith, Duane R

    2002-06-01

    Ion microscopy was used for subcellular quantitative imaging of the isotopes 10B and 11B in the same cell to evaluate boron delivery using a mixture of two neutron capture therapy drugs, p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) and sodium borocaptate (BSH). The application of 10B-labeled BPA-F and 11B-labeled BSH allowed independent imaging of both 10B and 11B in the same cell using a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope. Mixed-drug treatments were compared to single-drug exposures given under identical conditions. 10BPA-F delivered 10B heterogeneously to T98G human glioblastoma cells, with a significantly reduced concentration in an organelle-rich perinuclear region. The intracellular distribution of 11B from 11BSH contrasted with that of the 10B from 10BPA-F, with 11B distributed nearly homogeneously throughout cells. The subcellular distributions of 10B and 11B were sustained in mixed-drug treatments and resembled their localizations after the single-drug treatments. In both single- and mixed-drug treatments, cellular levels of 10B from 10BPA-F nearly doubled between 1 h and 6 h, with a 3:1 intracellular to nutrient medium partitioning, while cellular levels of 11BSH remained essentially unchanged. The net effect of the combined treatment with 10BPA-F and 11BSH was an additive delivery of boron to cells. This study introduces a novel approach for checking potential synergistic, antagonistic or simple additive delivery of two mixed boronated compounds in cellular/subcellular compartments.

  12. Pulse line ion accelerator based design for the neutralized drift chamber experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C. Y.; Yu, S. S.; Henestroza, E.; Grote, D. P.; Friedman, A.

    2009-04-01

    The pulse line ion accelerator (PLIA) is a promising approach to accelerating heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for the study of high energy density physics (HEDP) and warm dense matter in a cost effective way. In this paper we demonstrate a PLIA-based design for a proposed HEDP machine, the neutralized drift compression experiment II. The simulation results from the injector to the exit of the accelerator using the particle-in-cell code WARP are presented. We show how the traveling wave structure of PLIA suggests straightforward strategies in controlling the longitudinal and transverse dynamics of the ion beam.

  13. The application of ion-exchanged clay as corrosion inhibiting pigments in organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisanti, Santi

    High strength aluminum alloys are used in aerospace industry and are normally coated to prevent corrosion. The corrosion protection of the coatings is mainly provided by pigmented-primer layer. Strontium chromate pigments are widely used, but they are toxic and carcinogenic. The objective of the current study is to develop and characterize the ion exchange compounds bentonite and hydrotalcite as corrosion inhibiting pigments. These compounds were synthesized with different cations and anions, and were used either alone or in mixtures as particulate additive in organic coatings. In coating applications as well as bulk solution, the inhibitor release mechanism is based on ion exchange. To evaluate corrosion inhibition, pigments extract solutions were used in potentiodynamic polarization as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments on bare aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Cathodic polarization showed that zinc- and cerium-containing filtrate solutions modestly inhibited cathodic current density. These solutions also decreased the extent of pitting damage formed on the surface, as compared to uninhibited 0.5 M NaCl solution. Pigments were also added as primer additives, and painted on AA2024-T3. The coated panels were then subjected to salt spray exposure testing. The possibility of sensing inhibitor exhaustion by means of X-ray diffraction interrogation of the pigment in a coating is demonstrated and discussed on cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings. Although cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings did not show behavior indicative of self-healing, the combination of bentonite and hydrotalcite that released Ce3+, Zn 2+, and PO43- showed potent scribe protection even after 3000 h exposure in salt spray. Promising self-healing was also demonstrated by pigments that consisted of decavanadate-hydrotalcite and zinc pyrovanadate, as indicated by a shiny scribed area after 1000h exposure in salt spray. When these pigments are used, blistering is minimized.

  14. Hardness depth profile of lattice strained cemented carbide modified by high-energy boron ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Higeta, K.; Inoue, T.; Shimizu, S.; Motonami, Y.; Sato, M.; Sadahiro, T.; Fujii, K.

    1991-07-01

    The hardness depth profiles of cemented carbides which were implanted with high-energy B + ions have been estimated using a dynamic microhardness tester. The B + implantations into (16% Co)-cemented WC alloys were carried out under conditions where the implantation energies were 1-3 MeV and the fluences 1 × 10 17-1 × 10 18ions/cm 2. The profiles show that the implanted layer becomes harder as fluences are chosen at higher values and there is a peak at a certain depth which depends on the implantation energy. In X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the implanted surface the broadened refraction peaks of only WC and Co are detected and the increments of lattice strain and of residual stress in the near-surface region are observed. It is supposed that the hardening effect should be induced by an increase in residual stress produced by lattice strain. The hardness depth profile in successive implantation of ions with different energies agrees with the compounded profile of each one of the implantations. It is concluded that the hardness depth profile can be controlled under adequate conditions of implantation.

  15. A scintillation proportional imaging chamber and its application to heavy ion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Takahashi, Tan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new type of gaseous detector which can visualize individual ionization tracks produced by heavy ions. This instrument would provide us with an experimental method to investigate the radial dose distribution associated with heavy ion tracks, thus offering experimental data to be directly compared to the theoretical works done so far. We describe a prototype of the detector which has been constructed and is currently being tested in our laboratory. (author)

  16. SU-F-T-471: Simulated External Beam Delivery Errors Detection with a Large Area Ion Chamber Transmission Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D; Dyer, B; Kumaran Nair, C; Stern, R; Benedict, S; Davis, UC [Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Integral Quality Monitor (IQM), developed by iRT Systems GmbH (Koblenz, Germany) is a large-area, linac-mounted ion chamber used to monitor photon fluence during patient treatment. Our previous work evaluated the change of the ion chamber’s response to deviations from static 1×1 cm2 and 10×10 cm2 photon beams and other characteristics integral to use in external beam detection. The aim of this work is to simulate two external beam radiation delivery errors, quantify the detection of simulated errors and evaluate the reduction in patient harm resulting from detection. Methods: Two well documented radiation oncology delivery errors were selected for simulation. The first error was recreated by modifying a wedged whole breast treatment, removing the physical wedge and calculating the planned dose with Pinnacle TPS (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI). The second error was recreated by modifying a static-gantry IMRT pharyngeal tonsil plan to be delivered in 3 unmodulated fractions. A radiation oncologist evaluated the dose for simulated errors and predicted morbidity and mortality commiserate with the original reported toxicity, indicating that reported errors were approximately simulated. The ion chamber signal of unmodified treatments was compared to the simulated error signal and evaluated in Pinnacle TPS again with radiation oncologist prediction of simulated patient harm. Results: Previous work established that transmission detector system measurements are stable within 0.5% standard deviation (SD). Errors causing signal change greater than 20 SD (10%) were considered detected. The whole breast and pharyngeal tonsil IMRT simulated error increased signal by 215% and 969%, respectively, indicating error detection after the first fraction and IMRT segment, respectively. Conclusion: The transmission detector system demonstrated utility in detecting clinically significant errors and reducing patient toxicity/harm in simulated external

  17. Spatial atomic layer deposition for coating flexible porous Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Sharma, Kashish; Wallas, Jasmine M.; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Li, Xuemin; Yang, Yongan; Hurst, Katherine E.; Ban, Chunmei; Tenent, Robert C.; George, Steven M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309

    2018-01-01

    Ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the electrodes of Li-ion batteries can enhance the capacity stability of the Li-ion batteries. To commercialize ALD for Li-ion battery production, spatial ALD is needed to decrease coating times and provide a coating process compatible with continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) processing. The porous electrodes of Li-ion batteries provide a special challenge because higher reactant exposures are needed for spatial ALD in porous substrates. This work utilized a modular rotating cylinder spatial ALD reactor operating at rotation speeds up to 200 revolutions/min (RPM) and substrate speeds up to 200 m/min. The conditions for spatial ALD were adjusted to coat flexible porous substrates. The reactor was initially used to characterize spatial Al2O3 and ZnO ALD on flat, flexible metalized polyethylene terephthalate foils. These studies showed that slower rotation speeds and spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules could significantly increase the reactant exposure. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was then used to coat flexible, model porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The uniformity of the ZnO ALD coatings on the porous AAO membranes was dependent on the aspect ratio of the pores and the reactant exposures. Larger reactant exposures led to better uniformity in the pores with higher aspect ratios. The reactant exposures were increased by adding spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was also employed for Al2O3 ALD on porous LiCoO2 (LCO) battery electrodes. Uniform Al coverages were obtained using spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules at rotation speeds of 25 and 50 RPM. The LCO electrodes had a thickness of ~49 um and pores with aspect ratios of ~12-25. Coin cells were then constructed using the ALD-coated LCO electrodes and were tested to determine their battery

  18. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A.; Rose, Mark; Simon, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to ±15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F DN ), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 × 3 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F DN was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F DN was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  19. Impact of Amino-Acid Coating on the Synthesis and Characteristics of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles (IONs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Barar, Jaleh; Davaran, Soodabeh [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Younes; Sara, Rasoulamini [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONs) with biocompatible coatings are the only nanostructural materials which have been approved by the FDA for clinical use. Common biocompatible coatings such as hydrocarbons, polymers, and silica have profound influences on critical characteristics of IONs. Recently, amino acids were introduced as a novel biocompatible coating. In the present study, the effects of amino acids on IONs synthesis and characteristics have been evaluated. Magnetite nanoparticles with {sub L}-arginine and {sub L}-lysine coatings were synthesised by a coprecipitation reaction in aqueous solvent and their characteristics were compared with naked magnetite nanoparticles. The results showed that amino acids can be a perfect coating for IONs and would increase particle stability without any significant effects on the critical properties of nanoparticles such as particle size and magnetization saturation value.

  20. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.; Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  1. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  2. The energy levels and transition probabilities for silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, and chlorine ions of the boron iso-electronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohny, E.E.; Allam, S.H.; El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2003-01-01

    The slater type radial wave functions of the 1S, 2S, and 2P orbitals have been employed in order to construct the hartree-fock (HF) wave functions of the ground states 1S 2 2S 2 2P for Si X, ph XI, S XII and C1 XIII of the boron iso-electronic sequence. The radial functions of the excited orbitals ns, np, and nf (n=3-5) have been optimized using the CIV3 code which uses the multi-configuration hartree-fock (MCHF) method in evaluating these functions. The wave functions thus obtained have been used in calculating energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities. The calculated energies (in au) relative to the ground state were in a good agreement with the available published experimental and theoretical values within the experimental error for all levels of the ions of the sequence except for the 3 p, 4 p, and 5 p levels of Si X, Ph XI, S XII and CI XIII. The deviation may be attributed to relativistic effects in case of highly ionized members of the sequence. The oscillator strengths for the allowed electric dipole transitions have been computed in dipole-length from by using the same code. The transition probabilities for spontaneous emission A j i (sec 1 ) are calculated using the equation A j i=6.6 x 10 15 g i f i j / Lambda 2 g j (sec 1 ) where lambda is the wavelength of the transition (in A 0 ) from state (i) to state (j) and g i . g j are the statistical weights for these states, f g is the oscillator strength of the transition. More over results of oscillator strengths and transition probabilities are found to be in a fairly good agreement with the available published experimental and theoretical values

  3. Ion-induced desorption from stainless-steel vacuum chambers has been studied with a view to improving the dynamic pressure in the future LEIR ion accumulator ring for the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice Maximilien

    2002-01-01

    This picture shows part of a vacuum chamber fully equipped with St707 non-evaporable getter (NEG) strips which were bombarded in Linac3 with lead ions at 4.2 MeV/u. A change of the surface morphology is visible where the Pb53+ ions impacted under grazing incidence onto the NEG.

  4. Diogene: A 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1981-01-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber, designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions. This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, then I recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams. (orig.)

  5. Diogene: a 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1980-10-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont-Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I shall first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, than recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams

  6. Effect of thin contaminating coating on reflectance of metallic mirror placed inside the vacuum chamber of fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.N.; Konovalov, V.G.; Bardamid, A.F.; Poperenko, L.V.; Orlinskij, D.V.

    2000-01-01

    The practice of use diagnostic mirrors inside the fusion devices revealed the appearance of a deposit on the mirror surface. Such deposit is a result of condensation of the erosion materials of those inner components that are subjected to the strongest plasma impact. Another reason for deposit growth is the wall conditioning procedures like carbonization and boronization. Appeared on the diagnostic mirrors and windows the contaminating films deteriorate the optical properties of these diagnostic elements,i.e., the mirror reflectance and window transmissivity. The object of this paper is to investigate an influence on reflectance of metal mirrors of thin films of the materials that are most probable in fusion devices under operation (boron and carbon) or can be promising in a fusion reactor (beryllium)

  7. Silicon Carbide/Boron Nitride Dual In-Line Coating of Silicon Carbide Fiber Tows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will demonstrate monolayer and dual layer coating of SiC fiber by leveraging Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition techniques developed by Free...

  8. Effect of the Die Temperature and Blank Thickness on the Formability of a Laser-Welded Blank of a Boron Steel Sheet with Removing Al-Si Coating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions has been a major focus in the automobile industry to address various environmental issues. In particular, studies on parts comprised of high strength sheets and light car bodies are ongoing. Accordingly, this study examined the use of boron steel, which is commonly used in high strength sheets. Boron steel is a type of sheet used for hot stamping parts. Although it has high strength, the elongation is inferior, which reduces its crash energy absorption capacity. To solve this problem, two sheets of different thickness were welded so the thin sheet would absorb crash energy and the thick sheet would work as a support. Boron steel, however, may show weakening at the welding spot due to the Al-Si coating layer used to prevent oxidation from occurring during the welding process. Therefore, a certain part of the coating layer of a double-thickness boron steel sheet that is welded in the hot stamping process is removed through laser ablation, and the formability of the hot-work was examined.

  9. Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaozhi Liu; Feng Xu; Junhua Xu; Xiaolong Tang; Ying Liu; Dunwen Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cu...

  10. Radiation stability of nanocrystalline ZrN coatings irradiated with high energy Xe and Bi ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Sokhatsky, A.S.; Uglov, V.V.; Zlotski, S.V.; Van Vuuren, A.J.; Neethling, Jan; O'Connell, J.

    2011-01-01

    Swift Xe and Bi ion irradiation effects in nanocrystalline ZrN coatings as a function of ion fluence are reported. Zirconium nitride films of different thickness (0.1, 3, 10 and 20 micrometers) synthesized by vacuum arc-vapour deposition in nanocrystalline state (average size of crystallites is ∼4 nm) were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe and 695 MeV Bi ions to fluences in the range 3x10 12 ÷2.6x10 15 cm -2 (Xe) and 10 12 x10 13 cm -2 (Bi) and studied using XRD and TEM techniques. No evidence of amorphization due to high level ionizing energy losses has been found. The measurements of lattice parameter have revealed nonmonotonic dependence of the stress level in irradiated samples on ion fluence. (authors)

  11. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  12. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  13. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Twardowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was analysis of the wear of milling cutters made of sintered carbide and of boron nitride. The article presents the life period of the cutting edges and describes industrial conditions of the applicability of tools made of the materials under investigation. Tests have been performed on modern toroidal and ball-end mill cutters. The study has been performed within a production facility in the technology of high speed machining of 55NiCrMoV6 and X153CrMoV12 hardened steel. The analysed cutting speed is a parameter which significantly influences the intensity of heat generated in the cutting zone. Due to the wear characteristics, two areas of applicability of the analysed tools have been distinguished. For vc  ≤ 300 m/min, sintered carbide edges are recommended; for vc  > 500 m/min, boron nitride edges. For 300 ≤ vc  ≤ 500 m/min, a transition area has been observed. It has been proved that the application of sintered carbide edges is not economically justified above certain cutting speed.

  14. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  15. Chitosan-coated magnetite nanoparticles as adsorbent for the removal of molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Jose S.; Egute, Nayara S.; Yamaura, Mitiko; Freitas, Antonio A.; Holland, Helber; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Metal ions in wastewater, even at low concentrations, affect a large number of organisms due to their high degree of toxicity. Research has developed some alternative methods for metal removal from the wastewater, as adsorption using a bio sorbent of combined chitosan with magnetic particles. Chitosan is a natural bio polymer, which has a highly reactive active sites in its structure, composed of amino and hydroxyl groups with affinity to bind to metal ions. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles of coated magnetite with chitosan as an adsorbent of molybdenum(Vi) ions in aqueous medium was investigated. The adsorption experiments were performed varying the time contact from 5 to 150 min, the p H from 0.5 to 11 and the molybdenum concentrations in nitric solutions. All molybdenum analyses were carried out by gamma spectroscopy using a Hp Ge detector and 99 Mo as radioactive tracer. Results showed that the chitosan-coated magnetite particles are good adsorbent for Mo ions from aqueous medium in the range of p H from 0.5 to 9 with a removal higher than 99%. Among the studied isotherm models, the Freundlich model fitted best the equilibrium adsorption isotherm of Mo(VI) ions. (author)

  16. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub, E-mail: hyounlim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiryun, E-mail: jilyoon@naver.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eun-Young, E-mail: sey22@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Moon, E-mail: moonlit51@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Vaira, Anna Maria, E-mail: a.vaira@ivv.cnr.it [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino 10135 (Italy); Bae, Hanhong, E-mail: hanhongbae@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Geongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chan-Yong, E-mail: sunbispirit@gmail.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Ho, E-mail: chlee1219@hanmail.net [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seokyoung University, Seoul 136-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Gi, E-mail: hgkim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Mark, E-mail: marksroh@gmail.com [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Laboratory of Floriculture and Plant Physiology, School of Bio-Resource Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hammond, John, E-mail: john.hammond@ars.usda.gov [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  17. Accurate ab initio investigation of the ground and some low-lying electronic states of boron monoiodide, BI, and its ions BI+ and BI-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaras, Marios-Peter; Papakondylis, Aristotle

    2018-01-01

    The lowest electronic states of boron monoiodide, BI, and its ions BI± have been theoretically studied by the multireference configuration interaction technique employing basis sets of quadruple and quintuple-ζ quality. Scalar relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling are taken into account as well. For all states we report potential energy curves, binding energies, and spectroscopic constants. Some quantities such as electron affinity, ionization potential, and dipole moment of BI are evaluated for the first time. The nature of the bonding in the systems under scrutiny is also discussed in some detail.

