WorldWideScience

Sample records for boron 13

  1. Influence of boron addition to Ti–13Zr–13Nb alloy on MG63 osteoblast cell viability and protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, P., E-mail: m.pallab@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Singh, S.B. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Dhara, S. [School Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Chakraborty, M. [School of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation, cell morphology and protein adsorption on near β-type Ti–13Zr–13Nb (TZN) alloy and Ti–13Zr–13Nb–0.5B (TZNB) composite have been investigated and compared to evaluate the effect of boron addition which has been added to the Ti alloy to improve their poor tribological properties by forming in situ TiB precipitates. MG63 cell proliferation on substrates with different chemistry but the same topography was compared. The MTT assay test showed that the cell viability on the TZN alloy was higher than the boron containing TZNB composite after 36 h of incubation and the difference was pronounced after 7 days. However, both the materials showed substantially higher cell attachment than the control (polystyrene). For the same period of incubation in fetal bovine serum (FBS), the amount of protein adsorbed on the surface of boron free TZN samples was higher than that in the case of boron containing TZNB composite. The presence of boron in the TZN alloy influenced protein adsorption and cell response and they are lower in TZNB than in TZN as a result of the associated difference in chemical characteristics. - Highlights: • The influence of boron addition on biocompatibility of Ti–13Zr–13Nb • Boron forms in situ TiB in TZN matrix and decreases cell proliferation on TZN surfaces. • Protein adsorption is lower in TZNB than in TZN. • Compared to TZNB composite, TZN alloy is more suitable for bone grafting applications.

  2. The production of nitrogen-13 by neutron capture in boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10B(α,n)13N reaction is studied as an activation process in a variety of solid boron-containing neutron shielding materials. The source of α-particles is the neutron capture reaction 10B(n,α)7Li. Samples of boron carbide, boron oxide, and boron nitride are irradiated with thermal neutrons and the rate of 13N production is determined. 13N promptly decays, emitting a positron. This positron efficiently annihilates with electrons in the material and the resultant 511 keV gamma ray is detected. For each of the above-mentioned materials, the rate of 13N production is (1-2) x 10-10 per captured neutron

  3. 13C NMR spectroscopy of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the 13C NMR spectrum of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and boron carbide. The amorphous hydrogenated carbon spectra consist primarily of an sp3 line at 40 ppm and an sp2 line at 140 ppm and are in reasonable agreement with the recent theoretical calculations of Mauri, Pfrommer, and Louie, but there are some notable discrepancies. The amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide spectra are very different from those of amorphous hydrogenated carbon, being dominated by one line at 15 ppm. We interpret this line as due to carbon bound in boron carbide icosahedra, because polycrystalline boron carbide with boron carbide icosahedra as the unit cell gives very similar NMR spectra. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element boron (B) is of interest in reclamation situations for several reasons. It plays an essential through largely unidentified role in the growth of higher plants. In argronomic situations B deficiencies are common, and deficiencies in reclamation situations have been suggested but not documented. Among micronutrients, B is unique because the range from deficient concentrations to toxic concentrations either in the soil solution or in plant tissue is narrower than for any other micronutrient. In reclamation situations excessive amounts of B can occur in the soil or in near-surface mining wastes and thus interfere with reclamation objectives, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Also, B is mobile and appears subject to both upward transport (and possible contamination of overlying material) and downward transport (and possible contamination of surface water and groundwater)

  5. Boron carbide, B(13-x)C(2-y) (x = 0.12, y = 0.01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sologub, Oksana; Michiue, Yuichi; Mori, Takao

    2012-08-01

    Boron carbide phases exist over a widely varying compos-itional range B(12+x)C(3-x) (0.06 Boron icosa-hedra are inter-connected by C atoms via their B(Eq) atoms, forming layers parallel to (001), while the B(12) units of the adjacent layers are linked through inter-icosa-hedral B(P)-B(P) bonds. The unique B atom (B(C)) connects the two C atoms of adjacent layers, forming a C-B-C chain along [001]. Depending on the carbon concentration, the carbon and B(P) sites exhibit mixed B/C occupancies to varying degrees; besides, the B(C) site shows partial occupancy. The decrease in carbon content was reported to be realized via an increasing number of chainless unit cells. On the basis of X-ray single-crystal refinement, we have concluded that the unit cell of the given boron-rich crystal contains following structural units: [B(12)] and [B(11)C] icosa-hedra (about 96 and 4%, respectively) and C-B-C chains (87%). Besides, there is a fraction of unit cells (13%) with the B atom located against the triangular face of a neighboring icosa-hedron formed by B(Eq) (B2) thus rendering the formula B(0.87)(B(0.98)C(0.02))(12)(B(0.13)C(0.87))(2) for the current boron carbide crystal. PMID:22904703

  6. Eutectic Solidification in Al-13.0%Si Alloys with Combined Addition of Strontium and Boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengcheng Liao; Ke Ding; Juanjuan Bi; Min Zhang; Huipin Wang; Lei Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The influence of addition of boron (B) on eutectic solidification in a near-eutectic AI-13.0%Si alloy modified with strontium (Sr) was investigated using thermal analysis and macro/microstructure observation. Addition of B in the Sr-modified alloy leads to a considerable increase in nucleation temperature (Tn, the minimum temperature prior to recalescence (TM) and growth temperature (TG). In the Sr-modified alloy, nucleation of eutectic might originate at the heterogeneous sites on the mold wall or in the melt near the wall, and eutectic solidification proceeds gradually towards the center, controlled by undercooling of melt. However, with addition of B in the Sr-modified alloy, undercooling required for eutectic nucleation became small, and hence eutectic solidification might occur almost simultaneously within whole casting, controlled by amount of heterogeneous sites. With excessive addition of B in the Sr-modified alloy, nucleation of eutectic grains was explosive within the whole casting and the power of Sr on eutectic solidification was completely poisoned.

  7. Non-catalytic facile synthesis of superhard phase of boron carbide (B13C2) nanoflakes and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sky Shumao; Su, Liap Tat; Guo, Jun; Vasylkiv, Oleg; Borodianska, Hanna; Xi, Zhu; Krishnan, Gireesh M; Su, Haibin; Tokl, Alfred I Y

    2012-01-01

    Boron Carbide is one the hardest and lightest material that is also relatively easier to synthesis as compared to other superhard ceramics like cubic boron nitride and diamond. However, the brittle nature of monolithic advanced ceramics material hinders its use in various engineering applications. Thus, strategies that can toughen the material are of fundamental and technological importance. One approach is to use nanostructure materials as building blocks, and organize them into a complex hierarchical structure, which could potentially enhance its mechanical properties to exceed that of the monolithic form. In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach to synthesize one- and two-dimension nanostructure boron carbide by simply changing the mixing ratio of the initial compound to influence the saturation condition of the process at a relatively low temperature of 1500 degrees C with no catalyst involved in the growing process. Characterization of the resulting nano-structures shows B13C2, which is a superhard phase of boron carbide as its hardness is almost twice as hard as the commonly known B4C. Using ab-initio density functional theory study on the elastic properties of both B12C3 and B13C2, the high hardness of B13C2 is consistent to our calculation results, where bulk modulus of B13C2 is higher than that of B4C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the nanoflakes also reveals high density of twinning defects which could potentially inhibit the crack propagation, leading to toughening of the materials. PMID:22524026

  8. Boron carbide, B13-xC2-y (x = 0.12, y = 0.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sologub

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron carbide phases exist over a widely varying compositional range B12+xC3-x (0.06 < x < 1.7. One idealized structure corresponds to the B13C2 composition (space group R-3m and contains one icosahedral B12 unit and one linear C—B—C chain. The B12 units are composed of crystallographically distinct B atoms BP (polar, B1 and BEq (equatorial, B2. Boron icosahedra are interconnected by C atoms via their BEq atoms, forming layers parallel to (001, while the B12 units of the adjacent layers are linked through intericosahedral BP—BP bonds. The unique B atom (BC connects the two C atoms of adjacent layers, forming a C—B—C chain along [001]. Depending on the carbon concentration, the carbon and BP sites exhibit mixed B/C occupancies to varying degrees; besides, the BC site shows partial occupancy. The decrease in carbon content was reported to be realized via an increasing number of chainless unit cells. On the basis of X-ray single-crystal refinement, we have concluded that the unit cell of the given boron-rich crystal contains following structural units: [B12] and [B11C] icosahedra (about 96 and 4%, respectively and C—B—C chains (87%. Besides, there is a fraction of unit cells (13% with the B atom located against the triangular face of a neighboring icosahedron formed by BEq (B2 thus rendering the formula B0.87(B0.98C0.0212(B0.13C0.872 for the current boron carbide crystal.

  9. In-phantom dosimetry using the 13C(d,n)14N reaction for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction at Ed =1.5 MeV for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy is investigated. The 13 C(d,n)14 N reaction presents the advantages of carbon as a target material and its large cross section. The deuteron beam was produced by a tandem accelerator at MIT's Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications. The resulting neutron spectra were evaluated in terms of RBE-dose rates at different depths inside a water-filled brain phantom using a heavy water moderator and lead reflector assembly. All results were simulated using the code MCNP. (author)

  10. Wear properties of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) near β titanium alloy containing 0.5 wt.% boron in dry condition, Hank's solution and bovine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, hardness and sliding wear behaviour of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) containing 0.5 wt.% B (TZNB) has been studied and compared with that of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) (TZN) alloy. The wear properties were tested in dry condition and in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution and bovine serum) to understand the effect of different medium on wear behaviour of the TZNB alloy. Depending on the heat treatment condition the microstructure of the alloy consisted of α/martensite and TiB in β matrix. In general, the hardness of all the heat treated samples varied in a narrow range and in most of the cases addition of boron to the TZN alloy decreased the hardness. Almost all cases, no significant variation of the wear rate in dry condition with heat treatment was observed. Compared with the wear rate in dry condition, the wear rate in Hank's solution of the all the TZNB samples increased substantially. Moreover, the wear was found to be most severe in bovine serum. Addition of boron to TZN alloy did not result in any improvement in the wear resistance in all the media studied.

  11. P13.09ADVANCES IN CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detta, A.; Cruickshank, G.C.; Green, S.; Lockyer, N.P.; Ngoga, D.; Ghani, Z.; Phoenix, B.

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted form of enhanced cellular radiotherapy where preferential accumulation of boron in the cancerous as opposed to adjacent normal cells is able to interact with incident neutrons to cause irreversible alpha particle DNA damage. The key to the implementation of this potentially powerful and selective therapy is the delivery of at least 30ppm 10B within the tumour tissue while minimising superfluous 10B in healthy tissue. It is thus an elegant technique for treating infiltrating tumours such as diffuse gliomas. In order to assess its clinical potential we carried out a pharmacokinetic study in glioblastoma patients where we sought to determine the optimal route of delivering a new formulation of the boronated drug (p-boronophenylalanine, BPA), its pharmacokinetic behaviour, toxicity profile, and cellular uptake. Using a number of analytical techniques, including inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), boron was measured at various times in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, extracellular fluid (ECF), and tumour-related solid tissue spanning 0.5 h pre- and up to 48 h post-BPA infusion in newly-diagnosed patients (n = 10). Blood was sampled through a central catheter whilst the ECF was sampled by parenchymal microdialysis catheters, placed remotely from the tumour site. Urine was collected over the same time period. Tumour and brain-around tumour (BAT) tissue was sampled stereotactically at 2.5 h and 3.5 h post-infusion. IHC expression levels of the BPA transporter molecule, L-amino acid transporter 1 (LAT-1), were recorded as % LAT-1 positive cells, and cellular boron levels were estimated as spatially resolved pixels in normalised-to-C+ isotopic SIMS images of the biopsies. There were no toxicity-related issues with this new formulation of BPA given at 375 mg/kg as a 2 h intravenous or intracarotid infusion with or without pre-infusion mannitol-induced BBB

  12. P13.09ADVANCES IN CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Detta, A.; Cruickshank, G.C.; Green, S.; Lockyer, N.P.; Ngoga, D.; Ghani, Z.; Phoenix, B

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted form of enhanced cellular radiotherapy where preferential accumulation of boron in the cancerous as opposed to adjacent normal cells is able to interact with incident neutrons to cause irreversible alpha particle DNA damage. The key to the implementation of this potentially powerful and selective therapy is the delivery of at least 30ppm 10B within the tumour tissue while minimising superfluous 10B in healthy tissue. It is thus an elegant technique for treating...

  13. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of diazo compounds and vinyl boronic acids: an approach to 1,3-diene compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yamu; Xia, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-08-15

    A palladium-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of vinyl boronic acids and cyclic α-diazocarbonyl compounds has been reported. The reaction constitutes an efficient method for the synthesis of 1,3-diene compounds bearing a ring structure. Mechanistically, the reaction involves migratory insertion of palladium carbene as the key step. PMID:25019414

  14. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed δ15N and δ13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-w...

  15. Determination of boron in waters and in water extracts from wastes by molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry following preliminary boron separation by extraction of its complex with 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for boron determination were developed and tested. The analysis is based on boron separation and preconcentration by extraction from an acid aqueous solution into a chloroform solution of 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol followed by reextraction into aqueous sodium hydroxide, and subsequent molecular absorption spectroscopic determination with curcumine at 543 nm or atomic absorption spectroscopic determination at 249.8 nm in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The limits of determination (3s criterion) for the two methods are 0.002 and 0.1 mg/l, respectively. The methods were compared with the conventional procedure based on the use of azomethine-H. While the sensitivities of the methods are comparable (the limit of determination for the azomethine-H method is 0.02 mg/l), the proposed methods exhibit a better reliability and are widely applicable to the determination of total boron in all types of water and water extracts. (author) 3 tabs., 37 refs

  16. The separation and synthesis of lipidic 1,2- and 1,3-diols from natural phenolic lipids for the complexation and recovery of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyman, John H P; Mehet, Satinderjit K

    2003-12-01

    A study has been made of the semi-synthesis of 1,3-diols (anacardic alcohols) from natural phenolic lipid resources from Anacardium occidentale and Anacardium giganteum which have given C15 and C11 derivatives, respectively. An isomeric 1,3-diol (isoanacardic alcohol) has been obtained from cardanol separated from technical cashew nut-shell liquid. Homologous 1,3-diols have been synthesised from a range of synthetic 2-alkyl-, 3-alkyl- and 4-alkylphenols and from 6-alkylsalicylic acids. The natural 1,2-diol, urushiol, from Rhus vernicifera has been purified. All these lipidic compounds have been studied for their complexation and the potential recovery of boron as boric acid. PMID:14623453

  17. Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Tasnádi, F.; Wang, F.; Alling, B.

    2016-04-01

    The elastic properties of alloys between boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by (B6O)1-x(B13C2)x, as well as boron carbide with variable carbon content, ranging from B13C2 to B4C are calculated from first-principles. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamics of (B6O)1-x(B13C2)x is studied. A superatom-special quasirandom structure approach is used for modeling different atomic configurations, in which effects of configurational disorder between the carbide and suboxide structural units, as well as between boron and carbon atoms within the units, are taken into account. Elastic properties calculations demonstrate that configurational disorder in B13C2, where a part of the C atoms in the CBC chains substitute for B atoms in the B12 icosahedra, drastically increase the Young's and shear modulus, as compared to an atomically ordered state, B12(CBC). These calculated elastic moduli of the disordered state are in excellent agreement with experiments. Configurational disorder between boron and carbon can also explain the experimentally observed almost constant elastic moduli of boron carbide as the carbon content is changed from B4C to B13C2. The elastic moduli of the (B6O)1-x(B13C2)x system are also practically unchanged with composition if boron-carbon disorder is taken into account. By investigating the mixing thermodynamics of the alloys, in which the Gibbs free energy is determined within the mean-field approximation for the configurational entropy, we outline the pseudo-binary phase diagram of (B6O)1-x(B13C2)x. The phase diagram reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point. Also, the coexistence of B6O-rich as well as ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in the material prepared through equilibrium routes is predicted.

  18. Probing the structures and chemical bonding of boron-boronyl clusters using photoelectron spectroscopy and computational chemistry: B4(BO)(n)- (n = 1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-07-28

    The electronic and structural properties of a series of boron oxide clusters, B(5)O(-), B(6)O(2)(-), and B(7)O(3)(-), are studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained, yielding electron affinities of 3.45, 3.54, and 4.94 eV for the corresponding neutrals, B(5)O, B(6)O(2), and B(7)O(3), respectively. Structural optimizations show that these oxide clusters can be formulated as B(4)(BO)(n)(-) (n = 1-3), which involve boronyls coordinated to a planar rhombic B(4) cluster. Chemical bonding analyses indicate that the B(4)(BO)(n)(-) clusters are all aromatic species with two π electrons. PMID:22852618

  19. Electronic structure of the boron fullerene B14 and its silicon derivatives B13Si(+), B13Si(-) and B12Si2: a rationalization using a cylinder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duong, Long; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-06-29

    Geometric and electronic structures of the boron cluster B14 and its silicon derivatives B13Si(+), B13Si(-), and B12Si2 were determined using DFT calculations (TPSSh/6-311+G(d)). The B12Si2 fullerene, which is formed by substituting two B atoms at two apex positions of the B14 fullerene by two Si atoms, was also found as the global minimum structure. We demonstrated that the electronic structure and orbital configuration of these small fullerenes can be predicted by the wavefunctions of a particle on a cylinder. The early appearance of high angular node MOs in B14 and B12Si2 can be understood by this simple model. Replacement of one B atom at a top position of B14 by one Si atom, followed by the addition or removal of one electron does not lead to a global minimum fullerene structure for the anion B13Si(-) and cation B13Si(+). The early appearance of the 5σ1 orbital in B13Si(+) causes a lower stability for the fullerene-type structure. PMID:27306917

  20. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  1. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron (10B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of 10B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron

  2. Determination of boron content in boron carbide, boron nitride and amorphous boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article an analyzing method of determination of boron content in boron carbide, boron nitride and amorphous boron described. Examined samples were digested with potassium hydroxide and potassium nitrate in nickel crucible and the boron contents determined subsequently by an alcalimetric titration of boric acid in presence of mannite resp. sorbite. (author)

  3. Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xiao; Xiao, Y. K.; Liu, C. Q.; Z. D. Jin

    2011-01-01

    Experiments involving boron incorporation into brucite (Mg(OH)2) from magnesium-free artificial seawater with pH values ranging from 9.5 to 13.0 were carried out to better understand the incorporation behavior of boron into brucite. The results show that both concentration of boron in deposited brucite ([B]d) and its boron partition coefficient (Kd) between deposited brucite and final seawater are controll...

  4. Electronic transport in boron carbides: temperature (4K-300K), frequency (0-1 GHz) and composition (B13C2-B4C) effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide is a light ceramics of industrial interest. The equilibrium diagram reveals a large compositional range (B9C to B4C). The compositions close to the boundary B4C are obtained by pressing directly in graphite dies while the other compositions were obtained by using boron nitride lined graphite dies and boron additions to the commercial powders. The starting point of the present study was the idea to use the electrical transport properties as possible ways of characterising the industrial materials. We were thus led to measure at low temperatures dc and ac conductivity, dielectric constant and thermopower. The successful study of a measurement method for ac measurements between 10 KHz and 1 GHz and between 4 K and 300 K was one of the main experimental points of the present work. ac measurements have permitted a clear separation between bulk and grain boundary effects on the transport. The bulk results were analysed in terms of the usual conduction models in disordered solids (hopping, polarons...)

  5. Elementary boron and metal-boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elementary boron is of interest for its peculiar and difficult bonding behaviour in solids. Due to its high oxygen affinity we find no elementary boron in nature. For the same reason it is difficult to isolate pure, elementary boron, and much confusion about 'boron crystals' has been the result of more than 100 years of research. The polymorphic forms of elementary boron and its closely related higher carbides and higher metal borides as well as the simple metal borides, B3C and BN are reported. The quantum-mechanical background responsible for structure and stoichiometry of these crystals is given. (orig.)

  6. Advanced microstructure of boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut; Shalamberidze, Sulkhan

    2012-09-26

    The rhombohedral elementary cell of the complex boron carbide structure is composed of B(12) or B(11)C icosahedra and CBC, CBB or B□B (□, vacancy) linear arrangements, whose shares vary depending on the actual chemical compound. The evaluation of the IR phonon spectra of isotopically pure boron carbide yields the quantitative concentrations of these components within the homogeneity range. The structure formula of B(4.3)C at the carbon-rich limit of the homogeneity range is (B(11)C) (CBC)(0.91) (B□B)(0.09) (□, vacancy); and the actual structure formula of B(13)C(2) is (B(12))(0.5)(B(11)C)(0.5)(CBC)(0.65)(CBB)(0.16) (B□B)(0.19), and deviates fundamentally from (B(12))CBC, predicted by theory to be the energetically most favourable structure of boron carbide. In reality, it is the most distorted structure in the homogeneity range. The spectra of (nat)B(x)C make it evident that boron isotopes are not randomly distributed in the structure. However, doping with 2% silicon brings about a random distribution. PMID:22945740

  7. Sputtering behavior of boron and boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sputtering yields of boron were measured with D+ and B+ ions for normal and oblique angles of incidence. Self-sputtering data of boron carbide were simulated in the experiment by using Ne+ ions. The energies of the impinging ions were between 20 eV and 10 keV. The measured data are compared with computer simulated values calculated with the TRIMSP program. The boron data for normal ion impact are higher than the calculated values, whereas those for oblique ion incidence are smaller than the calculation predicts. This discrepancy is explained by the surface roughness and supported by SEM micrographs. The comparison of the boron carbide data with TRIMSP calculations shows much better agreement than the boron data. In this case the target surface was much smoother. (orig.)

  8. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  9. Structure and single-phase regime of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David

    1988-09-01

    The boron carbides are composed of twelve-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom intericosahedral chains. The boron carbides are known to exist as a single phase with carbon concentrations from about 8 to about 20 at. %. This range of carbon concentrations is made possible by the substitution of boron and carbon atoms for one another within both the icosahedra and intericosahedral chains. The most widely accepted structural model for B4C (the boron carbide with nominally 20% carbon) has B11C icosahedra with C-B-C intericosahedral chains. Here, the free energy of the boron carbides is studied as a function of carbon concentration by considering the effects of replacing carbon atoms within B4C with boron atoms. It is concluded that entropic and energetic considerations both favor the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms within the intericosahedral chains, C-B-C-->C-B-B. Once the carbon concentration is so low that the vast majority of the chains are C-B-B chains, near B13C2, subsequent substitutions of carbon atoms with boron atoms occur within the icosahedra, B11C-->B12. Maxima of the free energy occur at the most ordered compositions: B4C,B13C2,B14C. This structural model, determined by studying the free energy, agrees with that previously suggested by analysis of electronic and thermal transport data. These considerations also provide an explanation for the wide single-phase regime found for boron carbides. The significant entropies associated with compositional disorder within the boron carbides, the high temperatures at which boron carbides are formed (>2000 K), and the relatively modest energies associated with replacing carbon atoms with boron atoms enable the material's entropy to be usually important in determining its composition. As a result, boron carbides are able to exist in a wide range of compositions.

  10. Mass spectrometric determination of boron isotope in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron isotopes in boron carbide are measured by thermionic ionization mass spectrometry with no prior chemical separation. Boron is converted to sodium borate by fusion of the boron carbide with sodium hydroxide (or sodium carbonate) directly on the rhenium filament. The boron isotopic ratios are measured by using the Na2BO2+ ion

  11. Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xiao; Xiao, Y. K.; Liu, C. Q.; Z. D. Jin

    2011-01-01

    Experiments involving boron incorporation into brucite (Mg(OH)2) from magnesium-free artificial seawater with pH values ranging from 9.5 to 13.0 were carried out to better understand the incorporation behavior of boron into brucite and the influence of it on Mg/Ca-SST proxy and δ11B-pH proxy. The results show that both the concentration of boron in deposited brucite ([B]d) and its boron partition coefficient (

  12. Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater

    OpenAIRE

    J. Xiao; Xiao, Y. K.; Liu, C. Q.; Z. D. Jin

    2011-01-01

    Experiments involving boron incorporation into brucite (Mg(OH)2) from magnesium-free artificial seawater with pH values ranging from 9.5 to 13.0 were carried out to better understand the incorporation behavior of boron into brucite and the influence of it on Mg/Ca-SST proxy and δ11B-pH proxy. The results show that both the concentration of boron in deposited brucite ([B]d) and its boron partition coefficient (Kd) between deposited brucite and final seawater are control...

  13. Predicted phase diagram of boron-carbon-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hantao; Yao, Sanxi; Widom, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Noting the structural relationships between phases of carbon and boron carbide with phases of boron nitride and boron subnitride, we investigate their mutual solubilities using a combination of first-principles total energies supplemented with statistical mechanics to address finite temperatures. Thus we predict the solid-state phase diagram of boron-carbon-nitrogen (B-C-N). Owing to the large energy costs of substitution, we find that the mutual solubilities of the ultrahard materials diamond and cubic boron nitride are negligible, and the same for the quasi-two-dimensional materials graphite and hexagonal boron nitride. In contrast, we find a continuous range of solubility connecting boron carbide to boron subnitride at elevated temperatures. An electron-precise ternary compound B13CN consisting of B12 icosahedra with NBC chains is found to be stable at all temperatures up to melting. It exhibits an order-disorder transition in the orientation of NBC chains at approximately T =500 K. We also propose that the recently discovered binary B13N2 actually has composition B12.67N2 .

  14. Determination of boron and silicon in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium carbonate fusion technique for the dissolution of boron carbide followed by the determination of boron by alkalimetric titration and silicon impurity by spectrophotometry is described. The elemental boron content in the commercially available boron carbide ranged from 77.2 to 77.60 % and the silicon in the range 1170 to 2500 ppm. (author)

  15. Atomic-scale study of the role of carbon on boron clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron (BF2, 20 keV, 3.14/cm2) and carbon (13 keV, 1015/cm2) implanted silicon annealed at 800 oC during 30 min or at 1000 oC during 10 s has been investigated using a laser-assisted wide-angle tomographic atom probe (LaWaTAP) instrument. Boron-silicon clusters containing ∼ 1.3 at.% of boron atoms have been observed in boron implanted silicon with a concentration exceeding the solubility limit. Often identified as BICs, they are interpreted as a metastable phase. Furthermore, addition of carbon clearly reduced the clustering of boron. This was interpreted as a diminution of boron diffusion or as an increase of the solubility limit of boron. Carbon-silicon clusters containing ∼ 1.5 at.% of carbon atoms were observed, maybe the precursors of the SiC phase.

  16. Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments involving boron incorporation into brucite (Mg(OH2 from magnesium-free artificial seawater with pH values ranging from 9.5 to 13.0 were carried out to better understand the incorporation behavior of boron into brucite. The results show that both concentration of boron in deposited brucite ([B]d and its boron partition coefficient (Kd between deposited brucite and final seawater are controlled by pH of the solution. The incorporation capacity of boron into brucite is much stronger than that into oxides and clay minerals. The isotopic compositions of boron in deposited brucite (δ11Bd are higher than those in the associated artificial seawater (δ11Bisw with fractionation factors ranging between 1.0177 and 1.0569, resulting from the preferential incorporation of B(OH3 into brucite. Both boron adsorptions onto brucite and precipitation reaction of H3BO3 with brucite exist during deposition of brucite from artificial seawater. The simultaneous occurrence of both processes determines the boron concentration and isotopic fractionation of brucite. The isotopic fractionation behaviors and mechanisms of boron incorporated into brucite are different from those into carbonates. Furthermore, the isotopic compositions of boron in modern corals might be affected by the existence of brucite in madrepore and the preferential incorporation of B(OH3 into brucite. An exploratory study for the influence of brucite on the boron isotopic composition in modern corals is justifiable.

  17. First boronization in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.H., E-mail: sukhhong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, H.T.; Kim, G.P. [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, J.H.; Woo, H.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M.; Kim, W.C.; Kim, H.K.; Park, K.R.; Yang, H.L.; Na, H.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    First boronization in KSTAR is reported. KSTAR boronization system is based on a carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) injection system. The design, construction, and test of the system are accomplished and it is tested by using a small vacuum vessel before it is mounted to a KSTAR port. After the boronization in KSTAR, impurity levels are significantly reduced by factor of 3 (oxygen) and by 10 (carbon). Characteristics of a-C/B:H thin films deposited by carborane vapor are investigated. Re-condensation of carborane vapor during the test phase has been reported.

  18. Boron in sillimanite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E S; Hinthorne, J R

    1983-08-01

    Sillimanite in six granulite-facies, kornerupine-bearing rocks contains 0.035 to 0.43 percent B(2)O(3) and 0.02 to 0.23 percent MgO (by weight). Substitution of boron for silicon and magnesium for aluminum is coupled such that the ratio of magnesium to boron is about 0.5. Sillimanite incorporates more than 0.1 percent B(2)O(3) only at high temperatures in a boron-rich environment at very low partial pressures of water. In the amphibolite facies, the sillimanite boron contents are too low to appreciably affect the stability relations of sillimanite with kyanite and andalusite. PMID:17830955

  19. Boron nitride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  20. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals. PMID:21403227

  1. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  2. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO and medical research in BNCT; development of the technique for boron concentration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Dong; Byun, Soo Hyun; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Suk Kwon; Kim, In Jung; Park, Chang Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective and Necessity of the Project- Development of a boron concentration analysis facility used for BNCT. - Development of the technique for boron concentration analysis. Contents and Scopes of the Project - Construction of the boron concentration analysis facility based on PGAA. Estimation of the neutron beam characteristics. -Establishment of the technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Estimation of the reliability for the boron analysis. Results of the Project -Installation of the boron concentration analysis facility at Hanaro. - Neutron beam characteristics are the sample position (neutron flux : 7.9 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s, Cd-ratio : 266) Technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Boron detection sensitivity and limit (detection sensitivity : 2, 131 cps/mg-B, detection limit : 67 ng for 10,000 sec). 63 refs., 37 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  3. Magnetron sputter deposition of boron and boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of X-ray optical coatings with greater reflectivity required the development of sputter deposition processes for boron and boron carbide. The use of high density boron and boron carbide (B4C) and a vacuum-brazed target design was required to achieve the required sputter process stability and resistance to the thermal stress created by high rate sputtering. Our results include a description of the target fabrication procedures and sputter process parameters necessary to fabricate B4C and boron modulated thin film structures. (orig.)

  4. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  5. Boron cures cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the authors cite a few examples of the use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in nuclear medicine. They point to the possibility of boron neutron capture therapy and the use for the neutron capture therapy of other light elements.