  18. Sol-gel coated ion sources for liquid chromatography-direct electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Nicolò; Magrini, Laura; Bianchi, Federica; Careri, Maria; Cappiello, Achille

    2017-07-25

    Advances in interfacing liquid chromatography and electron ionization mass spectrometry are presented. New ion source coatings synthesized by sol-gel technology were developed and tested as vaporization surfaces in terms of peak intensity, peak width and peak delay for the liquid chromatography-direct electron ionization mass spectrometry (Direct-EI) determination of environmental pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and steroids. Silica-, titania-, and zirconia-based coatings were sprayed inside the stainless steel ion source and characterized in terms of thermal stability, film thickness and morphology. Negligible weight losses until 350-400 °C were observed for all the materials, with coating thicknesses in the 6 (±1)-11 (±2) μm range for optimal ionization process. The best performances in terms of both peak intensity and peak width were obtained by using the silica-based coating: the detection of the investigated compounds was feasible at low ng μl -1 levels with a good precision (RSD < 9% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and <11% for hormones). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a parallel plate ion chamber for radiation protection level; Desenvolvimento de uma camara de ionizacao de placas paralelas para protecao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Landi, Mauricio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (STEEE/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Secao Tecnica de Ensaios em Equipamentos Eletromedicos; Moralles, Mauricio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator Nuclear de Pesquisas

    2011-07-01

    A new parallel plate vented ion chamber is proposed in this paper. The application of this chamber was primarily intended to the measurement of stray radiation in interventional procedures, but the energy response of about 2.6%, which was obtained in the first prototype, on the range from 40 to 150 kV using ISO 4037-1 narrow qualities, provided the possibility of a wide modality application on radiation protection. Primary studies with Maxwell 2D electromagnetic field simulator revealed an optimized model regarding effective volume and saturation voltage levels, which conferred to the ion chamber a dual entrance window feature. The development of this ion chamber has the main contribution of Monte Carlo calculations as a support tool to the establishment of the effective volume of the chamber and determination of the best materials for housing mounting and conductive elements, such as guard rings, electrode, and windows. Even the composition of the conductive layers, which would be neglected due to their very small thicknesses (about 35 {mu}m), had important influence on the results and could be better understood with Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System (MCNP) simulations. (author)

  20. High dose-per-pulse electron beam dosimetry - A model to correct for the ion recombination in the Advanced Markus ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Kristoffer; Jaccard, Maud; Germond, Jean-François; Buchillier, Thierry; Bochud, François; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Bailat, Claude

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to establish an empirical model of the ion recombination in the Advanced Markus ionization chamber for measurements in high dose rate/dose-per-pulse electron beams. In addition, we compared the observed ion recombination to calculations using the standard Boag two-voltage-analysis method, the more general theoretical Boag models, and the semiempirical general equation presented by Burns and McEwen. Two independent methods were used to investigate the ion recombination: (a) Varying the grid tension of the linear accelerator (linac) gun (controls the linac output) and measuring the relative effect the grid tension has on the chamber response at different source-to-surface distances (SSD). (b) Performing simultaneous dose measurements and comparing the dose-response, in beams with varying dose rate/dose-per-pulse, with the chamber together with dose rate/dose-per-pulse independent Gafchromic™ EBT3 film. Three individual Advanced Markus chambers were used for the measurements with both methods. All measurements were performed in electron beams with varying mean dose rate, dose rate within pulse, and dose-per-pulse (10 -2  ≤ mean dose rate ≤ 10 3 Gy/s, 10 2  ≤ mean dose rate within pulse ≤ 10 7  Gy/s, 10 -4  ≤ dose-per-pulse ≤ 10 1  Gy), which was achieved by independently varying the linac gun grid tension, and the SSD. The results demonstrate how the ion collection efficiency of the chamber decreased as the dose-per-pulse increased, and that the ion recombination was dependent on the dose-per-pulse rather than the dose rate, a behavior predicted by Boag theory. The general theoretical Boag models agreed well with the data over the entire investigated dose-per-pulse range, but only for a low polarizing chamber voltage (50 V). However, the two-voltage-analysis method and the Burns & McEwen equation only agreed with the data at low dose-per-pulse values (≤ 10 -2 and ≤ 10 -1  Gy, respectively). An empirical

  1. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-04-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles

  2. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots (∼100 (micro)m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with ρr ∼ 2 g/cm 2 for a small demo/pilot plant producing ∼40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 producing ∼1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q ∼ 26) ion sources for short (∼5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of ∼10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge

  3. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Properties of TiN coatings deposited by the method of condensation with ion bombardment accompanied by high-energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrezkov, O.I.; Vershok, B.A.; Dormashev, A.B.; Margulev, I.Ya.; Molchanova, S.A.; Andreev, E.S.; Dervuk, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum-sputtering adapted commercial facility based coating of stainless steel with titanium nitride followed two procedures: ion bombardment condensation (IBC) and IBC under simultaneous effect of ion beam (IB). The deposition rate was equal to 0.1 μm min -1 ; the investigated coatings were characterized by 2.5 μm depth. Comparison analysis of features and characteristics of the specimens, as well as, full-scale tests of a coated cutting tool enabled to make conclusions about advantages of application of IB assisted IBC technology in contrast to the reference IBC technology [ru

  5. Adsorption of Zn(II) ions by chitosan coated diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Suhaib S; Ghosh, Tushar K

    2018-01-01

    In this work, chitosan coated diatomaceous earth (CCDE) beads were synthesized by a drop-wise method and characterized by FTIR, BET, SEM, EDS, and zeta potential for Zn(II) ion removal from aqueous solution in batch and continuous processes. Several parameters have been studied such as solution-pH, initial Zn(II) ion concentration, temperature, flow rate, and contact time to investigate the Zn(II) ion uptake. The maximum adsorption capacity of Zn(II) ion onto CCDE beads was 127.4mg/g in batch studies. The adsorption followed Pseudo second order and was well fitted to Langmuir model, indicating monolayer adsorption behavior. The continuous adsorption studies showed decreasing breakthrough and exhausted time with increasing flow rate of solution. The breakthrough points were 220 and 115min at flow rate 3 and 6mL/min, respectively. Loaded CCDE beads with Zn(II) ions were successfully regenerated by 0.2M NaOH without damaging the adsorbents and up to 87% recovery in the fourth cycle. Anions in the solution had an insignificant effect on Zn(II) ion uptake by CCDE beads. Overall results suggested that the prepared adsorbents could be employed as a low-cost, sustainable, and excellent alternative material for Zn(II) ion removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The suggestion of droplets generation prevention method of CNx coating by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CrCN–DLC composite coatings by cathodic arc ion-plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.Y. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, L.L. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, H.D. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yan, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Y.M. [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Nanomaterials and Nanostructure of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, B., E-mail: toyangbing@163.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-07-15

    CrCN–DLC composite coatings were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and cemented carbides substrates using pure Cr targets under C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ambient by cathodic arc ion plating system. The influence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate on the structure and mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated systemically. The coatings structure and bonding state were characterized by XRD, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical composition was measured by EDS. The mechanical performance and tribological behaviour of the coatings were studied by a hardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The results showed that with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate from 50 to 100 sccm, the corresponding hardness of coatings increased firstly and then decreased with further addition of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The coatings deposited at lower C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate (less than 200 sccm) exhibited a relatively higher hardness value (more than HV{sub 0.025}2000) and then the hardness decrease with increasing C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate. The friction coefficient also exhibited similar variation trend, when the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flow rate was higher than 100 sccm, the friction coefficient decreased and then maintained in a relatively lower value from 0.18 to 0.24, which may be attribute to the increasing carbon content and the coating exhibited more diamond-like structure.

  8. Micro-Capillary Coatings Based on Spiropyran Polymeric Brushes for Metal Ion Binding, Detection, and Release in Continuous Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishling Dunne

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-capillaries, capable of light-regulated binding and qualitative detection of divalent metal ions in continuous flow, have been realised through functionalisation with spiropyran photochromic brush-type coatings. Upon irradiation with UV light, the coating switches from the passive non-binding spiropyran form to the active merocyanine form, which binds different divalent metal ions (Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, as they pass through the micro-capillary. Furthermore, the merocyanine visible absorbance spectrum changes upon metal ion binding, enabling the ion uptake to be detected optically. Irradiation with white light causes reversion of the merocyanine to the passive spiropyran form, with simultaneous release of the bound metal ion from the micro-capillary coating.

  9. Wear and Tribological Properties of Silicon-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon (Si-DLC) Coatings Synthesized with Nitrogen, Argon Plus Nitrogen, and Argon Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountzoulas, Costas

    1998-01-01

    ... in the average coating growth rate. The Knoop microhardness and nanohardness values of the coatings synthesized by the mixed argon and nitrogen ion beam were higher than the values for the coatings synthesized with 100% nitrogen or 100% argon ion beams...

  10. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon; Alves, Andrew; Kenny, John; Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan; Kron, Tomas; Cole, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  11. High-throughput computational design of cathode coatings for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykol, Muratahan; Kim, Soo; Hegde, Vinay I.; Snydacker, David; Lu, Zhi; Hao, Shiqiang; Kirklin, Scott; Morgan, Dane; Wolverton, C.

    2016-12-01

    Cathode degradation is a key factor that limits the lifetime of Li-ion batteries. To identify functional coatings that can suppress this degradation, we present a high-throughput density functional theory based framework which consists of reaction models that describe thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities, and acid-scavenging capabilities of materials. Screening more than 130,000 oxygen-bearing materials, we suggest physical and hydrofluoric-acid barrier coatings such as WO3, LiAl5O8 and ZrP2O7 and hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Sc2O3, Li2CaGeO4, LiBO2, Li3NbO4, Mg3(BO3)2 and Li2MgSiO4. Using a design strategy to find the thermodynamically optimal coatings for a cathode, we further present optimal hydrofluoric-acid scavengers such as Li2SrSiO4, Li2CaSiO4 and CaIn2O4 for the layered LiCoO2, and Li2GeO3, Li4NiTeO6 and Li2MnO3 for the spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes. These coating materials have the potential to prolong the cycle-life of Li-ion batteries and surpass the performance of common coatings based on conventional materials such as Al2O3, ZnO, MgO or ZrO2.

  12. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In view of potential applications in neutron-sensitive ion chambers used in reactor control instru- mentation, studies were carried out on alumina 100 μ to 500 μ thick coatings on copper, aluminium and SS components. The electrical insulation varied from 10 ohms to 10. 骄 ohms for coating thick- nesses above 200 μ.

  13. Ion recombination and polarity correction factors for a plane-parallel ionization chamber in a proton scanning beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszka, Małgorzata; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Kłodowska, Magdalena; Kozera, Anna; Krzempek, Dawid; Mojżeszek, Natalia; Pędracka, Anna; Waligórski, Michael Patrick Russell; Olko, Paweł

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on charge collection in the ionization chamber (IC) in proton pencil beam scanning (PBS), where the local dose rate may exceed the dose rates encountered in conventional MV therapy by up to three orders of magnitude. We measured values of the ion recombination (k s ) and polarity (k pol ) correction factors in water, for a plane-parallel Markus TM23343 IC, using the cyclotron-based Proteus-235 therapy system with an active proton PBS of energies 30-230 MeV. Values of k s were determined from extrapolation of the saturation curve and the Two-Voltage Method (TVM), for planar fields. We compared our experimental results with those obtained from theoretical calculations. The PBS dose rates were estimated by combining direct IC measurements with results of simulations performed using the FLUKA MC code. Values of k s were also determined by the TVM for uniformly irradiated volumes over different ranges and modulation depths of the proton PBS, with or without range shifter. By measuring charge collection efficiency versus applied IC voltage, we confirmed that, with respect to ion recombination, our proton PBS represents a continuous beam. For a given chamber parameter, e.g., nominal voltage, the value of k s depends on the energy and the dose rate of the proton PBS, reaching c. 0.5% for the TVM, at the dose rate of 13.4 Gy/s. For uniformly irradiated regular volumes, the k s value was significantly smaller, within 0.2% or 0.3% for irradiations with or without range shifter, respectively. Within measurement uncertainty, the average value of k pol , for the Markus TM23343 IC, was close to unity over the whole investigated range of clinical proton beam energies. While no polarity effect was observed for the Markus TM23343 IC in our pencil scanning proton beam system, the effect of volume recombination cannot be ignored. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Constructing Novel Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP Composites through a Biomimetic Approach: Connecting Glass Fiber with Nanosized Boron Nitride by Polydopamine Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueMei Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A biomimetic method was developed to construct novel fiber reinforced plastic (FRP composites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was coated on glass fiber (GF surface. The polydopamine-treated GF (D-GF adsorbed boron nitride (BN nanoparticles, while obtaining micronano multiscale hybrid fillers BN-D-GF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that the strong interfacial interaction brought by the polydopamine benefits the loading amount as well as dispersion of the nano-BN on GF’s surface. The BN-D-GF was incorporated into epoxy resin to construct “FRP nanocomposites.” The morphology, dynamic mechanical and thermal characteristics of the FRP nanocomposites were analyzed. SEM morphology revealed that BN-D-GF heterogeneous dispersed in epoxy matrix. There was good adhesion between the polymer matrix and the BN-D-GF filler. The dynamic modulus and mechanical loss were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Compared with neat epoxy and untreated GF reinforced composites, BN-D-GF/epoxy and D-GF/epoxy systems showed improved mechanical properties. The thermal conductivity, Shore D hardness, and insulation properties were also enhanced.

  15. Improving the electrochemical properties of nanosized LiFePO4-based electrode by boron doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trócoli, Rafael; Franger, Sylvain; Cruz, Manuel; Morales, Julián; Santos-Peña, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal treatment of boron phosphate with LiFePO 4 provides electrode materials with high performance in lithium half-cells: 160 mAh·g -1 (90% of theoretical capacity) under C/5 rate • The products are composites containing boron-modified LiFePO 4 , FePO 4 and an amorphous phase with ionic diffusion properties • The boron treatment affects textural, conductive and lithium diffusivity of the electrode material leading to higher performance • A limited boron-doping of the phospholivine structure is observed - Abstract: Electrode materials with homogeneous distribution of boron were obtained by heating mixtures of nanosized carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate and BPO 4 in 3-9% weight at 700 °C. The materials can be described as nanocomposites containing i) LiFePO 4 , possibly doped with a low amount of boron, ii) FePO 4 and iii) an amorphous layer based on Li 4 P 2 O 7 -derived material that surrounds the phosphate particles. The thermal treatment with BPO 4 also triggered changes in the carbon coating graphitic order. Galvanostatic and voltammetric studies in lithium half-cells showed smaller polarisation, higher capacity and better cycle life for the boron-doped composites. For instance, one of the solids, called B 6 -LiFePO 4 , provided close to 150 and 140 mAhg -1 (87% and 81% of theoretical capacity, respectively) under C/2.5 and C regimes after several cycles. Improved specific surface area, carbon graphitization, conductivity and lithium ion diffusivity in the boron-doped phospholivine network account for this excellent rate performance. The properties of an amorphous layer surrounding the phosphate particles also account for such higher performance

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of hepatic effects induced by nanosilver, silver ions and nanoparticle coating in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Oberemm, Axel; Creutzenberg, Otto; Thünemann, Andreas F; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2018-03-01

    The presence of nano-scaled particles in food and food-related products has drawn attention to the oral uptake of nanoparticles and their interactions with biological systems. In the present study, we used a toxicoproteomics approach to allow for the untargeted experimental identification and comparative analysis of cellular responses in rat liver after repeated-dose treatment with silver nanoparticles, ions, and the coating matrix used for particle stabilization. The proteomic analysis revealed treatment-related effects caused by exposure to silver in particulate and ionic form. Both silver species induced similar patterns of signaling and metabolic alterations. Silver-induced cellular alterations comprised, amongst others, proteins involved in metal homeostasis, oxidative stress response, and energy metabolism. However, we discovered that secondary nano-scaled structures were formed from ionic silver. Furthermore, also the coating matrix alone gave rise to the formation of nano-scaled particles. The present data confirm, complement, and extend previous knowledge on silver toxicity in rodent liver by providing a comprehensive proteomic data set. The observation of secondary particle formation from non-particle controls underlines the difficulties in separating particle-, ion-, and matrix coating-related effects in biological systems. Awareness of this issue will support proper evaluation of nanotoxicology-related data in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of the wear resistance of electroplated Au-Ni coatings by Zr ion bombardment of Ni-B sublayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyazgin, Alexander; Shugurov, Artur; Sergeev, Viktor; Neufeld, Vasily; Panin, Alexey; Shesterikov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bombardment of the Ni-B sublayer by Zr ion beams on the surface morphology and tribomechanical properties of Au-Ni coatings was investigated. It was found that the treatment has no significant effect on the surface roughness and grain size of the Au-Ni coatings, while it provides essential reducing of their friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance. It is shown that increased wear resistance of these coatings was caused by their strain hardening resulted from localization of plastic strain. The optimal Zr fluence were determined that provide the maximum reduction of linear wear of the coatings

  18. Sputter-ion plating of coatings for protection of gas-turbine blades against high-temperature oxidation and corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, J. P.; Restall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Considerable effort is being devoted to the development of overlay coatings for protecting critical components such as turbine blades against high-temperature oxidation, corrosion, and erosion damage in service. The most commercially advanced methods for depositing coatings are electron-beam evaporation and plasma spraying. Sputter-ion plating (SIP) offers a potentially cheaper and simpler alternative method for depositing overlays. Experimental work on SIP of Co-Cr-Al-Y and Ni-Cr-Al-Ti alloy coatings is described. Results are presented of metallographic assessment of these coatings, and of the results obtained from high-velocity testing using a gas-turbine simulator rig.

  19. Analysis of Boron Distribution in Steel using Neutron at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Seong, Baek-Seok; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Boron is very useful element in steels to improve the mechanical properties. In steel matrix, boron exist several types such as solute, segregation in grain boundary and many kinds of precipitate, which influence the properties of the steel. But, detecting of boron using X-ray or ion-beam is not easy because boron is very light atom than iron. However neutron gives the clear image of boron distribution from the particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) method. The PTA method of boron uses the phenomenon that boron irradiated by neutron emits Liion and alpha particle. Boron distribution can be obtained by observing the traces of the emitted Li-ion and alpha particle. At HANARO, the study for observing of boron distribution has been performed several years ago. Recently, the experimental techniques were improved for the reactor power of 30 MW. In this paper, improved experimental techniques were described and some results for boron added low-carbon steel plate were introduced.

  20. Development of a novel neutron detection technique by using a boron layer coating a Charge Coupled Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blostein, Juan Jerónimo; Estrada, Juan; Tartaglione, Aureliano; Sofo haro, Miguel; Fernández Moroni, Guillermo; Cancelo, Gustavo

    2015-01-19

    This article describes the design features and the first test measurements obtained during the installation of a novel high resolution 2D neutron detection technique. The technique proposed in this work consists of a boron layer (enriched in ${^{10}}$B) placed on a scientific Charge Coupled Device (CCD). After the nuclear reaction ${^{10}}$B(n,$\\alpha$)${^{7}}$Li, the CCD detects the emitted charge particles thus obtaining information on the neutron absorption position. The above mentioned ionizing particles, with energies in the range 0.5-5.5 MeV, produce a plasma effect in the CCD which is recorded as a circular spot. This characteristic circular shape, as well as the relationship observed between the spot diameter and the charge collected, is used for the event recognition, allowing the discrimination of undesirable gamma events. We present the first results recently obtained with this technique, which has the potential to perform neutron tomography investigations with a spatial resolution better than that previously achieved. Numerical simulations indicate that the spatial resolution of this technique will be about 15 $\\mu$m, and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons will be about 3 %. We compare the proposed technique with other neutron detection techniques and analyze its advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Nanoparticle-coated separators for lithium-ion batteries with advanced electrochemical performance

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, scalable approach to improve the interfacial characteristics and, thereby, the performance of commonly used polyolefin based battery separators. The nanoparticle-coated separators are synthesized by first plasma treating the membrane in oxygen to create surface anchoring groups followed by immersion into a dispersion of positively charged SiO 2 nanoparticles. The process leads to nanoparticles electrostatically adsorbed not only onto the exterior of the surface but also inside the pores of the membrane. The thickness and depth of the coatings can be fine-tuned by controlling the ζ-potential of the nanoparticles. The membranes show improved wetting to common battery electrolytes such as propylene carbonate. Cells based on the nanoparticle-coated membranes are operable even in a simple mixture of EC/PC. In contrast, an identical cell based on the pristine, untreated membrane fails to be charged even after addition of a surfactant to improve electrolyte wetting. When evaluated in a Li-ion cell using an EC/PC/DEC/VC electrolyte mixture, the nanoparticle-coated separator retains 92% of its charge capacity after 100 cycles compared to 80 and 77% for the plasma only treated and pristine membrane, respectively. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  2. Ion nitriding of zirconia coated on stainless steel: structure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.; Gomez, B.J.; Sanctis, O. de; Feugeas, J.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Sanchez-Bajo, F

    2004-12-01

    ZrO{sub 2}-3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated AISI 310 stainless steel was nitrided using a plasma produced by dc pulsed discharge in a mixture of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at an equilibrium temperature of 450 deg. C. The phase structure and surface morphology were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry was used to measure the depth composition of samples. The mechanical properties were studied by means ultramicrohardness indentation tests. Nitrogen atoms enter in the zirconia substituting to the oxygen atoms in the network. However, the nitrogen content measured in zirconia coating is greater than the allowed maximum content of nitrogen in doped-zirconia solid solution. The ion-nitriding process alters the surface topography of the zirconia coatings. The nitruration improves the mechanical responses of the ZrO{sub 2}-3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated AISI 310 stainless steel.

  3. Surface properties of W-implanted TiN coatings post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bin; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Liu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PVD TiN coatings are implanted with W ions at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . • Low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) is adopted on W-implanted TiN coatings. • W content and depth in the W-implanted coatings reduce after LTIS. • LTIS cannot well improve friction and wear of W-implanted TiN under dry sliding. - Abstract: TiN coatings were implanted with W ions by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 , and then they were post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) at 160 °C. The W-implanted TiN samples were characterized before and after post-treatment of LTIS, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Nano Indenter System. Friction and wear properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding in air. After post-treatment of LTIS, XRD results showed no diffraction peaks of tungsten sulfides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings; W-implanted TiN coatings were sputtered by the sulfur plasma with about 36% reducing of W depth. Further, the nano-hardness decreased mainly due to the amount decreasing of Ti 2 N and the formation of more metal oxides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings after LTIS. As a result, LTIS treatment could not well improve tribological properties of W-implanted TiN coatings.

  4. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  5. Transition Metal Ion Implantation into Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings: Development of a Base Material for Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markwitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre thick diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings produced by direct ion deposition were implanted with 30 keV Ar+ and transition metal ions in the lower percentage (<10 at.% range. Theoretical calculations showed that the ions are implanted just beneath the surface, which was confirmed with RBS measurements. Atomic force microscope scans revealed that the surface roughness increases when implanted with Ar+ and Cu+ ions, whereas a smoothing of the surface from 5.2 to 2.7 nm and a grain size reduction from 175 to 93 nm are measured for Ag+ implanted coatings with a fluence of 1.24×1016 at. cm−2. Calculated hydrogen and carbon depth profiles showed surprisingly significant changes in concentrations in the near-surface region of the DLC coatings, particularly when implanted with Ag+ ions. Hydrogen accumulates up to 32 at.% and the minimum of the carbon distribution is shifted towards the surface which may be the cause of the surface smoothing effect. The ion implantations caused an increase in electrical conductivity of the DLC coatings, which is important for the development of solid-state gas sensors based on DLC coatings.

  6. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolata, J.J., E-mail: jkolata@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Howard, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Mittig, W. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ahn, T. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Febbrarro, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W.G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Roberts, A. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shore, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Torres-Isea, R.O. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    The total fusion excitation function for {sup 10}Be+{sup 40}Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) {sup 10}Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  7. The NA36 time projection chamber: An interim report on a TPC designed for a relativistic heavy ion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since its conception in the early 1970s, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has found application in several areas of particle physics ranging from e + e - collider experiments to rare decay studies of lepton nonconservation. A new and promising area of application for the TPC is the study of relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC). Presented here is an interim report on the first TPC for this field of physics, the NA36 TPC, being developed by Berkeley (LBL) for RHIC at the CERN SPS. Emphasis is placed on the operational and design considerations implemented to optimize the performance of the NA36 TPC in the study of central rapidity strange baryons produced in RHIC. The NA36 TPC volume is rectangular with an endcap area 0.5 m x 1.0 m and a maximum drift distance of 0.5 m. The drift volume is filled with Ar-CH 4 (9%) at one atmosphere. A total of 6400 channels of time digitizing electronics instrument 66% of the endcap in a wedge shaped area matched to fixed target kinematics. 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  9. The Intense Pulsed Ion Beam Treatment and the Titanium Nitride Coating of Hard Alloy for Cutting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnev, Gennady E.; Tarbokov, Vladislav A.

    The aim of this work was to investigate adhesion increasing of titanium nitride coating deposited at hard alloy tool’s surface pretreated by intense pulsed ion beam of different energy density. Two alloys were treated by high-power pulsed ion beam of 1÷3.75 J/cm2 energy density. Analyzing the data obtained from tunnel microscopy, X-ray spectrum and measurements of surface relief geometry characteristics, such as roughness and profile length, we came to the following conclusion. First, the value of energy density of ion beam plays the key role in the formation of the relief and phase structure of the surface. Second, these two characteristics are almost independent of the initial characteristics of the irradiated alloys. Also, the article touches the results of scratch-test of the titanium nitride coating. The results demonstrate changes in wearing and destruction mode of the coating deposited at the tool treated by ion beam.

  10. Determination of absorbed dose to water in a clinical carbon ion beam by means of fluorescent nuclear track detectors, ionization chambers, and water calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinga-Blaettermann, Julia-Maria

    2016-12-20

    Until now, dosimetry of carbon ions with ionization chambers has not reached the same level of accuracy as of high-energy photons. This is mainly caused by the threefold higher uncertainty of the k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}}-factor of ionization chambers, which is derived by calculations due to a lack of experimental data. The current thesis comprises two major aims with respect to the dosimetry of carbon ion beams: first, the investigation of the potential of fluorescent nuclear track detectors for fluence-based dosimetry and second, the experimental determination of the k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}}-factor. The direct comparison of fluence- and ionization-based measurements has shown a significant discrepancy of 4.5 %, which re-opened the discussion on the accuracy of calculated k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}}-factors. Therefore, absorbed dose to water measurements by means of water calorimetry have been performed allowing for the direct calibration of ionization chambers and thus for the experimental determination of k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}}. For the first time it could be shown that the experimental determination of k{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} for carbon ion beams is achievable with a standard measurement uncertainty of 0.8 %. This corresponds to a threefold reduction of the uncertainty compared to calculated values and therefore enables to significantly decrease the overall uncertainty related to ionization-based dosimetry of clinical carbon ion beams.

  11. Structure and properties of TiSiCN coatings with different bias voltages by arc ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinming; Li, Jinlong; Dong, Minpeng; Zhang, Henghua; Wang, Liping

    2018-03-01

    TiSiCN coatings were deposited on 316 L steel using the multi-arc ion plating system. All the coatings had the same total thickness of approximately 1.6 µm. The TiSiCN coatings were deposited under the mixture constant flow of N2 and C2H2 but varying bias. Information about structures, composition and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate wear tests. The results show that all of the coatings consist of a TiCN nano-crystal phase and an Si3N4 amorphous phase. With an increase in the bias, the film becomes denser and exhibits better tribological behavior and mechanical properties. Moreover, the bonding strength between the coatings and the substrate increased and the resistance to thermal shock intensified when the coatings were made at a higher bias voltage.

  12. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using cryptocrystalline magnesite to remove boron ions from aqueous systems. Batch experimental protocols were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of magnesite for boron. Parameters...

  13. Boron reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity 10 B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron

  14. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.; Pynn, R.

    1997-01-01

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  15. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  17. A silver ion-doped calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder-coated prosthesis increased infection resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Nusret; Otuzbir, Ali; Pekşen, Ceren; Kiremitçi, Abdurrahman; Doğan, Aydin

    2013-08-01

    Despite progress in surgical techniques, 1% to 2% of joint arthroplasties become complicated by infection. Coating implant surfaces with antimicrobial agents have been attempted to prevent initial bacterial adhesion to implants with varying success rates. We developed a silver ion-containing calcium phosphate-based ceramic nanopowder coating to provide antibacterial activity for orthopaedic implants. We asked whether titanium prostheses coated with this nanopowder would show resistance to bacterial colonization as compared with uncoated prostheses. We inserted titanium implants (uncoated [n = 9], hydroxyapatite-coated [n = 9], silver-coated [n = 9]) simulating knee prostheses into 27 rabbits' knees. Before implantation, 5 × 10(2) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated into the femoral canal. Radiology, microbiology, and histology findings were quantified at Week 6 to define the infection, microbiologically by increased rate of implant colonization/positive cultures, histologically by leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, foreign-body granuloma, and devitalized bone, and radiographically by periosteal reaction, osteolysis, or sequestrum formation. Swab samples taken from medullary canals and implants revealed a lower proportion of positive culture in silver-coated implants (one of nine) than in uncoated (eight of nine) or hydroxyapatite-coated (five of nine) implants. Silver-coated implants also had a lower rate of colonization. No cellular inflammation or foreign-body granuloma was observed around the silver-coated prostheses. Silver ion-doped ceramic nanopowder coating of titanium implants led to an increase in resistance to bacterial colonization compared to uncoated implants. Silver-coated orthopaedic implants may be useful for resistance to local infection but will require in vivo confirmation.

  18. The influence of repetitively pulsed plasma immersion low energy ion implantation on TiN coating formation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, D. O.; Ananin, P. S.; Dektyarev, S. V.; Ryabchikov, A. I.; Shevelev, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Application of high frequency short pulse plasma immersion low energy ion implantation for titanium nitride coating deposition using vacuum arc metal plasma and hot-cathode gas-discharge plasma on R6M5 alloy was investigated. Implementation of negative repetitively pulsed bias with bias amplitude 2 kV, pulse duration 5 μs and pulse frequency 105 Hz leads to 6.2-fold decrease of vacuum arc macroparticle surface density for macroparticles with diameter less than 0.5 μm. Ion sputtering due coating deposition reduces the production rate approximately by 30%. It was found that with bias amplitude range from 1.1 to 1.4 kV and pulse duration 5 μs yields to formation of coatings with local hardness up to 40 GPa. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adhesion strength, tribological properties and surface morphology of deposited TiN coatings.

  19. Development of a Boron Neutron Capture Enhanced Fast Neutron Therapy Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Georgia Tech

    2002-01-01

    The combination of fast neutron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy is currently under investigation at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment method, termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT) utilizes a boron containing drug to selectively increase the dose to the target tumor. BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. A neutron therapy beam for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy has been developed for the existing Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility. This beam produces a significant dose enhancement due to the the boron neutron capture reaction. The beam was developed by designing a filter and collimator system using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX. The MCNPX code was benchmarked against depth-dose measurements of the standard treatment beam. The new BNCEFNT beam is filtered with 18.3-cm of low carbon steel and is collimated with steel. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the new BNCEFNT beam were performed with paired tissue equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers has boron incorporated in the wall of the chamber to measure the dose due to boron neutron capture. The measured boron dose enhancement of the BNCEFNT beam is (16.3 ± 2.6)% per 100-ppm 10B for a 20-cm diameter beam and (10.0 ± 1.6)% per 100-ppm 10B for a 10-cm diameter beam. The dose rate of the new beam is reduced to 4.4% of the dose rate of the standard treatment beam. xxi A conceptual design that overcomes the reduced dose rate is also presented. This design uses a tungsten collimator placed near the patient, with a 1.5-cm tungsten filter just upstream of the collimator. Using graphite moderation of neutrons around the patient a percent dose enhancement of 15% can be attained with good collimation, for field sizes as small as 5 × 5 cm2 , and without a reduction in dose rate.

  20. Modeling ion induced effects in thin films and coatings for lunar and space environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Pirich, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    Protective thin film coatings are important for many near-Earth and interplanetary space systems applications using photonic components, optical elements, solar cells and detector-sensor front surfaces to name but a few environmentally at-risk technologies. The near-Earth and natural space environment consists of known degradation processes induced within these technologies brought about by atomic oxygen, micrometeorite impacts, space debris and dust, solar generated charged particles, Van Allen belt trapped particles, and galactic cosmic radiation. This paper will focus on presenting the results of an investigation based on simulated ion-induced defect-modeling and nuclear irradiation testing of several innovative hybrid-polymeric self-cleaning hydrophobic coatings investigated for application to space photonic components, lunar surface, avionic and terrestrial applications. Data is reported regarding the radiation resistance of several hybrid polymer coatings containing various loadings of nanometer-sized TiO2 fillers for protecting sensors, structures, human and space vehicles from dust contamination found in space and on the Lunar and other planetary surfaces.

  1. Titanium conversion coatings on the aluminum foil AA 8021 used for lithium-ion battery package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xu-Feng; Gu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Shi-Ai

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an environment-friendly titanium (Ti) conversion coating was successfully deposited on the aluminum foil AA 8021 in the solution containing hexafluorotitanic acid (H2TiF6), and its morphology, composition, growth process, hydrophilicity and corrosion resistance were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), contact-angle measurements (CAM) and salt spray exposure. The peeling strength between the Ti treated Al foil and the modified polypropylene (PP) film (PP grafted with maleic anhydride, PP-g-MAH) (Al/PP-g-MAH) was measured by T-peeling test. The results show that the Ti conversion coating is a multi-component coating composed primarily of metal oxides (TiO2 and Al2O3) and metal fluoride (AlF3). Ti treated Al foil shows better corrosion resistance than untreated and alkali-cleaned Al foils. The peeling strength of PP-g-MAH film with Ti treated Al foils is approximately 30 times higher than that with untreated Al foils. Thus, Ti treatment is a promising approach to improve the corrosion resistance and peeling strength of aluminum/polymer composite film (Al/P) used in the lithium-ion battery package.

  2. Functional separator consisted of polyimide nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene coating layer for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Shaohua; He, Xinyi; Yang, Pingting; Wu, Dezhi; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a composite membrane with nonwoven polyimide (PI) membrane as structural support and polyethylene (PE) particles coating layer as a thermal shutdown layer, is fabricated as the separator for lithium-ion battery. Different from PI nonwoven membrane, the PE coating PI nonwoven composite membrane (PE-PI-S) not only shows excellent thermal shutdown function, similar to traditional multilayer PP/PE/PP separator, but also exhibits much higher thermal stability, better wettability to the polar electrolyte and lower internal resistance than the PP/PE/PP separator. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of PE-PI-S increase from 58%, 0.84 mS cm-1 to 400%, 1.34 mS cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal shutdown function of PE-PI-S can be controlled widely in the temperature range from 120 °C to more than 200 °C while the multilayer PP/PE/PP separator only with a shutdown temperature range from 130 °C to 160 °C. Lithium ion battery with PE-PI-S nonwoven separator also shows excellent stable cycling and good rate performance.

  3. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  4. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, B; Li, J; Liu, C; Yan, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle 3 ), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  5. Effect of an intermediate tungsten layer on thermal properties of TiC coatings ion plated onto molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, M.; Fujitsuka, M.; Shikama, T.; Okada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Among the various low-Z coating-substrate systems proposed for fusion reactor first-wall applications, molybdenum coated with titanium carbide is considered very promising since it has a good capability of receiving heat from the plasma. The thermal stabilities of TiC layers ion plated onto the molybdenum substrate are discussed with particular reference to the interfacial reaction between the TiC coating and molybdenum. The deposition of an intermediate tungsten layer was found to be very effective in suppressing the formation of reaction layers, resulting in a marked improvement in thermal stabilities of TiC--Mo systems. Thermal shock test using a pulsed electron beam showed that the TiC coatings remained adherent to the molybdenum substrates during energy depositions high enough to melt the substrates within the area of beam deposition. The melt area of the TiC coatings apparently decreased when a tungsten intermediate layer was applied

  6. Production of AlN films: ion nitriding versus PVD coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, U.; Salas, O.; Oseguera, J.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of AlN render this material very attractive for optical, electronic, and tribological applications; thus, a great interest exists for the production of thin AlN films on a variety of substrates. Many methods have been developed for this purpose where two processes stand out: plasma-assisted nitriding (PAN) and PVD coating. In the present paper, we compare the processing advantages and disadvantages of both methods in terms of the characteristics of the layers formed. AlN production by ion nitriding is very sensitive to presputtering cleaning and working pressure. Layers several micrometers thick can be produced in a few hours, which are formed by a fine mixture of Al+AlN. The surface morphology of the layers is rather rough. On the other hand, formation of PVD AlN coatings by DC reactive magnetron sputtering is more readily performed and better controlled than in ion nitriding. PVD results in macroscopically smoother AlN films and with similar thickness than the ion nitrided layers but produced in shorter processing times. The morphology of the PVD AlN layers is columnar with a fairly flat surface. Mechanisms for the formation of both types of AlN layers are proposed. One of the main differences between the two processes that explain the different AlN layer morphologies is the energy of the particles that arrive at the substrate. Considering only the processing advantages and the morphology of the AlN layers formed, PVD performs better than PAN processing

  7. Robotic radiosurgery system patient-specific QA for extracranial treatments using the planar ion chamber array and the cylindrical diode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Han; Veltchev, Iavor; Koren, Sion; Ma, Charlie; Li, Jinsgeng

    2015-07-08

    Robotic radiosurgery system has been increasingly employed for extracranial treatments. This work is aimed to study the feasibility of a cylindrical diode array and a planar ion chamber array for patient-specific QA with this robotic radiosurgery system and compare their performance. Fiducial markers were implanted in both systems to enable image-based setup. An in-house program was developed to postprocess the movie file of the measurements and apply the beam-by-beam angular corrections for both systems. The impact of noncoplanar delivery was then assessed by evaluating the angles created by the incident beams with respect to the two detector arrangements and cross-comparing the planned dose distribution to the measured ones with/without the angular corrections. The sensitivity of detecting the translational (1-3 mm) and the rotational (1°-3°) delivery errors were also evaluated for both systems. Six extracranial patient plans (PTV 7-137 cm³) were measured with these two systems and compared with the calculated doses. The plan dose distributions were calculated with ray-tracing and the Monte Carlo (MC) method, respectively. With 0.8 by 0.8 mm² diodes, the output factors measured with the cylindrical diode array agree better with the commissioning data. The maximum angular correction for a given beam is 8.2% for the planar ion chamber array and 2.4% for the cylindrical diode array. The two systems demonstrate a comparable sensitivity of detecting the translational targeting errors, while the cylindrical diode array is more sensitive to the rotational targeting error. The MC method is necessary for dose calculations in the cylindrical diode array phantom because the ray-tracing algorithm fails to handle the high-Z diodes and the acrylic phantom. For all the patient plans, the cylindrical diode array/ planar ion chamber array demonstrate 100% / > 92% (3%/3 mm) and > 96% / ~ 80% (2%/2 mm) passing rates. The feasibility of using both systems for robotic

  8. Biodistribution and subcellular localization of an unnatural boron-containing amino acid (cis-ABCPC by imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for neutron capture therapy of melanomas and gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra

    Full Text Available The development of new boron-delivery agents is a high priority for improving the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy. In the present study, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC as a mixture of its L- and D-enantiomers was evaluated in vivo using the B16 melanoma model for the human tumor and the F98 rat glioma as a model for human gliomas. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS based imaging instrument, CAMECA IMS 3F SIMS Ion Microscope, was used for quantitative imaging of boron at 500 nm spatial resolution. Both in vivo and in vitro studies in melanoma models demonstrated that boron was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclei with some cell-to-cell variability. Uptake of cis-ABCPC in B16 cells was time dependent with a 7.5:1 partitioning ratio of boron between cell nuclei and the nutrient medium after 4 hrs. incubation. Furthermore, cis-ABCPC delivered boron to cells in all phases of the cell cycle, including S-phase. In vivo SIMS studies using the F98 rat glioma model revealed an 8:1 boron partitioning ratio between the main tumor mass and normal brain tissue with a 5:1 ratio between infiltrating tumor cells and contiguous normal brain. Since cis-ABCPC is water soluble and can cross the blood-brain-barrier via the L-type amino acid transporters (LAT, it may accumulate preferentially in infiltrating tumor cells in normal brain due to up-regulation of LAT in high grade gliomas. Once trapped inside the tumor cell, cis-ABCPC cannot be metabolized and remains either in a free pool or bound to cell matrix components. The significant improvement in boron uptake by both the main tumor mass and infiltrating tumor cells compared to those reported in animal and clinical studies of p-boronophenylalanine strongly suggest that cis-ABCPC has the potential to become a novel new boron delivery agent for neutron capture therapy of gliomas and melanomas.