  6. Boron contamination in drinking - irrigation water and boron removal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Bilici Başkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron presents in IIIA group of periodic table and has high ionization capacity. Therefore it is classified as a metalloid. Average boron concentration in earth's crust is 10 mg/kg. It presents in the environment as a salts of Ca, Na, and Mg. Boron reserves having high concentration and economical extent are found mostly in Turkey and in arid, volcanic and high hydrothermal activity regions of U.S. as compounds of boron attached to oxygen. Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, although it may be toxic at higher levels. The range in which it is converted from a nutrient to a contaminant is quite narrow. Boron presents in water environment as a boric acid and rarely borate salts. The main boron sources, whose presence is detected in surface waters, are urban wastes and industrial wastes, which can come from a wide range of different activities as well as several chemical products used in agriculture. In Turkey, the most pollutant toxic element in drinking and irrigation water is boron. Therefore boron removal is very important in terms of human health and agricultural products in high quality. Mainly boron removal methods from drinking water and irrigation water are ion exchange, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption.

  7. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy

  8. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  9. Separation of boron from nitrate solution containing large amount of plutonium using EHD as an extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of boron in nuclear fuel plays a vital role as the neutron economy is affected. Mixed oxide microspheres can be prepared by solution route using sol-gel technique. Hence it is important to remove boron from the starting metal nitrate solution containing boron beyond the specification limit, prior to the preparation of microspheres. Therefore separation of boron from nitrate solution containing large amount of plutonium was attempted using 2 ethyl hexane 1,3 diol in chloroform as an extractant in nitric acid medium which resulted in eight fold decrease in the boron content. This paper describes the effective removal of boron from the bulk plutonium matrix which has not been addressed earlier in the literature. (author)

  10. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials.

  11. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials. PMID:26777140

  12. Colorimetric determination of Boron-10 in macromolecular delivery agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyglycerol with dendritic structure (PGLD) was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using a polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth process denominated divergent synthesis. After PGLD reaction with 10B-enriched boric acid there was a marked increase in the bulk viscosity of the PGLD dendrimer evidencing the polyester formation. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was used to characterize the molecular weight and the polydispersivity of the synthesized PGLD dendrimer. A dendritic polyglycerol structure with Mn value of 16.7 kDa and a narrow polydispersivity (Mw/Mn = 1.05) was obtained in this work. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR measurements were employed to assess the degree of branching (DB) in PGLD. The DB of 0.85 indicates the tendency of a dentritic structure for the PGLD synthesized in this work. The boron-10 concentration was dependent of the PGLD generation. A selective reagent, curcumine, was studied for spectrophotometric determination of boron in polyglycerol dendrimers. Boron reacts with curcumine to form a complex, which has a maximum absorption peak at 552 nm. Under the optimal conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the range 0∼20 μg of boron in 25 mL of solution. The biological assays indicate the PGLD-B with boron-10 concentration of 25 mg10B/gPGLD as the most promising macromolecule enriched with boron-10 for the BNCT therapy. (author)

  13. Atomic-Level Understanding of "Asymmetric Twins" in Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; An, Qi; Toksoy, M. Fatih; McCauley, James W.; Haber, Richard A.; Goddard, William A.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2015-10-01

    Recent observations of planar defects in boron carbide have been shown to deviate from perfect mirror symmetry and are referred to as "asymmetric twins." Here, we demonstrate that these asymmetric twins are really phase boundaries that form in stoichiometric B4C (i.e., B12C3 ) but not in B13C2 . TEM observations and ab initio simulations have been coupled to show that these planar defects result from an interplay of stoichiometry, atomic positioning, icosahedral twinning, and structural hierarchy. The composition of icosahedra in B4C is B11C and translation of the carbon atom from a polar to equatorial site leads to a shift in bonding and a slight distortion of the lattice. No such distortion is observed in boron-rich B13C2 because the icosahedra do not contain carbon. Implications for tailoring boron carbide with stoichiometry and extrapolations to other hierarchical crystalline materials are discussed.

  14. Sintered boron, production and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microhardness HV, tensile properties and Young modulus of sintered boron of different porosity were studied. It was shown that with density growth tensile properties improve. HV and brittle-ductile transition temperature Tsub(b) of sintered boron on the one hand and for silicon and titanium carbide on the other were compared and discussed. It was noted that the general level of HV and Tsub(b) for boron is rather high and at similar relative temperatures these characteristics are much higher. Temperature dependences of linear expansion coefficient, thermal capacity, thermal and temperature conductivity of sintered boron of 20% porosity were studied. Gruneisen parameter was evaluated

  15. Fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Chao; Yuan, Jun

    2009-09-01

    Chemical composition and crystal structure of fivefold twinned boron carbide nanowires have been determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The fivefold cyclic twinning relationship is confirmed by systematic axial rotation electron diffraction. Detailed chemical analysis reveals a carbon-rich boron carbide phase. Such boron carbide nanowires are potentially interesting because of their intrinsic hardness and high temperature thermoelectric property. Together with other boron-rich compounds, they may form a set of multiply twinned nanowire systems where the misfit strain could be continuously tuned to influence their mechanical properties. PMID:19687534

  16. Understanding Boron through Size-Selected Clusters: Structure, Chemical Bonding, and Fluxionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeeva, Alina P.; Popov, Ivan A.; Piazza, Zachary A.; Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai S.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2014-04-15

    Conspectus Boron is an interesting element with unusual polymorphism. While three-dimensional (3D) structural motifs are prevalent in bulk boron, atomic boron clusters are found to have planar or quasi-planar structures, stabilized by localized two-center–two-electron (2c–2e) σ bonds on the periphery and delocalized multicenter–two-electron (nc–2e) bonds in both σ and π frameworks. Electron delocalization is a result of boron’s electron deficiency and leads to fluxional behavior, which has been observed in B13+ and B19–. A unique capability of the in-plane rotation of the inner atoms against the periphery of the cluster in a chosen direction by employing circularly polarized infrared radiation has been suggested. Such fluxional behaviors in boron clusters are interesting and have been proposed as molecular Wankel motors. The concepts of aromaticity and antiaromaticity have been extended beyond organic chemistry to planar boron clusters. The validity of these concepts in understanding the electronic structures of boron clusters is evident in the striking similarities of the π-systems of planar boron clusters to those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, naphthalene, coronene, anthracene, or phenanthrene. Chemical bonding models developed for boron clusters not only allowed the rationalization of the stability of boron clusters but also lead to the design of novel metal-centered boron wheels with a record-setting planar coordination number of 10. The unprecedented highly coordinated borometallic molecular wheels provide insights into the interactions between transition metals and boron and expand the frontier of boron chemistry. Another interesting feature discovered through cluster studies is boron transmutation. Even though it is well-known that B–, formed by adding one electron to boron, is isoelectronic to carbon, cluster studies have considerably expanded the possibilities of new structures and new materials using the B

  17. New Ground-State Crystal Structure of Elemental Boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Reddy, K Madhav; Xie, Kelvin Y; Hemker, Kevin J; Goddard, William A

    2016-08-19

    Elemental boron exhibits many polymorphs in nature based mostly on an icosahedral shell motif, involving stabilization of 13 strong multicenter intraicosahedral bonds. It is commonly accepted that the most thermodynamic stable structure of elemental boron at atmospheric pressure is the β rhombohedral boron (β-B). Surprisingly, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that pure boron powder contains grains of two different types, the previously identified β-B containing a number of randomly spaced twins and what appears to be a fully transformed twinlike structure. This fully transformed structure, denoted here as τ-B, is based on the Cmcm orthorhombic space group. Quantum mechanics predicts that the newly identified τ-B structure is 13.8  meV/B more stable than β-B. The τ-B structure allows 6% more charge transfer from B_{57} units to nearby B_{12} units, making the net charge 6% closer to the ideal expected from Wade's rules. Thus, we predict the τ-B structure to be the ground state structure for elemental boron at atmospheric pressure. PMID:27588864

  18. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff <0.95 or Keff <0.98 or Keff < 1.0 depending on the design specification for the service...

  19. Boron thermal regeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion exchanger which allows flow in both directions along a selected flow path is described. A separator plate divides the exchanger tank into two chambers each of which has a flow conduit so that flow may enter or leave from either chamber while prohibiting the resin particles from migrating from one side of the tank to the other. This ion exchanger permits a dual-directional flow process to be practised which results in immediate changes in the boron concentration within a nuclear reactor coolant system even if the ion exchanger resins have not been completely equilibrated during a previous operation. (author)

  20. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzum ULUKÖY

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specifications and the factors that effect boride layer are examined

  1. Cyclic compounds of tetracoordinated boron from 5-aminotetrazole and nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New cyclic compounds of tetracoordinated boron - dialkylboryl (tetrazole-5-yl)amidinates - from 5-aminotetrazole, nitriles and trialkylboranes with chemical yield 83-93 %, have been synthesized. Crystal and molecular structure of di propylboryl (N - (tetrazole-5-yl)-o-toluamidinate ( a = 13.990 (1), b 9.730 (2), c = 13.261 (2) A) is determined using X-ray diffraction method

  2. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Penland, J G

    1994-01-01

    Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and wo...

  3. Tumor cell killing effect of boronated dipeptide. Boromethylglycylphenylalanine on boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagaki, Masao; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Toru [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Spielvogel, B.F.

    1994-03-01

    The killing effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy; BNCT, is dependant on the boron concentration ratio of tumor to normal brain (T/N ratio), and also that of tumor to blood (T/B ratio). The clinical boron carrier of boro-captate (BSH) showed the large T/N ratio of ca. 8, however the T/B ratio was around 1, which indicated nonselective accumulation into tumor. Indeed high boron concentration of blood restrict the neutron irradiation dose in order to circumvent the normal endothelial damage, especially in the case of deeply seated tumor. Phenylalanine analogue of para borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is an effective boron carrier on BNCT for malignant melanoma. For the BNCT on brain tumors, however, BPA concentration in normal brain was reported to be intolerably high. In order to improve the T/N ratio of BPA in brain, therefore, a dipeptide of boromethylglycylphenylalanine (BMGP) was synthesized deriving from trimethylglycine conjugated with BPA. It is expected to be selectively accumulated into tumor with little uptake into normal brain. Because a dipeptide might not pass through the normal blood brain barrier (BBB). Its killing effect on cultured glioma cell, T98G, and its distribution in rat brain bearing 9L glioma have been investigated in this paper. The BNCT effect of BMGP on cultured cells was nearly triple in comparison with DL-BPA. The neutron dose yielding 1% survival ratio were 7x10{sup 12}nvt for BMGP and 2x10{sup 13}nvt for BPA respectively on BNCT after boron loading for 16 hrs in the same B-10 concentration of 20ppm. Quantitative study of boron concentration via the {alpha}-auto radiography and the prompt gamma ray assay on 9L brain tumor rats revealed that T/N ratio and T/B ratio are 12.0 and 3.0 respectively. Those values are excellent for BNCT use. (author).

  4. Banishing brittle bones with boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A 6-month study indicates that boron, not even considered an essential nutrient for people and animals, may be a key to preventing osteoporosis, say nutritionist Forrest H. Nielsen and anatomist Curtiss D. Hunt at ARS' Grand Forks, North Dakota, Human Nutrition Research Center. They believe the results of the study - the first to look at the nutritional effects of boron in humans - will generate a lot of interest in the element. In the study, 12 postmenopausal women consumed a very low boron diet (0.25 milligrams per day) for 17 weeks then were given a daily 3-mg supplement - representing the boron intake from a well-balanced diet - for 7 more weeks. Within 8 days after the supplement was introduced, the lost 40 percent less calcium, one-third less magnesium, and slightly less phosphorus through the urine. In fact, their calcium and magnesium losses were lower than prestudy levels, when they were on their normal diets. Since boron isn't considered essential for people, there is not recommended intake and no boron supplement on the market. Nielsen says the supplement of sodium borate used in the study was specially prepared based on the amount of boron a person would get from a well-balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables. He says the average boron intake is about 1.5 mg - or half the experimental dose - but average means a lot of people get less and a lot get more. Hunt cautioned that large doses of boron can be toxic, even lethal. The lowest reported lethal dose of boric acid is about 45 grams (1.6 ounces) for an adult and only 2 grams (0.07 ounce) for an infant.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of boric acid in boron powder with curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and accurate method was needed to determine trace amounts of boric acid for quality control and specification testing of elemental boron. The reaction between boric acid and curcumin occurs at a measurable rate only when the curcumin molecule is protonated. Protonation takes place at the carbonyl groups in the presence of a strong acid and occurs completely and rapidly when sulfuric acid is added to a solution of curcumin in acetic acid. Spectrophotometric measurements were made. The extraction of boric acid from boron powder was found to be complete within 2h when either water or the diol solution was used. Whatman No. 40 cr 42 filter paper was used to obtain diol samples free of boron particles. The extraction efficiency of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol was evaluated by adding 1 ml of 500 ppM aqueous boric acid and 1 drop of 10% NaOH to accurately weighed samples of boron powder. The water then was evaporated at room temperature and the samples were extracted with diol solution. The data obtained are included. The extraction efficiency also was evaluated by determining the boric acid content of boron which had been recovered from a previous extraction and boric acid determination. The determination of boric acid using curcumin is unaffected by the presence of other compounds, except for fluoride and nitrate ions. 2 tables

  6. Azaboranes (RNH2)B8H11NHR. A new type of boron cluster for possible use in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interesting group of novel, water-soluble (RNH2)B8H11NHR species can be regarded as new boron carriers with potential use in the synthesis of boron-rich compounds for application in BNCT. These azaboranes are synthesized by the reaction of B9H13(SMe2) with primary amines NH2R. (author)

  7. Lattice dynamics of α boron and of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of α boron and of B4C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In α boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B4C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  8. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents. PMID:26877036

  9. A study on the behavior of boron in iron-base alloys by neutron induced autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Hae Dong; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chang Hee; Jung, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Yong Bok

    2001-02-01

    Boron is widely utilized in steel or alloy making to improve certain properties. However, due to its lightness boron is difficult to detect or characterize its behavior even through TEM/EDS or EELS techniques. Although many companies recognize the beneficial effects of boron, the role or mechanism of the boron is not yet clearly understood. Therefore it is required to develop the autoradiography technique to elucidate the boron behavior in alloys. As the only institute operating research reactor in the country, it would be the responsibility of the institute to develop the technique and provide it to the industries. Quantitative analyses of boron in type 316 L stainless steel by neutron induced autoradiography was attempted in this study. Nine experimental reference alloys with different amount of boron were prepared and reliable chemical composition data were obtained. Autoradiographs of reference materials with three different neutron fluences ( 1.9 10{sup 13}, 1.9 10{sup 14} and 1.9 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2} ) were obtained and a trial calibration curve of boron content vs. track density was acquired.

  10. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of the Transport of Atomic Boron in a Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iaian D.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Computational analysis of the transport of boron eroded from the walls of a Hall thruster is performed by implementing sputter yields of hexagonal boron nitride and velocity distribution functions of boron within the hybrid-PIC model HPHall. The model is applied to simulate NASA's HiVHAc Hall thruster at a discharge voltage of 500V and discharge powers of 1-3 kW. The number densities of ground- and 4P-state boron are computed. The density of ground-state boron is shown to be a factor of about 30 less than the plasma density. The density of the excited state is shown to be about three orders of magnitude less than that of the ground state, indicating that electron impact excitation does not significantly affect the density of ground-state boron in the discharge channel or near-field plume of a Hall thruster. Comparing the rates of excitation and ionization suggests that ionization has a greater influence on the density of ground-state boron, but is still negligible. The ground-state boron density is then integrated and compared to cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements for each operating point. The simulation results show good agreement with the measurements for all operating points and provide evidence in support of CRDS as a tool for measuring Hall thruster erosion in situ.

  11. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Jain; C Ghosh; T R Ravindran; S Anthonysamy; R Divakar; E Mohandas; G S Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns and the power spectrum calculated from the lattice images from thin regions of the sample. Raman spectroscopic examination was carried out to study the nature of bonding and the allotropic form of boron obtained after electrodeposition. The results obtained from transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous mass of boron. Raman microscopic studies showed that amorphous boron could be converted to its crystalline form at high temperatures.

  12. Boron isotope fractionation during brucite deposition from artificial seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xiao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments involving boron incorporation into brucite (Mg(OH2 from magnesium-free artificial seawater with pH values ranging from 9.5 to 13.0 were carried out to better understand the incorporation behavior of boron into brucite and the influence of it on Mg/Ca-SST proxy and δ11B-pH proxy. The results show that both the concentration of boron in deposited brucite ([B]d and its boron partition coefficient (Kd between deposited brucite and final seawater are controlled by the pH of the solution. The incorporation capacity of boron into brucite is almost the same as that into corals, but much stronger than that into oxides and clay minerals. The isotopic compositions of boron in deposited brucite (δ11Bd are higher than those in the associated artificial seawater (δ11Bisw with fractionation factors ranging between 1.0177 and 1.0569, resulting from the preferential incorporation of B(OH3 into brucite. Both boron adsorptions onto brucite and the precipitation reaction of H3BO3 with brucite exist during deposition of brucite from artificial seawater. The simultaneous occurrence of both processes determines the boron concentration and isotopic fractionation of brucite. The isotopic fractionation behaviors and mechanisms of boron incorporated into brucite are different from those into corals. The existence of brucite in corals can affect the δ11B and Mg/Ca in corals and influences the Mg/Ca-SST proxy and δ11B-pH proxy negatively. The relationship between δ11B and Mg/Ca in corals can be used to judge the existence of brucite in corals, which should provide a reliable method for better use of δ11B and Mg/Ca in corals to reconstruct paleo-marine environment.

  13. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  14. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  15. Colorimetric determination of Boron-10 in macromolecular delivery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Moura, Eduardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: mcamillo@ipen.br; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A.A.de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br

    2005-07-01

    A polyglycerol with dendritic structure (PGLD) was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using a polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth process denominated divergent synthesis. After PGLD reaction with {sup 10}B-enriched boric acid there was a marked increase in the bulk viscosity of the PGLD dendrimer evidencing the polyester formation. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was used to characterize the molecular weight and the polydispersivity of the synthesized PGLD dendrimer. A dendritic polyglycerol structure with M{sub n} value of 16.7 kDa and a narrow polydispersivity (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.05) was obtained in this work. {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR measurements were employed to assess the degree of branching (DB) in PGLD. The DB of 0.85 indicates the tendency of a dentritic structure for the PGLD synthesized in this work. The boron-10 concentration was dependent of the PGLD generation. A selective reagent, curcumine, was studied for spectrophotometric determination of boron in polyglycerol dendrimers. Boron reacts with curcumine to form a complex, which has a maximum absorption peak at 552 nm. Under the optimal conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the range 0{approx}20 {mu}g of boron in 25 mL of solution. The biological assays indicate the PGLD-B with boron-10 concentration of 25 mg{sup 10}B/gPGLD as the most promising macromolecule enriched with boron-10 for the BNCT therapy. (author)

  16. Wettability of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wettability of boron carbide has been examined by means of the sessile drop method, using the following candidate alloys: (96wt%AG-4wt%Ti), (Ag-26.5wt%Cu-3wt%Ti), (Sn-10wt%Ag-4wt%Ti), Sn(99.95wt%) and Al(99.99wt%). The results show that B4C is completely wetted by the Ag-based alloys. Sn-10wt%Ag-4wt%Ti alloy and pure Al partly wet the B4C surface, while pure Sn does not wet B4C at all. For all the alloys used, except pure Sn, a reaction layer was observed at the interface between the ceramic part and the metal drop. Although the spreading kinetics of the Al-drop was much slower compared with the Ti-containing alloys, the reaction rate was considerably higher in the former case. This suggests that aluminium is an attractive candidate material for brazing of B4C. Formation of the low melting B2O3 at the B4C surface may cause oxidation of the filler metal during joining, which, in turn, leads to a low bond strength

  17. Thermal conductivity of boron carbide-boron nitride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that because of their preferred orientation, the addition of boron nitride dispersions to hot-pressed boron carbide was found to result in a considerable degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity of the resulting composite, indicated by an increase in the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the hot-pressing direction by as much as a factor of 3 at the highest boron nitride volume fractions of this study, and a decrease in the thermal conductivity parallel to the hot-pressing direction by as much as a factor of 2. The composite data were found to be below the values expected from composite theory, which may represent indirect evidence for the existence of an interfacial thermal barrier

  18. The boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, P. Darrell

    2004-02-01

    The separation of the boron isotopes using boron trifluoride·organic-donor, Lewis acid·base adducts is an essential first step in preparing 10B enriched and depleted crystalline solids so vital to nuclear studies and reactor applications such as enriched MgB 2, boron carbide, ZrB 2, HfB 2, aluminum boron alloys, and depleted silicon circuits for radiation hardening and neutron diffraction crystal structure studies. The appearance of this new adduct with such superior properties demands attention in the continuing search for more effective and efficient means of separation. An evaluation of the boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct, its thermodynamic and physical properties related to large-scale isotopic separation is presented. Its remarkably high separation factor was confirmed to be higher than the expected theoretical value. However, the reportedly high acid/donor ratio was proven to be an order of magnitude lower. On-going research is determining the crystal structure of deuterated and 11B enriched 11BF 3·CD 3NO 2 by X-ray and neutron diffraction.

  19. Boron carbide nanolumps on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, J. Y.; Li, W. Z.; Wen, J. G.; Ren, Z. F.

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbide nanolumps are formed on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes by a solid-state reaction between boron and carbon nanotubes. The reaction is localized so that the integrity of the structure of carbon nanotubes is maintained. Inner layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes are also bonded to boron carbide nanolumps. These multiwall carbon nanotubes with boron carbide nanolumps are expected to be the ideal reinforcing fillers for high-performance composites because of the favorable morphology.

  20. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  1. Enhanced boronizing kinetics of alloy steel assisted by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanostructured surface layer is fabricated on H13 steel assisted by SMAT. • The boronizing kinetics of SMAT sample can be enhanced remarkably. • Borided layer can delay fatigue cracks initiation and impede their propagation. -- Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated on AISI H13 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Boronizing behaviors of the SMAT samples were systematically investigated in comparison with their coarse-grained counterparts. The boron diffusion depth of the SMAT sample with pack boriding treatment at 600 °C for 2 h was about 8 μm, which was much deeper than that of the coarse-grained sample. A much thicker borided layer on the SMAT sample can be synthesized by a duplex boronizing treatment at 600 °C followed by at a higher temperature. The borided layer was composed with monophase of Fe2B and the growth of it exhibited a (0 0 2) preferred orientation. Moreover, the activation energy of boron diffusion for the SMAT sample is 140.3 kJ/mol, which is much lower than 209.4 kJ/mol for the coarse-grained counterpart. The results indicate that the boronizing kinetics can be significantly enhanced in the SMAT sample with a duplex boronizing treatment. Furthermore, the thermal fatigue tests show that the borided layer with excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at elevated temperatures could effectively delay the thermal fatigue cracks initiation and impede their propagation. Therefore, the thermal fatigue property of H13 steel with a duplex boronizing treatment can be improved remarkably

  2. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  3. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkov, V. I., E-mail: VZubkovspb@mail.ru; Kucherova, O. V.; Zubkova, A. V.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas' ev, A. V. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (LETI), Professor Popov Street 5, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogdanov, S. A.; Vikharev, A. L. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul' yanov Street 46, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Butler, J. E. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (LETI), Professor Popov Street 5, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul' yanov Street 46, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), P.O. Box 37012 Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20013-7012 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120–150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10{sup −13} down to 2 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2} was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (∼2 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}). At T > T{sub room} in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  4. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, V. I.; Kucherova, O. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Zubkova, A. V.; Butler, J. E.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Vikharev, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120-150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10-13 down to 2 × 10-17 cm2 was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (˜2 × 10-20 cm2). At T > Troom in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  5. The determination of boron in aluminium of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the investigations that led to the development of chemical methods for the determination of boron within the range 0,25 to 1,0 p.p.m. in aluminium of high purity. Methods were developed that incorporated fluorimetry, directly in solutions containing aluminium and after separation of boron by liquid-liquid extraction into 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol. A published spectrophotometric method, involving extraction of the BF4sup(-) complex with methylene blue into dichloroethane, was modified for application to alluminium samples. Details of this modified procedure and the fluorimetric-extraction procedure are appended. The precision of the methylene-blue method is about 6 percent relative and is recommended for precision and speed in preference to others. Separation of boron by distillation and spectrophotometric determination with curcumin gave low values in comparison with those obtained by the other methods. Agreement between the boron values obtained on the samples tested was good for the fluorimetric and methylene-blue spectrophotometric methods

  6. Boron steel. I Part. Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the first nuclear reactors arise the need for control rods and shielding duties for some types of radiations. One of the materials used for this purpose has been the high boron steel. This paper describes the melting and casting procedures employed for the production, at laboratory scale, of steels with Boron content ranging from 1 to 4 per cent, as well as the metallographic and X-Ray techniques used for the identification of the present phases. The electrolytic technique employed for the isolation of the Fe2B phase and its subsequent X-Ray identification has proved to be satisfactory. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Shear amorphization of boron suboxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time the shear-induced local amorphization of boron suboxide subjected to nanoindentation. The amorphous bands have a width of ∼1–3 nm and a length of 200–300 nm along the (01¯11) crystal plane. We show direct experimental evidence that the amorphous shear bands of boron suboxide are driven from the coalescence of dislocation loops under high shear stresses. These observations provide insights into the microscopic deformation and failure of high-strength and lightweight ceramics

  8. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  9. Mechanical properties of boron coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal stress of coatings will cause reliability problems, such as adhesion failure and peeling. We measured the internal stress in boron coatings, which was prepared by the ion plating method, with an apparatus based on the optically levered laser technique. The boron coatings exhibited large compressive stress in the range from -0.5 GPa to -2.6 GPa. It was found that these compressive stresses were decreasing functions of the deposition rate and were increasing functions of the ion bombardment energy. ((orig.))

  10. Production of polyoxoboronate as novel boron compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyoxometalates are negatively charged inorganic substances which contain early transitional metal ions such as tungsten, molybdenum, making a cluster with the surrounding oxygen atoms. We prepared novel boron compound, (H15[V1210B32O84Na4]·13H2O; 10B32), as the structure of polyoxometalates. With thermal neutron irradiation, 10B32 shows cytotoxic effect on the proliferation of AsPC-1 cells in colony formation assay. On BNCT model mice bearing AsPC-1, 10B32 shows tumor growth suppression, as well. These results indicate that 10B32 has anti-tumor activity being functioned as a novel neutron capture agent. (author)

  11. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B+, the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 x 1014 and of 1 x 1015/cm-2. Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B+ requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold

  12. Ferrocenyl-substituted Schiff base complexes of boron: Synthesis, structural, physico-chemical and biochemical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunita; Singh, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Biological important complexes of boron(III) derived from 1-acetylferrocenehydrazinecarboxamide (L 1H), 1-acetylferrocenehydrazinecarbothioamide (L 2H) and 1-acetylferrocene carbodithioic acid (L 3H) have been prepared and investigated using a combination of microanalytical analysis, melting point, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Boron isopropoxide interacts with the ligands in 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios (boron:ligand) resulting in the formation of coloured products. On the basis of conductance and spectral evidences, tetrahedral structures for boron(III) complexes have been assigned. The ligands are coordinated to the boron(III) via the azomethine nitrogen atom and the thiolic sulfur atom/enolic oxygen atom. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction study one of the representative boron complex was found to have orthorhombic lattice, having lattice parameters: a = 9.9700, b = 15.0000 and c = 7.0000. Both the ligands and their complexes have been screened for their biological activity on several pathogenic fungi and bacteria and were found to possess appreciable fungicidal and bactericidal properties. Plant growth regulating activity of one of the ligand and its complexes has also been recorded on gram plant, and results have been discussed.

  13. Electron-impact excitation and ionization of atomic boron at low and intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kedong; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electron collisions with boron atoms by using the B -spline R -matrix method for electron energies ranging from threshold to 100 eV. Elastic, excitation, and ionization cross sections were obtained for all transitions between the lowest 11 states of boron. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal term-dependent orbitals was employed to generate accurate wave functions for the target states. Close-coupling expansions including 13, 51, and 999 physical and pseudo-target states of boron were used to check the sensitivity of the results to changes in the theoretical model. The cross-section dataset obtained from the large-scale calculations is expected to be sufficiently accurate and comprehensive for most current modeling applications involving neutral boron.

  14. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  15. Development and Kinetics of TiB2 Layers on the Surface of Titanium Alloy by Superplastic Boronizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taazim, Nor Taibah; Jauhari, Iswadi; Miyashita, Yukio; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of combining boronizing and superplastic deformation on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrate. Superplastic boronizing (SPB) is carried out at three different temperatures of 1173 K, 1223 K, and 1273 K (900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C), and it is held for four different boronizing times of 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. TiB2 is the only boride compound identified after the boronizing process. Boronized layer thickness in the range of 44.9 ± 1.1 to 149 ± 1 μm is formed on the surface of Ti6Al4V and the surface hardness values increase with respect of the formation's degree of the hard boronized layer. Diffusion coefficient values attained for all temperatures are (1.44 ± 0.8) × 10-13, (4.1 ± 1.5) × 10-13, and (8.86 ± 4.1) × 10-13 m2 s-1, respectively and the values are higher as compared to other works referred. The activation energy obtained for this process is 226.17 ± 8.3 kJ mol-1. The results obtained suggest that the SPB process provides a more competent and efficient process for the formation of a boronized layer on the alloy.

  16. Analysis of boronized wall in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronization has been carried out in some experimental fusion devices as one of wall conditioning Methods. The well-known merits of the boronization are as follows: 1) coated-boron on the first wall has strong gettering function for oxygen impurities and oxygen has been kept into boron films as a boron-oxide and 2) boron film covers first wall with apparently low Z materials facing the plasma. However, an operation scenario of boronization for next generation devices such as ITER is not optimized. In this paper, we discuss an optimized method of coated film uniformity in a wide area and a lifetime of boron film as an oxygen getter using experimental data in the large helical device (LHD). In LHD, boronization by glow discharges has been carried out a few times during each experimental campaign. Helium-diborane mixtured gas is used and plasma facing components (PFM) are stainless steel (SS) for the first wall and carbon for the divertor plates kept in the room temperature. Material probes made of SS316 and Si were installed in the vacuum vessel and exposed during the experimental campaign. Depth profiles of their impurities were analyzed using the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Two types of gettering process by boron film have been investigated. One is the process during boronization and the other is that after boronization. Concerning a lifetime of boron film, the distribution of oxygen near the top surface region (0 to 20 nm) indicates a process of oxygen gettering, it shows a contribution after boronization. In this paper, these kinds of process using material probes are shown. (authors)

  17. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  18. Boron sorption characteristics in resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of boron addition in a nuclear power plant is to control the reactivity. In PHWRs, it is injected into the moderator system in the form of boric anhydride solution, while in PHWRs, it is added to the primary heat transport system in the form of boric acid solution. The required boron levels in PHWRs are controlled by valving in strong base anion exchangers having exchangeable species in OD- form while in PHWRs, the same can be achieved by restoring to the use of Boron Thermal Regeneration System (BTRS). This system operates on the principle of existence of different amounts of various polyborate ions at different temperatures, solution pH's and the boric acid concentrations and on the reversible sorption of these polyions on strong base anion exchange resins. This report describes the salient features of boron sorption characteristics on four types of anion exchange resins, based on experimental data generated in the chemical laboratories of Reactor Engineering Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The report further makes an attempt to calculate the pH of the resin and solution phases and the percentages of different polyborates and undissociated boric acid, under the experimental conditions investigated. (author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 20 tables

  19. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  20. Raman spectroscopy of boron carbides and related boron-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra of crystalline boron, boron carbide, boron arsenide (B12As2), and boron phosphide (B12P2) are reported. The spectra are compared with other boron-containing materials containing the boron icosahedron as a structural unit. The spectra exhibit similar features some of which correlate with the structure of the icosahedral units of the crystals. The highest Raman lines appear to be especially sensitive to the B-B distance in the polar triangle of the icosahedron. Such Raman structural markers are potentially useful in efforts to tailor electronic properties of these high temperature semiconductors and thermoelectrics

  1. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  2. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient

  3. Synthesis of boron suboxide (B6O) with ball milled boron oxide (B2O3) under lower pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron reacted with ball milled boron oxide under pressures between 1 and 5 GPa and at temperatures between 1300 and 1700 oC to afford boron suboxide (B6O). Icosahedral B6O grains with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 1.3 μm were prepared. The factors that affect the synthesis of B6O are investigated. The best sample with crystal size up to 1.3 μm is obtained at 2 GPa and 1400 oC for 6 h. The indentation experiment gave an average Vickers hardness of 32.3 GPa for bulk B6O sample, which is consistent with previous reports. Bulk B6O sample exhibits oxidation resistance in air up to 1000 oC and mild oxidation in the temperatures of 1000-1200 oC, which is more oxidation resistant than diamond. It is possible that B6O could be used as a substitute for diamond in industry because of its relatively mild synthesis conditions, high thermal stability and high hardness. - Graphical abstract: Icosahedral B6O grains were prepared for mixtures of boron and ball milled boron oxide at 2 GPa and 1400 oC, a milder synthesis condition in comparison with previous works.

  4. Very high energy implants of boron into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, A.; Rimini, E.; Ciavola, G.; Ferla, G.

    1989-02-01

    Boron ions of energy in the 15-50 MeV range and doses in the 10 13-10 15 cm -2 range were implanted into 1 kΩ cm n-type silicon wafers. The samples, after annealing at 800-1250 ° C, were analyzed by spreading resistance profilometry. A simple model was used to predict the range distribution of the implanted ions. The measured projected ranges compare moderately well with calculations, while the concentration in the long tail up to the surface is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that calculated. Annealing at 1250 ° C for 24 h of multiple energy boron implants gives rise to a nearly flat profile with a concentration of 5 × 10 16 cm -3 over 100 μm. A diode with a junction depth of about 120 μm was realized.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in ammonium diuranate and interference studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes determination of boron in ammonium diuranate by spectrophotometry employing curcumin as a complexing agent after extraction of boron with 2-ethyl hexane 1,3 diol. Two diluents namely ethyl alcohol (EtOH) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) were investigated for the preparation of final solution. It was observed that the blank is less with DMF presumably due to higher extent of deprotonation of uncomplexed curcumin. The detection limits of method for 25 and 10 ml dilution are 20 ng and 10 ng respectively. Interference studies for several cation and anion species like Al, Cr, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Mo, F, W, NO, and different amount of 10% EHD in CHCl3 are also discussed. (author)

  6. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by boron ink annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2010-03-12

    Ball-milling and annealing is one effective method for the mass production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We report that the method has been modified to a boron (B) ink annealing method. In this new process, the nanosize ball-milled B particles are mixed with metal nitrate in ethanol to form an ink-like solution, and then the ink is annealed in nitrogen-containing gas to form nanotubes. The new method greatly enhances the yield of BNNTs, giving a higher density of nanotubes. These improvements are caused by the addition of metal nitrate and ethanol, both of which can strongly boost the nitriding reaction, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis. The size and structure of BNNTs can be controlled by varying the annealing conditions. This high-yield production of BNNTs in large quantities enables the large-scale application of BNNTs. PMID:20154372

  7. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by boron ink annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball-milling and annealing is one effective method for the mass production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We report that the method has been modified to a boron (B) ink annealing method. In this new process, the nanosize ball-milled B particles are mixed with metal nitrate in ethanol to form an ink-like solution, and then the ink is annealed in nitrogen-containing gas to form nanotubes. The new method greatly enhances the yield of BNNTs, giving a higher density of nanotubes. These improvements are caused by the addition of metal nitrate and ethanol, both of which can strongly boost the nitriding reaction, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis. The size and structure of BNNTs can be controlled by varying the annealing conditions. This high-yield production of BNNTs in large quantities enables the large-scale application of BNNTs.

  8. Synthesis of vinyl boronates from aldehydes by a practical boron-Wittig reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, John R; Zhang, Liang; Morken, James P

    2015-04-01

    A highly stereoselective boron-Wittig reaction between stable and readily accessible 1,1-bis(pinacolboronates) and aldehydes furnishes a variety of synthetically useful di- and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters. PMID:25799147

  9. Synthesis of Boron Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen B. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of boron nanowires, nanotubes, and nanosheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nanomaterials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB2, Mg(BH42, MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nanowires, boron nanotubes, and boron nanosheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  10. Analysis of magnetron sputtered boron oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buc, Dalibor [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Bello, Igor [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Caplovicova, Maria [Comenius University in Bratislava (Slovakia); Mikula, Milan; Kovac, Jaroslav; Hotovy, Ivan [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Chong, Yat Min [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Siu, Guei Gu [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: apggsiu@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-10-15

    Boron oxide films were grown on silicon substrates by radio-frequency (rf) unbalanced magnetron sputtering of a boron target in argon-oxygen gas mixtures with different compositions. Microscopic analyses show that overall boron oxide films are amorphous. The film prepared at oxygen/argon flow rate ratio > 0.05 developed large crystallites of boric acid in localize areas of amorphous boron oxide matrices. These crystallites were unstable and at electron microscopic analysis they continuously transformed to a cubic HBO{sub 2} phase and then completely vanished leaving an underlying amorphous boron oxide film behind. The analyses indicate the coexistence of B{sub 6}O, HBO{sub 2} crystallites and amorphous boron oxide matrices. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed spectral bands of BOH, BO, BOB and BH groups. Nanohardness and elastic modulus of a film prepared at low oxygen concentration approach 30 and 300 GPa, respectively. These parameters however vary with deposition conditions.

  11. Microwave sintering of boron carbide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide is an important ceramic material because of its high hardness and low specific gravity. it is used for applications involving impact and wear resistance. The disadvantages of boron carbide materials are difficulty in fabrication and sensitivity to brittle fracture. These problems are significantly reduced by production of cermets based on boron carbide and aluminum or aluminum alloys. Microwave heating of boron carbide materials results in ultrarapid heating and high temperatures. Therefore, a finer microstructure is obtained. The objective of this work was to define a technology that would allow the manufacture of boron carbide ceramics having mechanical properties similar to those exhibited by hot-pressed specimens. microwave heating would be used for the densification step. Mixtures of boron carbide and aluminum were considered for this research because aluminum simultaneously acts as a sintering aid and introduces phases that contribute to toughness enhancement

  12. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  13. CVD-produced boron filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawner, F. E.; Debolt, H. E.; Suplinskas, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for producing boron filaments with an average tensile strength of 6.89 GPa has been developed which involves longitudinal splitting of the filament and core (substrate) removal by etching. Splitting is accomplished by a pinch wheel device which continuously splits filaments in lengths of 3.0 m by applying a force to the side of the filament to create a crack which is then propagated along the axis by a gentle sliding action. To facilitate the splitting, a single 10 mil tungsten substrate is used instead of the usual 0.5 mil substrate. A solution of hot 30% hydrogen peroxide is used to remove the core without attacking the boron. An alternative technique is to alter the residual stress by heavily etching the filament. Average strengths in the 4.83-5.52 GPa range have been obtained by etching an 8 mil filament to 4 mil.

  14. Boron clusters in luminescent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2016-01-21

    In recent times, luminescent materials with tunable emission properties have found applications in almost all aspects of modern material sciences. Any discussion on the recent developments in luminescent materials would be incomplete if one does not account for the versatile photophysical features of boron containing compounds. Apart from triarylboranes and tetra-coordinate borate dyes, luminescent materials consisting of boron clusters have also found immense interest in recent times. Recent studies have unveiled the opportunities hidden within boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes, etc. as active constituents of luminescent materials. From simple illustrations of luminescence, to advanced applications in LASERs, OLEDs and bioimaging, etc., the unique features of such compounds and their promising versatility have already been established. In this review, recent revelations about the excellent photophysical properties of such materials are discussed. PMID:26574714

  15. Conduction mechanism in boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical conductivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and Hall-effect measurements have been made on single-phase boron carbides, B(1-x)C(x), in the compositional range from 0.1 to 0.2 X, and between room temperature and 1273 K. The results indicate that the predominant conduction mechanism is small-polaron hopping between carbon atoms at geometrically inequivalent sites.

  16. Sintering behavior of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressureless sintering behavior of boron carbide (B4C) in argon was studied, with change in time and temperature, using carbon as sintering aid. Carbon was added via fenolic resin, acting also as a binder. After isostatic pressing the specimens were sintered in a graphite furnace at 19600C/1h, 21600C/15 minutes and 1h and 22000C/1h. The achieved density was 97% of the theoretical. Some mechanical properties and microstructural aspects have been evaluated. (author)

  17. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    OpenAIRE

    James D Stephenson; Lydia J Hallis; Kazuhide Nagashima; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest minera...

  18. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm2, but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%

  19. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Paluluoglu, Cihan [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering., 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  20. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements

  1. A Preliminary experimental study of the boron concentration in vapor and the isotopic A preliminary experimental study of the boron concentrationin vapor and the isotopic fractionation of boron betweenseawater and vapor during evaporation of seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Yingkai

    2001-01-01

    boron in geological materials, Anal. Chim.Acta, 1988, 211: 243-256.[13]Xiao, Y. K., Beary, E. S., Fassett, J. D., An improved method for the high-precision isotopic measurement of boron by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 1988, 85: 203-213.[14]Xiao, Y. K., Zhang, C. G., High precision isotopic measurement of chlorine by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry of the Cs2Cl+ ion, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc., 1992, 116: 183-192.[15]Bruyevich, S. V., Korzh, V. D., Boron exchange between the sea and the atmosphere, Oceanology, 1971, 11: 345-351.[16]Martens, C., Harriss, R., Boron in coastal North Florida rainfall, J. Geoph. Res., 1976, 81: 6371-6375.[17]Byrne, R. H., Kester, D. R., Inorganic speciation of boron in seawater, J. Mar. Res., 1974, 32: 119-127.[18]Kakihana, H., Kotaka, M., Satoh, S. et al., Fundamental studies on the ion-exchange separation of boron isotopes, Bull.Chem. Soc. Japan, 1977, 50: 158-163.

  2. Systematic study of the electronic structure and optical properties of icosahedral boron and boron compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong

    1997-11-01

    A systematic study of the electronic structures, total energies and optical properties of B12-based boron and boron-rich compounds and boron oxide compounds has been conducted by the first-principles orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method. The materials involved are: α-r-B12, B12As2,/ B12P2,/ B11C(CBC)/ (or/ B4C),/ B13C2,/ B12O2,/ (B10Si2)Si2,/ (B10Si2)Si2-I, B2O3-I and B2O3-II. The band structures show that α-r-B12,/ B12As2,/ B12P2,/ B11C(CBC),/ B12O2,/ (B10Si2)Si2, and (B10Si2)Si2-I are semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 1.29 eV to 3.04 eV while B13C2 is a metal with an intrinsic hole at the top of the valence band below a semiconductor-like gap. The study also shows that B2O3-I and B2O3-II are wide gap insulators with calculated LDA gaps of 6.20 eV and 8.85 eV separately. The calculated density of states are resolved into atomic and orbital partial components and the valence-charge distributions are also studied. The natural bonding characteristics in these crystals are illuminated by evaluating the Mulliken effective charges on each atom and overlap populations between pairs of atoms. It is shown that inter-icosahedral bonding is much stronger than the intra-icosahedral bonding in the B12- based crystals. The chain elements in B12As2,/ B12P2,/ (B10Si2)Si2 and (B10Si2)Si2-I donate electrons to the icosahedra, while B11C(CBC),/ B13C2 and B12O2 gain a slight amount of charge in forming strong covalent bonds. For boron oxide compounds, B2O3-II is found to be more ionic than B2O3-I. It is also concluded that the sp2 planar bonding in B2O3-I is stronger than the sp3 tetrahedral bonding in B2O3-II. The bulk moduli of α-r-B12,/ B12As2,/ B12P2,/ B11C(CBC),/ B13C2 and B12O2 are estimated by means of total energy calculation as a function of crystal volume, and are to be considered as upper limits. We have also calculated the interband optical conductivities and the complex dielectric functions. Static dielectric constants for icosahedral

  3. Method for determination of boron carbide in wurtzite-like boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for increase of sensitivity and analysis accuracy while boron carbide determination in wurtzite-like boron nitride is proposed. Boron nitride with an addition of boron carbide is bjected to treatment by the mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and 0.1-0.5 N of porassium bichromate solution at ratio of (2-1):1 at the temperature of mixture boiling. Boron carboide content is calculated according to the quantity of restored Cr(3+), which is determined by titration of Cr(6+) excess with the Mohr's salt solution

  4. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmazucar, Hasan H.; Guenduez, Guengoer E-mail: ggunduz@metu.edu.tr

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  5. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed

  6. Boron doped simulated graphene field effect transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preetika; Kaur, Inderpreet; Gupta, Shuchi; Singh, Sukhbir

    2016-05-01

    Graphene based electronic devices due to its unique properties has transformed electronics. A Graphene Field Effect Transistor (GNRFET) model is simulated in Virtual Nano Lab (VNL) and the calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT). Simulations were performed on this pristine GNRFET model and the transmission spectrum was observed. The graph obtained showed a uniform energy gap of +1 to -1eV and the highest transmission peak at -1.75 eV. To this pristine model of GNRFET, doping was introduced and its effect was seen on the Fermi level obtained in the transmission spectrum. Boron as a dopant was used which showed variations in both the transmission peaks and the energy gap. In this model, first the single boron was substituted in place of carbon and Fermi level showed an energy gap of 1.5 to -0.5eV with the highest transmission peak at -1.3 eV. In another variation in the model, two carbon atoms were replaced by two boron atoms and Fermi level shifted from 2 to 0.25eV. In this observation, the highest transmission peak was observed at -1(approx.). The use of nanoelectronic devices have opened many areas of applications as GFET is an excellent building block for electronic circuits, and is being used in applications such as high-performance frequency doublers and mixers, digital modulators, phase detectors, optoelectronics and spintronics.

  7. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of boron with curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed method utilizes a rosocyanin complex formed by the reaction of boric acid and curcumin without evaporation to dryness. The automatic determination of boron in aqueous solution is performed according to the predetermined program (Fig. 8), after manual injection of a sample solution (2.00 ml) to the reaction vessel. Glacial acetic acid (5.40 ml) and propionic anhydride (13.20 ml) are added and the solution is circulated through the circulating pipe consisting of a bubble remover, an absorbance measuring flow cell, an air blowing tube and a drain valve. Oxalyl chloride (0.81 ml) is added and the solution is circulated for 80 seconds to eliminate water. Sulfuric acid (1.08 ml) and curcumin reagent (3.01 ml) are added and the solution is circulated for 120 seconds to form a rosocyanin complex. After addition of an acetate buffer solution (21.34 ml) for the neutralisation of an interfering proton complex of curcumin, the absorbance of the orange solution is measured at 545 nm. This automatic analysis is sensitive (Fig. 9) and rapid; less than 1.5 μg of boron is determined in 7 minutes. It can be applied to the determination of trace amounts of boron in steel samples, combined with an automatic distillation under development. (auth.)

  8. Some physical properties of compacted specimens of highly dispersed boron carbide and boron suboxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure, shear modulus and internal friction (IF) of compacted specimens of boron carbide and boron suboxide have been investigated. Microtwins and stacking faults were observed along the {100} plane systems of polycrystalline specimens of boron carbide. Electrical conductivity of the specimens was that of p-type. Concentration of holes varied from 1017 to 1019 cm-3. The IF was measured in the temperature range 80-300 K. It was shown that the IF of boron carbide and that of boron suboxide were characterized with a set of similar relaxation processes. Mechanisms of the relaxation processes in boron carbide and boron suboxide are discussed in terms of the Hasiguti model of interaction between dislocations and point defects

  9. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B4C by carbothermic reduction of B2O3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B4C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author)

  10. The acceptor concentration of the polycrystalline boron doped diamond films determined using different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Petrák, Václav; Frank, Otakar; Nesladek, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    Hasselt: Hasselt University, 2015. s. 92-92. [Hasselt Diamond Workshop 2015, SBDD XX. 25.02.2015-27.02.2015, Hasselt] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polycrystalline boron * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline boron doped diamond layers with hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Petrák, Václav; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, MAY 2015 (2015), s. 70-76. ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Boron doped diamond * Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy * Aqueous electrolyte solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2014

  12. NANOCRYSTALLINE BORON-DOPED DIAMOND: ELECTROCHEMICAL AND INSITU RAMAN SPECTROELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Frank, Otakar; Petrák, Václav; Tarábková, Hana; Bouša, Milan; Nesládek, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    Cancún: European Materials Research Society, 2011. S17-16. [International Materials Research Congress IMRC /20./. 13.08.2011-19.08.2011, Cancún] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  13. Spectral Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode for Application in Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Krýsová, Hana; Petrák, Václav; Bartoň, Jan; Cígler, Petr; Nesládek, M.

    San Francisco: Material Research Society, 2015. [2015 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit. Program: Symposium R—Photoactive Nanoparticles and Nanostructures. 06.04.2015-10.04.2015, San Francisco] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : nanocrystalline boron doped diamond * electrochemistry * photoelectrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  14. Nanocrystalline Boron-doped Diamond: Spectro /Photo/ Electrochemical Properties and Prospective Applications in Solar Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Krýsová, Hana; Petrák, Václav; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana; Nesládek, Miloš

    Barcelona: Phantoms Foundation, 2014. s. 106-106. [Trends in Nanotechnology 2014. 27.10.2014-31.10.2014, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond * electrochemistry * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  15. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsová, Hana; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Bartoň, Jan; Petrák, Václav; Nesladek, M.; Cígler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 1165-1172. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystallines * visible-light sensitization * boron-doped diamond Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.493, year: 2014

  16. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  17. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  18. Fabrication of boron-phosphide neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron phosphide is a potentially viable candidate for high neutron flux neutron detectors. The authors have explored chemical vapor deposition methods to produce such detectors and have not been able to produce good boron phosphide coatings on silicon carbide substrates. However, semi-conducting quality films have been produced. Further testing is required

  19. Computational Evidence for the Smallest Boron Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Jie LIN; Dong Ju ZHANG; Cheng Bu LIU

    2006-01-01

    The structure of boron nanotubes (BNTs) was found not to be limited to hexagonal pyramidal structures. Based on density functional theory calculations we provided evidence for the smallest boron nanotube, a geometrical analog of the corresponding carbon nanotube. As shown by our calculations, the smallest BNT possesses highly structural, dynamical, and thermal stability, which should be interest for attempts at its synthesis.

  20. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  1. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  2. Nuclear fuel management and boron carbide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years one way of introducing burnable absorber is to coat the fuel pellets by a thin layer of burnable absorber so called integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA). In this method the fuel is coated with boron nitride or boron carbide. Boron has low absorption cross-section and when it exists on the surface of the fuel, it interacts with thermalized neutron. B4C is a boron compound, which can be used for coating the nuclear fuel. It has high thermal stability and withstands high pressure and temperatures. High technology product of boron carbide has different ratio of B: C. But in nuclear reactor when boron carbide is used, it must be rich with boron. In this research chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) has been using boron trichloride and carbon tetra chloride for reactant materials. The experiments were carried out at high temperatures (1050 degree Celsius, 1225 degree Celsius and 1325 degree Celsius). The coated samples were analyzed using X-Ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and will be presented in this paper. It was seen that decreasing the reaction temperature caused an increase on the quality and thickness of the coating

  3. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  4. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  5. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH)4-) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10B and 11B

  6. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J E; Bhakhri, V; Hao, R; Prior, T J; Scheler, T; Gregoryanz, E; Chhowalla, M; Giulani, F

    2015-01-14

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping. PMID:25427850

  7. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J. E.; Bhakhri, V.; Hao, R.; Prior, T. J.; Scheler, T.; Gregoryanz, E.; Chhowalla, M.; Giulani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  8. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  9. Burnup performances of boron nitride and boron coated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuels of urania (UOV) and 5% and 10% gadolinia (Gd2O3) containing UO2 previously produced by sol-gel technique were coated with first boron nitride (BN) then boron (B) thin layer by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and also by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques to increase the fuel cycle length and to improve the physical properties. From the cross-sectional view of BN and B layers taken from scanning electron microscope (SEM), the excellent adherence of BN onto fuel and B onto BN layer was observed in both cases. The behavior of fuel burnup, depletion of BN and B, the effect of coating thickness and also Gd2O3 content on the burnup performances of the fuels were identified by using the code WIMS-D/4 for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) cores. The optimum thickness ratio of B to BN was found as 4 and their thicknesses were chosen as 40 mm and 10 mm respectively in both reactor types to get extended cycle length. The assemblies consisting of fuels with 5% Gd2O3 and also coated with 10 mm BN and 40 mm B layers were determined as candidates for getting higher burnup in both types of reactors

  10. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  11. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  12. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [University of Missouri; Wexler, Carlos [University of Missouri; Hawthorne, M. Frederick [University of Missouri; Lee, Mark W. [University of Missouri; Jalistegi, Satish S. [University of Missouri

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have

  13. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boronated polyglycerol dendrimers as potential agent for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) generation 5 was used to obtain a boronated macromolecule for boron neutron capture therapy. The PGLD dendrimer was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth processes denominated divergent synthesis. The PGLD dendritic structure was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques. The synthesized dendrimer presented low dispersion in molecular weights (Mw/Mn = 1.05) and a degree of branching of 0.82, which characterize the polymer dendritic structure. Quantitative neutron capture radiography was used to investigate the boron-10 enrichment of the polyglycerol dendrimer. The in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells of 10B-PGLD dendrimer indicate lower cytotoxicity, suggesting that the macromolecule is a biocompatible material. (author)

  15. Superconductivity in boron carbide? Clarification by low-temperature MIR/FIR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U

    2011-11-01

    The electronic structure and phonon density of B(13)B(2) boron carbide calculated by Calandra et al (2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 224505) defines this compound as metallic, and the authors predict superconductivity with T(C)s up to 36.7 K. Their results are affected by the same deficiencies as former band structure calculations on boron carbides based on hypothetical crystal structures deviating significantly from the real ones. We present optical mid IR/far IR (MIR/FIR) spectra of boron carbide with compositions between B(4.3)C and B(10.37)C, evidencing semiconducting behaviour at least down to 30 K. There is no indication of superconductivity. The spectra yield new information on numerous localized gap states close to the valence band edge. PMID:21997120

  16. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuya Egawa; Ryotaro Miki; Toshinobu Seki

    2014-01-01

    In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conj...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELA MAGDA; RODICA PODE; CORNELIA MUNTEAN; MIHAI MEDELEANU; ALEXANDRU POPA

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the ...

  18. The determination of boron and carbon in reactor grade boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sealed tube method of dissolution at high temperature and pressure has been successfully applied in the analysis of reactor grade boron carbide for the determination of boron. A 50 mg sample of boron carbide is completely dissolved by heating with concentrated nitric acid in a sealed tube at 3000C. The boron content of the resultant sample solution is determined by the mannitol potentiometric titration method. The precision of the method for the determination of 2.5 mg of boron using the Harwell automatic potentiometric titrator is 0.2% (coefficient of variation). The carbon content of a boron carbide sample is determined by combustion of the sample at 10500C in a stream of oxygen using vanadium pentoxide to ensure the complete oxidation of the sample. The carbon dioxide produced from the sample is measured manometrically and the precision of the method for the determination of 4 mg of carbon is 0.4% (coefficient of variation). (author)

  19. Proceedings of workshop on 'Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 12, in 1991. In this workshop, our attention was focused on the chemical nature of boron compounds and the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). First, clinical experiences of BNCT in KURRI in 1990 and 1991 were reported (Chap. 3). The feasibility of the gadolinium neutron capture therapy for brain tumors was discussed (Chap. 4). In the chemical field, a rapid spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of borons in biological samples is described (Chap. 5). The chemical behaviours of p-boronophenylalanine and its analogs in aqueous solutions were investigated by a paper electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy (Chap. 6). On the molecular design and synthesis of new boron carriers for BNCT, several new synthetic methods for B-10 containing nucleoside derivatives were shown (Chap. 7). (author)

  20. Quantitative boron detection by neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    //Quantitative boron detection is mainly performed by chemical methods like colorimetric titration. High neutron absorption cross section of natural boron makes attractive its detection by absorption measurements. This work is an extension of earlier investigations where neutron radiography technique was used for boron detection. In the present investigation, the neutron absorption rate of boron containing solutions is the way to measure quantitatively the boron content of the solutions. The investigation was carried out in Istanbul TRIGA Mark-II reactor. In the end of the experiments, it was observed that even |ppw| grade boron in aqueous solution can be easily detected. The use of this method is certainly very useful for boron utilizing industries like glass and steel industries.The major disadvantage of the method is the obligation to use always aqueous solutions to be able to detect homogeneously the boron content. Then, steel or glass samples have to be put first in an appropriate solution form. The irradiation of steel samples can give the distribution of boron by the help of a imaging and this suggested method will give its quantitative measurement. The superiority of this method are its quick response time and its accuracy. To test this accuracy, a supposed unknown , solution of boric acid is irradiated and then calculated by the help of the calibration curve. The measured value of boric acid was 0.89 mg and the calculated value was found to be 0.98 mg which gives an accuracy of 10 %. It was also seen that the method is more accurate for low concentration. (authors)

  1. X-ray diffraction study of boron produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David

    The goal of this research was to determine the composition of boron deposits produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide, and to use the results to (a) determine the experimental conditions (reaction temperature, etc.) necessary to produce alpha-rhombohedral boron and (b) guide the development/refinement of the pyrolysis experiments such that large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron can be produced with consistency. Developing a method for producing large, high purity alpha-rhombohedral boron crystals is of interest because such crystals could potentially be used to achieve an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector design (a solid-state detector) that could serve as an alternative to existing neutron detector technologies. The supply of neutron detectors in the United States has been hampered for a number of years due to the current shortage of helium-3 (a gas used in many existing neutron detector technologies); the development of alternative neutron detector technology such as an alpha-rhombohedral boron based detector would help provide a more sustainable supply of neutron detectors in this country. In addition, the prospect/concept of an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is attractive because it offers the possibility of achieving a design that is smaller, longer life, less power consuming, and potentially more sensitive than existing neutron detectors. The main difficulty associated with creating an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is that producing large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron is extremely challenging. Past researchers have successfully made alpha-rhombohedral boron via a number of methods, but no one has developed a method for consistently producing large, high purity crystals. Alpha-rhombohedral boron is difficult to make because it is only stable at temperatures below around 1100-1200 °C, its formation is very sensitive to impurities, and the conditions necessary for its

  2. Sintering of boron carbide (B4C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide (B4C) is used as a control element in different types of reactors due to the high fast and thermal neutron absorption cross-section of B-10. Requirements of the Advanced Reactor Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center triggered the study of the possibilities of fabricating B4C pellets by cold-pressing and sintering. The results of essays of sinterability of two different commercial boron carbide powders, sintered at temperatures between 1200 and 2200 deg C, are given. Characterizations of the samples were made to determine the evolution of density, porosity, microstructure and boron content as a function of sintering temperature. (Author)

  3. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  4. First boronization in KSTAR: Experiences on carborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suk-Ho, E-mail: sukhhong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Su; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Hong-Tack [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Jong-Ho; Woo, Hyun-Jong [Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Min [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eun-Kyong [Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Hak-Kun; Park, Kap-Rai; Yang, Hyung-Lyeol; Oh, Yeong-Kook; Na, Hoon-Kyun [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lho, Taehyeop [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyu-Sun [Center for Edge Plasma Science (cEps), Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    First boronization was performed in KSTAR tokamak during 2009 campaign in order to reduce oxygen impurities and to lower the power loss due to radiation. We report the results from the experiences on carborane during the first boronization in KSTAR. After the boronization, H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} level in the vacuum vessel are reduced significantly. The characteristics of the deposited thin films were analyzed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, XPS, and AES. {approx}1.78 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} of carbon flux on the wall is estimated by using cavity technique.

  5. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta3Si1−xBx (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti3P-type (space group P42/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta5Si3−x (x=0.03(1); Cr5B3- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta5(Si1−xBx)3, x=0.568(3), and Nb5(Si1−xBx)3, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M5Si3 with Cr5B3-type into the ternary M–Si–B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D88-phase in the Nb–Si–B system crystallizes with the Ti5Ga4-type revealing the formula Nb5Si3B1−x (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn5Si3 parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: ► Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. ► Ta3(Si1−xBx) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti3P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. ► Structure of Nb5Si3B1−x (x=0.292; Ti5Ga4-type) was solved from NPD.

  6. Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non-Toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Amartya Chakrabarti; Tao Xu; Laura K. Paulson; Krise, Kate J.; Maguire, John A; Hosmane, Narayan S.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the conventional bottom-up syntheses of boron nanostructures, a unique top-down and greener synthetic strategy is presented for boron nanorods involving nontoxic boron oxide powders ultrasonically smelted in liquid lithium under milder conditions. The product was thoroughly characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic emission spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and, UV-Vis spectroscopy, including structural characterization by transmission electron microscop...