  9. Integrated Rig for the Production of Boron Nitride Nanotubes via the Pressurized Vapor-Condenser Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An integrated production apparatus for production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressure vapor-condenser method. The apparatus comprises: a pressurized reaction chamber containing a continuously fed boron containing target having a boron target tip, a source of pressurized nitrogen and a moving belt condenser apparatus; a hutch chamber proximate the pressurized reaction chamber containing a target feed system and a laser beam and optics.

  10. Absorbed dose to water determination with ionization chamber dosimetry and calorimetry in restricted neutron, photon, proton and heavy-ion radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, H J; Greif, K-D; Hecker, O; Heeg, P; Heese, J; Jones, D T L; Kluge, H; Schardt, D

    2006-08-07

    Absolute dose measurements with a transportable water calorimeter and ionization chambers were performed at a water depth of 20 mm in four different types of radiation fields, for a collimated (60)Co photon beam, for a collimated neutron beam with a fluence-averaged mean energy of 5.25 MeV, for collimated proton beams with mean energies of 36 MeV and 182 MeV at the measuring position, and for a (12)C ion beam in a scanned mode with an energy per atomic mass of 430 MeV u(-1). The ionization chambers actually used were calibrated in units of air kerma in the photon reference field of the PTB and in units of absorbed dose to water for a Farmer-type chamber at GSI. The absorbed dose to water inferred from calorimetry was compared with the dose derived from ionometry by applying the radiation-field-dependent parameters. For neutrons, the quantities of the ICRU Report 45, for protons the quantities of the ICRU Report 59 and for the (12)C ion beam, the recommended values of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) protocol (TRS 398) were applied. The mean values of the absolute absorbed dose to water obtained with these two independent methods agreed within the standard uncertainty (k = 1) of 1.8% for calorimetry and of 3.0% for ionometry for all types and energies of the radiation beams used in this comparison.

  11. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries; Calibracao de medidores de PKA contra camaras de ionizacao de duas geometrias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (STDTS/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Secao Tecnica de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico em Saude

    2011-07-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  12. Microporous ceramic coated separators with superior wettability for enhancing the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharto, Yustian; Lee, Yongho; Yu, Ji-Sang; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Ki Jae

    2018-02-01

    Finding an alternative to glass fiber (GF) separators is a crucial factor for the fast commercialization of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), because GF separators are too thick for use in SIBs, thereby decreasing the volumetric and gravimetric energy density. Here we propose a microporous composite separator prepared by introducing a polymeric coating layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP co-polymer) with ZrO2 nanoparticles to a polyethylene (PE) separator. The coated separator efficiently enhances the cell performance of SIBs. The ZrO2 nanoparticles, finely dispersed on the polymeric coating layer, induce the formation of many micropores on the polymeric coating layer, suggesting that micropore formation on the coating layer renders the composite separator more open in structure. An ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte for SIBs is not absorbed by PE separators even after 1 h of electrolyte droplet testing, while the proposed separator with many micropores is completely wetted by the electrolyte. Sodium ion migration across the composite separator is therefore effectively enhanced by the formation of ion transfer pathways, which improve ionic conductivity. As a result, the microporous composite separator affords stable cycle performances and excellent specific capacity retention (95.8%) after 50 cycles, comparable to those offered by a SIB with a GF separator.

  13. Determination of boron in Jabroc wood used as a shielding material in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Manisha, V.; Venkatesh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Jabroc are non-impregnated, densified wood laminates developed commercially for a wide range of industrial applications. Jabroc can be used with other neutron shielding materials such as Lead to form complex shielding structures. Its relative light weight and cleanliness in handling are additional features that make it a suitable candidate for the standard design of neutron shielding equipment. Jabroc can also be impregnated with Boron up to a maximum of 4% to be used in areas where Gamma radiation produced on Neutron capture reaches unacceptable dose rates. Boron impregnated Jabroc wood finds application in TAPS 3 and 4 as a shielding material for the Ion Chambers and the Horizontal Flux Units (HFU). The shielding property of this material is optimized by incorporating requisite amount of boron in wood. Boron content in this material has to be determined accurately prior to its use in the nuclear reactors. In this work a method was standardized to determine boron in Jabroc wood samples to check for conformance to specifications. The wood sample flakes were wetted with saturated barium hydroxide solution and dries under IR. The sample was ashed in a muffle furnace at 600℃ for 2 h

  14. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  15. Construction and Characterization of Coated Wire Oxalate Ion Selective Electrode Based on Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri Rismiarti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PVC (polyvinyl chloride membrane based coated wire oxalate ion selective electrode has been developed by using chitosan. The results showed the optimum composition of the membrane was chitosan: aliquat 336: PVC: DBP = 4:1:33:62 (% weight. The electrode showed Nernstian response, Nernst factor 29.90 mV/decade of concentration, linier concentration range of 1x10-5 - 1x10-1 M, detection limit of 2.56 x10-6 M, response time of 30 second, and life time of 42 days. ISE’s performance worked well in pH range of 5-7 and temperature of 25-50 oC. Validation test showed no significant difference (t test with the SSA method so that the potentiometric method could be used as an alternative method for determining urinary oxalate.

  16. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  17. Development of sustained release fast-disintegrating tablets using various polymer-coated ion-exchange resin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Kinam

    2008-04-02

    Complex formation between drugs and ion-exchange resins was investigated and the effects of coating by various aqueous polymeric dispersions on the complexes were evaluated for developing new sustained-release fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs). Complexes of ion-exchange resin and dextromethorphan, a model drug, were prepared using different particle sizes of the resins. Aqueous colloidal dispersions of ethylcellulose (EC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat SR30D) were used for fluid-bed coating. Based on drug loading, release profiles, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the coated particles were granulated with suitable tablet excipients and then compressed into the tablets. Drug release profiles and SEM pictures were compared before and after the manufacturing processes. As the particle size of resins increased, the drug loading and release rate decreased due to the reduced effective diffusion coefficient and surface area. Higher coating level decreased the release rate further. In contrast to EC, Kollicoat SR30D coated particles could be compressed into tablets without any rupture or cracks on the coating since the mechanical properties of the polymer was more resistant to the manufacturing processes. This resulted in no significant changes in release rates. SEM showed the mechanical strength of the polymers affected the morphological change after compression. When the drug release profiles were applied into Boyd model and Higuchi equation, the linear relationship was observed, indicating that the diffusion within the resin matrix is the rate-controlling step.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the electrochemical oxidation of acid-yellow 36 azo dye using boron-doped diamond electrodes by addition of ferrous ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva-Rodriguez, M.; Hernandez-Ramirez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL. 66400 (Mexico); Peralta-Hernandez, J.M., E-mail: jperalta@fcq.uanl.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL. 66400 (Mexico); Bandala, Erick R.; Quiroz-Alfaro, Marco A. [Universidad de Las Americas - Puebla, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Sta. Catarina Martir - Cholula, Puebla 72820 (Mexico)

    2009-08-15

    This work shows preliminary results on the electrochemical oxidation process (EOP) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for acidic yellow 36 oxidation, a common azo dye used in textile industry. The study is centred in the synergetic effect of ferrous ions and hydroxyl free radicals for improving discoloration of azo dye. The assays were carried out in a typical glass cell under potentiostatic conditions. On experimental conditions, the EOP was able to partially remove the dye from the reaction mixture. The reaction rate increased significantly by addition of Fe{sup 2+} (1 mM as ferrous sulphate) to the system and by (assumed) generation of ferrate ion [Fe(VI)] over BDD electrode. Ferrate is considered as a highly oxidizing reagent capable of removing the colorant from the reaction mixture, in synergistic action with the hydroxyl radicals produced on the BDD surface. Further increases in the Fe{sup 2+} concentration lead to depletion of the reaction rate probably due to the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of Fe{sup 2+} excess in the system.

  20. Ethylcellulose-coated polyolefin separators for lithium-ion batteries with improved safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ming; Tang, Haolin; Wang, Yadong; Pan, Mu

    2014-01-30

    With the widely use in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, the safety of lithium-ion battery has raised serious concerns, in which the thermal stability of separator plays an essential role in preventing thermal runaway reactions. The novelty of this work is to coat commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator and trilayer polypropylene/polyethylene/polypropylene (PP/PE/PP) separator with ethylcellulose (EC), a thermally stable and renewable biomass. The formation of the EC layer with high porosity is through a simple dipping and extracting process. The effects of the EC layer on thermal shrinkage, electrolyte wettability and cell performance are investigated. After coating, the thermal shrinkage of PE separator at shutdown and meltdown point is reduced from 20% to 9% and 42% to 23% respectively, while the drop of OCV under increasing temperature is also postponed from 130°C to 160°C. The electrolyte wettability of pristine trilayer PP/PE/PP separator is greatly improved, leading to increased capacity retention from 28% to 99% of the cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  2. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO 2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO 2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF 2 . The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO 2 is caused by the reformed SnO 2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO 2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li + /Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF 2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li + /Li is due to the fact that SnF 2 is formed below the SnO 2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO 2 /Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrode applied to electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Ito, H.; Okano, K.; Nagasu, K.; Sato, S.

    2003-01-01

    Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrodes (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE) were prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto ion exchange membranes. The SPE electrodes were used for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction with 0.2 M K 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte with a platinum plate (Pt) for the counterelectrode. In an SPE electrode system prepared from a cation exchange membrane (CEM), the surface of the SPE was partly ruptured during CO 2 reduction, and the reaction was rapidly suppressed. SPE electrodes made of an anion exchange membrane (SPE/AEM) sustained reduction of CO 2 to CO for more than 2 h, whereas, the electrode potential shifted negatively during the electrolysis. The reaction is controlled by the diffusion of CO 2 through the metal layer of the SPE electrode at high current density. Ultrasonic radiation, applied to the preparation of SPE/AEM, was effective to improve the electrode properties, enhancing the electrolysis current of CO 2 reduction. Observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the electrode metal layer became more porous by the ultrasonic radiation treatment. The partial current density of CO 2 reduction by SPE/AEM amounted to 60 mA cm -2 , i.e. three times the upper limit of the conventional electrolysis by a plate electrode. Application of SPE device may contribute to an advancement of CO 2 fixation at ambient temperature and pressure

  4. SU-E-T-82: A Study On Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) Dosimetry Using 2D Seven29 Ion Chamber Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the dosimetric properties of Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) using PTW Seven29 ion chamber array Methods: PTW Seven29 ion chamber array and Solid Water phantoms for different depths were used for the study. The study was carried out in Varian Clinac ix with photon energies, 6MV & 15MV. Primarily the solid water phantoms with the 2D array were scanned using a CT scanner (GE Optima 580) at different depths. These scanned images were used for EDW planning in an Eclipse treatment planning system (version 10). Planning was done for different wedge angles and for different depths for 6MV & 15MV. A dose of 100 CGy was delivered in each cases. For each delivery, calculated the Monitoring Unit (MU) required. Same set-up was created before delivering the plans in Varian Clinac-ix. For each clinically relevant depth and for different wedge angles, the same MU was delivered as calculated. Different wedged dose distributions where reconstructed from the measured 2D array data using the in-house developed excel program. Results: It is observed that the shoulder like region in the profile which reduces as depth increases. For the same depth and energy, the percentage difference between planned and measured dose is lesser than 3%. For smaller wedge angles, the percentage difference is found to be greater than 3% for the largest wedge angle. Standard deviation between measured doses at shoulder region for planned and measured profiles is 0.08 and 0.02 respectively. Standard deviations between planned and measured wedge factors for different depths (2.5cm, 5cm, 10cm, and 15cm) are (0.0021, 0.0007, 0.0050, 0.0001) for 6MV and (0.0024, 0.0191, 0.0013, 0.0005) for 15MV respectively. Conclusion: The 2D Seven29 ion chamber array is a good tool for the Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) dosimetry

  5. Quality control tool of electrode coating for lithium-ion batteries based on X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiemble, A.; Besnard, N.; Adrien, J.; Tran-Van, P.; Gautier, L.; Lestriez, B.; Maire, E.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient method, based on X-ray radiography, is developed to check the quality (homogeneity of the thickness, presence of defects) of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrode coating for Li-ion batteries at the scale of several cm2 with a resolution of 20 μm. As a first step, the attenuation coefficient of NMC- and LFP-based coating is experimentally determined according to the Beer-Lambert law. Then, the attenuation coefficient of each active material is estimated from these experimental results and X-ray attenuation databases, which allows establishing an attenuation law for any coating composition. Finally, thanks to this relationship, the thickness can be evaluated in each spot of the film and the defects, such as pinholes or broad edges with gradual decrease of the thickness coating, can be detected. The analysis of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrodes shows that the coating quality decreases as coating thickness increases and as the nanometric vs. micrometric material content increases in the coating composition. This reveals detrimental aspects of nanomaterials with respect to their use in composite electrode manufactured through conventional slot-die or casting process.

  6. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  7. Ionization efficiency of a gas-flow ion chamber used for measuring radioactive gases by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ionization efficiencies of a cylindrical ionization chamber have been calculated using a Monte Carlo electron-photon transport code. The results agreed well with experimental values for radioactive gases. The present calculational procedure can be applied to the estimation of ionization efficiencies for radioactive gases, such as the short half-lived nuclides and positron emitters, which have been difficult to estimate through experimental calibrations. It can also be applied to evaluations of efficiencies in gases other than air. This paper describes the calculation method and results, and also presents the effects of shape and volume variations of the ionization chamber. ((orig.))

  8. Boron Doped Graphene 3-Dimensi untuk Superkapasitor Kapasitas Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Pramita Sari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical doping is an effective approach to improve the property of carbon material. In this study boron doped graphene with 3D structure used as the electrode was investigated. Boron doped graphene was prepared through freeze-dried process followed by pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO with three types of chemical substances; boron oxide, boric acid, and boron powder in an argon and hydrogen atmosphere at 1000 C for 3 hours. The difference of chemical composition generated a different percentage of boron bond with GO. The results shows that the highest electrochemical performance was found in graphene samples with the addition of boric acid (BA 86 F/g, followed by boron oxide (BO 59.2 F/g, and boron powder (BP 2 F/g. It can be caused by boron concentration bound with graphene. The higher concentration of boron could be increased the electrochemical performance due to better of ion movement.

  9. A study of airborne radon levels in Paarl houses (South Africa) and associated source terms, using electret ion chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)], E-mail: rlindsay@uwc.ac.za; Newman, R.T. [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Physics Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Speelman, W.J. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7537 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations were measured in Paarl homes by means of electret ion chambers. The concentrations varied between 28 and 465 Bq m{sup -3}. The average values (Bq m{sup -3}) found in houses on the west and east side of the Berg River, which bisects Paarl, were 132 ({+-}11) and 37 ({+-}3), respectively. Radiometric analyses of soils show that the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentration is three times higher on the west than on the east side of the Berg River.

  10. Radiosensitivity of pimonidazole-unlabelled intratumour quiescent cell population to γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams and boron neutron capture reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Hirayama, R; Matsumoto, Y; Uzawa, A; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2013-01-01

    To detect the radiosensitivity of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells unlabelled with pimonidazole to accelerated carbon ion beams and the boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR). EL4 tumour-bearing C57BL/J mice received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all intratumour proliferating (P) cells. After the administration of pimonidazole, tumours were irradiated with γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams or reactor neutron beams with the prior administration of a (10)B-carrier. Responses of intratumour Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on frequencies of micronucleation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of pimonidazole-unlabelled tumour cells was assessed by means of apoptosis frequency using immunofluorescence staining for pimonidazole. Following γ-ray irradiation, the pimonidazole-unlabelled tumour cell fraction showed significantly enhanced radiosensitivity compared with the whole tumour cell fraction, more remarkably in the Q than total cell populations. However, a significantly greater decrease in radiosensitivity in the pimonidazole-unlabelled cell fraction, evaluated using a delayed assay or a decrease in radiation dose rate, was more clearly observed among the Q than total cells. These changes in radiosensitivity were suppressed following carbon ion beam and neutron beam-only irradiaton. In the BNCR, the use of a (10)B-carrier, especially L-para-boronophenylalanine-(10)B, enhanced the sensitivity of the pimonidazole-unlabelled cells more clearly in the Q than total cells. The radiosensitivity of the pimonidazole-unlabelled cell fraction depends on the quality of radiation delivered and characteristics of the (10)B-carrier used in the BNCR. The pimonidazole-unlabelled subfraction of Q tumour cells may be a critical target in tumour control.

  11. Scratch-resistant transparent boron nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekempeneer, E.H.A.; Kuypers, S.; Vercammen, K.; Meneve, J.; Smeets, J. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Mol (Belgium); Gibson, P.N.; Gissler, W. [Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, Institute for Advanced Materials, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Transparent boron nitride (BN) coatings were deposited on glass and Si substrates in a conventional capacitively coupled RF PACVD system starting from diborane (diluted in helium) and nitrogen. By varying the plasma conditions (bias voltage, ion current density), coatings were prepared with hardness values ranging from 2 to 12 GPa (measured with a nano-indenter). Infrared absorption measurements indicated that the BN was of the hexagonal type. A combination of glancing-angle X-ray diffraction measurements and simulations shows that the coatings consist of hexagonal-type BN crystallites with different degrees of disorder (nanocrystalline or turbostratic material). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous interface layer and on top of this interface layer a well-developed fringe pattern characteristic for the basal planes in h-BN. Depending on the plasma process conditions, these fringe patterns showed different degrees of disorder as well as different orientational relationships with respect to the substrate surface. These observations were correlated with the mechanical properties of the films. (orig.) 14 refs.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye on the boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of phosphate ions: Effect of current density, pH, and chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia; Olivi, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye (AB-210) on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) was investigated under different pH conditions. The best performance for the AB-210 oxidation occurred in alkaline phosphate solution. This is probably due to oxidizing agents such as phosphate radicals and peroxodiphosphate ions, which can be electrochemically produced with good yields on the BDD anode, mainly in alkaline solution. Under this condition, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was higher than that obtained from the model proposed by Comninellis. Electrolyses performed in phosphate buffer and in the presence of chloride ions resulted in faster COD and color removals in acid and neutral solutions, but in alkaline phosphate solution, a better performance in terms of TOC removal was obtained in the absence of chloride. Moreover, organochloride compounds were detected in all electrolyses performed in the presence of chloride. The AB-210 electrooxidation on BDD using phosphate as supporting electrolyte proved to be interesting since oxidizing species generated from phosphate ions were able to completely degrade the dye without producing organochloride compounds.

  13. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Boron Activated Neutron Thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsley, A. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Instrument Research & Development

    1952-01-09

    The Brown Instrument Division of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. have been making pilot models of boron coated neutron sensitive thermopiles, which show considerable promise of being effective indicators of slow neutron flux. Their loss in sensitivity in a year of operation in the maximum flux of CP-6 calculates to be less than 6 per cent. When used as rooftop indicators, the ratio of the signal of the two units would change by about 2 per cent in a year's time.

  15. Au{sup 3+} ion implantation on FTO coated glasses: Effect on structural, electrical, optical and phonon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Bindu; Dey, Ranajit; Bajpai, P.K., E-mail: bajpai.pk1@gmail.com

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses at varying fluence. • Metal clustering near the surface and subsurface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. • Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the tetragonal distortion increases with increasing ion fluence. • Significant surface reconstruction takes place with ion beam fluence; The average roughness also decreases with increasing fluence. • The sheet resistivity increases with increasing fluence. • Raman analysis also corroborates the re-crystallization process inducing due to ion implantation. • Optical properties of the implanted surfaces changes significantly. - Abstract: Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses on structural, electrical optical and phonon behavior have been explored. It has been observed that metal clustering near the surface and sub-surface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the unit cell volume decreases with increase in fluence and the tetragonal distortion (c/a ratio) also decreases systematically in the implanted samples. The sheet resistivity of the films increases from 11 × 10{sup −5} ohm-cm (in pristine) to 7.5 × 10{sup −4} ohm-cm for highest ion beam fluence ≈10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The optical absorption decreases with increasing fluence whereas, the optical transmittance as well as reflectance increases with increasing fluence. The Raman spectra are observed at ∼530 cm{sup −1} and ∼1103 cm{sup −1} in pristine sample. The broad band at 530 cm{sup −1} shifts towards higher wave number in the irradiated samples. This may be correlated with increased disorder and strain relaxation in

  16. Structural and corrosion characterization of hydroxyapatite/zirconium nitride-coated AZ91 magnesium alloy by ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim, E-mail: rkiahoseyni@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, Abdollah [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefpour, Mardali [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The thickness of HA coatings increase by ion beam sputtering time. • The residual strain in HA structure decrease by deposition time increment. • Crystallite size of HA coatings increase by deposition time increment. • The best corrosion resistance occurs at intermediate deposition time. - Abstract: The adhesion of hydroxyapatite (HA) as a coating for the AZ91 magnesium alloy substrate can be improved by using the sputtering method and an intermediate layer, such as ZrN. In this study, HA coatings were applied on ZrN intermediate layers at a temperature of 300 °C for 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 min by ion beam sputtering. A profilometer device was used to study the HA coating thickness, which changed from 2 μm for the 180-min deposition to 4.7 μm for 420-min deposition. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis method and the Williamson–Hall analysis were used for structural investigation. As the deposition time increased, the crystalline size increased from 50 nm to 690 nm. However, given sufficient time for stress relief on the coating structure, the lattice strain values were close to zero. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results showed that the Ca/P ratio ranged from 1.73 to 1.81. The external indentation method was used to evaluate the coating adhesion to the substrate. The slope of curve for applied force changes versus the radius of cracks in the coating (dP/dr) varied in the range of 0.2–0.07 by the deposition time, indicating that the adhesion increased with the increase in coating thickness. The potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to study the corrosion behavior. With increasing deposition time, the corrosion potential of samples did not show a significant change, and the corrosion potential of all samples (coated and uncoated substrates) was more positive than approximately 55 mV. When the deposition time increased to 360 min, the corrosion current density decreased from 5.5 μA/cm{sup 2} to 0.33

  17. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D.; Packer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  18. High cyclability of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles as anode for sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yeqian; Jiang, Han; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Hu, Yi; Qiu, Yiping; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Titanium oxide nanopaticles were modified by carbon coating from pyrolyzing of PVP. • Carbon coating gave rise to excellent cycling ability of TiO 2 for sodium-ion batteries. • The reversible capacity of carbon-coated TiO 2 reached 242.3 mAh g −1 at 30 mA g −1 . • Good rate performance of carbon-coated TiO 2 was presented up to 800 mA g −1 . - Abstract: Owing to the merits of good chemical stability, elemental abundance and nontoxicity, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has drawn increasing attraction for use as anode material in sodium-ion batteries. Nanostructured TiO 2 was able to achieve high energy density. However, nanosized TiO 2 is typically electrochemical instable, which leads to poor cycling performance. In order to improve the cycling stability, carbon from thermolysis of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) was coated onto TiO 2 nanoparticles. Electronic conductivity and electrochemical stability were enhanced by coating carbon onto TiO 2 nanoparticles. The resultant carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles exhibited high reversible capacity (242.3 mAh g −1 ), high coulombic efficiency (97.8%), and good capacity retention (87.0%) at 30 mA g −1 over 100 cycles. By comparison, untreated TiO 2 nanoparticles showed comparable reversible capacity (237.3 mAh g −1 ) and coulombic efficiency (96.2%), but poor capacity retention (53.2%) under the same condition. The rate performance of carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles was also displayed as high as 127.6 mAh g −1 at a current density of 800 mA g −1 . The improved cycling performance and rate capability were mostly attributed to protective carbon layer helping stablize solid electrolyte interface formation of TiO 2 nanoparticles and improving the electronic conductivity. Therefore, it is demonstrated that carbon-coated TiO 2 nanoparticles are promising anode candidate for sodium-ion batteries

  19. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-12-12

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.

  20. Coating of nanoparticles on cryogel surface and subsequent double-modification for enhanced ion-exchange capacity of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Chuan; Sun, Yan

    2014-09-12

    A novel composite cryogel monolith was developed by coating poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (NPs) onto the pore wall surface of poly(acrylamide) cryogel. The NPs-coated column was double-modified with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and diethylaminoethyl in sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the dense coating of the NPs on the cryogel surface, but the NPs-coating did not result in distinct changes of the column porosity and permeability. The rough pore wall surface and extended polymer chains offered more binding sites, so the dynamic binding capacity of the composite cryogel bed for bovine serum albumin reached 11.7mg/mL bed volume at a flow rate of 6cm/min, which was 4.2 times higher than that of the cryogel bed modified with PEI without coating NPs (2.8mg/mL). The binding capacity as well as column efficiency decreased only slightly with increasing flow rate from 0.6 to 12cm/min. The results indicated that the strategy of NPs-coating incorporating with double ion-exchanger modifications is promising for enhancing cryogel capacities, and the novel material would be useful for high-speed protein chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Chin; Dai, Shyue-Bin; Tien, Shein-Long; Chang, Chung-Chih; Fu, Yaw-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 °C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  2. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, S.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Dai, S.-B. [Center of General Studies, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Nano-Win Technology Co. Ltd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Tien, S.-L. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.-C. [Department of Physics, R.O.C. Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-S. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw

    2007-02-15

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  3. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-C.; Lee, S.-C.; Dai, S.-B.; Tien, S.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Fu, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications

  4. Determination of boron concentration in biopsy-sized tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yougjin; Fong, Katrina; Edwards, Benjamin; Autry-Conwell, Susan; Boggan, James

    2000-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the most sensitive analytical method for boron determination. However, because boron is volatile and ubiquitous in nature, low-concentration boron sample measurement remains a challenge. In this study, an improved ICP-MS method was developed for quantitation of tissue samples with low (less than 10 ppb) and high (100 ppb) boron concentrations. The addition of an ammonia-mannitol solution converts volatile boric acid to the non-volatile ammonium borate in the spray chamber and with the formation of a boron-mannitol complex, the boron memory effect and background are greatly reduced. This results in measurements that are more accurate, repeatable, and efficient. This improved analysis method has facilitated rapid and reliable tissue biodistribution analyses of newly developed boronated compounds for potential use in neutron capture therapy. (author)

  5. Temperature effect on the formation of a relief of diamond-like carbon coatings and its modification by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubshtein, A.P.; Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.; Yugov, V.A.; Vladimirov, A.B.; Plotnikov, S.A.; Ponosov, Yu.S

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of pulsed arc sputtering of a graphite target the diamond-like coatings (DLC) ∼1.5 μm thick are deposited on a steel R6M5 substrate. The relief of the coatings obtained under various temperature conditions is investigated. Variations of carbon DLC surfaces are followed after their bombardment with accelerated argon or chemically active oxygen ions. Argon ion bombardment is established to be preferred for producing a smoothed-out DLC relief. It is shown that a DLC relief should be taken into account when measuring microhardness. It is recommended that transformation of interatomic bonds in irradiated subsurface layers be taken into consideration if information index of methods applied constitutes several monolayers [ru

  6. Highly sensitive luminescent sensor for cyanide ion detection in aqueous solution based on PEG-coated ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Surinder K; Salaria, Khushboo; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-03-15

    Using polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated ZnS nanoparticles (NPs), a novel and highly sensitive luminescent sensor for cyanide ion detection in aqueous solution has been presented. ZnS NPs have been used to develop efficient luminescence sensor which exhibits high reproducibility and stability with the lowest limit of detection of 1.29×10(-6) mol L(-1). The observed limit of detection of the fabricated sensor is ~6 times lower than maximum value of cyanide permitted by United States Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water (7.69×10(-6) mol L(-1)). The interfering studies show that the developed sensor possesses good selectivity for cyanide ion even in presence of other coexisting ions. Importantly, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which demonstrates the utilization of PEG- coated ZnS NPs for efficient luminescence sensor for cyanide ion detection in aqueous solution. This work demonstrates that rapidly synthesized ZnS NPs can be used to fabricate efficient luminescence sensor for cyanide ion detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-09

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance.

  8. Analysis of sub-bandgap losses in TiO2 coating deposited via single and dual ion beam deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídek, Karel; Hlubuček, Jiří; Horodyská, Petra; Budasz, Jiří; Václavík, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 626, March (2017), s. 60-65 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ion beam deposition * Titanium dioxide * Optical coating * Sub-bandgap losses * Urbach tail Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609017301256

  9. Novel ion-imprinted polymer coated on nanoporous silica as a highly selective sorbent for the extraction of ultratrace quantities of gold ions from mine stone samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, H.; Moazzen, E.; Amini, M.; Sadeghi, O.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gold ion-imprinted polymer (GIP) by incorporating a dipyridyl ligand into an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate matrix which then was coated onto porous silica particles. The material was used for the selective extraction of ultratrace quantities of gold ion from mine stones, this followed by its quantitation by FAAS. The effects of concentration and volume of eluent, pH of the solution, flow rates of sample and eluent, and effect of potentially interfering ions, especially palladium and platinum, was investigated. The limit of detection is -1 , the precision (RSD%) is 1.03 %, and recoveries are >99 %. In order to show the high selectivity and efficiency of the new sorbent, the results were compared to those obtained with more simple sorbents possessing the same functional groups. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by the accurate determination of gold ions in a certified reference material. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report so far on an imprint for gold ions that has such a selectivity over Pd(II) and Pt(II) ions. (author)

  10. Monte Carlo computed machine-specific correction factors for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beam for several ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o correction factors for machine-specific reference (msr) conditions by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for reference dosimetry of TomoTherapy static beams for ion chambers Exradin A1SL, A12; PTW 30006, 31010 Semiflex, 31014 PinPoint, 31018 microLion; NE 2571. Methods: For the calibration of TomoTherapy units, reference conditions specified in current codes of practice like IAEA/TRS-398 and AAPM/TG-51 cannot be realized. To cope with this issue, Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] described a new formalism introducing msr factors k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o for reference dosimetry, applicable to static TomoTherapy beams. In this study, those factors were computed directly using MC simulations for Q 0 corresponding to a simplified 60 Co beam in TRS-398 reference conditions (at 10 cm depth). The msr conditions were a 10 × 5 cm 2 TomoTherapy beam, source-surface distance of 85 cm and 10 cm depth. The chambers were modeled according to technical drawings using the egs++ package and the MC simulations were run with the egs c hamber user code. Phase-space files used as the source input were produced using PENELOPE after simulation of a simplified 60 Co beam and the TomoTherapy treatment head modeled according to technical drawings. Correlated sampling, intermediate phase-space storage, and photon cross-section enhancement variance reduction techniques were used. The simulations were stopped when the combined standard uncertainty was below 0.2%. Results: Computed k Q msr ,Q o f msr ,f o values were all close to one, in a range from 0.991 for the PinPoint chamber to 1.000 for the Exradin A12 with a statistical uncertainty below 0.2%. Considering a beam quality Q defined as the TPR 20,10 for a 6 MV Elekta photon beam (0.661), the additional correction k Q msr, Q f msr, f ref to k Q,Q o defined in Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)] formalism was in a range from 0.997 to 1.004.Conclusion: The MC computed

  11. Ion chamber-electrometer measurement system for radiation protection tests in X-ray equipment for interventional procedures; Sistema de medicao camara de ionizacao-eletrometro para ensaios de protecao radiologica em equipamentos de raios X para procedimentos intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio

    2012-07-01

    A new parallel plate ionization chamber with volume of 500 cc and an electrometer with digital interface for data acquisition, configuring an ion chamber electrometer measurement system, were developed to comply with specific requirements for compulsory radiation protection tests in interventional X-ray equipment. The ion chamber has as main characteristics: low cost, mechanical strength and response variation with beam energy of less than 5% in the 40 kV to 150 kV range. The electrometer has a high gain (5x10{sup 8} V/A) transimpedance amplifier circuit and a data acquisition and control system developed in LabVIEW Registered-Sign platform, including an integrated power supply for the ion chamber bias with adjustable DC voltage output from O to 1000 V and an air density correction system. Electric field calculations, laboratory measurements in standard beams and computational simulations of radiation interactions in chamber volume with Monte Carlo Method were employed in the elaborated methodology of the ion chamber development, which was tested and validated. It was also developed a simplified methodology for electrometer calibration that assures metrological trustworthiness of the measurement system. Tests for the system performance evaluation as environmental influence response, energy response, angular dependency, linearity and air kerma and air kerma rate dependency were performed according to international standards and requirements. Additionally, for a detailed evaluation of the developed ion chamber, simulations with various scattered radiation spectra were performed. The system was applied in leakage radiation, residual radiation and scattered radiation tests, being compared with other reference systems and validated for laboratorial test routine. (author)

  12. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    1999-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  13. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  14. Tribological properties of nc-TiC/a-C : H coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering at low and high ion bombardment of the growing film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souček, Pavel; Schmidtová, Tereza; Buršíková, Vilma; Vašina, Petr; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Caha, Ondřej; Peřina, Vratislav; Mikšová, Romana; Malinský, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Two series of nc-TiC/a-C:H coatings were deposited by a hybrid PVD–PECVD process of titanium sputtering in argon/acetylene atmosphere at two configurations of magnetic field resulting in different impinging ion fluxes on the growing film. The composition of the coatings was varied by changing the

  15. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.P.; Purushotham, K.P.; Manory, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced surface roughness was observed after ion implantation. • W implantation increased residual stress. • Reduced friction and wear accompanied Mo implantation. • Mo implanted layer was more resistant to breakdown during wear testing. • Ion implantation effects can be complex on various implanting species properties. - Abstract: Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 10 16 ions cm −2 for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti 2 N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  16. In Vivo Osseointegration Performance of Titanium Dioxide Coating Modified Polyetheretherketone Using Arc Ion Plating for Spinal Implant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Kai Tsou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK, which has biomechanical performance similar to that of human cancellous bone, is used widely as a spinal implant material. However, its bioinertness and hydrophobic surface properties result in poor osseointegration. This study applies a novel modification method, arc ion plating (AIP, that produces a highly osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2 coatings on a PEEK substrate. This PEEK with TiO2 coating (TiO2/PEEK was implanted into the femurs of New Zealand white male rabbits to evaluate its in vivo performance by the push-out test and histological observation. Analytical results show that AIP can prepare TiO2 coatings on bullet-shaped PEEK substrates as implant materials. After prolonged implantation in rabbits, no signs of inflammation existed. Newly regenerated bone formed more prominently with the TiO2/PEEK implant by histological observation. The shear strength of the bone/implant interface increases as implantation period increases. Most importantly, bone bonding performance of the TiO2/PEEK implant was superior to that of bare PEEK. The rutile-TiO2 coatings achieved better osseointegration than the anatase-TiO2 coatings. Therefore, AIP-TiO2 can serve as a novel surface modification method on PEEK for spinal interbody fusion cages.

  17. Plasma Processes: Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our Research ...

  18. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our ...