  7. Determination of boron isotope ratios in boron carbide by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the direct determination of boron isotope ratios in the boron carbide powder by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The technique for sample loading, the procedure for heating and the eliminating of effects induced by oxygen are studied. The study indicates that the preparing process for the sample will be shorted, and the time for determination and the exposure dose of the laboratory assistant will be reduced for the reason of directly determination of boron carbide. (authors)

  8. Effect of boron concentration on physicochemical properties of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. Toluene was used as the carbon source, triphenylborane as boron as well as the carbon source while ferrocene was used as the catalyst. The amount of triphenylborane used was varied in a solution of toluene and ferrocene. Ferrocene was kept constant at 2.5 wt.%. while a maximum temperature of 900 °C was used for the synthesis of the shaped carbon nanomaterial (SCNMs). SCNMs obtained were characterized by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution-electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ay spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and inverse gas chromatography. TEM and SEM analysis confirmed SCNMs obtained were a mixture of B-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (B-CNF). EDX and ICP-OES results showed that boron was successively incorporated into the carbon hexagonal network of CNTs and its concentration was dependent on the amount of triphenylborane used. From the VSM results, the boron doping within the CNTs introduced ferromagnetic properties, and as the percentage of boron increased the magnetic coactivity and squareness changed. In addition, boron doping changed the conductivity and the surface energy among other physicochemical properties of B-CNTs. - Highlights: • Boron-doping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) changes their physiochemical properties. • Amount of boron-doping was dependent on the wt.% of boron precursor used. • Boron-doping changed CNTs surfaces and the distribution of dispersive energy sites. • Boron-doping affected the conductivity and ferromagnetic properties. • Increased boron-doping results in a more favourable interaction with polar probes

  9. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  10. Boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that borate minerals and refined borates are used extensively for the manufacture of vitreous materials such as insulation and textile fiberglasses, borosilicate glass, and porcelain enamels and frits. In North America, these applications are estimated to account for over 54% of the borate consumption. Other substantial uses are in soaps and detergents, metallurgy, fire retardants, industrial biocides, agriculture, and various miscellaneous applications. Reported domestic borate consumption in 1990 was estimated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to be 320 000 metric tons B2O3 versus 354 000 metric tons B2O3 in 1989. Consumption is projected to remain essentially static in 1991. Imports were estimated by the Bureau to be 50 000 metric tons B2O3 in 1990. Exports of boric acid and refined borates were approximately 650 000 metric tons of product, a 15 000 metric ton increase from the 1989 level. This increase partially offsets the drop in the 1990 consumption level

  11. Boron-isotope fractionation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally-occurring variations in the abundance of stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other elements in plants have been reported and are now used to understand various physiological processes in plants. Boron (B) isotopic variation in several plant species have been documented, but no determination as to whether plants fractionate the stable isotopes of boron, 11B and 10B, has been made. Here, we report that plants with differing B requirements (wheat, corn and broccoli) fractionated boron. The whole plant was enriched in 11B relative to the nutrient solution, and the leaves were enriched in 10B and the stem in 11B relative to the xylem sap. Although at present, a mechanistic role for boron in plants is uncertain, potential fractionating mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  12. Synthesis of Boron-Containing Primary Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, boron-containing primary amines were synthesized for use as building blocks in the study of peptoids. In the first step, Gabriel synthesis conditions were modified to enable the construction of seven different aminomethylphenyl boronate esters in good to excellent yields. These compounds were further utilized to build peptoid analogs via an Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi-4CR under microwave irradiation. The prepared Ugi-4CR boronate esters were then successfully converted to the corresponding boronic acids. Finally, the peptoid structures were successfully modified by cross-coupling to aryl/heteroaryl chlorides via a palladium-mediated Suzuki coupling reaction to yield the corresponding derivatives in moderate to good yields.

  13. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  14. Boron adsorption on hematite and clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the suitability of boron as a potential reactive tracer for use in saturated-zone C-well reactive tracer studies for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Experiments were performed to identify the prevalent sorption mechanism of boron and to determine adsorption of boron on hematite and clinoptilolite as a function of pH. These minerals are present in the Yucca Mountain tuff in which the C-well studies will be conducted. Evaluation of this sorption mechanism was done by determining the equilibration time of boron-mineral suspensions, by measuring changes in equilibrium to titrations, and by measuring electrophoretic mobility. Experiments were performed with the minerals suspended in NaCl electrolytes of concentrations ranging from 0.1 N NaCl to 0.001 N NaCl. Experimentalconditions included pH values between 3 and 12 and temperature of about 38 degrees C

  15. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy. What is next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) will have difficulties establishing itself without efficient and conclusive clinical trials of glioma, without the expansion to other tumors, and without efficient programs for compound development and testing. (author)

  17. Ni doping of semiconducting boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide band gap, temperature stability, high resistivity, and robustness of semiconducting boron carbide make it an attractive material for device applications. Undoped boron carbide is p type; Ni acts as a n-type dopant. Here we present the results of controlled doping of boron carbide with Ni on thin film samples grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The change in the dopant concentration within the thin film as a function of the dopant flow rate in the precursor gas mixture was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements; with increasing dopant concentration, current-voltage (I-V) curves clearly establish the trend from p-type to n-type boron carbide.

  18. Analysis of boron at Koeberg Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble reactivity poisons, also called chemical shim, produce spatially uniform neutron absorption when dissolved in reactor coolant water. The boron-10 isotope having a high neutron absorption coefficient is used in commercial pressurised water reactors (PWR) to limit and control reactivity. This is achieved at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) and the majority of commercial PWR's worldwide by the addition of natural boric acid to the reactor coolant. The boric acid dissolved in the coolant decreases the thermal utilisation factor, causing a decrease in reactivity. By varying the concentration of boric acid (and hence also the B-10 concentration) in the coolant, a process referred to as boration and dilution, the reactivity of the core can be easily managed. An increase in boron concentration (boration) creates negative reactivity and if the boron concentration is reduced (dilution), positive reactivity is added. The changing of boron concentration in a PWR is used primarily to compensate for fuel burn-up or poison build-up. The variation in boron concentration allows control rod use to be minimised, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than can be produced by control rod manipulation. Accurate laboratory and on-line chemical analysis of boron concentration is important because of its operational implications associated with reactivity control and also for nuclear safety. In a normal fuel cycle, as the nuclear fuel is being consumed, the reactor coolant boric acid (B-10) concentration must be reduced by dilution with purified water to maintain the reactor at constant power. Besides in the reactor coolant water, boric acid concentration is also important in the chemical and volume control system and reactor make-up system for operation. For nuclear safety, boric acid concentrations are technical specification parameters, maintained and monitored in the spent fuel system and safety injection systems. Boron concentration determination is

  19. High temperature thermoelectric properties of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbides are refractory solids with potential for application as very high temperature p-type thermoelectrics in power conversion applications. The thermoelectric properties of boron carbides are unconventional. In particular, the electrical conductivity is consistent with the thermally activated hopping of a high density (∼1021/cm3) of bipolarons; the Seebeck coefficient is anomalously large and increases with increasing temperature; and the thermal conductivity is surprisingly low. In this paper, these unusual properties and their relationship to the unusual structure and bonding present in boron carbides are reviewed. Finally, the potential for utilization of boron carbides at very high temperatures (up to 2200 degrees C) and for preparing n-type materials is discussed

  20. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth; Casse, Michel; Audouze, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to...

  1. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Thelma Manning; Richard Field; Kenneth Klingaman; Michael Fair; John Bolognini; Robin Crownover; Carlton P. Adam; Viral Panchal; Eugene Rozumov; Henry Grau; Paul Matter; Michael Beachy; Christopher Holt; Samuel Sopok

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN) is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P). Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower ...

  2. A neutron diffraction study of amorphous boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplane, R. G.; Lundström, T.; Dahlborg, U.; Howells, W. S.

    1991-07-01

    The structure of amorphous boron has been studied with pulsed neutron diffraction techniques using the ISIS facilities at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The experimental static structure factor S(Q) and radial distribution function support a structural model based on units of B12 icosahedra resembling those found in crystalline β-rhombohedral boron, but with a certain degree of disorder occurring in the linking between these subunits.

  3. Interaction of iron with boron in metal-rich metallaboranes resulting in large deshielding and rapid relaxation processes of the boron-11 nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first-order, parameterized model for calculating 11B chemical shifts in metal-rich ferraboranes and a correlation of chemical shift with boron Mulliken populations from Fenske-Hall calculations are presented. These correlations are qualitatively different from those reported earlier for boranes and suggest that direct iron-boron interactions lead to large deshielding due to substantial increases in multiple-bond contributions to the shielding tensor. Relaxation rates have been measured for [Fe4(CO)12BH/sub 3-n/]/sup n-/ (n = 0-2) and correlated with electric field gradients at the boron nucleus estimated from Fenske-Hall calculations. These results demonstrate that formation of the boride, [Fe4(CO)12B]3-, by deprotonation is accompanied by the development of large asymmetries in the electronic charge distribution around the boron nucleus. Finally, 7Li NMR is used to probe the nature of the anions [Fe4(CO)12BH/sub 3-n/]/sup n-/ (n = 1-3), and observed line shapes suggest close association of Li+ with the trianion. 28 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  4. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 105 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  5. Amorphous boron nitride at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation in hexagonal boron nitrite and amorphous boron nitrite is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The hexagonal-to-wurtzite phase transformation is successfully reproduced in the simulation with a transformation mechanism similar to one suggested in experiment. Amorphous boron nitrite, on the other hand, gradually transforms to a high-density amorphous phase with the application of pressure. This phase transformation is irreversible because a densified amorphous state having both sp3 and sp2 bonds is recovered upon pressure release. The high-density amorphous state mainly consists of sp3 bonds and its local structure is quite similar to recently proposed intermediate boron nitrite phases, in particular tetragonal structure (P42/mnm), rather than the known the wurtzite or cubic boron nitrite due to the existence of four membered rings and edge sharing connectivity. On the basis of this finding we propose that amorphous boron nitrite might be best candidate as a starting structure to synthesize the intermediate phase(s) at high pressure and temperature (probably below 800 °C) conditions.

  6. Inheritance of Boron Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; WANG Yun-Hua; NIAN Fu-Zhao; LU Jian-Wei; MENG Jin-Ling; XU Fang-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the inheritance of boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) by evaluating the boron (B) efficiency coefficient (BEC,the ratio of the seed yield at below the critical boron level to that at the boron-sufficient level) with 657 F2:3 fines of a population derived from a cross between a B-efficient cultivar,Qingyou 10,and a B-inefficient cultivar,Bakow.Qingyou i0 had high BEC as well as high seed yield at low available soil B.On the contrary,Bakow produced low seed yield at low B status.Boron deficiency decreased the seed yield of the F2:3 lines to different extents and the distribution of BEC of the population showed a bimodal pattern.When the 657 F2:3 lines were grouped into B-efficient lines and B-inefficient lines according to their BEC,the ratio of B-efficient lines to B-inefficient lines fitted the expected ratio (3:1),indicating that one major gene controlled the B-efficiency trait.127 F2:3 lines selected from the population at random,with distribution of BEC similar to that of the overall population,were used to identify the target region for fine mapping of the boron efficiency gene.

  7. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  8. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thelma MANNING; Henry GRAU; Paul MATTER; Michael BEACHY; Christopher HOLT; Samuel SOPOK; Richard FIELD; Kenneth KLINGAMAN; Michael FAIR; John BOLOGNINI; Robin CROWNOVER; Carlton P. ADAM; Viral PANCHAL; Eugene ROZUMOV

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN) is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P). Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  9. Boronization of Russian tokamaks from carborane precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and cheap boronization technique using the nontoxic and nonexplosive solid substance carborane has been developed and successfully applied to the Russian tokamaks T-11M, T-3M, T-10 and TUMAN-3. The glow discharge in a mixture of He and carborane vapor produced the amorphous B/C coating with the B/C ratio varied from 2.0-3.7. The deposition rate was about 150 nm/h. The primary effect of boronization was a significant reduction of the impurity influx and the plasma impurity contamination, a sharp decrease of the plasma radiated power, and a decrease of the effective charge. Boronization strongly suppressed the impurity influx caused by additional plasma heating. ECR- and ICR-heating as well as ECR current drive were more effective in boronized vessels. Boronization resulted in a significant extension of the Ne- and q-region of stable tokamak operation. The density limit rose strongly. In Ohmic H-mode energy confinement time increased significantly (by a factor of 2) after boronization. It rose linearly with plasma current Ip and was 10 times higher than Neo-Alcator time at maximum current. ((orig.))

  10. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B, carbon (δ13C, oxygen (δ18O isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that

  11. Controlling the microstructure and properties of wire arc additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V with trace boron additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates that trace boron addition to Ti–6Al–4V coupons produced by additive layer manufacturing is an effective way to eliminate the deleterious anisotropic microstructures often encountered with this manufacturing technique. Trace boron additions (up to 0.13 wt.%) to this alloy eliminate grain boundary-α and colony-α, and instead produce a homogeneous α-microstructure consisting of fine equiaxed α-grains in both as-deposited and heat treated coupons. Prior-β grains remain columnar with boron addition but become narrower due to the wider solidification range and growth restricting effect of the boron solute. Compared to unmodified Ti–6Al–4V alloy, Ti–6Al–4V modified with trace boron additions showed up to 40% improvement in plasticity with no loss in strength under uniaxial compression at room temperature. Boron additions were found to inhibit twinning transmission that causes sudden large load drops during deformation of the unmodified Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the heat treated condition

  12. Synthesis and properties of low-carbon boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the production of boron carbides of low carbon content (3 and CCl4 at 1273-1673 K in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that phase separation had occurred, and tetragonal boron carbide was formed along with β-boron or α-boron carbide under carbon-depleted gas-phase conditions. At temperatures greater than 1390 degrees C, graphite substrates served as a carbon source, affecting the phases present. A microstructure typical of CVD-produced α-boron carbide was observed. Plan view TEM of tetragonal boron carbide revealed a blocklike structure

  13. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  14. A novel method of boron delivery using sodium iodide symporter for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF4, compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications. (author)

  15. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy tissue in the field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The success of this experimental cancer therapy depends on the preferential uptake of 10B in tumour cells after injection of a boron compound (in our case B12H11SH, or BSH). With the Mephisto (microscope a emission de photoelectrons par illumination synchrotronique de type onduleur) spectromicroscope, high-magnification imaging and chemical analysis was performed on brain tissue sections from a rat carrying an implanted brain tumour and the results were compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) detection of boron in bulk tissue. Boron was found to have been taken up more favourably by regions of tumour rather than healthy tissue, but the resulting boron distribution in the tumour was inhomogeneous. The results demonstrate that Mephisto can perform microchemical analysis of tissue sections, detect and localize the presence of boron with submicron spatial resolution. The application of this technique to boron in brain tissue can therefore be used to evaluate the current efforts to optimize BNC therapy. (author)

  16. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  18. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  19. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  20. Boron-11 NMR spectroscopy of excised mouse tissues after infusion of boron compound used in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective boron uptake by the tumor and in situ activation by neutron beam. The authors propose the use of B-11 MR spectroscopy to noninvasively study boron uptake in animal tumor models. Sodium mercaptoundeca-hydrododecaborate was infused into female BALB/cJ mice and liver, brain, spleen, kidney, and tumor tissues were excised for MR (27.4MHz) and total boron content measurements. Boron-11 was easily detectable in tumor, liver, spleen, and skin. The results gave a very good correlation (correlation coefficient of .997) between B-11 MR measurements and total boron content of excised mouse tissues

  1. Simultaneous determination of boron-10 and boron-11 under proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic analysis of boron gained importance with increased use of boron-10 in nuclear technology. Former techniques for determining the stable boron isotope either were limited to the determination of a single isotope or required tedious experimental prodecure. The use of proton induced reactions was therefore investigated as an alternative method for the simultaneous analysis of both stable isotopes of boron through a relatively simple experimental procedure. Aqueous solutions of natural boric acid (19,78 at. % 10B) and enriched boric acid (92,41 at. % 10B) were mixed and evaporated to dryness in order to obtain samples in which the isotopic concentration of boron was known. Thin targets were produced by evaporating boron oxide, converted by heat from the boric acid mixture, onto tantalum backing material. Standard samples with known contents of boron oxide were prepared by dry mixing standard reference boron-containing glass powers in a ball mill. Thick targets containing boron of different isotopic compositions were prepared in matrices of potassium bromide and of ion-exchange resins by mixing the matrix with aqueous solutions of boric acid and of sodium carbonate by fusion with boric oxide. The most intense prompt gamma-rays emitted from boron isotopes under irradiation with protons up to 4,5 MeV were the 428-KeV 10B α(1,0), 718-KeV 10B p(1,0) and the 2124-KeV 11B p(1,0) gamma-rays. Excitation functions for the production of each of these were measured using both thick and thin targets

  2. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: boron biodistribution study in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, Verónica A; Abramson, David B; Bumaguin, Gaston E; Bruno, Leandro J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Feldman, Sara; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is explored for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in female New Zealand rabbits, with the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) to assess the potential feasibility of BNCS for RA. Rabbits in chronic phase of AIA were used for biodistribution studies employing the following protocols: intra-articular (ia) (a) BPA-f 0.14 M (0.7 mg (10)B), (b) GB-10 (5 mg (10)B), (c) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B) and intravenous (iv), (d) BPA-f 0.14 M (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), (e) GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg), and (f) BPA-f (15.5 mg (10)B/kg) + GB-10 (50 mg (10)B/kg). At different post-administration times (13-85 min for ia and 3 h for iv), samples of blood, pathological synovium (target tissue), cartilage, tendon, muscle, and skin were taken for boron measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intra-articular administration protocols at 20 ppm) in the pathological synovium. Dosimetric estimations suggest that BNCS would be able to achieve a therapeutically useful dose in pathological synovium without exceeding the radiotolerance of normal tissues in the treatment volume, employing boron carriers approved for use in humans. Radiobiological in vivo studies will be necessary to determine the actual therapeutic efficacy of BNCS to treat RA in an experimental model. PMID:25156017

  3. Boron: out of the sky and onto the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Now an accepted, engineered material for aerospace applications, boron is taking its place on the ground. Both current production applications, prototype (development) applications, and speculative applications abound. In the leisure product market, boron epoxy or boron aluminum has been used or tried in golf clubs (in combination with graphite epoxy or to reinforce aluminum or steel), in tennis racquets, in bicycles, racing shells, skis and skipoles, bows and arrows, and others. In the industrial area, boron has been used to reduce fatigue, increase stiffness, or for its abrasive properties. Textile machinery, honing tools, and cut off wheels or saws are among the applications. In the medical field, prosthetics and orthotic braces, wheel chairs, canes, and crutches are all good applications for boron. Applications for boron in transportation, construction, and heavy industry are also possible. The volume of boron used in these applications could have a major impact on prices, making boron composite parts cost competitive with conventional materials. (U.S.)

  4. 15th International Conference on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XV)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 121. ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * boron * boron materials * carboranes * IMEBORON XV * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  5. Boron Depletion in F and G Dwarf Stars and the Beryllium-Boron Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, A M; Steinhauer, A; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Steinhauer, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Boron provides a special probe below the stellar surface as it survives to greater depths than do Li and Be. To search for B depletions we have observed B in 13 F and G dwarfs with large Be depletions; for comparison we also obtained spectra of five stars which are undepleted in Li and Be. We have used HST with STIS to obtain spectra of the B I resonance line at 2497 \\AA. The spectral resolution is 30,000 or 114,000 and the median signal-to-noise ratio is 70 per pixel. New Be and Li spectra have been obtained at Keck I with HIRES of four of the five standard stars at $\\sim$48,000 resolution. Abundances have been determined by the spectrum synthesis method with MOOG. A comparison between the standard stars and those with severe Be depletions shows a distinct difference in the B abundances between the two groups of 0.22 dex. We have discovered a correlation between the Be and B abundances. The slope between A(Be) and A(B)$_{NLTE}$ is 0.22 $\\pm$0.05 (where A(element) = log N(element)/N(H) + 12.00) which, as expe...

  6. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  7. Separation of boron isotopes by exchange distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron has two stable isotopes namely 10B and 11B with natural abundance of 19.9 % and 80.1 % respectively. Both the isotopes find extensive use in the nuclear industry and can be used for the production of two radioisotopes: 11C and 13N as well as tracers to study reaction mechanisms in biological systems. 10B has a large neutron capture cross-section and, therefore, used to assist control of nuclear reactors, a shield against radiation and in neutron detection. 10B is also used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer patients. 11B is useful as a neutron reflector and largely immune to radiation damage so can be very useful in radiation hardened semiconductor designs to be used in spacecrafts. 11B is also an attractive candidate as a fuel for aneutronic fusion. The full potential of 11B is yet to be realized in the last two applications and its demand likely to pick up in future

  8. First gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J., E-mail: jinseok@nfri.re.kr [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Den Hartog, D.J.; Goetz, J.A.; Weix, P.J.; Limbach, S.T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The first successful gaseous boronization during a pulsed discharge is reported. Sublimation of o-carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) combined with pulsed discharge plasmas with a repetition rate of 1 Hz is used to produce a hard boron-containing coating for reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ar ion beam etching for silicon coupons installed at the plasma boundary shows about 60% boron concentration in the deposited layer. Both profilometer and scanning electron microscope analyses of the silicon coupons imply a strong toroidally non-uniform deposition depending on the location of the o-carborane injection. The layer thickness ranges from 50 to 300 nm. Ellipsometry calibrated with the profilometer results yields a refractive index of 2.2-2.3 for the films. The high refractive index implies that the coating is hard and has a well-ordered morphology. A reduction in wall recycling has consistently been observed after all boronization sessions. Comparison of the X-ray spectra in standard RFP plasmas before and after boronization indicates a slight decrease in the effective ionic charge.

  9. Studies of boron hydrides: new heteroboranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. The chemistry of the bipentaborane 2,2'-(B5H8)2 is investigated to some extent. Pyrolysis of 2,2'-(B5H8)2 resulted in the formation of non-volatile solid boron hydrides and hydrogen. Treatment of 2,2'-(B5H8)2 with bromine in the presence of AlBr3 resulted in the isolation of 1,1'Br2-2,2'-(B5H7)2. Reaction of 2,2'-(B5H8)2 with deprotonating agents resulted in the formation of the corresponding anions. Reaction of 2,2'-(B5H8)2 with diborane followed by acidification afforded n-B9H15 and B10H14 in moderate yield. II. Reaction of K+B9H12S- with potassium polyselenide resulted in the isolation of stable white crystals of B9H9SSe. Treatment of B9H9SSe with one equivalent of base in methanol gave the unstable heteroborane B8H9(OCH3)SSE and treatment with two equivalents of base afforded yellow crystals of B7H9SSe. Reaction of K+B9H12S- with arsenic trioxide in aqueous basic solution gave the electron-rich heteroborane, B8H8As2S in moderate yield. This resulted in the isolation and identification of Et3N.BH3 and the new metalloborane B7H7As2SCo(C5H5). Treatment of B10H11Se- with As2O3 resulted in the isolation of the stable nido-heteroborane B8H8As2Se in low yield. Reaction of B7C2H13 with potassium polyselenide gave the arachno selenacarborane B7H2C11Se in low yield. The structure of the new heteroborane is proposed on the basis of 11B and 1H nmr spectra. Reaction of B7C2H13 with AsCl3 resulted in the isolation of white stable crystals of B7C2H9As2 in 40 percent yield

  10. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  11. Technology of boron-containing polyphosphate fertilizer 'Phosphobor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology is developed for producing 'Phosphobor' fertilizer based on the rock phosphate weal (17-18% P2O5) with additions of boron-magnesium compound. Boron is part of polyphosphate fertilizer in the form of polymeric compounds of phosphorus and boron. Phosphorus and boron copolymers -boratophosphates - are easily formed in the process of polyphosphate fertilizers production, since borates undergo a mutual polycondensation reaction with phosphates. 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. Glass manufacturing process having boron and fluorine pollution abating features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froberg, M.L.; Schroeder, C.F.

    1981-11-03

    Boron and/or fluorine values are reclaimed from a boron and/or fluorine laden gas stream emanating from a glass melter by means of a preheating bed of glass-forming batch agglomerates. The boron and/or fluorine values in such gases are first reacted with a boron and/or fluorine reactive material and the gases then conveyed into such a preheating bed to separate at least a portion of the reaction products.

  13. Glass manufacturing process having boron and fluorine pollution abating features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron and/or fluorine values are reclaimed from a boron and/or fluorine laden gas stream emanating from a glass melter by means of a preheating bed of glass-forming batch agglomerates. The boron and/or fluorine values in such gases are first reacted with a boron and/or fluorine reactive material and the gases then conveyed into such a preheating bed to separate at least a portion of the reaction products

  14. Ultrafast optical nonlinearity and photoacoustic studies on chitosan-boron nitride nanotube composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Philip, Reji; Mohan, Athira; Jenks, Cassidy; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast optical nonlinearity in chitosan (CS) films doped with multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes (MWBN) has been investigated using 800 nm, 100 fs laser pulses, employing the open aperture Z-scan technique. Two-photon absorption coefficients (β) of CS-MWBN films have been measured at 800 nm by Z-scan. While chitosan with 0.01% MWBN doping gives a β value of 0.28×10-13 m/W, 1% doping results in a higher β value of 1.43×10-13 m/W, showing nonlinearity enhancement by a factor of 5. These nonlinearity coefficients are comparable to those reported for silver nanoclusters in glass matrix and Pt-PVA nanocomposites, indicating potential photonic applications for MWBN doped chitosan films. Characterization of the synthesized films using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) reveals significant interactions between the NH and CO groups of chitosan with boron nitride.

  15. Hydrogen hosting on aluminum-doped boron clusters: Density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böyükata, Mustafa; Güvenç, Ziya B.

    2009-11-01

    The geometries, stabilities, and energetics of aluminum doped boron clusters, up to 13-atom, and their various hydrogenated complexes have been investigated via the density functional theory (DFT). The geometry optimizations have been carried out by using B3LYP functional and 6-311++G11 basis set. Up to 5-atom clusters arrangements of the atoms, in the most stable structures, have two-dimensional forms. From 6- to 13-atom clusters three-dimensional forms are favored by the lowest energy structures. Hydrogen hosting effects the structures of AlBn clusters. Adding an Al atom to the cage B12 leads structural changes but hydrogenated boron, B12H12 can resist to Al effect.

  16. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 4th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 24 in 1992. First, clinical experiences of BNCT in the Kyoto University Research Reactor in 1992 were briefly reported. Then, the killing effects of boron cluster-containing nucleic acid precursors on tumor cells were shown (Chap. 2). The various trials of the optical resolution of B-p-boronophenylalanine for neutron capture therapy were made (Chap. 3). The borate-dextran gel complexes were investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The stability constants of borate complexes were listed, and are useful in the solution chemistry of boron compounds (Chap. 4). The interactions between boron compounds and biological materials were studied by the paper electrophoresis which had been developed by us (Chap. 5). Molecular design of boron-10 carriers and their organic synthesis were reported (Chap. 6). Carborane-containing aziridine boron carriers which were directed to the DNA alkylation were synthesized and their cancer cell killing efficacies were tested (Chap. 7). The solution chemistry of deuterium oxide which is a good neutron moderator was reported, relating to the BNCT (Chap. 8). (author)

  17. Synthesis of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes dependent on crystallographic structure of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis and growth of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) under the B and ZrO2 seed system in the milling–annealing process were investigated. BNNTs were synthesized by annealing a mechanically activated boron powder under nitrogen environment. We explored the aspects of the mechanical activation energy transferred to milled crystalline boron powder producing structural disorder and borothermal reaction of the ZrO2 seed particles on the synthesis of BNNTs during annealing. Under these circumstances, the chemical reaction of amorphous boron coated on the seed nanoparticles with nitrogen synthesizing amorphous BN could be enhanced. It was found that amorphous BN was crystallized to the layer structure and then grown to multiwall BNNTs during annealing. Especially, bamboo-type multiwall BNNTs were mostly produced and grown to the tail-side of the nanotube not to the round head-side. Open gaps with ∼0.3 nm of the bamboo side walls of BNNTs were also observed. Based on these understandings, it might be possible to produce bamboo-type multiwall BNNTs by optimization of the structure and shape of boron coat on the seed nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► Structure of B is a key factor for BNNT synthesis for milling–annealing method. ► Amorphous boron is coated on the seed during milling of crystalline boron. ► Amorphous BN nanoclusters are crystallized during annealing. ► Growing of bamboo BNNTs is not to the round head-side but to the tail-side.

  18. Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes: Electrochemical, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Study towards Corrosion-modifications at Nanoscale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Petrák, Václav; Frank, Otakar; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana; Nesladek, M.; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 626-636. ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Raman spectroelectrochemistry * atomic force microscopy * boron doped diamond Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  19. INFLUENCE OF FINE-DISPERSED BORON CARBIDE ON THE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON-BORON ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  20. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  1. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed

  2. Properties of boron-doped epitaxial diamond layers grown on (110) oriented single crystal substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mortet, Vincent; Pernot, J.; Jomard, F.; Soltani, A.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Barjon, J.; D´Haen, J.; Haenen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, Mar (2015), s. 29-34. ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Grant ostatní: EU(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0306 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * boron * doping * crystalline orientation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2014

  3. Water-dispersed thermo-responsive boron nitride nanotubes: synthesis and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalay, S.; Stetsyshyn, Y.; Lobaz, Volodymyr; Harhay, K.; Ohar, H.; Ҫulha, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2016), 035703_1-035703_8. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : boron nitride nanotubes * thermo-responsive polymer brushes * poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.821, year: 2014

  4. Enhanced Plasma Performance by ICRF Boronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万宝年; 赵燕平; 李建刚; 宋梅; 吴振伟; 罗家融; 李成富; 王小明

    2002-01-01

    Boronization with carborane (C2B10H12) by ICRF has been applied routinely to the walls of HT-7 super-conducting tokamak for the reduction of impurity influx, especially carbon and oxygen. Significant suppression of metallic impurities and radiating power fraction are achieved. The improved confinement for both particle and energy is observed in full range of operation parameters. Energy balance analysis shows that electron heat diffusion coefficient is strongly reduced. Measurements by Langmuir probes at the edge plasma show that the poloidal velocity shear after boronization is changed to a profile favoring to good confinement. The main emphasis of this paper is to describe effects of boronization on aspects of the enhanced plasma performance.

  5. Anomalous electronic transport in boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, D.; Samara, G. A.; Wood, C.

    The boron carbides are composed of icosahedral units, B12 and B11C1, linked together by strong intericosahedral bonds. With such distributions of icosahedral and intericosahedral compositions, boron carbides, B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/, are single phase over 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2. The electronic transport properties of the boron carbides were examined within this single-phase region. Results are inconsistent with conventional analyses of both itinerant and hopping transport. Most striking are Seebeck coefficients which are both large and rapidly increasing functions of temperature despite thermally activated dc conductivities. These results manifest the hopping of small bipolaronic holes between carbon-containing icosahedral that are inequivalent in energy and electron-lattice coupling strength. Under hydrostatic pressures up to approx. 25 kbar, the dc conductivities increase with pressure. This anomalous behavior for hopping conduction reflects the distinctive structure and bonding of these materials.

  6. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H3BO3). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications as well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

  7. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Manjeet; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H3BO3). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications as well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  8. boron and boron nitride coated nuclear fuel production in plasma atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these study uranium dioxide (UO2) and 5, 10 % gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) containing UO2 nuclear fuel pellets were coated with first boron nitride (BN) then boron (B) layers as the results of the reactions between boron trichloride (BCl3) with ammonia (NH3) and BCl3 with hydrogen (H2) in the medium of argon (Ar) plasma created at 650 W and 500 W and 27.12 MHz to increase the fuel burnup efficiency and reactor core life by the method of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Grainy BN and B structures were observed on the photographs taken from scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  9. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been added to the D3-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose of the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the D3-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in D3-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime. 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. The influence of boron on the abrasion wear resistance of 17%Cr white cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the abrasion wear resistance of the 2.7C-17Cr-0.7Mo white cast irons with different structures alloyed with boron ranging from 0.1% to 1.3% is carried out. Eleven heat treatments were used to find the optimum treatment. Three conditions (as-cast, martensitic and austenitic) are adopted for various tests. The microstructure and three-dimensional morphology of compounds are examined by optical microscope and SEM respectively. X-ray diffractometer is employed to analyze the compound phases. A high-stress abrasive wear tests is performed with loose SiO/sub 2/ and SiC abrasives in a metal track wear tester. Another abrasive wear test is conducted with wet SiO/sub 2/ abrasives in a rubber wheel tester. The hardness and fracture toughness of these alloys was also measured. With increasing boron content fracture toughness decreases. It is noted that if the irons contained about same compound volume, the abrasion wear resistance in present wear systems are much better than the irons without boron against SiO/sub 2/ abrasives, and the toughness is equivalent to 15 Cr irons without boron. Finally, considering the wear resistance and fracture toughness, the test results would provide a basis for optimizing these properties in selecting materials for a given wear component

  11. Boron removal from water and wastewater using new polystyrene-based resin grafted with glycidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kluczka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene resin with amine functional groups (Purolite A170 was grafted with glycidol and characterized as a novel sorbent, GLY-resin, for the oxoborate removal from model solutions and post-crystallization lye. The sorption behavior of GLY-resin was investigated using a batch system. The results showed that the sorption was maximal at pH=9.5. The equilibrium was achieved after 24 h. Calculations based on Langmuir model show the monolayer sorption capacity qm=1.3 mg/g and the fitted experimental data chemisorption as a dominating mechanism of boron sorption on GLY-resin. Boron removal from the solution containing 5 mg B/L and post-crystallization lye having a 9.1 mg B/L was 99% and 80% respectively. The thermodynamic calculations indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the sorption process. The pseudo-second-order model adequately described the boron sorption on GLY-resin. Sorption−desorption efficiency was 100%, which means the boron sorption at next cycle did not decrease.

  12. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  13. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  14. Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-04-13

    Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K. PMID:27003635

  15. Thermal conductivity behavior of boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbides is necessary to evaluate its potential for high temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The thermal diffusivity of hot pressed boron carbide B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/ samples as a function of composition, temperature and temperature cycling was measured. These data in concert with density and specific heat data yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results in terms of a structural model to explain the electrical transport data and novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are discussed.

  16. Synthetic and structural chemistry of amidinate-substituted boron halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J; Findlater, Michael; Cowley, Alan H

    2005-10-01

    The following new amidinate-substituted boron halides are reported: [PhC{N(SiMe(3))}(2)]BCl(2)(6), [MeC{NCy}(2)]BCl(2)(10), [Mes*C{NCy}(2)]BCl(2)(11), [MeC{N(i)Pr}(2)]BCl(2)(12), and [FcC{NCy}(2)]BBr(2)(13). Compound 6 was prepared via the trimethylsilyl chloride elimination reaction of BCl(3) with N,N,N'-tris(trimethylsilyl)benzamidine, and compounds 10-12 were prepared by salt metathesis between the lithium amidinates [RC(NR')(2)]Li and BX(3). Compound 13 was prepared via the insertion of 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide into the B-C bond of ferrocenyldibromoborane FcBBr(2). The molecular structures of 6, 10, 11, 13 and the known compound [PhC{N(SiMe(3))}(2)]BBr(2)(1) were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:16172649

  17. Boron carbide-based ceramics via polymer route synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide is a ceramic material with excellent high temperature physical properties. As compared to conventional techniques, the preparation of boron carbide from polymeric precursors is attractive as this technique offers a number of unique advantages. In this paper, the screening of polymeric precursors to boron carbide will be discussed. Two promising boron carbide, carborane containing polymeric precursors have resulted in 60-70 wt.% ceramic yields. The chemistry of polymer synthesis and the transformations from the polymer to amorphous and crystalline boron carbide were investigated with infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and x-ray diffraction

  18. Determination of carbon and sulphur in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide is used in control rods of nuclear power reactors. The chemical specification for carbon in boron carbide ranges between 15 - 24 wt.% depending upon the grade of boron carbide. Hence carbon in boron carbide is to be determined accurately to find out the stoichiometry. Sulphur, which is present in trace quantities, is also to be determined to find out the purity of boron carbide. Carbon is determined by combustion followed by (i) thermal conductivity detection and (ii) infrared detection. Sulphur is determined by (i) combustion followed by infrared detection and (ii) vacuum combustion extraction - quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results are compared. (author)

  19. Direct evidence of metallic bands in a monolayer boron sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Ro-Ya; Iimori, Takushi; Lian, Chao; Li, Hui; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Meng, Sheng; Komori, Fumio; Matsuda, Iwao

    2016-07-01

    The search for metallic boron allotropes has attracted great attention in the past decades and recent theoretical works predict the existence of metallicity in monolayer boron. Here, we synthesize the β12-sheet monolayer boron on a Ag(111) surface and confirm the presence of metallic boron-derived bands using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Fermi surface is composed of one electron pocket at the S ¯ point and a pair of hole pockets near the X ¯ point, which is supported by the first-principles calculations. The metallic boron allotrope in β12 sheet opens the way to novel physics and chemistry in material science.

  20. Medical chemistry of boron neutron capture agents having pharmacological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cancer treatment that selectively destroys cancer cells following administering a cancer-selective drug containing stable isotope boron-10 and neutron irradiation. In clinical trial of BNCT, disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) have been used, however, development of a new drugs with high cancer selectivity and therapeutic efficiency is expected. Therefore, we review boron-containing drugs as a boron neutron capture agents having pharmacological activity, BNCT research on boron-modified porphyrin derivatives which have photosensitivity and neutron capture activity and our proposed neutron sensitizing agent. (author)

  1. Inefficiency of high boron concentrations for cell killing in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to investigate the relationship between the cell-killing effect of the 10B(n, α)7Li capture reaction, intracellular boron concentration, and thermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy using in vitro cell survival based on a clonogenic assay, and biophysical analysis. Our results showed that the cell-killing yield of the 10B(n, α)7Li capture reaction per unit thermal neutron fluence declined with an increase in the intracellular boron concentration above 45 μg/ml 10B. The cell-killing effect was well described using an empirical power function of the intracellular boron concentration, with exponent 0.443. Knowledge of this effect will help in the optimization of BNCT. (author)

  2. Geochemical study of boron isotopes in the process of loess weathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Zhiqi; (

    2003-01-01

    from sea-water, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1969, 6: 1-5.[13]Palmer, M. R., Spivack, A. J., Edmond, J. M., Temperature and pH controls over isotopic fractionation during adsorption of boron on marine clay, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 1987, 51: 2319-2323.[14]Vengosh, A., Kolodny, Y., Starinsky, A. et al., Coprecipitation and isotopic fractionation of boron in modern biogenic carbonates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1991, 55: 2901-2910.[15]Hemming, N. G., Hanson, G. N., Boron isotopic composition and concentration in modern marine carbonates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1992, 56: 537-543.[16]Porter, S. C., An Zhisheng, Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation, Nature, 1995, 375: 305-308.[17]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Guiot, J. et al., High frequency pulses of east Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: Link with the North Atlantic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[18]Chen Jun, An Zhisheng, Wang Yongjin et al., Distribution of Rb and Sr in the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence of China during the last 800 ka: Implications for paleomosoon variations, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42 (3): 225-232.[19]Lemarchand, D., Gaillardet, J., Lewin, E. et al., The influence of rivers on marine boron isotopes and implications for reconstructing past ocean pH, Nature, 2000, 408: 951-954.[20]Spivack, A. J., You, C. F., Smith, H. J., Foraminiferal boron isotope ratios as a proxy for surface ocean pH over the past 21 Myr., Nature, 1993, 363: 149-151.[21]Sanayal, A., Hemming, N. G., Evidence for a higher pH in the glacial ocean from boron isotopes in foraminifer., Nature, 1995, 373: 234-236.[22]Palmer, M. R., Pearson, P. N., Cobb, S. J., Reconstructing past ocean pH-depth profiles, Science, 1998, 282: 1468-1471.[23]Pearson, P. N., Palmer, M. R., Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, Science, 1999, 284: 1824-1826.[24]Pearson, P. N., Palmer, M. R

  3. Effect of metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effect of some metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron is studied for the first time. • We are the first to conduct a TG experiment on boron samples at high temperatures (a maximum of 1750 °C). • The thermal reaction process of boron is firstly divided into five stages according to the weight gain rate of the sample. • Specific values of metal hydrides on ignition delay time and combustion intensity of boron are obtained. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of four metal hydrides on the burning characteristics of boron was investigated. Thermogravimetric experiment results show that the thermal reaction process of boron samples can be divided into five stages. The thermal reactions of boron can be significantly promoted with LiH, which can reduce the initial temperature of the first violent reaction stage by ∼140 °C. The starting temperature of the post-reaction stage also decreases by ∼260 °C. The results of the laser ignition experiment suggest that all four metal hydrides can promote boron burning. Nonetheless, different metal hydrides display varied promotional effects. Among the studied hydrides, LiH is the most effective additive and shortens the ignition delay time of boron by ∼34.1%. Moreover, it enhances the combustion intensity of boron by ∼117.6%. The other three metal hydrides (CaH2, TiH2, and ZrH2) can also contribute to boron burning

  4. Removal properties of dissolved boron by glucomannan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kyoko; Maehata, Yugo

    2013-04-01

    Boron ions have long been known to form complexes with the cis-diol group of a polysaccharide. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) which is one of polysaccharides was used to remove dissolved boron in this study. KGM forms a complex with boron, but does not remove boron from contaminated waters as well as other polysaccharides because of its high water solubility. Therefore, the removal efficiencies of dissolved boron were examined using both an insoluble KGM gel and KGM semi-gel. The former did not remove dissolved boron, but the latter did. The difference in the ability of boron removal was due to the presence of diol group inside. KGM loses free diol group during the process of gelation. On the other hand, the semi-gel gelated only surface layer in water has diol group inside. The boron removal capacity of the semi-gel was highest at pHs⩾11, when the boron species is present as B(OH)4(-). The capacity was slightly increased by the addition of Al, Ca and Mg under high pH conditions. This was due to co-precipitation of boron with Ca dissolved from the semi-gel. The boron adsorbed to the semi-gel easily was desorbed under low pH conditions and the hysteresis was not found. PMID:23260255

  5. Relationship Between Soil Boron Adsorption Kinetics and Rape Plant Boron Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDUANWEI; PIMEIMEI; 等

    1997-01-01

    The boron adsorption kinetic experiment in soil by means a flow displacement technique showed that the kinetic data could be described with some mathematic equations.The average values of the coorealtion coefficeint for zero-order,first-order,parabolic diffusion ,Elovich,power function and eponential equations were 0.957,0.982,0.981,0.984,0.981 and 0.902 ,respectively,The correlation between adsorbed boron or its other expression form and time were the highest for first-order ,parabloic diffusion Elovich,and pwer function equations,the second for the zeroorder equation,and the tlowest for the exponential equation.The parabloic diffusion equation fitted well the expermiental results,with the least standard error among the six kinetic equation,showing that the monvemetn of boron from soil solution to soil colloid surface may be controlled by boron diffusion speed.The boron content of rape seedling obtained from soil cultvation was correlated with the rate constants of the kinetic equations.The constants of first-order ,parabloic diffusion,and exponential equaitions were significanlty correlated with the boron content of the crop of NPK treatment at a 95% probaility level ,with correation coeffecients being 0.686,0.691 and 0.64 and 0.641,respectively.In the case of zero-order equation,it Was significant at 99% probability level(r=0.736),These results showed that the adsorption kinetic constants of soil boron were closely related with the rape plant response to boron.

  6. The structure and local chemical properties of boron-terminated tetravacancies in hexagonal boron-nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Cretu, Ovidiu; Lin, Yung-Chang; Koshino, Masanori; Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Liu, Zheng; Suenaga, Kazutomo

    2014-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy performed in a low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscope (LV-STEM) are used to characterize the structure and chemical properties of boron-terminated tetravacancies in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We confirm earlier theoretical predictions about the structure of these defects and identify new features in the electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) of B atoms using high resolution chemical maps, highlighting differences between these areas and pristine sampl...

  7. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na210B12H11SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author)

  8. Effects of boron number per unit volume on the shielding properties of composites made with boron ores form China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total macroscopic removal cross sections, deposited energies and the absorbed doses of three new shielding composites loaded with specific boron-rich slag, boron concentrate ore and boron mud of China for 252Cf neutron source were investigated by experimental and Monte Carlo calculation. The results were evaluated by boron mole numbers per unit volume in composites. The half value layers of the composites were calculated and compared with that of Portland concrete, indicating that ascending boron mole numbers per unit volume in the composites can enhance the shielding properties of the composites for 252Cf neutron source. (authors)

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  10. Rapid mass-spectrometric determination of boron isotopic distribution in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, J E; Abernathey, R M

    1972-07-01

    Boron isotopic ratios are measured in boron carbide by thermionic ionization mass spectrometry with no prior chemical separation. A powder blend of boron carbide and sodium hydroxide is prepared, a small portion is transferred to a tantalum filament, the filament is heated to produce sodium borate, and the filament is transferred to the mass spectrometer where the(11)B/(10)B ratio is measured, using the Na(2)BO(2)(+) ion. Variables investigated for their effect on preferential volatilization of (10)B include the sodium hydroxide-boron carbide ratio and the temperature and duration of filament heating. A series of boron carbide pellets containing natural boron, of the type proposed for the control rods of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor, were analysed with an apparently unbiased result of 4.0560 for the (11)B/(10)B ratio (standard deviation 0.0087). The pellets contained over 3% metal impurities typically found in this material. Time of analysis is 45 min per sample, with one analyst. PMID:18961131

  11. Coadsorption of lanthanum with boron and gadolinium with boron on Mo(1 1 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Vladimirov, Georgij G.; Rump, Gennadij A.

    2008-05-01

    Submonolayer to multilayer coadsorption of lanthanum (La) with boron (B) and gadolinium (Gd) with boron on the surface of Mo(1 1 0) has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and work function ( ϕ) measurements. The equilibrium state of double adsorbate systems achieved either by adsorption of rare-earth metal (REM) on boron precovered Mo(1 1 0) surface held at room temperature or after moderate annealing of the system with opposite order of adsorption (B on REM films) is the layer which is the inhomogeneous mixture of boron and REM atoms with preferential concentration of boron in the surface area of the mixed film. The work function of such films even at REM to boron concentration ratio much higher than 1/6 are very close to the values of corresponding bulk LaB 6 and GdB 6, favoring assumption of surface rearrangement as the dominant reason of high electron emission efficiency of hexaborides. Almost total similarity of the results for La-B and Gd-B systems can be viewed as the consequence of weak participation of Gd f-electrons in determining the thermionic properties of corresponding double layers.

  12. Multi-dimensional boron transport modeling in subchannel approach: Part II. Validation of CTF boron tracking model and adding boron precipitation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Validation of implemented multi-dimensional subchannel boron transport model. • Extension of boron transport model to entrained droplets. • Implementation of boron precipitation model. • Testing of the boron precipitation model under transient condition. - Abstract: The risk of small-break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) and other reactivity initiated transients caused by boron dilution in the light water reactors (LWRs), and the complications of tracking the soluble boron concentration experimentally inside the primary coolant have stimulated the interest in computational studies for accurate boron tracking simulations in nuclear reactors. In Part I of this study, the development and implementation of a multi-dimensional boron transport model with modified Godunov scheme based on a subchannel approach within the COBRA-TF (CTF) thermal-hydraulic code was presented. The modified Godunov scheme approach with a physical diffusion term was determined to provide the most accurate and precise solution. Current paper extends these conclusions and presents the model validation studies against experimental data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) test facility. In addition, the importance of the two-phase flow characteristics in modeling boron transient are emphasized, especially during long-term cooling period after the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The CTF capabilities of boron transport modeling are further improved based on the three-field representation of the two-phase flow utilized in the code. The boron transport within entrained droplets is modeled, and a model for predicting the boron precipitation under transient conditions is developed and tested. It is aimed to extend the applicability of CTF to reactor transient simulations, and particularly to a large-break loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis

  13. PWR core response to boron dilution transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates the steps followed in order to set up a tool (composed of a plant model and of a procedure) that allows accounting for boron reactivity feedbacks during plant transients. The procedure that has been developed allows to find out the values of the boron feedback coefficients, given the differential boron worth, and to properly initialize the Thermal Hydraulic and the Neutronic (TH/NEU) system. Once the tool has been developed, it has been used to analyze different scenarios, resulting from deborated water injection from the reactor make-up system. The most important parameter, during this Reactivity Insertion Accidents (RIAs), is the Energy Released to the Fuel (ERF) and it has been monitored, in order to identify the situations when the fuel might be damaged (ERF > 250 kJ/kg, for high burnup fuel). The analyses have been performed using the RELAP5-3D computer code. The conclusion of the study is that the limited capability of modeling mixing phenomena provided by most common plant codes (such as RELAP5-3D) is not suitable to perform BE analyses of RIAs, since those accidents are so sensitive to boron concentration changes that the effect of uncertainties cannot be neglected. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes could reduce uncertainties enough to perform BE analyses and thus it should be recommended. (author)

  14. Pechmann Reaction Promoted by Boron Trifluoride Dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mezger

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pechmann reaction of substituted phenols 1a-e with methyl acetoacetate (2 can be activated by boron trifluoride dihydrate (3 to give the corresponding 4-methyl- coumarin derivatives 4a-e in excellent yield (98-99 %.

  15. New insight into pecan boron nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...

  16. Channeling of boron ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channeled and random distributions of boron ions implanted over the energy range 50 keV--1.8 MeV into silicon have been measured using the differential capacitance technique. When implantations are performed along the or axis, profiles exhibit a strong orientation dependance. The best channeled profiles shows that more than 70% of the implanted dose is in the channeled peak

  17. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  18. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  19. Boron carbide synthesis at plasma spray process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil; Hofman, R.

    Bari : Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, 2003 - (d'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.; Fracassi, F.; Palumbo, F.). s. 631 [International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/16th./. 22.06.2003-27.06.2003, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide , plasma spray process Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. Joining of boron carbide using nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbide ceramics such as boron carbide due to their unique properties such as low density, high refractoriness, and high strength to weight ratio have many applications in different industries. This study focuses on direct bonding of boron carbide for high temperature applications using nickel interlayer. The process variables such as bonding time, temperature, and pressure have been investigated. The microstructure of the joint area was studied using electron scanning microscope technique. At all the bonding temperatures ranging from 1150 to 1300degC a reaction layer formed across the ceramic/metal interface. The thickness of the reaction layer increased by increasing temperature. The strength of the bonded samples was measured using shear testing method. The highest strength value obtained was about 100 MPa and belonged to the samples bonded at 1250 for 75 min bonding time. The strength of the joints decreased by increasing the bonding temperature above 1250degC. The results of this study showed that direct bonding technique along with nickel interlayer can be successfully utilized for bonding boron carbide ceramic to itself. This method may be used for bonding boron carbide to metals as well.

  1. Boron nitride nanosheets reinforced glass matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saggar, Richa; Porwal, H.; Tatarko, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S26-S32. ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK155 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Boron nitride nanosheets * Borosilicate glass * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.163, year: 2014

  2. The manufacturing method of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new method for manufacturing of boron carbide as powder with controlled purity and surface development has been described. The suspension of boric acid aqueous solution and carbon black in alcohol has been homogenized mechanically. Water and alcohol are then evaporated during mixing. After drying homogenous mixture is heated in temperature range of 1270-1870 C during one hour

  3. Novel Boron Based Multilayer Thermal Neutron Detector

    CERN Document Server

    SCHIEBER, M

    2010-01-01

    The detector contains four or more layers of natural Boron absorbing thermal neutrons. Thickness of a layer is 0.4 - 1.2 mg/cm2. The layers are deposited on one or on both sides of a metal surface used as contacts. Between the absorbing layers there are gas-filled gaps 3 - 6 mm thick. Electric field of 100 - 200 V/cm is applied to the gas-filled gaps. Natural Boron contains almost 20% of 10B isotope. When atoms of 10B capture a thermal neutron, nuclear reaction occurs, as a result of which two heavy particles - alpha particle and ion 7Li - from the thin absorber layer are emitted in opposing sides. One of the two particles penetrates into gas-filled gap between Boron layers and ionizes the gas. An impulse of electric current is created in the gas-filled gap actuated by the applied electric field. The impulse is registered by an electronic circuit. We have made and tested detectors containing from two to sixteen layers of natural Boron with an efficiency of thermal neutron registration from 2.9% to 12.5% accor...

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic and catalytic properties of some new boron hybrid molecule derivatives by BF2 and BPh2 chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ahmet; Alcay, Ferhat; Aydemir, Murat; Durgun, Mustafa; Keles, Armagan; Baysal, Akın

    2015-05-01

    A new series of Schiff base ligands (L1-L3) and their corresponding fluorine/phenyl boron hybrid complexes [LnBF2] and [LnBPh2] (n = 1, 2 or 3) have been synthesized and well characterized by both analytical and spectroscopic methods. The Schiff base ligands and their corresponding fluorine/phenyl boron hybrid complexes have been characterized by NMR (1H, 13C and 19F), FT-IR, UV-Vis, LC-MS, and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as melting point and elemental analysis. The fluorescence efficiencies of phenyl chelate complexes are greatly red-shifted compared to those of the fluorine chelate analogs based on the same ligands, presumably due to the large steric hindrance and hard π → π∗ transition of the diphenyl boron chelation, which can effectively prevent molecular aggregation. The boron hybrid complexes were applied to the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone derivatives to 1-phenylethanol derivatives in the presence of 2-propanol as the hydrogen source. The catalytic studies showed that boron hybrid complexes are good catalytic precursors for transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones in 0.1 M iso-PrOH solution. Also, we have found that both steric and electronic factors have a significant impact on the catalytic properties of this class of molecules.

  5. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  6. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  7. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  8. Boron removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of boron from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was studied with self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes in the present work. The effect of pH, boron concentration, temperature and salt concentration of the feed solution on the boron rejection was investigated. The experimental results indicated that boron rejection was less dependent on the feed pH and salt concentration. DCMD process had high boron removal efficiency (>99.8%) and the permeate boron was below the maximum permissible level even at feed concentration as high as 750 mg/L. Although the permeate flux was enhanced exponentially with the feed temperature increasing, the influence of feed temperature on the boron rejection could be neglected. Finally, the natural groundwater sample containing 12.7 mg/L of boron was treated by DCMD process. The permeate boron kept below 20 μg/L whether the feed was acidified or not, but pre-acidification was helpful to maintain the permeate flux stability. All the experimental results indicated that DCMD could be efficiently used for boron removal from aqueous solution.

  9. ISOBORDAT: An Online Data Base on Boron Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1986, boron isotope data in natural substances increased sharply in scientific publications. Analytical difficulties derived from complex geochemical matrices have been faced and interlaboratory calibrations reported in the boron literature. Boron isotopes are nowdays applied to investigate boron origin and migration in natural waters, sources of boron contamination, water-rock interactions and also contribute to water resource management. This is especially important in those areas where boron content exceeds the local regulations for drinking water supply and boron sources need to be identified. ISOBORDAT, an interactive database on boron isotope composition and content in natural waters is presented to the wider community of boron isotope users. The database's structure, scope and applications are reported, along with a discussion on δ11B values obtained in Italian waters. In the database boron data are structured in the following categories: rainwater, rivers, lakes, groundwater and potential contaminants. New categories (medium and high enthalpy fluids from volcanic and geothermal areas) are anticipated. ISOBORDAT aims to be as interactive as possible and will be developed taking into account information and suggestions received. The database is continually undergoing revision to keep pace with continuous data publication. Indications of data that are missing at present are greatly appreciated. (author)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA MAGDA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the reaction mixture at a NH3:H3PO4 molar ratio of 1.5. The fertilizers obtained with boron contents ranging from 0.05 to 1 % (w/w were fully characterized by chemical analysis, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. The studies showed that up to 500 °C, regardless of the boron content, no significant changes concerning thermal stability and nutritional properties occurred. Above 500 °C, an increase of thermal stability with an increase of the boron content was observed. X-Ray diffraction of a heat-treated sample containing 5 % (w/w boron indicated the appearance of boron orthophosphate, BPO4, as a new crystalline phase, and the disappearance of the previous structures above 500 °C, which explains the increase in thermal stability.

  11. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and boron carbide powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamed Sinaei Pour Fard; Hamidreza Baharvandi

    2011-07-01

    Titanium diboride powders were prepared through a sol–gel and boron carbide reduction route by using TTIP and B4C as titanium and boron sources. The influence of TTIP concentration, reaction temperature and molar ratio of precursors on the synthesis of titanium diboride was investigated. Three different concentrations of TTIP solution, 0.033/0.05/0.1, were prepared and the molar ratio of B4C to TTIP varied from 1.3 to 2.5. The results indicated that as the TTIP concentration had an important role in gel formation, the reaction temperature and B4C to TTIP molar ratio showed obvious effects on the formation of TiB2. Pure TiB2 was prepared using molar composition of Ti : B4C = 1 : 2.3 and the optimum synthesis temperature was 1200°C.

  12. Research related to boron neutron capture therapy at The Ohio State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in the area of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at The Ohio State University is a highly multidisciplinary effort involving approximately twenty investigators in nine different departments. Major areas of interest include: (1) Boronation of monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens for the delivery of 10B; (2) Synthesis of 10B-containing derivatives of promazines and porphyrins that possess tumor-localizing properties; (3) Development of a rat model for the treatment of glioblastoma by BNCT; (4) Quantitation and microdistribution of 10B in tissues by means of a solid state nuclear track detector. The ultimate goal of this research is to carry out the extensive preclinical studies that are required to bring BNCT to the point of a clinical trial. 13 references

  13. Development of gamma compensated boron lined ionization chamber with intermediate range monitor for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma compensated boron lined ionization chamber with indigenously developed 40.5% enriched boron-10 and polyetheretherketone insulating spacers has been developed. The detector has an overall diameter of 85 mm and overall length of 315 mm. Tests on the chamber with intermediate range monitor have been conducted in both gamma and neutron fields. The detector has good saturation characteristics, adequate neutron sensitivity and required gamma compensation. The linearity of response of the detector at various reactor power levels was also found to be within the required limits. The Log P signal output variation due to change in amplifier temperature of IRM, was found to be within limits for temperature variations from 25℃ to 30.13℃ thus indicating stable output against changes in temperature of IRM amplifier at steady reactor power operation. (author)

  14. Cu-catalyzed Fe-driven C(sp)-C(sp) and C(s)p-C(sp2) cross-coupling: an access to 1,3-diynes and 1,3-enynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, Sabir; Kundu, Debasish; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2014-08-15

    An efficient Csp-Csp cross-coupling of alkynyl bromide and pinacol ester of alkynyl boronic acid catalyzed by CuFe2O4 nanoparticles has been accomplished in dimethyl carbonate to produce unsymmetric 1,3-diynes. This protocol is also extended for the Csp-Csp2 coupling of alkynyl bromide and alkenyl boronic acid to provide conjugated 1,3-enynes. The aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic alkynes couple with various substituted alkynyl/alkenyl boronates/boronic acids by this procedure to furnish a library of 1,3-diynes and enynes in high yields. The catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and recycled 10 times. PMID:25046329

  15. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 μg 10B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg 10B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4–6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  16. Diffusion Boronizing of H11 Hot Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurči, Peter; Hudáková, Mária

    2011-10-01

    The H11 hot work tool steel was boronized at various processing parameters, austenitized, quenched, and tempered to a core hardness of 47-48 HRC. Microstructure, phase constitution, and microhardness of boronized layers were investigated. Effect of boronized region on the bulk properties was determined by the Charpy impact test. Structure of boronized regions is formed by the compound layers and diffusion inter-layer. The compound layers consisted of only (Fe,Cr)2B phase, but in the case of longer processing time, they contained also of the (Fe,Cr)B-phase. The inter-layer contained enhanced portion of carbides, formed due to carbon diffusion from the boride compounds toward the substrate. Microhardness of boronized layers exceeded considerably 2000 HV 0.1. However, boronizing led to a substantial lowering of the Charpy impact toughness of the material.

  17. Boron Rich Solids Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor

    CERN Document Server

    Orlovskaya, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: •boron-rich solids: science and technology; •synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids; •microcantileve...