  19. Surface analytical investigation of diamond coatings and nucleation processes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1993-10-01

    Imaging SIMS for the investigation of substrate surfaces: the influence of the substrate surface on diamond nucleation is a major topic in the investigation of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond. It is well known that the nucleation density can be enhanced by scratching the substrate surface with abrasive powders. Diamond can nucleate at scratches or at residues of the polishing material. In the present work the surface of refractory metals (Mo, Nb, Ta, W) polished with silicon carbide and diamond powder is studied by imaging (2- or 3-D) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In first experiments the distribution of SiC and/or diamond residues after polishing was determined. The reaction of diamond with the substrate during heating to deposition temperatures was investigated. Investigation of WC/Co hardmetal substrates: it is well known that Co contained in the binder phase of the hard metal inhibits a strong adhesion between the diamond film and the substrate, which is need for an application as cutting tool. Several attempts to improve the adhesion have been reported up to now. In this work a pre-treatment procedure leading to the formation of Co compounds (borides and silicides) which are stable under diamond deposition conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the application of intermediate sputter layers consisting of chromium and titanium were studied. Investigation of P-doped diamond coatings: in the quaternary phase diagram C-P-B-N exist some phases with diamond structure and superhard phases (e.g BP, c-BN). Also a hypothetical superhard phase of the composition C 3 N 4 is predicted. A scientific objective is the synthesis of such phases by chemical vapour deposition. An increase of the phosphorus concentration effects a distinct change in the morphology of the deposited coatings. A major advantage of SIMS is that the concentration profiles can be measured through the whole film, due to the sputter removal of the sample, and the interface

  20. Substoichiometric isotope dilution mass spectrometry of boron by the ion-pair extraction with halogenated salicyl alcohol derivatives and a quaternary ammonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Keisuke; Imura, Hisanori

    2012-01-01

    Novel salicyl alcohol derivatives (H(2)X(n)sal), 5-bromo-, 3,5-dibromo-, and 3,5-diiodosalicyl alcohol which were abbreviated to H(2)Brsal, H(2)Br(2)sal, and H(2)I(2)sal, respectively, were synthesized and used for the selective extraction of boric acid. Boric acid was extracted with each H(2)X(n)sal into chlorobenzene containing trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMACl) as an ion-pair complex, TOMA·B(X(n)sal)(2), at a different pH range. The extraction constant (K(ex)) of boric acid was determined by the equilibrium analyses including the formation of hydrogen-bonded complex of each H(2)X(n)sal with TOMACl in the organic phase. The K(ex) values obtained by salicyl alcohol (H(2)sal) and its derivatives were decreased in the order of H(2)I(2)sal ≥ H(2)Br(2)sal > H(2)Brsal > H(2)sal. The most powerful extractant, H(2)I(2)sal, was employed for the substoichiometric extraction of boric acid, which was extracted at pH 5 - 9 with a substoichiometric amount of TOMACl in the presence of an excess of H(2)I(2)sal. The present substoichiometric separation method combined with the stable isotope dilution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) could be successfully applied to the determination of boron in a reference material of high-analysis compound fertilizer (FAMIC-A-08) without any correction as to the isotopic abundance.

  1. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-01

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  2. Computational Screening for Design of Optimal Coating Materials to Suppress Gas Evolution in Li-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoungmin; Seo, Seung-Woo; Choi, Byungjin; Park, Kwangjin; Cho, Eunseog

    2017-05-31

    Ni-rich layered oxides are attractive materials owing to their potentially high capacity for cathode applications. However, when used as cathodes in Li-ion batteries, they contain a large amount of Li residues, which degrade the electrochemical properties because they are the source of gas generation inside the battery. Here, we propose a computational approach to designing optimal coating materials that prevent gas evolution by removing residual Li from the surface of the battery cathode. To discover promising coating materials, the reactions of 16 metal phosphates (MPs) and 45 metal oxides (MOs) with the Li residues, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 are examined within a thermodynamic framework. A materials database is constructed according to density functional theory using a hybrid functional, and the reaction products are obtained according to the phases in thermodynamic equilibrium in the phase diagram. In addition, the gravimetric efficiency is calculated to identify coating materials that can eliminate Li residues with a minimal weight of the coating material. Overall, more MP and MO materials react with LiOH than with Li 2 CO 3 . Specifically, MPs exhibit better reactivity to both Li residues, whereas MOs react more with LiOH. The reaction products, such as Li-containing phosphates or oxides, are also obtained to identify the phases on the surface of a cathode after coating. On the basis of the Pareto-front analysis, P 2 O 5 could be an optimal material for the reaction with both Li residuals. Finally, the reactivity of the coating materials containing 3d/4d transition metal elements is better than that of materials containing other types of elements.

  3. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto novel polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin non-wovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weitao; Huang, Haitao; Du, Shan; Huo, Yingdong; He, Jianxin; Cui, Shizhong

    2015-08-01

    In this approach, polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin (SF) nonwovens were prepared from the alternate deposition of positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and negatively charged SF using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled technology. The composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The SF-PEI multilayer-assembled nanofibers (less than five layers) were fine and uniform with the fiber diameter from 400 nm to 600 nm, and had very large surface area and high porosity (more than 70%). The amino groups of PEI were proved to be deposited onto SF nonwovens, which granted the coated nonwovens with potential applicability for copper ions adsorption. The PEI films coated SF substrate showed much higher copper ions adsorption capacity than that of ethanol treated SF nanofibers. Adding the number of PEI coated could enhance the Cu2+ adsorption capacity significantly. The maximum milligrams per gram of copper ions adsorbed reached 59.7 mg/g when the SF substrate was coated with 5 bilayers of SF-PEI. However, the copper ions adsorption capacity had no obvious change as the number of PEI continued to increase. These results suggest potential for PEL film-coated nanofibrous nonwovens as a new adsorbent for metal ions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of thiacalix[4]arene coated water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as a fluorescent probe for Cu2+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Takashi; Fujii, Fumihiko; Yamada, Eiji; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Kinjo, Masataka

    2007-07-01

    Highly fluorescent water-soluble CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescent Cu2+ ion probe were synthesized using thiacalix[4]arene carboxylic acid (TCC) as a surface coating agent. Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) capped CdSe/ZnS QDs were overcoated with TCC in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature, and deprotonation of the carboxyl groups of TCC resulted in the formation of water-soluble QDs. The surface structure of the QDs was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). TEM images showed that TCC-coated QDs were monodispersed with the particle size (core-shell moiety) of approximately 5 nm. Hydrodynamic diameter of the TCC-coated QDs was determined to be 8.9 nm by FCS, showing that the thickness of the surface organic layer of the QDs was approximately 2 nm. These results indicate that the surface layer of TCC-coated QDs forms a bilayer structure consisting of TOPO and TCC molecules. TCC-coated CdSe/ZnS QDs were highly fluorescent (quantum yield, 0.21) compared to the QDs surface-modified with mercaptoacetic acid and mercaptoundecanoic acid. Fluorescence of the TCC-coated QDs was effectively quenched by Cu2+ ions even in the presence of other transition metal ions such as Cd2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ ions in the same solution. The Stern-Volmer plot for the fluorescence quenching by Cu2+ ions showed a linear relationship up to 30 microM of Cu2+ ions. The ion selectivity of TCC-coated QDs was determined by measurements of fluorescence responses towards biologically important transition metal ions (50 microM) including Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+>Zn2+, Cd2+. The fluorescence of TCC-coated QDs was almost insensitive to other biologically important ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting that TCC-coated QDs can be used as a fluorescent Cu2+ ion probe for biological samples. A possible quenching mechanism by Cu2+ ions was also discussed on the basis of a Langmuir

  5. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... TiO2 coating has been widely applied in orthopaedic and dental implants owing to its excellent mechanical and biological properties. However, one of the biggest complications of TiO2 coating is implant-associated infections. The aim of this work is to improve the antibacterial activity of plasma-sprayed ...

  6. Experimental study of the organic ion intensity distribution in the ion imaging of coated polymer fibres with S-SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercammen, Yannick; Moons, Nicola; Van Nuffel, Sebastiaan; Beenaerts, Linda; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry excels in probing the molecular composition of the outer monolayer of flat samples with a lateral resolution in the sub-μm range. However, the method faces significant methodological problems in the case of non-conducting samples with high topography or surface curvature, such as fibres, yarns or fabrics. Specifically, the useful secondary ion yield in a given spot on the fibre depends on the local incidence angle, the height above the earthed sample holder, the position relative to the axis of the mass analyser and the extent of the local surface charging. This study has focused on the empiric reduction of the useful ion yield variations observed in the ion images of fibres with diameter of 25 and 100 μm. Up to now, most literature data consider the analysis of fibres positioned along or perpendicular to the projection of the projectile beam in the plane of the sample surface because these specific geometries facilitate the interpretation of the ion images. However, it has been discovered that the diagonal orientation of the fibre in the field-of-view largely reduces the ion yield variations for fibres with a small diameter (25 μm). The situation is different for fibres with a diameter of 100 μm. In that case, the ion images contain no secondary ion counts for the pixels referring to a significant part of the fibre. In particular, the resulting lack of delineation between the shadow zone in the front of the fibre and the boundary of the fibre hampers the practical use of the ion images A fourfold decrease of the extraction voltage or a 20% increase of the distance between sample holder and extraction electrode is found to improve the detection of secondary ions from the part of the fibre facing towards the impinging primary ion beam. These observations have been tentatively related to the mass analyser acceptance and its dependence on the delicate balance between conflicting effects such as field strength

  7. Experimental study of the organic ion intensity distribution in the ion imaging of coated polymer fibres with S-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercammen, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.vercammen@uantwerpen.be [Universiteit Antwerpen, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Moons, Nicola; Van Nuffel, Sebastiaan [Universiteit Antwerpen, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Beenaerts, Linda [Artesis University College, Campus Hoboken, Salesianenlaan 30, 2660 Hoboken (Belgium); Van Vaeck, Luc [Universiteit Antwerpen, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    Time-of-Flight Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry excels in probing the molecular composition of the outer monolayer of flat samples with a lateral resolution in the sub-μm range. However, the method faces significant methodological problems in the case of non-conducting samples with high topography or surface curvature, such as fibres, yarns or fabrics. Specifically, the useful secondary ion yield in a given spot on the fibre depends on the local incidence angle, the height above the earthed sample holder, the position relative to the axis of the mass analyser and the extent of the local surface charging. This study has focused on the empiric reduction of the useful ion yield variations observed in the ion images of fibres with diameter of 25 and 100 μm. Up to now, most literature data consider the analysis of fibres positioned along or perpendicular to the projection of the projectile beam in the plane of the sample surface because these specific geometries facilitate the interpretation of the ion images. However, it has been discovered that the diagonal orientation of the fibre in the field-of-view largely reduces the ion yield variations for fibres with a small diameter (25 μm). The situation is different for fibres with a diameter of 100 μm. In that case, the ion images contain no secondary ion counts for the pixels referring to a significant part of the fibre. In particular, the resulting lack of delineation between the shadow zone in the front of the fibre and the boundary of the fibre hampers the practical use of the ion images A fourfold decrease of the extraction voltage or a 20% increase of the distance between sample holder and extraction electrode is found to improve the detection of secondary ions from the part of the fibre facing towards the impinging primary ion beam. These observations have been tentatively related to the mass analyser acceptance and its dependence on the delicate balance between conflicting effects such as field strength

  8. Modernization of serial facility 'BULAT-6' for synthesis of vacuum-arc coatings by the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition as well as ion hydrogen-free nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Andreev, A.A.; Rudenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The model of laboratory vacuum-arc facility for realization of the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition is worked out by means modernization of serial industrial facility 'BULAT-6'. The facility is suitable for surface modification of instrumental steel items, including the low-alloyed steels with low temperatures of tempering. The low-temperature deposition of coatings on the preliminary nitrided surface of instrument permits obtaining dense coating with minimum maintenance of macroparticles, as well as with coatings superhigh adhesion to the substrate and with superhardness. The coatings possess high property stableness in time.

  9. Separators with Biomineralized Zirconia Coatings for Enhanced Thermo- and Electro-Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jun-Ke; Wu, Guang-Peng; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Arges, Christopher G; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2017-07-05

    Porous separators are key components for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and they have drawn considerable attention because of their vital role in governing battery cost and performance (e.g., power density, safety, and longevity). Here, zirconia-coated separators were fabricated via a facile biomineralization process with the aim to improve the performance of commercialized polypropylene separators. The as-prepared organic-inorganic composite separators show excellent thermal stability, even at the melting temperature (160 °C) of polypropylene. This is due to the well-distributed zirconia coatings on the separator surfaces. Furthermore, the interfacial impedance of the composite separators is only 343.8 Ω, which is four times lower than the pristine polypropylene ones. The results demonstrate an attractive method to prepare organic-inorganic composite separators with outstanding properties, which makes them promising candidates for high-performance LIBs.

  10. Structural and Mechanical Properties of CrNx Coatings Deposited by Medium-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering with and without Ion Source Assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, C.X.; He, J.; Wang, H.J.; Fu, D.J.; Yang, B.

    2011-01-01

    CrNx coatings were deposited on Si (100) and WC-Co substrates by a home-made medium-frequency magnetron sputtering system with and without thermal filament ion source assistance. The structure and composition of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were assessed by microhardness and pin-on-disc testing. The ion source-assisted system showed a deposition rate of 3.88 μm/h, much higher than the value 2.2 μm/h without ion source assistance. The CrNx coatings prepared with ion source assistance exhibited an increase in microhardness (up to 16.3 GPa) and a decrease in friction coefficient (down to 0.48) at the optimized cathode source-to-substrate distance.

  11. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, David; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistiv...

  12. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suegama, P.H.; Sarmento, V.H.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Benedetti, A.V.; de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V.; Santilli, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  13. Surface modification of coronary artery stent by Ti-O/Ti-N complex film coating prepared with plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.; Leng, Y.X.; Yang, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported the work of surface coating of Ti-O/Ti-N complex films on coronary stents by means of the plasma immersion ion implantation/deposition process. The deformation behavior of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stainless steel stents was investigated. In vivo investigation of the anticoagulation behavior of Ti-O coated coronary stents was also performed. The results of mechanical characterization of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stents show that the film has strong binding strength, and to some extent the ability to withstand plastic deformation. The biological response behavior of the coated stent surface was significantly different from the uncoated. The results of implantation of stents into rabbit ventral aorta show no thrombus formation on the surfaces of the Ti-O coated stents, although serious coagulation had occurred on the surfaces of unmodified stents over a period of 4 weeks under conditions with no anticoagulant

  14. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suegama, P.H. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, V.H.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Benedetti, A.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santilli, C.V., E-mail: santilli@iq.unesp.b [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  15. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Winter, J.

    1991-09-01

    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  16. Neutron sensitivity improvement in boron-lined proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, P.M.; Prasad, K.R.; Kataria, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Various techniques have been employed to improve the neutron sensitivity of boron-coated proportional counters developed indigenously. A boron-lined proportional counter (67 mm ID x 750 mm length) of 17 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity is developed by coating 92% enriched 10 B on the inner wall of the counter. This counter can be used for low thermal neutron flux (∼0.2 nv) at various applications such as neutron area monitoring, reactor start-up instrumentation, assay of fissile materials and detection of fuel failure. An improvement in sensitivity was also achieved by summing the output signals from four 10 B lined counters and two BF 3 proportional counters. The summation did not change the susceptibility of the device to gamma interference. In view of the scarcity of enriched 10 B isotope, indigenously available natural boron coated two prototype proportional counters are developed of 0.8 cps/nv and 1.1 cps/nv thermal neutron sensitivity. Efforts have been made to improve the sensitivity with boron coated 3-dimensional structures introduced into the sensitive volume. Tests in thermal neutron flux showed 50% improvement in the sensitivity due to the introduction of additional boron coated wires. Another counter with 51 boron-coated annular discs (23 mm OD X 10 mm ID X 1 mm thick) mounted perpendicular to the axis of the cathode showed 1.7 cps/nv neutron sensitivity, an improvement by a factor of 2.5. (author)

  17. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber...

  18. All-oxide broadband antireflection coatings by plasma ion assisted deposition: design, simulation, manufacturing and re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert

    2010-09-13

    A new all-oxide design for broadband antireflection coatings with significantly reduced impact of deposition errors to the final reflectance is presented. Computational manufacturing including re-optimization during deposition has been used in the design work to account for maximum insensibility of the design with respect to deposition errors typical for plasma ion assisted deposition PIAD. Repeated deposition runs with the deducted monitoring and re-optimization strategy verify the validity of the simulations and the stability of the derived design solution.

  19. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanotubes: template-engaged synthesis and their application in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue; Qi, Yue; Yang, Deren

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of carbon-coated SnO2 (SnO2-C) nanotubes through a simple glucose hydrothermal and subsequent carbonization approach by using Sn nanorods as sacrificial templates. The as-synthesized SnO2-C nanotubes have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which exhibit improved cyclic performance compared to pure SnO2 nanotubes. The hollow nanostructure, together with the carbon matrix which has good buffering effect and high electronic conductivity, can be responsible for the improved cyclic performance.

  20. Enhanced performance of LiFePO4 through hydrothermal synthesis coupled with carbon coating and cupric ion doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Bo; Wang Qiang; Zhang Weixin; Yang Zeheng; Chen Min

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hydrothermal reaction has been adopted to synthesize LiFePO 4 with a narrow size distribution. → LiFePO 4 was modified with carbon coating and cupric cation (Cu 2+ ) doping simultaneously. → Electrochemical properties of LiFePO 4 were improved by carbon coating and cupric cation doping. - Abstract: A hydrothermal reaction has been adopted to synthesize pure LiFePO 4 first, which was then modified with carbon coating and cupric ion (Cu 2+ ) doping simultaneously through a post-heat treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images along with energy dispersive spectroscopy mappings have verified the homogeneous existence of coated carbon and doped Cu 2+ in LiFePO 4 particles with phospho-olivine structure and an average size of 400 nm. The electrochemical performances of the material have been studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The carbon-coated and Cu 2+ -doped LiFePO 4 sample (LFCu5/C) exhibited an enhanced electronic conductivity of 2.05 x 10 -3 S cm -1 , a specific discharge capacity of 158 mAh g -1 at 50 mA g -1 , a capacity retention of 96.4% after 50 cycles, a decreased charge transfer resistance of 79.4 Ω and superior electrode reaction reversibility. The present synthesis route is promising in making the hydrothermal method more practical for preparation of the LiFePO 4 material and enhancement of electrochemical properties.