  18. Boron carbide whisker and platelet reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide whisker and platelet-reinforced alumina and boron-carbide-whisker-reinforced silicon carbide composites were prepared by hot-pressing. The mechanical properties of hot-pressed boron carbide platelet and whisker-reinforced composites are better than the inherent ceramic matrix. A maximum fracture toughness, K(lc), of 9.5 MPa sq rt m is achieved for alumina/boron carbide whisker composites, 8.6 MPa sq rt m is achieved for alumina/boron carbide platelet composites, and 3.8 MPa sq rt m is achieved for silicon carbide/boron carbide whisker composites. The fracture toughness is dependent on the volume fraction of the platelets and whiskers. 12 refs

  19. Van Hove singularities of some icosahedral boron-rich solids by differential reflectivity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    Differential reflectivity spectra of some icosahedral boron rich solids, β-rhombohedral boron, boron carbide and YB66-type crystals, were measured. The derivatives yield the van Hove singularities, which are compared with results obtained by other experimental methods.

  20. Combined action of thermal neutron irradiation and boron-10-amino acid analogs on a solid experimental tumor (EO771 C57 B1/6J)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two boron-amino acid analogs were synthesized with enriched boron (90% 10B): (a) The compound Trimethylamine-carboxyborane (Mol weight: 116.2) contains 8.7% boron, and (b) Amine-carboxyborane (Mol weight: 74.1) contains 13.6% boron and shows a good solubility in water. The solid Adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1/6J mice was used as test object. The tumor-bearing animals were irradiated in a thermal column of the swimming-pool type reactor FRJ-1 (MERLIN); the bodies were shielded against thermal neutrons by a boron carbide-plastic mixture. The thermal neutron flux was 2.3 x 1010n/cm2 sec. at the tumor. Boron concentrations in tumor, liver, muscle and in blood were analysed by emission spectroscopy. The effects of the tumor treatment were evaluated by tumor volume measurements. Cell cycle changes were analysed by means of flow cytometry using the ICP-22 from Phywe

  1. Multidimensional boron transport modeling in subchannel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to implement a solute tracking model into the subchannel code CTF for simulations of boric acid transients. Previously, three different boron tracking models have been implemented into CTF and based on the applied analytical and nodal sensitivity studies the Modified Godunov Scheme approach with a physical diffusion term has been selected as the most accurate and best estimate solution. This paper will present the implementation of a multidimensional boron transport modeling with Modified Godunov Scheme within a thermal-hydraulic code based on a subchannel approach. Based on the cross flow mechanism in a multiple-subchannel rod bundle geometry, heat transfer and lateral pressure drop effects will be discussed in deboration and boration case studies. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of boron nitrides nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new synthesis for the production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) from boron powder, ammonium nitrate and hematite tube furnace CVD method. The samples were subjected to some characterization techniques as infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission. By analyzing the results can explain the chemical reactions involved in the process and confirm the formation of BNNT with several layers and about 30 nanometers in diameter. Due to excellent mechanical properties and its chemical and thermal stability this material is promising for various applications. However, BNNT has received much less attention than carbon nanotubes, it is because of great difficulty to synthesize appreciable quantities from the techniques currently known, and this is one of the main reasons this work.(author)

  3. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

  4. The spectrophotometric determination of boron in tourmalines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA JAKSIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of macro amounts of boron in tourmaline with azomethine H is described. The used tourmaline concentrate was obtained by magnetic separation and heavy-liquids purification of the schorl zone of pegmatite or granite aplite. The samples of tourmaline were decomposed by fusion with anhydrous sodium carbonate and taken up in dilute hydrochloric acid. The interfering effects of iron and aluminium were eliminated by masking with an EDTA – NTA solution. After pH adjustment, the boron was reacted with azomethine H and the absorbance of the obtained coloured complex was measured at 415 nm. The results are compared with those obtained by other procedures. The relative error of the determination was less than 3 %.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  6. Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

  7. Behavior of Disordered Boron Carbide under Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchini, Giovanni; McCauley, James W.; Chhowalla, Manish

    2006-07-01

    Gibbs free-energy calculations based on density functional theory have been used to determine the possible source of failure of boron carbide just above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL). A range of B4C polytypes is found to be stable at room pressure. The energetic barrier for shock amorphization of boron carbide is by far the lowest for the B12(CCC) polytype, requiring only 6GPa≈P(HEL) for collapse under hydrostatic conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that the collapse of the B12(CCC) phase leads to segregation of B12 and amorphous carbon in the form of 2 3 nm bands along the (113) lattice direction, in excellent agreement with recent transmission electron microscopy results.

  8. Investigation of boron segregation in low carbon steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lis; Lis, A; Kolan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Traces of born in the range 0,002-0,009 % are usually added to many grades of steel. The effect of boron on phase transformations and hardenability of low carbon low alloy steels depends on the form of its behavior in solid solution either in segregations or in precipitations. Temperature and cooling rate determine the existence of boron segregations on grain boundaries. In present paper simulations of boron concentrations were calculated with computer programme DICTRA for low carbon 0,08 %C ...

  9. Boron/aluminum shelf for shuttle orbiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron/aluminum skins and channels were used in the fabrication of a prototype honeycomb sandwich avionics shelf. The avionic shelves are stiffness-critical and must be vibration tolerant. In conjunction with the shelf mounting system, they must isolate the avionics equipment from the severe vibration of the primary and secondary structure nearby. Design rationale, fabrication procedures, vibration test criteria and test results are presented. (9 fig) (U.S.)

  10. Boron Nitride Nanosheets for Metal Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lu Hua; Xing, Tan; Chen, Ying; Jones, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Although the high impermeability of graphene makes it an excellent barrier to inhibit metal oxidation and corrosion, graphene can form a galvanic cell with the underlying metal that promotes corrosion of the metal in the long term. Boron nitride (BN) nanosheets which have a similar impermeability could be a better choice as protective barrier, because they are more thermally and chemically stable than graphene and, more importantly, do not cause galvanic corrosion due to their electrical insu...

  11. Anomalous thermal conductivity of monolayer boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarraei, Alireza; Wang, Xiaonan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics modeling to investigate the thermal properties of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons under uniaxial strain along their longitudinal axis. Our simulations predict that hexagonal boron nitride shows an anomalous thermal response to the applied uniaxial strain. Contrary to three dimensional materials, under uniaxial stretching, the thermal conductivity of boron nitride nanoribbons first increases rather than decreasing until it reaches its peak value and then starts decreasing. Under compressive strain, the thermal conductivity of monolayer boron nitride ribbons monolithically reduces rather than increasing. We use phonon spectrum and dispersion curves to investigate the mechanism responsible for the unexpected behavior. Our molecular dynamics modeling and density functional theory results show that application of longitudinal tensile strain leads to the reduction of the group velocities of longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes. Such a phonon softening mechanism acts to reduce the thermal conductivity of the nanoribbons. On the other hand, a significant increase in the group velocity (stiffening) of the flexural acoustic modes is observed, which counteracts the phonon softening effects of the longitudinal and transverse modes. The total thermal conductivity of the ribbons is a result of competition between these two mechanisms. At low tensile strain, the stiffening mechanism overcomes the softening mechanism which leads to an increase in the thermal conductivity. At higher tensile strain, the softening mechanism supersedes the stiffening and the thermal conductivity slightly reduces. Our simulations show that the decrease in the thermal conductivity under compressive strain is attributed to the formation of buckling defects which reduces the phonon mean free path.

  12. Formation and Structure of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang ZHANG; Zongquan LI; Jin XU

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were simply synthesized by heating well-mixed boric acid, urea and iron nitrate powders at 1000℃. A small amount of BN nanowires was also obtained in the resultants. The morphological and structural characters of the BN nanostructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Other novel BN nanostructures, such as Y-junction nanotubes and bamboo-like nanotubes, were simultaneously observed. The growth mechanism of the BN nanotubes was discussed briefly.

  13. Thermal conductivity of nanostructured boron nitride materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Xiaoxia; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductivity of bulky pellets made of various boron nitride (BN)-based nanomaterials, including spherical nanoparticles, perfectly structured, bamboo-like nanotubes, and collapsed nanotubes. The thermal conductivity strongly depends on the morphology of the BN nanomaterials, especially on the surface structure. Spherical BN particles have the lowest thermal conductivity while the collapsed BN nanotubes possess the best thermoconductive properties. A model was proposed to explain the experimental observations based on the heat percolation passage considerations. PMID:16722739

  14. Channeling of boron ions into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecrosnier, D.; Paugam, J.; Gallou, J.

    1977-04-01

    Channeled and random distributions of boron ions implanted over the energy range 50 keV--1.8 MeV into silicon have been measured using the differential capacitance technique. When implantations are performed along the <110> or <111> axis, profiles exhibit a strong orientation dependance. The best channeled profiles shows that more than 70% of the implanted dose is in the channeled peak.

  15. Boron content of the Freetown drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the analyses of water samples in the Freetown area of Sierra Leone for their boron concentrations. The method involves alpha counting during thermal neutron irradiation of the samples utilising the 10Ba(n,α)7Li reaction. The alpha counting is via a liquid scintillator which also incorporates the water samples. A detailed outline of the experimental setup is given and the results obtained from measurement on water samples presented. (author)

  16. Boron carbide synthesis by plasma spray process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil; Hofman, R.

    Bari : Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, 2003 - (d'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.; Fracassi, F.; Palumbo, F.), s. - [International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/16th./. Taormina (IT), 22.06.2003-27.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0149 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide , plasma spray, synthesis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  17. Plasma Spray Deposition of Boron Carbide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Hofman, R.; Ctibor, Pavel; Hrabovský, Milan

    Praha : MAXDORF, s.r.o., 2002 - (Nitsch, K.; Rodová, M.). s. 11-12 [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education.. 10.09.2002-12.09.2002, Ostravice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0149; GA ČR GA202/01/1563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma spray, boron carbide Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Functionalized boron-dipyrromethenes and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ravikanth, M; Vellanki,Lakshmi; Sharma,Ritambhara

    2016-01-01

    Vellanki Lakshmi, Ritambhara Sharma, Mangalampalli Ravikanth Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Boron-dipyrromethenes/BF2-dipyrrins (BODIPYs) are highly fluorescent dyes with a wide range of applications in various fields because of their attractive photophysical properties. One of the salient features of BODIPYs is that the properties of the BODIPY can be fine-tuned at will by selectively introducing the substituent(s) at the desired locati...

  19. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  20. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  1. Application of Cycloaddition Reactions to the Syntheses of Novel Boron Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Maguire; Hosmane, Narayan S; Yinghuai Zhu; Xiao Siwei

    2010-01-01

    This review covers the application of cycloaddition reactions in forming the boron-containing compounds such as symmetric star-shaped boron-enriched dendritic molecules, nano-structured boron materials and aromatic boronic esters. The resulting boron compounds are potentially important reagents for both materials science and medical applications such as in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in cancer treatment and as drug delivery agents and synthetic intermediates for carbon-carbon cross-c...

  2. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps

  3. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

  4. Analysis of heterogeneous boron dilution sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of the international SETH project (focused on boron dilution sequences), the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CSN) and the electric energy industry of Spain (UNESA) have promoted in Spain a national project for the analysis and application of the SETH results to the Spanish nuclear power plants. As part of this project, our team has performed a review and analysis of the different sequences that could lead to a boron dilution in the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). On a first stage of the project we have analyzed the different sequences and the phenomenologies that could lead to inadvertent boron dilution in the primary system (about twenty different sequences are described in the literature), the core damage frequency of each one, the projects and experiments carried out on several experimental facilities and the modifications performed in order to avoid or to mitigate this kind of sequences. On a second one we have reviewed the relation between the operating procedures, Westinghouse design reactors, and this kind of sequences. Finally we have analyzed the simulation problems of these kind of sequences and performed several numerical simulations with the TRAC-M (TRACE) code applied to numerical benchmarks and also to a 3D vessel model. (author)

  5. Boron-containing nuclear safety materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As insurance against reactor runaway or other unplanned excursions, gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors are provided with a secondary shut-down mechanism which serves as a back-up to the primary control rod system. This back-up includes a hopper located above fuel channels in the core, equipped with a quick discharge mechanism, which is filled with boron-containing spheres. In an emergency, this hopper discharges the spheres which then cascade down the channels and ''poison'' the uranium fission reaction by absorbing thermal neutrons - the propagators of the chain reaction. Within six months time, a process was successfully developed based on silicon carbide reaction-bonding, which yielded a strong, hard, oxidation-resistant, boron-containing shut-down ball. Test materials were exposed to water saturated argon for three hours at each of several temperatures. While normal boron carbide-graphite balls were completely vaporized, the Cerashield balls remained basically unaffected. Had the reactor at Chernobyl been outfitted with Cerashield shut-down balls, it might never have become famous

  6. Boron dose enhancement for Cf-252 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Monte Carlo modelling of a Cf-252 source in water and in tissue has shown that there is a significant therapeutic advantage obtained if B-10 is present in the tumour cells. This study analyses the advantage in terms of therapeutic margin, defined as the distance from the border of the treatment volume where boron-loaded tumour cells will receive a therapeutic dose. Calculations were made with MCNP version 4a on a Pentium 60 MHz computer. Large voxel sizes allowed 70 minute runs to achieve statistical uncertainties of 5% or less for 100,000 source neutrons. Later runs with smaller voxels confirmed the accuracy of the initial calculations. Calculations were made for treatment volume radii up to 11 cm and 30 ppm boron-10. The therapeutic margin for radii in the range 3-9 cm is approximately 10% of the tumour radius. This results in a 30% increase in the volume inside which peripheral tumour cells may receive a therapeutic dose. The median therapeutic ratio within the therapeutic margin varied from 1.05 at 3 cm up to 1.25 at 10 cm. Thus there is little benefit for less advanced tumours with thickness less than 3 cm. However, cervical cancer frequently presents in an advanced state in Southeast Asia and in Aboriginal communities in Australia, partially attributable to low Pap smear screening rates. These conclusions support the development and testing of boron compounds in in vitro and in vivo models for cervical cancer

  7. Boron removal from molten silicon using sodium-based slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Changhao; Hu Bingfeng; Huang Xinming

    2011-01-01

    Slag refining,as an important option for boron removal to produce solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) from metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si),has attracted increasing attention.In this paper,Na2CO3-SiO2 systems were chosen as the sodium-based refining slag materials for boron removal from molten silicon.Furthermore,the effect of Al2O3 addition for boron removal was studied in detail,which showed that an appropriate amount of Al2O3 can help retention of the basicity of the slags,hence improving the boron removal rate.

  8. Boron distribution in normal and impaired vascular tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microdistribution of boron compounds and the response to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in normal or impaired vascular structures have not been fully investigated. In this study, we measured the boron concentrations in rat normal vascular tissue for a potential application of BNCT to prevent restenosis following carotid stenting. Male inbred Wistar rats, 6 weeks of age, were used. After intravenous administration of boron compounds (BSH, BPA, or boron porphyrins), rats were killed at either 1, 2, or 3 hours, and the aortic arch, vena cava, blood, liver, kidney, muscle, skin, and brain were collected for measuring boron concentrations in the sample. Boron concentrations in vascular structures, although dependent on the time after administration, are higher than those in blood and surrounding tissue such as muscle or skin. Given that boron compounds such as boron porphyrins are incorporated into arterial tissues, and more into impaired than in normal intima, BNCT might be effective in inhibiting restenosis following carotid artery stenting or coronary artery stenting. (author)

  9. Combustion synthesis of boron carbide - a spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Carbide is one of the hardest materials known, ranking third behind diamond and cubic boron nitride. It is the hardest material produced in tonnage quantities. Boron carbide (BxCx) enriched in the 10B isotope is used as a control rod material in the nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption cross section and other favorable physico-chemical properties. Conventional methods of preparation of boron carbide are energy intensive processes accompanied by huge loss of boron. Attempts were made at IGCAR Kalpakkam to develop energy efficient and cost effective methods to prepare boron carbide. Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rod and shut down pellets. Within control rods, boron carbide is often powdered, to increase its surface area. The products of the gel combustion and microwave synthesis experiments were characterized for phase purity by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The carbide formation was ascertained using finger-print spectroscopy of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Samples of pyrolized/microwave heated powder were characterized for surface morphology using electron microscope (SEM). The present work shows the recent advances in understanding of structural and chemical variation in boron carbide and their influence on morphology, optical and vibrational property result discussed in details. (author)

  10. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.)

  11. Doping Silicon Wafers with Boron by Use of Silicon Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gao; Shu Zhou; Yunfan Zhang; Chen Dong; Xiaodong Pi; Deren Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this work we introduce recently developed silicon-paste-enabled p-type doping for silicon.Boron-doped silicon nanoparticles are synthesized by a plasma approach.They are then dispersed in solvents to form silicon paste.Silicon paste is screen-printed at the surface of silicon wafers.By annealing,boron atoms in silicon paste diffuse into silicon wafers.Chemical analysis is employed to obtain the concentrations of boron in silicon nanoparticles.The successful doping of silicon wafers with boron is evidenced by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and sheet resistance measurements.

  12. ADSORPTION POTENTIAL OF UNMODIFIED RICE HUSK FOR BORON REMOVAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hasfalina Che Man,; Wei Hong Chin,; Maryam Rahmati Zadeh,; Mohd Rashid Mohd Yusof

    2012-01-01

    A batch study of boron removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption using rice husk was carried out. The effect of selected parameters such as particle size, pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of adsorbate on boron removal was investigated in the study. Results showed that the maximum boron removal was obtained with the rice husk particle size between 0.425 mm and 1.0 mm at pH 5. Boron removal was increased with an increasing amount of adsorbent dosage but decreased as the initia...

  13. Critical Range of Soil Boron for Prognosis of Boron Deficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIYOUZHANG

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between seed yields of oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) and extractable boron concen-trations in three soil layers(A,P and W) were investigated through ten experiments on three types of soils(Alluvic Entisols,Udic Ferrisols and Sagnic Anthrosols) in northern,Western and middle Zhejing Province.Among several mathematical models used to described the relationships,the polynomial equation,y=a+bx+cx2+dx3,where y is the yield of oilseed rape seed and x the extractable boron concentration in P layer of soil,was the best one.The critical range of the concentrations corresponding to 90% of the maximum oilseed rape yield was 0.40-0.52 mg kg-1,The extractable boron concentration of the P layers of the soils was the most stable,The critical range determined was verified through the production practices of oilseed rape in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces.

  14. Critical Range of Soil Boron for Prognosis of Boron Deficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between seed yields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and extractable boron concen- trations in three soil layers (A, P and W) were investigated through ten experiments on three types of soils (Alluvic Entisols, Udic Ferrisols and Stagnic Anthrosols) in northern, western and middle Zhejiang Province. Among several mathematical models used to described the relationships, the polynomial equation, y = a + bx + cx2 + dx3, where y is the yield of oilseed rape seed and x the extractable boron concentration in P layer of soil, was the best one. The critical range of the concentrations corresponding to 90% of the maximum oilseed rape yield was 0.40~0.52 mg kg-1. The extractable boron concentration of the P layers of the soils was the most stable. The critical range determined was verified through the production practices of oilseed rape in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces.

  15. Mechanisms of the boron carbide and boron nitride preferred sputtering by low energy ions bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion irradiation of BN and B4C leads to enriching of the materials with the lighter component - borons as the experiment shows . With a view to explain this effect sputtering of BN and B4C under the irradiation by the He+ and Ar+ ions with the energy E0=0,5-5 keV has been calculated with computer modelling and the real structure of BN has been considered. In the case of B4C the calculations have been carried with Monte-Carlo code. It was shown that enriching of BN by boron may be accounted for building up the molecules N2 on the irradiated surface and their desorbing. The enriching of B4C with boron results from the difference of the binding energy of the B and C atoms. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Production process for boron carbide coated carbon material and boron carbide coated carbon material obtained by the production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A boron carbide coated carbon material is used for a plasma facing material of a thermonuclear reactor. The surface of a carbon material is chemically reacted with boron oxide to convert it into boron carbide. Then, it is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of not lower than 1600degC in highly evacuated or inactive atmosphere to attain a boron carbide coated carbon material. The carbon material used is an artificial graphite or a carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite material. In the heat treatment, when the atmosphere is in vacuum, it is highly evacuated to less than 10Pa. Alternatively, in a case of inactive atmosphere, argon or helium gas each having oxygen and nitrogen content of not more than 20ppm is used. With such procedures, there can be obtained a boron carbide-coated carbon material with low content of oxygen and nitrogen impurities contained in the boron carbide coating membrane thereby hardly releasing gases. (I.N.)

  17. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, V., E-mail: V.Mohammadi@tudelft.nl; Nihtianov, S. [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, L{sub B}, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is reported. The value of L{sub B} is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A L{sub B} = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a L{sub B} of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  18. Determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide by TIMS and PIGE: an inter-comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports a comparison of results on the determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide (B4C) samples by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Particle Induced Gamma ray Spectrometry (PIGE). B4C samples having varying boron isotopic composition (natural, enriched with respect to 10B) and their synthetic mixtures) have been analysed by both the techniques. The 10B atom% was found to be in the range of 20-67%. (author)

  19. Structure and local chemical properties of boron-terminated tetravacancies in hexagonal boron nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Ovidiu; Lin, Yung-Chang; Koshino, Masanori; Tizei, Luiz H G; Liu, Zheng; Suenaga, Kazutomo

    2015-02-20

    Imaging and spectroscopy performed in a low-voltage scanning transmission electron microscope are used to characterize the structure and chemical properties of boron-terminated tetravacancies in hexagonal boron nitride. We confirm earlier theoretical predictions about the structure of these defects and identify new features in the electron energy-loss spectra of B atoms using high resolution chemical maps, highlighting differences between these areas and pristine sample regions. We correlate our experimental data with calculations which help explain our observations. PMID:25763963

  20. Determination of boron in graphite, boron carbide and glass by ICP-MS, ICP-OES and conventional wet chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is an important element of interest in nuclear reactor materials due to its high neutron absorption cross section (σ0 =3837 barns for 10B). In the present paper, R and D work and routinely used methods have been described for the analysis of case samples (1) Graphite where boron is present at trace levels, (2) Boron Carbide having boron concentration of about 80% and (3) Glass containing 4-6 % boron. (author)

  1. Cosmis Lithium-Beryllium-Boron Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Cassé, M.

    Light element nucleosynthesis is an important chapter of nuclear astrophysics. Specifically, the rare and fragile light nuclei Lithium, Beryllium and Boron (LiBeB) are not generated in the normal course of stellar nucleosynthesis (except Lithium-7) and are, in fact, destroyed in stellar interiors. This characteristic is reflected in the low abundance of these simple species. Up to recently, the most plausible interpretation was that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) interact with interstellar CNO to form LiBeB. Other origins have been also identified, primordial and stellar (Lithium-7) and supernova neutrino spallation (Lithium-7 and Boron-11). In contrast, Beryllium-9, Boron-10 and Lithium-6 are pure spallative products. This last isotope presents a special interest since the Lithium-7/Lithium-6 ratio has been measured in a few halo stars offering a new constraint on the early galactic evolution. However, in the nineties, new observations prompted astrophysicists to reassess the question. Optical measurements of the beryllium and boron abundances in halo stars have been achieved by the 10 meters KECK telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These observations indicate a quasi linear correlation between Be and B vs Fe, at least at low metallicity, unexpected on the basis of GCR scenario, predicting a quadratic relationship. As a consequence, the origin and the evolution of the LiBeB nuclei has been revisited. This linearity implies the acceleration of C and O nuclei freshly synthesized and their fragmentation on the the interstellar Hydrogen and Helium. Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae via the shock waves induced, are the best candidates to the acceleration of their own material enriched into C and O; so LiBeB is produced independently of the Interstellar Medium chemical composition. Moreover, neutrinos emitted by the newly born neutron stars interacting with the C layer of the supernova could produce specifically Lithium-7 and Boron-11. This process is supported by the

  2. Synovectomy by neutron capture in boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rheumatoid arthritis is an illness which affect approximately at 3% of the World population. This illness is characterized by the inflammation of the joints which reduces the quality of life and the productivity of the patients. Since, it is an autoimmune illness, the inflammation is due to the overproduction of synovial liquid by the increase in the quantity of synoviocytes. The rheumatoid arthritis does not have a definitive recovery and the patients have three options of treatment: the use of drugs, the surgery and the radio synovectomy. The synovectomy by neutron capture in Boron is a novel proposal of treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis that consists in using a charged compound with Boron 10 that is preferently incorporated in the synoviocytes and to a less extent in the rest of surrounding tissues of the joint. Then, the joint is exposed to a thermal neutron field that induces the reaction (n, α) in the 10 B. the products of this reaction place their energy inside synoviocytes producing their reduction and therefore the reduction of the joint inflammation. Since it is a novel procedure, the synovectomy by neutron capture in boron has two problems: the source design and the design of the adequate drug. In this work it has been realized a Monte Carlo study with the purpose to design a moderating medium that with a 239 Pu Be source in its center, produces a thermal neutron field. With the produced neutron spectra, the neutrons spectra and neutron doses were calculated in different sites inside a model of knee joint. In Monte Carlo studies it is necessary to know the elemental composition of all the joint components, for the case of synovia and the synovial liquid this information does not exist in such way that it is supposed that its composition is equal than the water. In this work also it has been calculated the kerma factors by neutrons of synovia and the synovial liquid supposing that their elemental composition are similar to the blood tissue

  3. Implementation of Low Boron Core for APR1400 Initial Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low boron capability of a nuclear power plant is rather a qualitative specification requiring the nuclear power plant to be shut down by control rods alone at any time of a plant cycle according to EUR. The reduction of soluble boron is beneficial since it gives the reduction of the corrosive effects in the plant system and improves plant safety giving more negative MTC. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the amount of soluble boron for the criticality to achieve the low boron capability. However, the reduction of soluble boron has its own set of specific challenges that must be overcome. There are two methods to enable the reduction of soluble boron without modifying plant system significantly. The goal of this study is to investigate the loading pattern to achieve the soluble boron reduction for Shin-Kori Unit 5 APR1400 initial core using the low and high content gadolinia burnable absorbers with standard fuel rod enrichment and to verify the feasibility of low boron core with conventional gadolinia burnable absorbers only. For this study, KARMA has been employed to solve 2-D Transport equation, and ASTRA is used for full core analysis. It was possible to achieve the low boron core for APR1400 Cycle 1 using extended usage of two types of gadolinia burnable absorbers sacrificing fuel cycle economy a little bit while enhancing plant safety significantly. Gd rod patterns within an assembly were optimized through geometrical weighting and loading pattern was developed based on these patterns. The amount of soluble boron reduction achieved is 45.4%. The improvement in plant safety is significant resulting in the reduction of least negative best-estimate MTC by about 4 pcm. Also shutdown margin is increased slightly for low boron core. However, the behavior of axial power shape turns out to be undesirable showing a relatively large fluctuation caused by the more negative MTC. It was found that the low boron core might impose kind of operational difficulty. It is usually

  4. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration

  5. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration.

  6. Photosynthesis and antioxidant response to winter rapeseed (brassica napus l.) as affected by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of boron on photosynthesis and antioxidant response to rapeseed yield was studied by the field experimentation along with plant analysis during the winter season of 2010 and 2011. The field experimentation was conducted by split plot design with three replications consisting of two factors such as i) two rapeseed cultivars (viz. Xiangzayou 1613 and 09-13581613), assigned in main plots and ii) five boron levels (viz. 0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 and 18.0 kgha-1) imposed in the sub-plots. The rate of photosynthesis increased with increasing boron level upto 9.0 kgha-1 with simultaneous increase in photosynthetically active radiation, rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance and decrease in intercellular CO/sun 2/ concentration in both cultivars, while reverse trend was shown with further increase of B concentration. B @ 9.0 kgha- improved the activities of antioxidant protective enzyme of SOD and POD and decreased the accumulation of MDA content in the both cultivars. Dry matter translocation increased with increasing B level upto 9.0 kgha-1 that resulted the highest seed yield and harvest index of rapeseed in both cultivars. Thus, B @ 9 kgha-1 is sufficient for rapeseed cultivation under the subtropical environmental condition of the Southern China. Brassica napus. (author)

  7. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  8. Electron-impact excitation and ionization of atomic boron at low and intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kedong; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electron collisions with neutral boron atoms. The calculations were performed with the B-Spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method, by employing a parallelized version of the associated computer code. Elastic, excitation, and ionization cross sections were obtained for all transitions involving the lowest 11 states of boron, for incident electron energies ranging from threshold to 100 eV. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal term-dependent orbitals was used to generate accurate wave functions for the target states. Close-coupling expansions including 13, 51, and 999 physical and pseudo states were set up to check the sensitivity of the predictions to variations in the theoretical model. The cross-section dataset generated in this work is expected to be the most accurate one available today and should be sufficiently comprehensive for most modeling applications involving neutral boron. Work supported by the China Scholarship Council and the United States National Science Foundation under Grants PHY-1403245 and PHY-1520970, and by the XSEDE allocation PHY-090031.

  9. Influence of boron doped carbon nanotubes on electric and electromagnetic properties of phosphate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents a study of the possibility to develop the multifunctional composite materials based on the electromagnetically absorbing nonfired, mechanically strong and heat-resistant phosphate ceramics. The potentialities of using pure and boron doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and B-MWCNTs, respectively) as functional additives to the phosphate matrix were investigated. It was found that a length of MWCNT is the determining factor for the electrical conductivity and high-frequency conductivity of the composite. Growth of the intrinsic conductivity of boron-containing MWCNTs, compared to their undoped counterparts, has no significant influence on the possible resistance decrease of the composite on their basis in the static mode and also on its ability to electromagnetic shielding. This is due to a small length of B-MWCNTs and hence much greater concentrations required to achieve the percolation threshold than those studied (up to 1,5 wt. %). On the contrary, the use of long pure MWCNTs in small concentrations has a tremendous impact on the electromagnetic properties of the phosphate composite: on introduction of 1,5 wt. % of MWCNTs one can observe increase in the conductivity by 13 orders of magnitude, and the composite MWCNTs/phosphate 1 mm thick is opaque to microwave radiation. Taking into account the interest in using the boron-doped MWNT also as neutron-absorbing materials, it is essential to improve the synthesis methods of B-MWCNTs with the aim of increasing their length. (authors)

  10. Influence of Boron on transformation behavior during continuous cooling of low alloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, A., E-mail: Adnan.Terzic@imf.tu-freiberg.de [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Calcagnotto, M. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Eisenhüttenstr. 99, 38239 Salzgitter (Germany); Guk, S. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schulz, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Eisenhüttenstr. 99, 38239 Salzgitter (Germany); Kawalla, R. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Abstracts: The phase transformation behavior during continuous cooling of low-carbon (LC) Boron-treated steels was studied. Furthermore, the influence of combining Boron with Nb or Ti or V on transformation kinetics was investigated. Additions of Boron to LC steels have a strong influence on the ferrite transformation. By adding 30 ppm Boron to a Boron-free reference alloy the suppressing effect on the ferrite transformation is most pronounced, whereas 10 ppm Boron has almost no effect and 50 ppm Boron the same effect as 30 ppm Boron. Thereby the critical Boron concentration for transformation kinetics in this alloying concept is 30 ppm. The combination of Boron with Ti shifts the phase fields to shorter times and increase the ferrite start temperature, whereas the combination of B+V and B+Nb only affects the ferrite start temperature. Hardness values are mostly influenced by the presence of Boron and strongly depend on the cooling rate.