  1. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto novel polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin non-wovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weitao; Huang, Haitao; Du, Shan; Huo, Yingdong; He, Jianxin; Cui, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyethylenimine coated silk fibroin nanofibrous nonwovens were fabricated. • The characteristics such as the fiber shape and porous structure were well maintained. • The structure and adsorption properties were studied. The adsorption property for copper ions is good. - Abstract: In this approach, polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin (SF) nonwovens were prepared from the alternate deposition of positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and negatively charged SF using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled technology. The composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The SF-PEI multilayer-assembled nanofibers (less than five layers) were fine and uniform with the fiber diameter from 400 nm to 600 nm, and had very large surface area and high porosity (more than 70%). The amino groups of PEI were proved to be deposited onto SF nonwovens, which granted the coated nonwovens with potential applicability for copper ions adsorption. The PEI films coated SF substrate showed much higher copper ions adsorption capacity than that of ethanol treated SF nanofibers. Adding the number of PEI coated could enhance the Cu 2+ adsorption capacity significantly. The maximum milligrams per gram of copper ions adsorbed reached 59.7 mg/g when the SF substrate was coated with 5 bilayers of SF-PEI. However, the copper ions adsorption capacity had no obvious change as the number of PEI continued to increase. These results suggest potential for PEL film-coated nanofibrous nonwovens as a new adsorbent for metal ions

  2. Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adsorption onto novel polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin non-wovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weitao, E-mail: weitao_zhou@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Textiles, The Education Department of Henan Province, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Huang, Haitao [School of Textile, Henan Institute of Engineering, Zhengzhou 451191 (China); Du, Shan [Australian Future Fibers Research and Innovation Centre for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Huo, Yingdong; He, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Functional Textiles, The Education Department of Henan Province, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Cui, Shizhong, E-mail: snowballer@163.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Textiles, The Education Department of Henan Province, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyethylenimine coated silk fibroin nanofibrous nonwovens were fabricated. • The characteristics such as the fiber shape and porous structure were well maintained. • The structure and adsorption properties were studied. The adsorption property for copper ions is good. - Abstract: In this approach, polyelectrolyte film-coated nanofibrous silk fibroin (SF) nonwovens were prepared from the alternate deposition of positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and negatively charged SF using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled technology. The composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The SF-PEI multilayer-assembled nanofibers (less than five layers) were fine and uniform with the fiber diameter from 400 nm to 600 nm, and had very large surface area and high porosity (more than 70%). The amino groups of PEI were proved to be deposited onto SF nonwovens, which granted the coated nonwovens with potential applicability for copper ions adsorption. The PEI films coated SF substrate showed much higher copper ions adsorption capacity than that of ethanol treated SF nanofibers. Adding the number of PEI coated could enhance the Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity significantly. The maximum milligrams per gram of copper ions adsorbed reached 59.7 mg/g when the SF substrate was coated with 5 bilayers of SF-PEI. However, the copper ions adsorption capacity had no obvious change as the number of PEI continued to increase. These results suggest potential for PEL film-coated nanofibrous nonwovens as a new adsorbent for metal ions.

  3. Durable Silver Mirror Coating Via Ion Assisted, Electron Beam Evaporation For Large Aperture Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Highly reflective optical coatings with low scatter properties are needed to image very faint objects such as extra-solar planets. Silver has the highest...

  4. Effect of Tungsten Nanolayer Coating on Si Electrode in Lithium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung Dae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten (W) was coated onto a silicon (Si) anode at the nanoscale via the physical vaporization deposition method (PVD) to enhance its electrochemical properties. The characteristics of the electrode were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With the electrochemical property analysis, the first charge capacities of the W-coated and uncoated electrode cells were 2558 mAh g- 1 and 1912 mAh g- 1, respectively. By the 50th cycle, the capacity ratios were 61.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Morphology changes in the W-coated Si anode during cycling were observed using SEM and TEM, and electrochemical characteristics were examined through impedance analysis. Owing to its conductivity and mechanical properties from the atomic W layer coating through PVD, the electrode improved its cyclability and preserved its structure from volumetric demolition.

  5. Effect of Tungsten Nanolayer Coating on Si Electrode in Lithium-ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung Dae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2018-02-21

    Tungsten (W) was coated onto a silicon (Si) anode at the nanoscale via the physical vaporization deposition method (PVD) to enhance its electrochemical properties. The characteristics of the electrode were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With the electrochemical property analysis, the first charge capacities of the W-coated and uncoated electrode cells were 2558 mAh g - 1 and 1912 mAh g - 1 , respectively. By the 50th cycle, the capacity ratios were 61.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Morphology changes in the W-coated Si anode during cycling were observed using SEM and TEM, and electrochemical characteristics were examined through impedance analysis. Owing to its conductivity and mechanical properties from the atomic W layer coating through PVD, the electrode improved its cyclability and preserved its structure from volumetric demolition.

  6. Preparation of Chitosan Coated Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Application for Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 and Ni2+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adsorbent called chitosan coated magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (CS-MHAP was prepared with the purpose of improvement for the removal of Ni2+ ions and textile dye by coprecipitation. Structure and properties of CS-MHAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. Weight percent of chitosan was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The prepared CS-MHAP presents a significant improvement on the removal efficiency of Ni2+ ions and reactive blue 19 dye (RB19 in comparison with chitosan and magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Moreover, the adsorption capacities were affected by several parameters such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and initial pH. Interestingly, the prepared adsorbent could be easily recycled from an aqueous solution by an external magnet and reused for adsorption with high removal efficiency.

  7. Boron nitride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  8. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  9. Design of a boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonglu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-12-01

    The use of boron neutron capture to boost tumor dose in fast neutron therapy has been investigated at several fast neutron therapy centers worldwide. This treatment is termed boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). It is a combination of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and fast neutron therapy (FNT). It is believed that BNCEFNT may be useful in the treatment of some radioresistant brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy assembly has been designed for the Fermilab Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). This assembly uses a tungsten filter and collimator near the patient's head, with a graphite reflector surrounding the head to significantly increase the dose due to boron neutron capture reactions. The assembly was designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP version 5 for a standard 20x20 cm2 treatment beam. The calculated boron dose enhancement at 5.7-cm depth in a water-filled head phantom in the assembly with a 5x5 cm2 collimation was 21.9% per 100-ppm 10B for a 5.0-cm tungsten filter and 29.8% for a 8.5-cm tungsten filter. The corresponding dose rate for the 5.0-cm and 8.5-cm thick filters were 0.221 and 0.127 Gy/min, respectively; about 48.5% and 27.9% of the dose rate of the standard 10x10 cm2 fast neutron treatment beam. To validate the design calculations, a simplified BNCEFNT assembly was built using four lead bricks to form a 5x5 cm2 collimator. Five 1.0-cm thick 20x20 cm2 tungsten plates were used to obtain different filter thicknesses and graphite bricks/blocks were used to form a reflector. Measurements of the dose enhancement of the simplified assembly in a water-filled head phantom were performed using a pair of tissue-equivalent ion chambers. One of the ion chambers is loaded with 1000-ppm natural boron (184-ppm 10B) to measure dose due to boron neutron capture. The

  10. Improving the Li-ion storage performance of commercial TiO2 by coating with soft carbon derived from pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Bai, Xue; Wu, Yan; Lun, Ning; Qi, Yong-Xin; Bai, Yu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial TiO 2 nanoparticles were coated with soft carbon derived from pitch. • The carbon-coated TiO 2 exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance. • The improved performance results from enhanced conductivity and interfacial Li + storage. - Abstract: Commercial TiO 2 usually exhibits poor electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries. In this work, we fabricated the carbon-coated commercial TiO 2 with soft carbon at 750 °C using pitch as the carbon source. The carbon-coated products reveal markedly enhanced capacity, excellent cyclability at a current density of 500 mA g −1 . The enhanced performance associates with the improved electronic and ionic conductivities results from the pitch-derived carbon with high graphitization degree as well as interfacial Li-ion storage.

  11. A novel EIS field effect structures coated with TESUD-PPy-PVC-dibromoaza[7]helicene matrix for potassium ions detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tounsi, Moncef, E-mail: tounsi1981@live.fr [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Braiek, Mourad [Laboratoire de Synthèse Organique Asymétrique et Catalyse Homogène, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019, Monastir (Tunisia); Barhoumi, Houcine [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Baraket, Abdoullatif; Lee, Michael; Zine, Nadia [Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Maaref, Abderrazak [Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Errachid, Abdelhamid, E-mail: abdelhamid.errachid-el-salhi@univ-lyon1.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut de Sciences Analytiques (ISA) – UMR 5280, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we describe the development of new Aza[7]helicene-containing PVC-based membranes for the K{sup +} ions quantification. Here, silicon nitride-based structures (Si-p/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) were developed and the surface was activated, functionalized with an aldehyde–silane (11-(Triethoxysilyl)undecanal (TESUD)), functionalized with polypyrrole (PPy), and coated with the polyvinylchloride (PVC)-membrane containing the Aza[7]helicene as ionophore. All stages of functionalization process have been thoroughly studied by contact angle measurements (CAMs) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The developed ion-selective electrode (ISE) was then applied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for the detection of potassium ions. A linear range was observed between 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M and a detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M was observed. The EIS results have showed a good sensitivity to potassium ion using this novel technique. The target helicene exhibited good solubility and excellent thermal stability with a high decomposition temperature (Td > 300 °C) and it indicates that helicene may be a promising material as ionophore for ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) elaboration. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a new derivatives of Aza[7]helicenes • Manufacture of PPy structures on the SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface using the TESUD as cross linking agent. • The PPy fabricated microstructures can be used as support matrix in biosensing. • Impedimetric K{sup +}-ISEs was developed by using dibromoaza[7]helicene as ionophore for K{sup +} ions determination.

  12. Hierarchically structured manganese oxide-coated magnetic nanocomposites for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Seop; Chang, Yoon-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-10-09

    In this study, hierarchical MnO2-coated magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4/MnO2) was synthesized by a mild hydrothermal process, and its application for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water systems was examined. Structural characterization showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticle core was coated with amorphous MnO2 shell with flowerlike morphology. The as-prepared nanocomposite had a large surface area and high magnetic saturation value, which ensured its good sorption ability and convenience of separation. Fe3O4/MnO2 exhibited a greatly improved removal capacity toward four different heavy metals (Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) compared to unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The adsorption property of Fe3O4/MnO2 was studied with Cd(II) in more detail. The sorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) was 53.2 mg g(-1). Fe3O4/MnO2 retained over 80% of its adsorption capacity under various solution conditions that are typically encountered in natural waters. This nanocomposite was easily recovered and reused through consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments with the assistance of an external magnetic field. Overall, the findings propose that Fe3O4/MnO2 could be used as an effective recyclable adsorbent for heavy metal ions.

  13. Bioimaging TOF-SIMS of tissues by gold ion bombardment of a silver-coated thin section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Håkan; Johansson, Bengt R; Malmberg, Per

    2004-12-01

    The imaging time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) method was utilized to address the problem of cholesterol localization in rat tissues. Rat kidneys were fixed, cryoprotected by sucrose, frozen, sectioned by cryoultramicrotomy, and dried at room temperature. The samples were either covered with a thin silver layer or analyzed uncovered in an imaging TOF-SIMS instrument equipped with an Au1-3(+)-source. The yield of desorbed secondary ions for some species was up to 600-fold higher after silver coating of the samples. Reference samples of cholesterol were silver-coated and analyzed by TOF-SIMS to define significant peaks, specific for cholesterol. Such peaks were found at m/z = 386 (C27H46O+), m/z = 493 (C27H46O107Ag+), m/z = 495 (C27H46O109Ag+), m/z = 879 (C54H92O2 107Ag+), and m/z = 881 (C54H92O2 109Ag+). The silver-cationized cholesterol (493 SIMS in the kidney sections and showed a high cholesterol content in the kidney glomeruli. A more diffuse distribution of cholesterol was also found over areas representing the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of the epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of rat kidney. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Choi, Jeong-Gil; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores

  15. Comparison of Erosion Behavior and Particle Contamination in Mass-Production CF₄/O₂ Plasma Chambers Using Y₂O₃ and YF₃ Protective Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ken; Wang, Wei-Kai; Huang, Shih-Yung; Tasi, Chi-Tsung; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2017-07-14

    Yttrium fluoride (YF₃) and yttrium oxide (Y₂O₃) protective coatings prepared using an atmospheric plasma spraying technique were used to investigate the relationship between surface erosion behaviors and their nanoparticle generation under high-density plasma (10 12 -10 13 cm -3 ) etching. As examined by transmission electron microscopy, the Y₂O₃ and YF₃ coatings become oxyfluorinated after exposure to the plasma, wherein the yttrium oxyfluoride film formation was observed on the surface with a thickness of 5.2 and 6.8 nm, respectively. The difference in the oxyfluorination of Y₂O₃ and YF₃ coatings could be attributed to Y-F and Y-O bonding energies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that a strongly fluorinated bonding (Y-F bond) was obtained on the etched surface of the YF₃ coating. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanoparticles on the 12-inch wafer are composed of etchant gases and Y₂O₃. These results indicate that the YF₃ coating is a more erosion-resistant material, resulting in fewer contamination particles compared with the Y₂O₃ coating.

  16. Removal properties of dissolved boron by glucomannan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kyoko; Maehata, Yugo

    2013-04-01

    Boron ions have long been known to form complexes with the cis-diol group of a polysaccharide. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) which is one of polysaccharides was used to remove dissolved boron in this study. KGM forms a complex with boron, but does not remove boron from contaminated waters as well as other polysaccharides because of its high water solubility. Therefore, the removal efficiencies of dissolved boron were examined using both an insoluble KGM gel and KGM semi-gel. The former did not remove dissolved boron, but the latter did. The difference in the ability of boron removal was due to the presence of diol group inside. KGM loses free diol group during the process of gelation. On the other hand, the semi-gel gelated only surface layer in water has diol group inside. The boron removal capacity of the semi-gel was highest at pHs⩾11, when the boron species is present as B(OH)4(-). The capacity was slightly increased by the addition of Al, Ca and Mg under high pH conditions. This was due to co-precipitation of boron with Ca dissolved from the semi-gel. The boron adsorbed to the semi-gel easily was desorbed under low pH conditions and the hysteresis was not found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface microhardening by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amarjit

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the process and the underlying mechanism of surface microhardening by implanting suitable energetic ions in materials like 4145 steel, 304 stainless steel, aluminium and its 2024-T351 alloy. It has been observed that boron and nitrogen implantation in materials like 4145 steel and 304 stainless steel can produce a significant increase in surface hardness. Moreover the increase can be further enhanced with suitable overlay coatings such as aluminium (Al), Titanium (Ti) and carbon (C). The surface hardening due to implantation is attributed to precipitation hardening or the formation of stable/metastable phase or both. The effect of lithium implantation in aluminium and its alloy on microhardness with increasing ion dose and ion beam energy is also discussed. (author)

  18. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  19. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saravanakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP. Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB, India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry.

  20. The effect of Co-Co3O4 coating on the electrochemical properties of Si as an anode material for Li ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yong-Mook; Lee, Sang-Min; Sung, Min-Seok; Jeong, Goo-Jin; Kim, Joon-Sup; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of Si as an anode material for Li ion secondary batteries, a biphasic layer composed of Co and Co 3 O 4 was coated on Si particles by sol-gel method. Compared to Si, Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si showed the drastic improvement in several electrochemical properties, such as initial coulombic efficiency (55% → 88%), cyclic efficiency and cycle life. The comparison between Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si and heat-treated Si without the coating let us know that the improvement of electrochemical properties only results from Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer. Little changed cyclic properties (cyclic efficiency and cycle life) of Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si even at a higher charge-discharge rate insinuated that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer plays a crucial role in maintaining the electronic contacts between particles and conducting parts. When trying to measure a thickness variation of the electrodes each containing Si and Co-Co 3 O 4 coated Si as active materials, it was notified that Co-Co 3 O 4 coating layer can accommodate the volume expansion of Si during Li + insertion, which has its original thickness almost recovered after Li + extraction

  1. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bone and plays an important role in improving the adhe- sion, proliferation and differentiation of bone cells [8]. Zn .... inoculated into a standard agar culture medium. After incu- bation at 37◦C for 24 h, the active .... sive process including physical adsorption or ion exchange at cell surfaces; (2) slower transport of metal ions ...

  2. Effects of calcium phosphate coating to SLA surface implants by the ion-beam-assisted deposition method on self-contained coronal defect healing in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Heun-Joo; Song, Ji-Eun; Um, Yoo-Jung; Chae, Gyung Joon; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung-Min [Dentium Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: shchoi726@yuhs.a [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Atomic-scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of self-contained coronal defects on a sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface implant, which had a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating applied by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We also evaluated the effect of heating the coating to different temperatures. The CaP-coated SLA implants exhibited a slightly larger bone healing capacity in the self-contained coronal defect than SLA implants, indicating that combining SLA surface implants and a CaP coating by the IBAD method had synergistic effects on bone healing. There was no difference in the healing capacity between 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C heat treatment of the coating layer.

  3. Influence of dynamical ion mixing of crystalline aluminium and nickel coatings on the fatigue behaviour of a 316L-type stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villechaise, P.; Mendez, J.; Violan, P.; Riviere, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques of dynamical ion mixing have been applied to the improvement of fatigue resistance of metallic materials. Such techniques involve a deposition method combined with simultaneous ion implantation. In this way, well adherent cyrstalline coatings of pure Al and Ni, 0.5 μm thick, have been deposited on a 316L-type austenitic stainless steel substrate. It has been shown that such coatings lead to a substantial increase in the fatigue lifetime of the stainless steel at room temperature, which is associated with important modifications in surface damage processes. (orig.)

  4. Method and apparatus for rejuvenating ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of mass spectrometer ion sources deteriorates with use because of the buildup of electrically insulating deposits within the ionizing chamber due to the reactions between the charged particles and other materials in the chamber. A similar problem arises in the mass analyzer part of the spectrometer. The ion source can be rejuvenated by introducing an ionizing gas, preferably argon, into the source, replacing the anode with one made of gold or other sputtering metal, ionizing the gas, and applying a negative potential to the anode, causing it to be bombarded with ions to sputter metal onto the the interior of the source. In another aspect, the ion source is part of a mass analyzer. A filament or container of metal to be evaporated is provided with means to evaporate the metal so as to coat the ion deflecting elements with metal

  5. PREPARING OF THE CHAMELEON COATING BY THE ION JET DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Skocdopole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of chameleon coatings using an Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD technique is reported in the present paper. IJD is a new flexible method for thin film deposition developed by Noivion, Srl. The chameleon coatings are thin films characterised by a distinct change of their tribological properties according to the external conditions. The deposited films of SiC and TiN materials were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, SEM and XPS. The results of the Raman spectroscopy have proved an amorphous structure of SiC films. The data from XPS on TiN films have shown that the films are heavily oxidized, but also prove that the films are composed of TiN and pure Ti. The SEM provided information about the size of grains and particles constituting the deposited films, which is important for tribological properties of the films. Deposition of the chameleon coating is very complex problem and IJD could be ideal method for preparation of this coating.

  6. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the PIII-treated TiO2 coatings than E. coli. Surface chemical composition of TiO2-based implants plays a crucial role in biological interaction because it is in direct contact with the biological environment. Zn is an important trace element for enhancing cell proliferation,. ALP activity, collagen synthesis, and protein synthesis.