  11. Trisomy 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery at birth. There are often signs of congenital heart disease , such as: Abnormal placement of the heart toward ... almost immediately. Most infants with trisomy 13 have congenital heart disease. Complications may include: Breathing difficulty or lack of ...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of alanine boron hydrate for its use in thermal neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine boron hydrate was synthesized for its possible use as intercomparison dosimeter for thermal neutron irradiation. The irradiations were performed in the Nuclear Reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The salt was prepared by reacting alanine and boric acid in a (1:1) stoichiometric ratio in neutral pH 7.5 aqueous solution and also in a basic pH 13 solution. The latter reaction was prepared with the addition of ammonia hydroxide (25%). Solutions were stirred and afterwards were let to evaporate. The obtained product in each reaction is a white solid. Dosimeters were prepared with the obtained reaction products and irradiated under thermal neutron flux of 5 x 107 n/cm2 s. For 30 hours. The analysis of irradiated samples was made in a Variant E-15 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer. The observed response of the samples prepared with the reaction product at the basic pH is approximately 50% higher than the neutral pH samples. In order to investigate the optimum signal enhancement samples were prepared in a basic pH medium in the following stoichiometric ratios: (1:0.5); (1:0.75); (1:1.25); (1:1.5) and (1:1.75). It was observed that the samples of the reaction (1:0.75) produced the higher response. The response was 2728% higher than the alanine only dosimeters. The reaction product was chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Chromatography, Refractometry and Solubility tests. Results indicate that alanine boron hydrate is formed in basic media and in a stoichiometric ratio (1:0.75). The dosimetric characterization of alanine boron hydrate was performed, results are reported. It is concluded that alanine boron hydrate may be a good intercomparison dosimeter for thermal neutron irradiation. (Author)

  13. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  14. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm2. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl2. Added CaCl2 increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions

  15. Determination of boron in silicates after ion exchange separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, H.

    1955-01-01

    Existing methods for the determination of boron in silicates are not entirely satisfactory. Separation as the methyl ester is lengthy and frequently erratic. An accurate and rapid method applicable to glass, mineral, ore, and water samples uses ion exchange to remove interfering cations, and boron is determined titrimetrically in the presence of mannitol, using a pH meter to indicate the end point.

  16. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  17. Adsorption characteristics of arsenic and boron by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to obtain baseline data concerning the surface and ground water pollution caused by coal ash disposal, adsorption characteristics of arsenic (III) and boron by soil have been studied through laboratory experiments. The main results are as follows: (1) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil was strongly dependent on pH with adsorption maxima at pH 8 and 8-9, respectively. (2) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil over the entire concentration ranges investigated could be described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, respectively. The Henry adsorption isotherm was also applicable over the lower concentration ranges of arsenic (III) and boron (As (III): < 0.1 deltag/ml; B: < 5deltag/ml.) (3) Arsenic (III) and boron adsorption on soil is controlled mainly by the contents of extractable Fe oxide and hydroxide for arsenic (III) and by the contents of extractable Al hydroxide and allophane (amorphous aluminium silicates) for boron. (4) Adsorption and movement of arsenic (III) and boron during the infiltration of coal ash leachate in soil layer were investigated by means of the unsteady-state, one-dimensional convective-diffusive mass transport model. This model is very useful for evaluation and prediction of the contamination of ground water by trace elements such as arsenic (III) and boron leached at coal ash disposal site.

  18. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control blade design, incorporating boron-carbide (B4C) in stainless-steel tubes, was introduced into service in boiling water reactors in April 1961. Since that time this blade has become the standard reference control element in General Electric boiling-water reactors, replacing the 2% boron-stainless-steel blades previously used. The blades consist of a sheathed, cruciform array of small vertical stainless-steel tubes filled with compácted boron-carbide powder. The boron-carbide powder is confined longitudinally into several independent compartments by swaging over ball bearings located inside the tubes. The development and use of boron-carbide control rods is discussed in five phases: 1. Summary of experience with boron-steel blades and reasons for transition to boron-carbide control; 2. Design of the boron-carbide blade, beginning with developmental experiments, including early measurements performed in the AEC ''Control Rod Material and Development Program'' at the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, through a description of the final control blade configuration; 3. Fabrication of the blades and quality control procedures; 4. Results of confirmatory pre-operational mechanical and reactivity testing; and 5. Post-operational experience with the blades, including information on the results of mechanical inspection and reactivity testing after two years of reactor service. (author)

  19. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering Erzurum (Turkey); Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze/Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2005-10-17

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl{sub 2}. Added CaCl{sub 2} increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions.

  20. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl; Damkilde, Lars

    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally th...

  1. Brazed boron-silicon carbide/aluminum structural panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W. E., Jr.; Bales, T. T.; Brooks, T. G.; Lawson, A. G.; Mitchell, P. D.; Royster, D. M.; Wiant, R.

    1978-01-01

    Fluxless brazing process minimizes degradation of mechanical properties composite material of silicon carbide coated boron fibers in an aluminum matrix. Process is being used to fabricate full-scale Boron-Silicon Carbide/Aluminum-Titanium honeycomb core panels for flight testing and ground testing.

  2. Highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a composite member for use in walls of a thermonuclear reactor, if carbon fibers and boron carbide are mixed, since they are brought into contact with each other directly, boron is reacted with the carbon fibers to form boron carbide to lower thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. Then, in the present invention, graphite or amorphous carbon is filled between the carbon fibers to provide a fiber bundle of not less than 500 carbon fibers. Further, the surface of the fiber bundle is coated with graphite or amorphous carbon to suppress diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers or reaction of them. Then, lowering of thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers is prevented, as well as the mixing amount of the carbon fiber bundles with boron carbide, a sintering temperature and orientation of carbon fiber bundles are optimized to provide a highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material. In addition, carbide or boride type short fibers, spherical graphite, and amorphous carbon are mixed in the boron carbide to prevent development of cracks. Diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers is reduced or reaction of them if the carbon fibers are bundled. (N.H.)

  3. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muavviz Ayvaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98 were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm to plants that had grown from seeds for four weeks. Plants were harvested, stem-root length and stem-root dry-fresh weight content were determined. For further analysis, chlorophyll, total protein, endogenic IAA and ABA content analyses were carried out. Results: According to the data obtained, plant growth and development decreased with increasing boron concentrations. With increasing boron concentrations, soluble total protein increased in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenic IAA content in both cultivars. 10 and 20 ppm boron application led to increased endogenic ABA content in Vamik Hoca cultivar whereas endogenic ABA content decreased in Efes 98. Absence of boron application led to increased endogenic IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. Conclusion: As a result, the response to boron is different in the two cultivars and Efes 98 may be more resistant to the toxicity than Vamik Hoca cultivar.

  4. Composition and microhardness of CAE boron nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with boron nitride produced by cathodic arc evaporation techniques.The films were applied on titanium and cemented carbide substrates. Their characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction and Knoop microhardness tests. Demonstrated are the high properties of two-phase films, containing β (cubic) and γ (wurtzitic) modifications of boron nitride. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Boron compounds as potential HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešek, Jaromír; Grüner, Bohumír; Král, V.; Cígler, Petr; Kožíšek, Milan; Prejdová, Jana; Pokorná, Jana; Kräusslich, H. G.; Bodem, J.; Konvalinka, Jan

    Tohoku: Graduate School of Science, 2005, s. 46. [International Conference on Boron Chemistry /12./. Sendai (JP), 11.09.2005-15.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : boron cluster compounds Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Eleventh international conference on boron chemistry. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of reports at the Eleventh International Conference on Boron Chemistry are presented. Born chemistry as a connecting bridge between many fields maintains one of the leading positions in modern chemistry. Methods of synthesis of different boron compounds, properties of the compounds, their use in other regions of chemistry and medicine are widely presented in reports

  7. Boron Speciation in Soda-Lime Borosilicate Glasses Containing Zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron speciation was investigated in soda-lime borosilicate glass containing zirconium. In such compositions, competition between charge compensators (here, sodium and calcium) can occur for the compensation of tetrahedral boron or octahedral zirconium units. 11B MAS NMR is particularly suitable for obtaining data on preferential compensation behavior that directly affects the boron coordination number. In addition to the classical proportions of tri- and tetrahedral boron, additional data can be obtained on the contributions involved in these two coordination numbers. An approach is described here based on simultaneous MAS spectrum analysis of borosilicate glass with variable Zr/Si and Ca/Na ratios at two magnetic field strengths (11. 7 and 18. 8 T), with constraints arising from MQMAS spectroscopy, detailed analysis of satellite transitions, and spin-echo experiments. New possibilities of 11B NMR were presented for improving the identification and quantification of the different contributions involved in tri- and tetrahedral boron coordination. Both NMR and Raman revealed a trend of decreased tetrahedral boron proportion with the increase of Ca/Na ratio or the Zr/Si ratio. This strongly suggests that zirconium compensation takes preference over boron compensation, and that zirconium and boron are both compensated mainly by sodium rather than calcium. (authors)

  8. Safety assessment of boron in aquatic and terrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, L; de Oude, N; Raymond, K

    1989-06-01

    Boron is a naturally occurring material and is used in industrial and domestic products. Its major release into the environment is through weathering processes and wastewater discharge. Boron is an essential nutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This paper assesses the ecotoxicology and environmental safety of boron. It draws together the data for toxicological effects of boron and compares these with environmental concentrations of boron, measured in Europe and the U.S.A. Generally, environmental concentrations of boron found in surface water are below levels identified as toxic to aquatic organisms. Concentrations high enough to produce toxic effects in laboratory tests are found in areas where weathering of boron-rich formations and deposits occurs, such as in the southwestern United States. However, reproducing populations of the most sensitive species, rainbow trout, have been observed in surface waters in these regions, indicating no cause for concern. The prime concern for effects on terrestrial plants centers on the use of irrigation water with elevated levels of boron. At present, there is no evidence of widespread damage to crops resulting from this practice. In some areas, wastewater is used for irrigation and crops grown under these conditions are generally confined to those relatively insensitive to boron toxicity. Good irrigation practices will be necessary, however, in arid regions with high evapotranspiration rates and care will be needed when using wastewater, particularly in areas with naturally high boron levels. It is not anticipated that there will be any significant increase in the discharge of boron to the environment in the foreseeable future. The use of boron-containing products is expected to increase, but glass will remain the dominant market and the use of boron in detergents in Europe is expected to decrease due to the introduction of bleach activators and liquid

  9. Boron Doped Diamond Electrode: Spectro/Photo/Electrochemistry and Prospective Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Krýsová, Hana; Petrák, Václav; Bartoň, Jan; Cígler, Petr; Nesládek, M.

    Angra dos Reis: International Society of Electrochemistry , 2015. 97. [Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry . Electrochemical Properties and Applications of Advanced Carbon Materials /16./. 22.03.2015-26.03.2015, Angra dos Reis] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : boron doped diamond electrode * electrochemistry * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  10. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Final report, May 1, 1986--April 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is described in the development of organometallic reagents in which the boron was attached to a nonreactive organic or inorganic matrix such as polystyrene, silica, or alumina. We developed the synthesis of oxygen-15 labelled butanol, which has been found to be a valuable blood flow agent in humans. We have also developed a series of polymeric borane derivatives which were used to prepare nitrogen-13 labelled amines

  11. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Final report, May 1, 1986--April 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1997-08-01

    Research is described in the development of organometallic reagents in which the boron was attached to a nonreactive organic or inorganic matrix such as polystyrene, silica, or alumina. We developed the synthesis of oxygen-15 labelled butanol, which has been found to be a valuable blood flow agent in humans. We have also developed a series of polymeric borane derivatives which were used to prepare nitrogen-13 labelled amines.

  12. Depletion modeling of integral burnable absorbers containing enriched boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion modeling of fuel assembly with different integral fuel burnable absorber loadings containing enriched boron has been performed by WIMSD transport code. Equivalent boron concentration that represents depletion of the integral fuel burnable absorbers containing enriched boron has been calculated using modified PSU/LEOPARD code. The calculated equivalent boron concentrations have been introduced into FUMACS computer code package master files, upgrading the code package with new global calculation feature for core modeling with different integral fuel burnable absorber loadings containing enriched boron. This new feature of FUMACS/FEEC2001 code package has been verified and validated on 12-month and 18-month operating cycle core loading patterns of NPP Krsko.(author)

  13. The sorption capacity of boron on anionic-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron sorption capacities on anionic-exchange resins vary with temperature, concentration, and resin cross-linkage. A semiempirical correlation, developed from boron solution chemistry, is presented to account for these variations. The relationship, based on boron chemistry and changes in Gibb's energy, can be stated approximately as Q = a1CBa2Za3 exp[-(a4T + a5T2 + a6Z0.5)]. Correlation parameters, which vary with resin type, are evaluated experimentally. Parameter values for macroporous resin Diaion PA 300 and for gel-type resins Diaion SA10 and Amberlite IRN 78LC are presented. The resulting expression is used to determine boron sorption and desorption limitations on ion exchangers at various temperatures and concentrations, and to determine the interfacial boron concentration in equilibrium and rate models

  14. Investigation of boron segregation in low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Traces of born in the range 0,002-0,009 % are usually added to many grades of steel. The effect of boron on phase transformations and hardenability of low carbon low alloy steels depends on the form of its behavior in solid solution either in segregations or in precipitations. Temperature and cooling rate determine the existence of boron segregations on grain boundaries. In present paper simulations of boron concentrations were calculated with computer programme DICTRA for low carbon 0,08 %C steel with 0,006 % boron. Investigations were carried out for temperature 1300 – 700°C and cooling rates from 1°C/s to 100°C/s. The changes of boron concentrations in austenite and ferrite after commencement of γ→α phase transformation were established.

  15. Boronization during the first plasma operation on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both ion cyclotron rf and glow discharge boronization have been successfully used for wall conditioning on EAST tokamak device. The whole process is monitored continuously by residual gas analyzer and film thickness monitor. These diagnostics provide detailed information about the boronization. High hydrogen inventory level observed after boronization maybe due to the boronization material used (C2B10H12). Ion cyclontron rf conditioning is proved to be an efficient wall conditioning method for superconducting device because it could be carried out under toroidal magnetic field. In this paper, the procedure of boronization is described, and subsequently sample analysis and the effect on plasma operation are introduced. Conclusion is given at the end

  16. Steam oxidation of boron carbide–stainless steel liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of nuclear reactor core meltdown accidents studies, the oxidation kinetics of boron carbide–stainless steel liquid mixtures exposed to argon/steam atmospheres was investigated at temperatures up to 1527 °C. A B–Cr–Si–O liquid protective layer forms on the surface of the mixtures in contact with steam. This protective layer gradually transforms into a Cr2O3-rich slag. Important quantities of liquid can be projected from the melt during oxidation. These projections are favoured by high B4C contents in the melt, high steam partial pressures and low temperatures. In addition to stainless steel–boron carbide melts, simpler compositions (pure 304L stainless steel, iron–boron, iron–boron carbide and stainless steel–boron) were studied, in order to identify the basic oxidation mechanisms.

  17. Synthesis and photoluminescence property of boron carbide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale, high density boron carbide nanowires have been synthesized by using an improved carbothermal reduction method with B/B2O3/C powder precursors under an argon flow at 1100°C. The boron carbide nanowires are 5–10 μm in length and 80–100 nm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) characterizations show that the boron carbide nanowire has a B4C rhombohedral structure with good crystallization. The Raman spectrum of the as-grown boron carbide nanowires is consistent with that of a B4C structure consisting of B11C icosahedra and C-B-C chains. The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the boron carbide nanowires exhibits a visible range of emission centred at 638 nm. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  18. Enhanced surface hardness by boron implantation in Nitinol alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Park, B; Saxena, A; Serene, T P

    1996-10-01

    Boron implantation into Nitinol alloy has a potential for developing improved Nitinol root canal instruments with excellent cutting properties, without affecting their superelastic bulk-mechanical properties. The surface hardness of nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy, also known as "Nitinol" (50 atm% nickel+50 atm% titanium), has been improved by ion-beam surface modification. With an implantation dose of 4.8 x 10(17) boron/cm2, a high concentration of boron (30 atm%) is incorporated into NiTi alloy by 110 keV boron ions at room temperature (25 degrees C). Boron-implanted and unimplanted (pure) Nitinol alloys show surface hardness of 7.6 +/- 0.2 and 3.2 +/- 0.2 GPa, respectively, at the nanoindentation depth of 0.05 micron. The ion-beam-modified NiTi alloy exceeds the surface hardness of stainless steel. PMID:9198443

  19. Advancements in Tumor Targeting Strategies for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luderer, Micah John; de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2015-09-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising cancer therapy modality that utilizes the nuclear capture reaction of epithermal neutrons by boron-10 resulting in a localized nuclear fission reaction and subsequent cell death. Since cellular destruction is limited to approximately the diameter of a single cell, primarily only cells in the neutron field with significant boron accumulation will be damaged. However, the emergence of BNCT as a prominent therapy has in large part been hindered by a paucity of tumor selective boron containing agents. While L-boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate are the most commonly investigated clinical agents, new agents are desperately needed due to their suboptimal tumor selectivity. This review will highlight the various strategies to improve tumor boron delivery including: nucleoside and carbohydrate analogs, unnatural amino acids, porphyrins, antibody-dendrimer conjugates, cationic polymers, cell-membrane penetrating peptides, liposomes and nanoparticles. PMID:26033767

  20. APPLICATION OF BORON MODIFIED SILICA SOL ON RETENTION AND DRAINAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinxiaMa; YuxiuPeng; ZhongzhengLi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it was studied that these dosage effectsof CPAM, cationic starch,boron modified silica sol(BMS), A12(SO4)3, pH value and electrolyte on theretention and drainage of different microparticulatesystems including CPAM, cationic starch and boronsilica sol. The research results indicated that CPAMhad no good retention when used with boron silicasol. The best retention efficiency was the micropar-ticulate system of CPAM + cationic starch withboron modified silica sol; Secondly was that ofcationic starch with boron modified silica sol; Theworst was that of CPAM with boron modified silicasol. The retention efficiency had no relation with theaddition order between CPAM and cationic starch. Itwas also found that the microparticulate retentionsystem of boron modified silica sol could be used inalum-rosin sizing and in acidity, neutral or alkalinepapermaking conditions. This system also could beused with close circulate water so that it could reducethe water pollution and waste.

  1. Optical characteristic analysis of the boronization process by using carborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonwook; Park, Kyungdeuk; Choi, Youngsun; Oh, Chahwan [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Boronization with carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) was achieved in a vacuum vessel coupled to a filament discharge system. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to characterize the boronization process. The Balmer lines of hydrogen and deuterium were measured, and the boronization process was analyzed by using the intensity ratio of the H{sub α} to the D{sub α} line (I{sub H}/I{sub D}). The relation between the pressure and the intensity ratio was investigated, and the thickness of the deposited boron film was predicted. Also, the dilution ratio H/(H + D) of the boron film was analyzed and compared with the one predicted from an optical analysis of the emission spectrum.

  2. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  3. Boron-nitride coated nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenduez, G. [Orta Dogu Teknik Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Uslu, I. [Tuerkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu, Ankara (Turkey); Durmazucar, H.H. [Cumhuriyet Univ., Sivas (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    Pure urania- and urania-gadolinia-containing fuel pellets were coated with boron nitride (BN) to improve the physical and neutronic properties of the fuel. The BN coating seems to have a technological advantage over zirconium-diboride coating. The BN is chemically inert, corrosion resistant, withstands rapid temperature changes, and has a high thermal conductivity. Since gadolinia fuel has low thermal conductivity. Since gadolinia fuel has low thermal conductivity, the gadolinia content can be lowered in the fuel by coating it with BN. In fact, the existence of two burnable absorbers in a fuel introduces desired nuclear properties since gadolinia is a fast-burning and boron a slow-burning element. The BN was deposited on fuel from two different sources, (a) from the reaction of boron trichloride (BCl{sub 3}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) at 875 K and (b) from the decomposition of trimethylamine borate complex at 1200 K. The infrared and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of BN from both precursors agreed with the available data in the literature. However BN powder from borane complex had a shifted XRD peak due to the presence of carbonaceous material in the structure. The BN powder-coated fuels were heated to 1400, 1525, and 1600 K to sinter the BN. The examination under scanning electron microscope showed that grainy, rod-shaped and layered BN coatings were achieved. Rod-shaped structures were usually seen on gadolinia fuels. The increased thickness of coating favors the formation of a glassy looking layer. The BN from a borane complex seems to form a layered structure more easily than the BN from BCl{sub 3}. The BN coated the surface of the fuels, and it did not penetrate into the fuels.

  4. Boron-nitride coated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure urania- and urania-gadolinia-containing fuel pellets were coated with boron nitride (BN) to improve the physical and neutronic properties of the fuel. The BN coating seems to have a technological advantage over zirconium-diboride coating. The BN is chemically inert, corrosion resistant, withstands rapid temperature changes, and has a high thermal conductivity. Since gadolinia fuel has low thermal conductivity. Since gadolinia fuel has low thermal conductivity, the gadolinia content can be lowered in the fuel by coating it with BN. In fact, the existence of two burnable absorbers in a fuel introduces desired nuclear properties since gadolinia is a fast-burning and boron a slow-burning element. The BN was deposited on fuel from two different sources, (a) from the reaction of boron trichloride (BCl3) and ammonia (NH3) at 875 K and (b) from the decomposition of trimethylamine borate complex at 1200 K. The infrared and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of BN from both precursors agreed with the available data in the literature. However BN powder from borane complex had a shifted XRD peak due to the presence of carbonaceous material in the structure. The BN powder-coated fuels were heated to 1400, 1525, and 1600 K to sinter the BN. The examination under scanning electron microscope showed that grainy, rod-shaped and layered BN coatings were achieved. Rod-shaped structures were usually seen on gadolinia fuels. The increased thickness of coating favors the formation of a glassy looking layer. The BN from a borane complex seems to form a layered structure more easily than the BN from BCl3. The BN coated the surface of the fuels, and it did not penetrate into the fuels

  5. Ballistic thermoelectric properties in boron nitride nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Tang, Li-Ming; Pan, Chang-Ning; Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-10-01

    Ballistic thermoelectric properties (TPs) in boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNRs) are studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. A comparative analysis for TPs between BNNRs and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is made. Results show that the TPs of BNNRs are better than those of GNRs stemming from the higher power factor and smaller thermal conductance of BNNRs. With increasing the ribbon width, the maximum value of ZT (ZTmax) of BNNRs exhibits a transformation from the monotonic decrease to nonlinear increase. We also show that the lattice defect can enhance the ZTmax of these nanoribbons strongly depending on its positions and the edge shape.

  6. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  7. Boron nitride nanomaterials for thermal management applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Mohammed J; Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Ping; Lu, Fushen; Hou, Zhiling; Anderson, Ankoma; Maimaiti, Halidan; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2015-05-18

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) are analogous to their two-dimensional carbon counterparts in many materials properties, in particular, ultrahigh thermal conductivity, but also offer some unique attributes, including being electrically insulating, high thermal stability, chemical and oxidation resistance, low color, and high mechanical strength. Significant recent advances in the production of BNNs, understanding of their properties, and the development of polymeric nanocomposites with BNNs for thermally conductive yet electrically insulating materials and systems are highlighted herein. Major opportunities and challenges for further studies in this rapidly advancing field are also discussed. PMID:25652360

  8. Boron Pile v-bar Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate absolute measurements of v, the average number of neutrons per fission, have been made with the boron pile. The experimental method is described and results are presented of the v values obtained for the thermal-neutron-induced fission of U233, U235, Pu239 and Pu241, the spontaneous fission of Pu240 and Cf252, and the fast neutron-induced fission of U235 in the energy range 100 keV to 2.6 MeV. (author)

  9. Low-dimensional boron nitride nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pakdel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, a concise research history of low-dimensional boron nitride (BN nanomaterials followed by recent developments in their synthesis, morphology, properties, and applications are presented. Seventeen years after the initial synthesis of BN nanotubes, research on BN nanomaterials has developed far enough to establish them as one of the most promising inorganic nanosystems. In this regard, it is envisaged that the unique properties of low-dimensional BN systems, such as superb mechanical stiffness, high thermal conductivity, wide optical bandgap, strong ultraviolet emission, thermal stability and chemical inertness will play a key role in prospective developments.

  10. Boron-containing neutron shielding building ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on the composition of raw materials as well as on the properties and chemical composition of finished products of ceramics intended for neutron shielding. It is shown that 0.8 % content of B2O3 in bricks of ceramic mass proposed halves neutron radiation from the source of 106 neutr·s-1 close rate compared to bricks of boron free ceramic mass. Results of tests on water absorption and compression strength make it possible to recommend new ceramics to be used as tiles and facade building materials

  11. Nuclear recoil correction to the g factor of boron-like argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear recoil effect to the g factor of boron-like ions is investigated. The one-photon-exchange correction to the nuclear recoil effect is calculated in the nonrelativistic approximation for the nuclear recoil operator and in the Breit approximation for the interelectronic-interaction operator. The screening potential is employed to estimate the higher-order contributions. The updated g-factor values are presented for the ground 2P1/2 and first excited 2P3/2 states of B-like argon 40Ar13+, which are presently being measured by the ARTEMIS group at GSI

  12. Nuclear recoil correction to the g factor of boron-like argon

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepetnov, Arseniy A; Volotka, Andrey V; Shabaev, Vladimir M; Tupitsyn, Ilya I; Plunien, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear recoil effect to the g factor of boron-like ions is investigated. The one-photon-exchange correction to the nuclear recoil effect is calculated in the non-relativistic approximation for the nuclear recoil operator and in the Breit approximation for the interelectronic-interaction operator. The screening potential is employed to estimate the higher-order contributions. The updated g-factor values are presented for the ground 2P_1/2 and first excited 2P_3/2 states of B-like argon 40^Ar^13+, which are presently being measured by the ARTEMIS group at GSI.

  13. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  14. Continued biological investigations of boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). Tumor-selective boron agents for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy will rely on the selective intracellular delivery of high concentrations of boron-10 to tumor tissue. In order for a boron agent to facilitate clinical success, the simultaneous needs of obtaining a high tumor dose, high tumor selectivity, and low systemic toxicity must be realized. Boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs) are a class of highly water-soluble compounds containing up to 40% boron by weight. Previous work in our groups demonstrated that once placed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, OPDs quickly accumulate within the cell nucleus. The objective of the current study was to determine the biodistribution of seven different free OPDs in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors. Fructose solutions containing between 1.4 and 6.4 micrograms of boron per gram of tissue were interveinously injected in mice seven to ten days after tumor implantation. At intervals during the study, animals were euthanized and samples of tumor, blood, liver, kidney, brain and skin were collected and analyzed for boron content using ICP-AES. Tumor boron concentrations of between 5 and 29 ppm were achieved and maintained over the 72-hour time course of each experiment. Several OPDs demonstrated high tumor selectivity with one oligomer exhibiting a tumor to blood ratio of 35:1. The apparent toxicity of each oligomer was assessed through animal behavior during the experiment and necropsy of each animal upon sacrifice. (author)

  15. Boron carbide particles formed from an amorphous boron/graphite powder mixture using a shock-wave technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide (B4C) particles with filamental, distorted ellipsoidal, platelike, and polyhedral shapes were formed from vapor generated from an amorphous boron/graphite powder mixture with 14% starting density using a cylindrical shock-wave technique. The crystal phases of shocked compact and microstructures of the B4C particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy, respectively

  16. Dynamic Behavior of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Boranes: Boron-Carbene Bonds in B,B-Disubstituted N,N-Dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene Boranes Have Substantial Rotation Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Krishnan; Li, Xiben; Pan, Xiangcheng; Curran, Dennis P

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic NMR spectroscopy has been used to measure rotation barriers in five B,B-disubstituted 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene boranes. The barriers are attributed to the sp(2)-sp(3) bond between C(1) of the N-heterocyclic carbene ring and the boron atom. Bonds to boron atoms bearing a thexyl (1,1,2-trimethylpropyl) group show especially high barriers, ranging from 75-86 kJ mol(-1). 2-Isopropyl-1,3,5-trimethylbenzene is used as a comparable to help understand the nature and magnitude of the barriers. PMID:25843519

  17. The Adhesion Improvement of Cubic Boron Nitride Film on High Speed Steel Substrate Implanted by Boron Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhi-hai; ZHANG Ping; TAN Jun

    2005-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride(c-BN) films were deposited on W6Mo5Cr4V2 high speed steel(HSS) substrate implanted with boron ion by RF-magnetron sputtering. The films were analyzed by the bending beam method, scratch test, XPS and AFM. The experimental results show that the implantation of boron atom can reduce the in ternal stress and improve the adhesion strength of the films. The critical load of scratch test rises to 27.45 N, compared to 1.75 N of c-BN film on the unimplanted HSS. The AFM shows that the surface of the c-BN film on the implanted HSS is low in roughness and small in grain size. Then the composition of the boron implanted layer was analyzed by the XPS. And the influence of the boron implanted layer on the internal stress and adhesion strength of c-BN films were investigated.

  18. Exploiting the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases via boron oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Dudek, Hanna; Reis, Joel S.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective carbon-boron bond oxidation of several chiral boron-containing compounds by Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases was evaluated. PAMO and M446G PAMO conveniently oxidized 1-phenylethyl boronate into the corresponding 1-(phenyl)ethanol (ee = 82-91%). Cyclopropyl boronic esters were also

  19. Boron nitride - boron hybrid coating on uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide fuel. Final report for the period 1 November 1996 - 1 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes work to develop laboratory-scale technology of the deposition of hybrid boron nitrate-metallic boron coating onto the surface of uranium dioxide ore uranium dioxide - gadolinia dioxide fuel pellets. Methods of chemical vapour deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were used in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. An excellent adherence of boron onto the boron nitrate layer and boron nitrate layer onto the fuel pellet surface was demonstrated. Fine grain-type structure of boron coating and its excellent adherence are good indices for integrated fuel burnable absorber fuels

  20. Crystallography, semiconductivity, thermoelectricity, and other properties of boron and its compounds, especially B6O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, G. A.; Morgan, K. E.