  7. Development of a Dry Wall Concept for Laser IFE Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, James P.; Martin, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    The first wall of a laser fusion chamber will experience high heat loads pulsed at 5-10 Hz with pulse widths on the order of a few microseconds. This poses a challenging problem for dry wall designs, as the wall will be susceptible to a variety of failure modes. The primary design concept of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) project is a ferritic steel first wall coated with tungsten armor. Due to the extreme heat loads, the armor will experience high temperatures, extensive yielding, and surface cracking. In order to evaluate the ability of this design to provide a suitable lifetime, a series of experiments to simulate chamber conditions using ions, x-rays, infrared heating, and lasers is under way. These experimental efforts have been coupled with numerical modeling to help determine likely failure modes and establish design criteria for chambers. This paper compares models for the thermomechanical effects seen in the tests to those expected in a full power chamber, in order to assess the ability of the tests to mimic the actual chamber performance. The tests are found to have some limitations, but they still offer excellent approximations of the true behavior

  8. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  9. Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of some textile dyes using Fe ions doped polyaniline film on ITO coated glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspulat, Bircan; Gülce, Ahmet; Gülce, Handan

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the photocatalytic decolorization of four commercial textile dyes with different structures has been investigated using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and Fe ions doped polyaniline on ITO coated glass substrate as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the electrochemically synthesized polymer film photocatalyst. Film hydrophilicity was assessed from contact angle measurements. The results show that both of the polymer films exhibit good photocatalytic performance. Surprisingly, it was determined that by using Fe(II) ions during polymerization, it is possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the produced polyaniline films which favors their photocatalytic activity in water-based solutions. All four of the used dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange and methyl red) were completely decolorizated in 90 min of irradiation under UV light by using Fe ions doped polyaniline at the dye concentration of 1.5 × 10(-5)M, while the decolorization of those dyes were between 43% and 83% by using polyaniline as photocatalyst. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into waste streams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  11. Synthesis and application of ion imprinting polymer coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for selective adsorption of nickel ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junnan; Shang, Hongzhou; Zhang, Xing; Sun, Xiaoran

    2018-01-01

    A novel nickel ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized inverse emulsion system, using chitosan(CS) and acrylic acid as the functional monomers, Ni (II) as the template, and N' N-methylene bis-acrylamide as the cross-linker. The chemical structure and morphological feature of the IIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The studies indicated that the gel layer was well grafted on the surface of MWCNTs. Studies on the adsorption ability of the IIPs, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, demonstrated that IIPs possessed excellent adsorption and selective ability towards Ni (II), fitting to pseudo second-order kinetic isotherms and with a maximum capacity of 19.86 mg/g, and selectivity factor of 13.09 and 4.42. The electrochemical performance of ion imprinting carbon paste electrode (CPE/IIPs) was characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (CV). Studies have shown that CPE/IIPs showed excellent electrochemical performance.

  12. Breaking the icosahedra in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kelvin Y; An, Qi; Sato, Takanori; Breen, Andrew J; Ringer, Simon P; Goddard, William A; Cairney, Julie M; Hemker, Kevin J

    2016-10-25

    Findings of laser-assisted atom probe tomography experiments on boron carbide elucidate an approach for characterizing the atomic structure and interatomic bonding of molecules associated with extraordinary structural stability. The discovery of crystallographic planes in these boron carbide datasets substantiates that crystallinity is maintained to the point of field evaporation, and characterization of individual ionization events gives unexpected evidence of the destruction of individual icosahedra. Statistical analyses of the ions created during the field evaporation process have been used to deduce relative atomic bond strengths and show that the icosahedra in boron carbide are not as stable as anticipated. Combined with quantum mechanics simulations, this result provides insight into the structural instability and amorphization of boron carbide. The temporal, spatial, and compositional information provided by atom probe tomography makes it a unique platform for elucidating the relative stability and interactions of primary building blocks in hierarchically crystalline materials.

  13. Determination of boron in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazhulene, S.S.; Grossman, O.V.; Kuntscher, K.K.; Malygina, L.I.; Muller, E.N.; Telegin, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    In the determination of boron in amorphous alloys containingFe, Co, B, Si, Ni, and P having unusal magnetic and electrical properties, precise analysis and rapid analysis are necessary. To improve the metrological properties of the existing procedure, to find a rapid determination of boron in amorphous alloys, and to verify the accuracy of the results, in the present work the optimization of the photometric determination after extraction of the BF/sup -//sub 4/ ion pair with methylene blue has been studied, and a boron determination by flame photometry using selective methylation has been developed. The determination of boron by the flame photometric and spectrophotometric methods is shown. When a highly precise determination is needed, the spectrophotometric procedure can be used. This procedure is distinguished by its labor intensity and duration. When the need for reproducibility is less severe, the rapid flame photometric procedure is best.

  14. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-01-01

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  15. Influence of boron doping on mechanical and tribological properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates were deposited with smooth multilayer coatings, by hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique. The effect of boron doping on lattice parameter, residual stresses, hardness and coefficient of friction in multilayer-diamond coating system was studied. The frictional behaviour of the ...

  16. Experimental study of asymmetric boron dilution at VVER-1000 of Kudankulam NPP and its simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Kotsarev, Alexander V.; Baykov, Alexander V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    The Kudankulam NPP units contain additional and unique for VVER Quick Boron Injection System (QBIS) for beyond-design-basis accident management without scram. During the physical start-up stage at hot zero power of both Kudankulam units, special tests were performed to assess the efficiency of the system. In the course of test three out of four QBIS tanks had been promptly opened and it led to the asymmetrical injection of boric acid into the core. The scenario of the tests may address to the inhomogeneous boron dilution process that is now an essential part of safety analysis of pressurised water reactors. The simulation of the process, including ex-core ion chambers readings, has been accomplished using ATHLET/BIPR-VVER code. Behaviour of some reactor parameters in the course of the test and some results of the simulation are discussing in the paper. Authors believe the process of the asymmetrical injection of boric acid may be useful for verification and validation of coupled neutronic and thermo-hydraulic codes widely used for safety analysis, including analysis of boron dilution accident.

  17. Competitive time- and density-dependent adhesion of staphylococci and osteoblasts on crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer coatings in co-culture flow chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, Isabel C. Saldarriaga; Busscher, Henk J.; Metzger, Steve W.; Grainger, David W.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) remain a serious clinical complication, often arising from an inability of host tissue-implant integration to out-compete bacterial adhesion and growth. A commercial polymer coating based on polyethylene glycol (PEG), available in both chemically inert and

  18. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-01

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test

  19. Aerolization During Boron Nanoparticle Multi-Component Fuel Group Burning Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-03

    that clogged against a counting plate grid spacing of 50 m. (B) Microscope photograph of a 1% w/v CeO2 (w/ oleic acid) + JP-5 slurry against a... CeO2 -coated boron slurries , but not in the CeO2 slurries . Tendency of boron-nanoparticles to form agglomerates in liquid hydrocarbon fuels may...alcohols; 3) dilute slurries of boron nanoparticles in either JP-5 or alcohol; 4) dilute slurries of CeO2 coated boron nanoparticles in either JP-5 or

  20. Boron nitride - Composition, optical properties, and mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at. percent. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at. percent range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  1. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  2. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2010-01-01

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 1 ) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 2 ) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10 -8 mol L -1 for PME and 7.7 x 10 -9 mol L -1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  3. Tribology of silicon-thin-film-coated SiC ceramics and the effects of high energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohzaki, Masao; Noda, Shoji; Doi, Harua

    1990-01-01

    The sliding friction coefficients and specific wear of SiC ceramics coated with a silicon thin film (Si/SiC) with and without subsequent Ar + irradiation against a diamond pin were measured with a pin-on-disk tester at room temperature in laboratory air of approximately 50% relative humidity without oil lubrication for 40 h. The friction coefficient of Ar + -irradiated Si/SiC was about 0.05 with a normal load of 9.8 N and remained almost unchanged during the 40 h test, while that of SiC increased from 0.04 to 0.12 during the test. The silicon deposition also reduced the specific wear of SiC to less than one tenth of that of the uncoated SiC. Effectively no wear was detected in Si/SiC irradiated to doses of over 2x10 16 ions cm -2 . (orig.)

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of boron-10 in neutron detectors electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Vinhas, L.A.; Vieira, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Process of boron-10 electrophoresis on large area of aluminum substrates was developed with the aim of using them in the construction of neutron detectors. After definition and optimization of the boron electrophoresis parameters, depositions of boron-10 on aluminum cylinders were performed and used as electrodes in gamma compensated and non-compensated ionization chambers and in proportional detectors. These prototypes were designed and builded at IPEN-CNEN-SP, and submited for characterization tests at IEA-R1 reactor, and they fulfil the technical specifications of the project. (author) [pt

  5. Towards high capacity latex-coated porous polymer monoliths as ion-exchange stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Smith, Jason A; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-02-01

    The preparation of high capacity agglomerated monolithic ion-exchangers for capillary ion chromatography is described. Post-modification of reactive monoliths was investigated as an alternative to co-polymerisation of a suitable functional monomer with an overarching goal of increasing ion-exchange capacity. Direct sulfonation of poly styrene-co-divinyl benzene monoliths using concentrated sulfuric acid or chlorosulfonic acid was unsuccessful even for monoliths containing as low as 8% crosslinker. In contrast, chemical transformation of reactive monoliths containing glycidyl methacrylate was used to increase the ion-exchange capacity by up to more than thirty-fold with ion exchange capacities of 14-29 microequiv g(-1) achieved. Three different reactions were considered, including reaction with 4-hydroxybenenesulfonic acid under basic conditions; reaction with thiobenzoic acid followed by transformation to a reactive thiol and the subsequent oxidation to the sulfonic acid; and direct sulfonation with sodium sulfite. Of these, the reaction with sodium sulfite resulted in the most significant increase in the capacity and the best separation performance. In the isocratic mode separation efficiencies of over 13,500 plates m(-1) were observed (for iodate). The separation of seven inorganic anions was also demonstrated using a hydroxide gradient.

  6. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  7. SU-E-T-83: A Study On Evaluating the Directional Dependency of 2D Seven 29 Ion Chamber Array Clinically with Different IMRT Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Aswathi, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the directional dependency of 2D seven 29 ion chamber array clinically with different IMRT plans. Methods: 25 patients already treated with IMRT plans were selected for the study. Verification plans were created for each treatment plan in eclipse 10 treatment planning system using the AAA algorithm with the 2D array and the Octavius CT phantom. Verification plans were done 2 times for a single patient. First plan with real IMRT (plan-related approach) and second plan with zero degree gantry angle (field-related approach). Measurements were performed on a Varian Clinac-iX, linear accelerator equipped with a millennium 120 multileaf collimator. Fluence was measured for all the delivered plans and analyzed using the verisoft software. Comparison was done by selecting the fluence delivered in static gantry (zero degree gantry) versus IMRT with real gantry angles. Results: The gamma pass percentage is greater than 97 % for all IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle and between 95%–98% for real gantry angles. Dose difference between the TPS calculated and measured for IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle was found to be between (0.03 to 0.06Gy) and with real gantry angles between (0.02 to 0.05Gy). There is a significant difference between the gamma analysis between the zero degree and true angle with a significance of 0.002. Standard deviation of gamma pass percentage between the IMRT plans with zero gantry angle was 0.68 and for IMRT with true gantry angle was found to be 0.74. Conclusion: The gamma analysis for IMRT with zero degree gantry angles shows higher pass percentage than IMRT delivered with true gantry angles. Verification plans delivered with true gantry angles lower the verification accuracy when 2D array is used for measurement

  8. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly

  9. Packaging Technology for Dielectric-Coating-Less Heavy Ion Radiation Testing of High-Voltage (HV) Electronic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Andrew; Chen, Liangyu

    2017-01-01

    Testing high voltage (HV) electronic parts (greater than 300 V) for sudden event effects (SEE) caused by cosmic rays in the space environment, consisting of energetic heavy-ions, and neutron radiation in the upper atmosphere is a crucial step towards using these parts in spacecraft and aircraft. Due to the nature of cosmic radiation and neutrons, electronic parts are tested for SEE without any packaging and/or shielding over the top of the device. In the case of commercial HV parts, the top of the packaging is etched off and then a thin dielectric coating is placed over the part in order to avoid electrical arcing between the device surface and wire bonds and other components. Even though the effects of the thin dielectric layer on SEE testing can be accounted for, the dielectric layer significantly hinders post testing failure analysis. Replicating the test capability of state-of-the-art packaging while eliminating the need for post radiation test processing of the die surface (that obscures failure analysis) is the goal. To that end, a new packaging concept for HV parts has been developed that requires no dielectric coating over the part. Testing of prototype packages used with Schottky diodes (rated at 1200V) has shown no electrical arcing during testing and leakage currents during reverse bias testing are within the manufactures specifications.

  10. Polyaniline coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) coated Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres (h-Fe3O4@ PANI) have been successfully synthesized and investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The structure and composition analyses have been performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy...

  11. Application of Taguchi Method to the Optimization of a-C:H Coatings Deposited Using Ion Beam Assisted Physical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Kao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi design method is used to optimize the adhesion, hardness, and wear resistance properties of a-C:H coatings deposited on AISI M2 steel substrates using the ion beam assisted physical vapor deposition method. The adhesion strength of the coatings is evaluated by means of scratch tests, while the hardness is measured using a nanoindentation tester. Finally, the wear resistance is evaluated by performing cyclic ball-on-disc wear tests. The Taguchi experimental results show that the optimal deposition parameters are as follows: a substrate bias voltage of 90 V, an ion beam voltage of 1 kV, an acetylene flow rate of 21 sccm, and a working distance of 7 cm. Given these optimal processing conditions, the a-C:H coating has a critical load of 99.8 N, a hardness of 25.5 GPa, and a wear rate of 0.4 × 10−6 mm3/Nm.

  12. Appraisal of SIMS applicability to boron studies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dérue, Cedric; Gibouin, David; Verdus, Marie-Claire; Lefebvre, Fabrice; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Thellier, Michel

    2002-07-15

    In the search for a new methodological approach applicable to the determination of the still poorly known primary role of boron in plant physiology, we have undertaken to appraise the potential of the SIMS method for the analytical imaging of the boron isotopes, (10)B and (11)B, at physiological concentrations in plants. With our own, CAMECA IMS4F SIMS ion analyser, and using O(2)(+) as primary ions for the detection of B(+) (plus (12)C(+) and (40)Ca(+)) secondary ions, we have been able to map quantitatively the two boron isotopes in control and boron-enriched plants, to evaluate boron concentrations at the level of individual cells and to determine boron isotopic ratios. This provides the opportunity to carry out the simultaneous labeling and imaging of boron, using enrichment with the stable isotopes, (10)B and (11)B. The method has also the potential for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of the boron isotopes and of the borate-binding sites in plant cells. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Robert Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  14. Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of steam turbine K-25-0.6 GEO with ion-plasma coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Arkad'ev, D. A.; Temkin, S. G.; Senina, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of the fourth stage of the K-25-0.6 low pressure cylinder Geo steam turbine manufactured in the Kaluga Turbine Plant (hereinafter, KTP) with the ion-plasma coating were presented. Coating formation was carried out at the National Research University (MPEI) on the Gefest vacuum pilot plant by the magnetron sputtering method. Characteristics of the obtained coating were analyzed with the use of the scientific-research equipment of the National Research University (MPEI). Fatigue tests of the rotating blades and determination of the fatigue strength of the material with the ion-plasma coating were carried out on the electrodynamic vibration machines VEDS-400A in the KTP structural laboratory. The following characteristics were obtained after tests: Ti-TiN composition, 10-11 μm thickness, 1200 HV 0.05 microhardness. Fatigue tests showed that destruction, regardless of availability or nonavailability of the coating, took place by cross-section in the root zone both on the leading and trailing edges of the blade, i.e., in the most stressed zones. It was found out that the maximum stresses during tests were revealed in the root section along the trailing edge on the blade pressure side, and the less stresses were on the leading edge. Fatigue strength of the working blades after coating formation increased by 12% minimum. Results of the fatigue tests prove the previously obtained data concerning 10-12% increase of the fatigue strength of the blade steel with the ion-plasma coating and allow claiming that the process of their formation exerts the positive influence on the fatigue characteristics of the blade materials.

  15. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  16. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  17. The influence of substrate temperature and spraying distance on the properties of plasma sprayed tungsten and steel coatings deposited in a shrouding chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kocmanová, Lenka; Veverka, Jakub; Halasová, Martina; Hadraba, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 217-223 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : Tungsten * Steel * Atmospheric plasma spraying * Shrouding * Substrate temperature * Fusion reactor materials * Plasma facing components Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Coating and films (UFM-A) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897216310520

  18. Corrosion-resistant titanium nitride coatings formed on stainless steel by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium films 70nm thick were deposited on austenitic type 316L stainless steel substrates, and these specimens were irradiated with titanium ions of energy 70kV at a fluence of 1x10 17 ioncm -2 , using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) IV metallic ion source at room temperature. After irradiation, titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by titanium evaporation and simultaneous irradiation by a nitrogen ion beam, with transport ratios of Ti to N atoms from 0.5 to 10.0 and an ion acceleration voltage of 2kV. The preferred orientation of the TiN films varied from left angle 200 right angle to left angle 111 right angle normal to the surface when the transport ratio was increased. With the help of Auger electron spectroscopy, interfacial mixing was verified. Nitrogen atoms were present in the state of titanium nitride for all transport ratios from 0.5 up to 10.0. However, the chemical bonding state of titanium changed from titanium nitride to the metallic state with increasing transport ratio Ti/N. The corrosion behavior was evaluated in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid saturated with oxygen, using multisweep cyclic voltammetry measurements. Thin film deposition of pure titanium and titanium implantation prior to TiN deposition have beneficial effects on the suppression of transpassive chromium dissolution. ((orig.))

  19. Spherical agarose-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with a new salen for magnetic solid-phase extraction of uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serenjeh, Fariba Nazari; Hashemi, Payman; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Naeimi, Hossein; Zakerzadeh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a method for magnetic solid phase extraction of uranyl ions from water samples. It is based on the use of spherical agarose-coated magnetic nanoparticles along with magnetic field agitation. The salen type Schiff base N,N’-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediamine was synthesized from resorcinol in two steps and characterized by infrared and nucleic magnetic resonance spectroscopies. The particles were then activated by an epichlorohydrin method and functionalized with the Schiff base which acts as a selective ligand for the extraction of UO 2 (II). Following preconcentration and elution with HCl, the ions were quantified by spectrophotometry using Arsenazo III as the indicator. The effects of pH value, ionic strength and amount of the adsorbent on the extraction of UO 2 (II) were optimized by a multivariate central composite design method. Six replicate analyses under optimized conditions resulted in a recovery of 96.6 % with a relative standard deviation of 3.4 % for UO 2 (II). The detection limit of the method (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3σ) is 10 μg L -1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of UO 2 (II) in spiked water samples. (author)

  20. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)