    2015-09-01

    Electron deficient and non-deficient boron compounds are discussed as potential thermoelectric generator materials. Particular attention is paid to carbon-doped beta-boron, high-carbon boron carbide, and the alpha-boron derivative compound boron suboxide. Stoichiometric B6O shows some promise, and may have a higher ZT than the other two compounds. Carbon saturated beta-boron appears to have a higher ZT than undoped samples. Carbon saturated boron carbide at B12C3 does exist. Its thermoelectric behavior is unknown.

  1. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  2. Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

    2014-03-18

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  3. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  4. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  5. Application of Cycloaddition Reactions to the Syntheses of Novel Boron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Maguire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the application of cycloaddition reactions in forming the boron-containing compounds such as symmetric star-shaped boron-enriched dendritic molecules, nano-structured boron materials and aromatic boronic esters. The resulting boron compounds are potentially important reagents for both materials science and medical applications such as in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT in cancer treatment and as drug delivery agents and synthetic intermediates for carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions. In addition, the use of boron cage compounds in a number of cycloaddition reactions to synthesize unique aromatic species will be reviewed briefly.

  6. Drug delivery system design and development for boron neutron capture therapy on cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have already synthesized a boron-containing polymeric micellar drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesized diblock copolymer, boron-terminated copolymers (Bpin-PLA-PEOz), consisted of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) block and water-soluble polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz) block, and a cap of pinacol boronate ester (Bpin). In this study, we have demonstrated that synthesized Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle has great potential to be boron drug delivery system with preliminary evaluation of biocompatibility and boron content. - Highlights: • Herein, we have synthesized boron-modified diblock copolymer. • Bpin-PLA-PEOz, which will be served as new boron containing vehicle for transporting the boron drug. • This boron containing Bpin-PLA-PEOz micelle was low toxicity can be applied to drug delivery

  7. Microdosimetry for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific aims of the research proposal were as follows: (1) To design and construct small volume tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry and microdosimetry of high intensity thermal and epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT, and of modified fast neutron beams designed for boron neutron capture enhanced fast neutron therapy (BNCEFNT). (2) To develop analytical methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of the absorbed dose in BNCT and BNCEFNT based on the measured microdosimetric spectra. (3) To develop an analytical framework for comparing the biological effectiveness of different epithermal neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT, based on correlated sets of measured microdosimetric spectra and radiobiological data. Specific aims (1) and (2) were achieved in their entirety and are comprehensively documented in Jay Burmeister's Ph.D. dissertation entitled ''Specification of physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction'' (Wayne State University, 1999). Specific aim (3) proved difficult to accomplish because of a lack of sufficient radiobiological data

  8. Boron-10 ABUNCL Prototype Initial Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results of initial testing of an Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) design built by General Electric Reuter-Stokes. Several configurations of the ABUNCL models, which use 10B-lined proportional counters in place of 3He proportional counters for the neutron detection elements, were previously reported. The ABUNCL tested is of a different design than previously modeled. Initial experimental testing of the as-delivered passive ABUNCL was performed, and modeling will be conducted. Testing of the system reconfigured for active testing will be performed in the near future, followed by testing with nuclear fuel.

  9. Boron Removal from Silicon by Humidified Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarian, Jafar; Tang, Kai; Hildal, Kjetil; Tranell, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) is one of the most problematic impurities to remove from metallurgical grade silicon in the production of more pure solar grade silicon (SoG-Si). In the present work, recent progresses in the application of reactive gases for B removal from molten silicon is reviewed. Moreover, in order to clarify the mechanisms and kinetics of gas-based B-refining, an experimental procedure using humidified Ar, N2, and H2 gases applied to boron-doped silicon melt is described. It is shown that the kinetics and extent of B removal is depending on the type of humidified gas. The thermodynamics and kinetics of B removal from molten silicon are studied to explain experimental observations. The mass transfer coefficients of B are calculated and possible mechanisms for B removal by the reactive gases are proposed: 1/2{{H}}2 ({{g}}) &= \\underset{-{H} ,} \\underset{-}{B} + \\underset{H} + {H}2 {O(g)} &= {HBO(g)} + {H}2 . It is shown that the lower equilibrium partial pressure of HBO gas at higher temperatures causes slower B removal rate.

  10. Analysis of boron carbides' electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Iris A.; Beckel, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    The electronic properties of boron-rich icosahedral clusters were studied as a means of understanding the electronic structure of the icosahedral borides such as boron carbide. A lower bound was estimated on bipolaron formation energies in B12 and B11C icosahedra, and the associated distortions. While the magnitude of the distortion associated with bipolaron formation is similar in both cases, the calculated formation energies differ greatly, formation being much more favorable on B11C icosahedra. The stable positions of a divalent atom relative to an icosahedral borane was also investigated, with the result that a stable energy minimum was found when the atom is at the center of the borane, internal to the B12 cage. If incorporation of dopant atoms into B12 cages in icosahedral boride solids is feasible, novel materials might result. In addition, the normal modes of a B12H12 cluster, of the C2B10 cage in para-carborane, and of a B12 icosahedron of reduced (D sub 3d) symmetry, such as is found in the icosahedral borides, were calculated. The nature of these vibrational modes will be important in determining, for instance, the character of the electron-lattice coupling in the borides, and in analyzing the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity.

  11. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF-4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF-4-MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF4. To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed

  12. Thermal properties of boron and borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of point defects on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline β-B has been measured from 1 to 1000 K. Above 300 K, samples containing 2 at. % Hf and Zr have thermal conductivities close to that of amorphous boron, indicating very strong phonon scattering. A thermal conductivity of equal magnitude has also been measured near and below room temperature for nearly stoichiometric single crystals of the theoretical composition YB68. On the basis of a comparison with earlier measurements to temperatures as low as 0.1 K, it is concluded that the thermal conductivity of crystalline YB68 is indeed very similar, if not identical, to that expected for amorphous boron over the entire temperature range of measurement (0.1--300 K). Measurements of the specific heat of nearly stoichiometric YB68 between 1.5 and 30 K also reveal a linear-specific-heat anomaly of the same magnitude as is characteristic for amorphous solids, in fair agreement with earlier measurements by Bilir et al. It is concluded that the lattice vibrations of crystalline YB68 are glasslike

  13. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Raineri, V.; Setola, R.; Rimini, E.; Carbera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1992-04-01

    Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 15 atoms/cm 2. The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B + were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, Sc, was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the [100] and [110] axis. The energ dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by Sc = KEp with p[100] = 0.469±0.010 and p[110] = 0.554±0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles.

  14. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5x1011 and 1x1015 atoms/cm2. The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B+ were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, Sc, was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the [100] and [110] axis. The energy dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by Se = KEp with p[100] = 0.469±0.010 and p[110] = 0.554±0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles. (orig.)

  15. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G. (Ist. di Tecnologie e Metodologie per la Microelettronica, CNR, Dipt. di Fisica, Catania (Italy)); Raineri, V.; Setola, R.; Rimini, E. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Catania (Italy)); Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Padova (Italy))

    1992-04-01

    Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5x10{sup 11} and 1x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2}. The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B{sup +} were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, S{sub c}, was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the (100) and (110) axis. The energy dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by S{sub e} = KE{sup p} with p{sub (100)} = 0.469{+-}0.010 and p{sub (110)} = 0.554{+-}0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles. (orig.).

  16. Durability of tannin-boron-treated timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tondi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tannin-boron wood preservatives were investigated for their resistance against outdoor agents. This work focused on the analysis of the causes that affect the durability of the tannin-hexamine-treated samples. In particular, dimensional stability, resistance to leaching, and resistance to biological agents were investigated. The combined effect of deterioration agents was evaluated by subjecting the treated samples to simulated and natural weathering tests. The study of the appearance and of the color components (L*, a*, and b* according to CIELAB space of the exposed samples was monitored to assess the efficacy of the tannin-boron formulations for outdoor applications. Significant resistance against the action of water (EN 84, ENV 1250-2 and insects (EN 47 has been demonstrated in specific tests. Conversely, the continuous stress due to artificial and natural weathering deteriorates the color and the visible features of the treated specimens. The combined effect of moisture modifications, solar exposition, and leaching cycles damages the structure of the tannin-based polymeric network and subsequently it negatively affects its preservation properties.

  17. Physical properties of CVD boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kartick C. [Molecular Sciences Institute and School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Strydom, Andre M. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)], E-mail: amstrydom@uj.ac.za; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Keartland, Jonathan M. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Coville, Neil J. [Molecular Sciences Institute and School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, P.O. Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa)], E-mail: Neil.Coville@wits.ac.za

    2008-10-15

    The effects of boron doping and electron correlation on the transport properties of CVD boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes are reported. The boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes were characterized by TEM as well as Raman spectroscopy using different laser excitations (viz. 488, 514.5 and 647 nm). The intensity of the D-band laser excitation line increased after the boron incorporation into the carbon nanotubes. The G-band width increased on increasing the boron concentration, indicating the decrease of graphitization with increasing boron concentration. Electrical conductivity of the undoped and boron-doped carbon nanotubes reveal a 3-dimensional variable-range-hopping conductivity over a wide range of temperature, viz. from room temperature down to 2 K. The electrical conductivity is not found to be changed significantly by the present levels of B-doping. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) results for the highest B-doped samples showed similarities with previously reported EPR literature measurements, but the low concentration sample gives a very broad ESR resonance line.

  18. Grade A boron-stainless steel: your flexible friend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-containing stainless steels were first used for neutron flux control in reactors. Today they are also used as neutron absorbing materials for spent fuel storage pools and transportation casks. These boron-enriched stainless steels provide a higher thermal neutron absorption cross section than conventional Type 304. Up to 2.25% boron may be added, depending upon attenuation requirements. While adding boron increases neutron attenuation, it has an adverse effect on the alloy's ductility and impact resistance. In the past this has limited the use of borated stainless steels as a structural material for the storage and transportation of spent fuel. Growing needs in the industry, along with improvements in speciality steel processing, led to the development of an advanced type of boron stainless steel which combines neutron absorption capability with the ductility and impact resistance needed for structural applications. It is available with total boron contents up to 2.25% of natural boron, the enriched B-10 isotope, or a combination of these. (author)

  19. Nuclear characterizations and applications of boron-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials either doped with traces of boron or containing this element as a matrix component have important technological and research applications. For most applications in technology, semiconductor doping, chemical vapor deposition of glass films, and optical waveguide fiber manufacture, boron levels or distribution must be controlled precisely. Thus, methods for quantitation of boron are needed, and its analytical chemistry still receives considerable study. Several nondestructive nuclear methods are described in this paper that have unique capabilities for quantitative analyses of boron at the trace and macro levels. Excellent high-sensitivity determinations are based on alpha track counting. For micro- and macroanalyses, the nuclear track technique using the 10B(n,α)7 Li reaction has been applied to map qualitatively the distribution of boron in borosilicate glass and in optical waveguide glass and fibers. Boron in the 1.59 to 7.75% range is determinable in silicate glasses. Similar information has also been obtained by prompt gamma neutron activation. Neuron depth profiling of boron in glass has been performed also. Results for several of these methods are reported

  20. Boron Particle Ignition in Secondary Chamber of Ducted Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the secondary chamber of ducted rocket, there exists a relative speed between boron particles and air stream. Hence, the ignition laws under static conditions cannot be simply applied to represent the actual ignition process of boron particles, and it is required to study the effect of forced convective on the ignition of boron particles. Preheating of boron particles in gas generator makes it possible to utilize the velocity difference between gas and particles in secondary chamber for removal of the liquid oxide layer with the aid of Stoke's forces. An ignition model of boron particles is formulated for the oxide layer removal by considering that it results from a boundary layer stripping mechanism. The shearing action exerted by the high-speed flow causes a boundary layer to be formed in the surface of the liquid oxide layer, and the stripping away of this layer accounts for the accelerated ignition of boron particles. Compared with the King model, as the ignition model of boron particles is formulated for the oxide layer removal by considering that it results from a boundary layer stripping mechanism, the oxide layer thickness thins at all times during the particle ignition and lower the ignition time.

  1. Boron carbide/carbon composite material and production process therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron carbide/carbon composite material of the present invention comprises from 15 to 40% by volume of graphite and the balance of two kinds of powdery boron carbides X and Y having different average grain sizes. The average grain size of the powdery boron carbide X is less than 1/2 of the average grain size of the boron carbide Y, and the composite material comprises more than 10% by volume of the powdery boron carbide X and more than 30% by volume of the powdery boron carbide Y. They are press-molded under heating at a temperature range of 480 to 600degC, followed by sintering. A binder pitch of less evaporation ingredient melting upon heating is used as a binder. Since the pitch of satisfactory melting property is used, there is no worry that binding property lacks to reduce the lowering of the strength even if a great amount of powdery boron carbide is added. Further, since a carbonization yield is improved due to less evaporation content, density and strength of the composite material can be increased. (T.M.)

  2. Characterization of a boron carbide-based polymer neutron sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuting; James, Robinson; Dong, Bin; Driver, M. Sky; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Downing, Greg; Cao, Lei R.

    2015-12-01

    Boron is used widely in thin-film solid-state devices for neutron detection. The film thickness and boron concentration are important parameters that relate to a device's detection efficiency and capacitance. Neutron depth profiling was used to determine the film thicknesses and boron-concentration profiles of boron carbide-based polymers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of ortho-carborane (1,2-B10C2H12), resulting in a pure boron carbide film, or of meta-carborane (1,7-B10C2H12) and pyridine (C5H5N), resulting in a pyridine composite film, or of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) resulting in a pure pyrimidine film. The pure boron carbide film had a uniform surface appearance and a constant thickness of 250 nm, whereas the thickness of the composite film was 250-350 nm, measured at three different locations. In the meta-carborane and pyridine composite film the boron concentration was found to increase with depth, which correlated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-derived atomic ratios. A proton peak from 14N (n,p)14C reaction was observed in the pure pyrimidine film, indicating an additional neutron sensitivity to nonthermal neutrons from the N atoms in the pyrimidine.

  3. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  4. APPLICATION OF BORON MODIFIED SILICA SOL ON RETENTION AND DRAINAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinxia Ma; Yuxiu Peng; Zhongzheng Li

    2004-01-01

    In this paper it was studied that these dosage effects of CPAM, cationic starch、boron modified silica sol (BMS), Al2(SO4)3, pH value and electrolyte on the retention and drainage of different microparticulate systems including CPAM, cationic starch and boron silica sol. The research results indicated that CPAM had no good retention when used with boron silica sol. The best retention efficiency was the microparticulate system of CPAM + cationic starch with boron modified silica sol; Secondly was that of cationic starch with boron modified silica sol; The worst was that of CPAM with boron modified silica sol. The retention efficiency had no relation with the addition order between CPAM and cationic starch. It was also found that the microparticulate retention system of boron modified silica sol could be used in alum-rosin sizing and in acidity, neutral or alkaline papermaking conditions. This system also could be used with close circulate water so that it could reduce the water pollution and waste.

  5. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE OF BORONIZED PM Cr-V COLD WORK LEDEBURITIC TOOL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jurči; Mária Hudáková

    2010-01-01

    The PM Vanadis 6 cold work tool steel has been boronized at various processing parameters, austenitized, quenched and tempered to a core hardness of 700 HV. Microstructure, phase constitution and microhardness of boronized layers were investigated. It was found that the boronized layers are of two-phase FeB/Fe2B constitution, with an addition of small portion of CrB. Below the boronized layer, intermediate region with elevated carbides ratio was developed. Boronized layers contain also carbid...

  7. Generation of a boron ion beam in a modified ion source for semiconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented here are results of experimental studies on the production of intense beams of boron ions using a modified Bernas-Calutron ion source. Instead of using the conventional boron-trifluoride gas, a solid lithium-boron-tetrafluoride compound was heated to release boron-trifluoride. For optimum ion source parameters the measured 25-41 mA of total ion beam current was composed of 70% singly charged and about 1% doubly charged boron ions

  8. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  9. Synthesis of PBAD-lipiodol nanoparticles for combination treatment with boric acid in boron neutron capture therapy for hepatoma in-vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to increase BNCT efficiency for hepatoma by a combined treatment of phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol nanoparticles (PBAD-L nanoparticles) with boric acid. The size of PBAD-L nanoparticles were 400-750 nm at the boron concentrations of 0.3-2.7 mg/ml. After 24 hours the boron concentration in PBAD-L nanoparticles treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells was 112 ppm, while that in rat liver Clone 9 cells was 52 ppm. With the use of 25 μg B/ml boric acid, after 6 hours the boron concentration in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells were 75 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. In a combined treatment, boron concentration in HepG2 cells which were treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles for 18 hours and then combined with boric acid for 6 hours was 158 ppm. After neutron irradiation, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles was 12.6%, while that in the ones with a combined treatment was 1.3%. In conclusion, the combined treatment provided a higher boron concentration in HepG2 cells than treatments with either PBAD-L nanoparticles or boric acid, resulting in a higher therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in hepatoma cells. (author)

  10. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of fabricating metal-ceramic composites from previously formed ceramic precursor starting constituents selected from boron-carbide, boron and borides and metals reactive therewith selected from reactive metals, alloys thereof, and compounds thereof which reduce to reactive metals or alloys thereof. It comprises: chemically pretreating the previously formed starting constituents of a ceramic precursor; consolidating the chemically pretreated starting constituents into a porous ceramic precursor; infiltrating molten reactive metal into the chemically pretreated ceramic precursor; wherein the step of chemically pretreating the starting constituents of the ceramic precursor alters the surface chemistry to enhance infiltration of the precursor by the molten reactive metal by slowing the kinetics of reaction relative to the kinetics of densification

  11. Phase and property studies of boron carbide-boron nitride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on boron carbide-boron nitride particulate composites that were fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing. Near-theoretical densities of B4C were obtained, but percent theoretical densities decreased with increasing amounts of BN. The grain size of B4C and BN was not affected by composition, but the amount of twinning in B4C decreased with increasing BN content. No third phase was found at the B4C-BN interface by analytical STEM analysis. Lattice parameter measurements indicated slight solubility of B4C in BN, but no solubility of BN in B4C for samples hot-pressed at 2250 degrees C. Room-temperature flexural strength measurements revealed a sharply decreasing strength with increasing BN content up to 40% BN, and then relatively constant values with greater amounts of BN

  12. Nickel-boron nanolayer evolution on boron carbide particle surfaces during thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is focused on reduction of Ni2O3 and B2O3 in the Ni-B nanolayer on B4C particle surfaces and understanding of the nanolayer composition and morphology changes. Initially, the nanolayer contains Ni2O3, B2O3, and amorphous boron. After 400 oC thermal treatment in a H2-Ar atmosphere, Ni2O3 is reduced to nickel; the nanolayer morphology is maintained and the coated particles demonstrate magnetism. As the thermal treatment temperature is increased to 550 oC, B2O3 is reduced to boron, which reacts with nickel and forms Ni2B. Simultaneously, the nanolayer evolves into nanoparticles. Thermal treatment temperature increase to 700-900 oC only causes Ni2B particle growth but does not fundamentally change the composition or phase.

  13. Nitrogen implantation effects on the chemical bonding and hardness of boron and boron nitride coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S; Felter, T; Hayes, J; Jankowski, A F; Patterson, R; Poker, D; Stamler, T

    1999-02-08

    Boron nitride (BN) coatings are deposited by the reactive sputtering of fully dense, boron (B) targets utilizing an argon-nitrogen (Ar-N{sub 2}) reactive gas mixture. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analysis reveals features of chemical bonding in the B 1s photoabsorption spectrum. Hardness is measured at the film surface using nanoindentation. The BN coatings prepared at low, sputter gas pressure with substrate heating are found to have bonding characteristic of a defected hexagonal phase. The coatings are subjected to post-deposition nitrogen (N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +}) implantation at different energies and current densities. The changes in film hardness attributed to the implantation can be correlated to changes observed in the B 1s NEXAFS spectra.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of β-boron and some boron compounds. Final report, August 1981-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoelectric properties, that is the Seebeck coefficient, and electrical and thermal conductivity, of doped β-boron have been measured from 300 to 1600 K. Most of the useful doping elements are transition metals and occupy interstitial sites in the lattice. The highest figure of merit so far achieved at 1000 K is ZT = 0.11 for P-type, polycrystalline, hot-pressed β-boron doped with copper. Higher values may be achievable once a better P-type dopant is found. Some experiments on B68Y, α-B12Al, B4C, and B6Si are described. Transition metals appear to be effective dopants for B68Y and B4C

  15. Development of TIMS for isotopic ratio analysis of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) has been developed at Technical Physics Division, for high precision isotope ratio analysis of Boron (in the form of Sodium Meta-borate) at the Boron enrichment facility, Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. The performance of this indigenously developed TIMS has been tested for sensitivity, isotope ratio precision and accuracy for different levels of enrichment in the plant samples. The sensitivity of this instrument was found to be 1 ion per 200 atoms. The internal and external precision for natural concentration levels Boron isotopes were better than 0.05%. (author)

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Xiang [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, B{sub x}Al{sub y}H{sub z}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

  17. Analyses of beyond design basis accident homogeneous boron dilution scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kereszturi, Andras; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Trosztel, Istvan; Tota, Adam [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Budapest (Hungary); Karsa, Zoltan [NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute, Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Homogeneous boron dilution scenarios in a VVER-440 reactor were analyzed using the coupled KIKO3D-ATHLET code. The scenarios are named ''homogeneous'' because of the very slow dilution caused by a rupture in the heat exchanger of the makeup system. Without the presented analyses, a significant contribution of the homogeneous boron dilution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) had to be assumed in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA). According to the combined results of the presented deterministic and probabilistic analyses, the final conclusion is that boron dilution transients don't give significant contribution to the CDF for the investigated VVER-440 NPP.

  18. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry for neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the workshop on the chemistry of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy held on 1st of August in 1988 and on 22nd of January in 1990. In this workshop, our attention was mainly focused on the chemical reactions and chemical analyses of boron compounds used for the therapy. There is additionally shown the basic knowledge of immunology related with the neutron capture therapy. We do hope that this proceedings will contribute to the development of new boron carriers for the therapy. (J.P.N.)

  19. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  20. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, Dennis E. [Applied Research Associates, Southwest Division, 4300 San Mateo Blvd NE, A-220, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110-129 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  1. Structure, Mechanics and Synthesis of Nanoscale Carbon and Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Steven G.

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I, we examine the properties of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride. We begin with an introduction to the theory of elastic sheets, where the stretching and bending modes are considered in detail. The coupling between stretching and bending modes is thought to play a crucial role in the thermodynamic stability of atomically-thin 2D sheets such as graphene. In Chapter 2, we begin by looking at the fabrication of suspended, atomically thin sheets of graphene. We then study their mechanical resonances which are read via an optical transduction technique. The frequency of the resonators was found to depend on their temperature, as was their quality factor. We conclude by offering some interpretations of the data in terms of the stretching and bending modes of graphene. In Chapter 3, we look briefly at the fabrication of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. We examine the structure of the sheets using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). We then show a technique by which one can make sheets suspended over a trench with adjustable supports. Finally, DC measurements of the resistivity of the sheets in the temperature range 600 -- 1400 C are presented. In Chapter 4, we study the folding of few-layer graphene oxide, graphene and boron nitride into 3D aerogel monoliths. The properties of graphene oxide are first considered, after which the structure of graphene and boron nitride aerogels is examined using TEM and SEM. Some models for their structure are proposed. In Part II, we look at synthesis techniques for boron nitride (BN). In Chapter 5, we study the conversion of carbon structures of boron nitride via the application of carbothermal reduction of boron oxide followed by nitridation. We apply the conversion to a wide variety of morphologies, including aerogels, carbon fibers and nanotubes, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the latter chapters, we look at the

  2. Process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride comprising the steps of: [A] preparing an intimate mixture of powdered boron oxide, a powdered metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium or aluminum, and a powdered metal azide; [B] igniting the mixture and bringing it to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs; [C] shocking the mixture at the end of the combustion thereof with a high pressure wave, thereby forming as a reaction product, wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride and occluded metal oxide; and, optionally [D] removing the occluded metal oxide from the reaction product. Also disclosed are reaction products made by the process described

  3. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated.

  5. Tuning field emission properties of boron nanocones with catalyst concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystalline boron nanocones are prepared by using a simple spin spread method in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles are pre-manipulated on Si(111) to form catalyst patterns of different densities. The density of boron nanocones can be tuned by changing the concentration of catalyst nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the boron nanocone has a β-tetragonal structure with good crystallization. The field emission behaviour is optimal when the spacing distance is close to the nanocone length, which indicates that this simple spin spread method has great potential applications in electron emission nanodevices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Analyses of beyond design basis accident homogeneous boron dilution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous boron dilution scenarios in a VVER-440 reactor were analyzed using the coupled KIKO3D-ATHLET code. The scenarios are named ''homogeneous'' because of the very slow dilution caused by a rupture in the heat exchanger of the makeup system. Without the presented analyses, a significant contribution of the homogeneous boron dilution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) had to be assumed in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA). According to the combined results of the presented deterministic and probabilistic analyses, the final conclusion is that boron dilution transients don't give significant contribution to the CDF for the investigated VVER-440 NPP.

  7. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as ceramic precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Das; S Ghatak

    2012-02-01

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  8. In vitro determination of toxicity, binding, retention, subcellular distribution and biological efficacy of the boron neutron capture agent DAC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), 10B is delivered selectively to the tumour cells and the nuclide then forms high-LET radiation (4He2+ and 7Li3+) upon neutron capture. Today much research is focused on development of a variety of boron compounds aimed for BNCT. The compounds must be thoroughly analysed in preclinical tests regarding basic characteristics such as binding and subcellular distribution to enable accurate estimations of dose-modifying factors. DAC-1, 2-[2-(3-amino-propyl)-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran(12)-1-yl-methoxyl]-1,3 -propanediol was synthesized at our laboratories and the human colon carcinoma cells LS-174T were used as an in vitro model. The boron compound showed a remarkable intracellular accumulation, 20-100 times higher than the boron content in the culture medium, in cultured cells and was not removed by extensive washes. Approximately half of the boron taken up also remained within the cells for at least 4 days. The DAC-1 compound alone was not toxic at boron concentrations below 2.5 μg B/g. The intracellular distribution of the boron compound was investigated by subcellular fractionation experiments and low pH treatments. It is possible that DAC-1 binds to some intracellular molecules or to membranes connected with organelles in the cytoplasm or even to the inside of the outer cell membrane. Another possibility is that the compound, due to the somewhat lipophilic properties, is embedded in the membranes. Thermal neutron irradiations were carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). At a survival level of 0.1, DAC-1 + thermal neutrons were about 10.5 times more effective in cell inactivation than the thermal neutrons alone. Monte Carlo calculations gave a mean value of the 10B-dependent specific energy, the dose, of 0.22 Gy. The total physical dose during irradiation of DAC-1-containing cells with a neutron fluence of 0.18 x 1012 n/cm2 was 0.39 Gy. The dose-modifying factor, at survival level 0.1, when comparing

  9. In vitro determination of toxicity, binding, retention, subcellular distribution and biological efficacy of the boron neutron capture agent DAC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, N; Olsson, P; Hartman, T; Coderre, J; Makar, M; Malmquist, J; Sjöberg, S; Pettersson, J; Carlsson, J; Glimelius, B

    1996-01-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), 10B is delivered selectively to the tumour cells and the nuclide then forms high-LET radiation (4He2+ and 7Li3+) upon neutron capture. Today much research is focused on development of a variety of boron compounds aimed for BNCT. The compounds must be thoroughly analysed in preclinical tests regarding basic characteristics such as binding and subcellular distribution to enable accurate estimations of dose-modifying factors. DAC-1,2-[2-(3-amino-propyl)-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran (12)-1-yl-methoxy]- 1,3-propanediol was synthesized at our laboratories and the human colon carcinoma cells LS-174T were used as an in vitro model. The boron compound showed a remarkable intracellular accumulation, 20-100 times higher than the boron content in the culture medium, in cultured cells and was not removed by extensive washes. Approximately half of the boron taken up also remained within the cells for at least 4 days. The DAC-1 compound alone was not toxic at boron concentrations below 2.5 micrograms B/g. The intracellular distribution of the boron compound was investigated by subcellular fractionation experiments and low pH treatments. It is possible that DAC-1 binds to some intracellular molecules or to membranes connected with organelles in the cytoplasm or even to the inside of the outer cell membrane. Another possibility is that the compound, due to the somewhat lipophilic properties, is embedded in the membranes. Thermal neutron irradiations were carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). At a survival level of 0.1, DAC-1 + thermal neutrons were about 10.5 times more effective in cell inactivation than the thermal neutrons alone. Monte Carlo calculations gave a mean value of the 10B-dependent specific energy, the dose, of 0.22 Gy. The total physical dose during irradiation of DAC-1-containing cells with a neutron fluence of 0.18 x 10(12) n/cm2 was 0.39 Gy. The dose-modifying factor, at survival level 0.1, when

  10. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Determination of Boron Trifluoride in Boron Trifluoride Complex by Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎五可; 张卫江; 唐银; 徐姣; 张雷

    2016-01-01

    A method was proposed to determine boron trifluoride in boron trifluoride complex using fluoride ion selective electrode(ISE). Hydroxide was chosen to mask aluminum for the determination of 0.01—0.1 mol/L of fluoride. The simulation indicated that the permissible aluminum masked at a certain pH value was limited and hardly related to F-concentration and boric acid. It is better to control pH value below 11.5 and the aluminum con-centration within 0.025 mol/L to minimize the interference of hydroxide to the fluoride ISE. The decomposition conditions of boron trifluoride by aluminum chloride were investigated. It is found that the F-detection ratio will approach 1.0 if the Al/F molar ratio is 0.3—0.7 and aluminum concentration is no more than 0.02 mol/L when heated at 80℃ for 10 min. In one word, hydroxide is quite fit to mask aluminum for samples which contain high content of fluoride and aluminum and the BF3 content can be successfully determined by this method.

  12. The optical properties of boron carbide near boron K-edge inside periodical multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer mirrors made for the use in the wavelength range near K-edge of boron (188 eV) are of great interest for X-ray fluorescence analysis of boron content in doped semiconductors, plasma diagnostics, astronomy and lithography. Moreover, multilayer mirrors composed by a metal and a low Z element like boron are used as optical elements in both the soft x-ray spectral range as well as at higher photon energies on 3rd generation synchrotron beamlines. Using an energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method we reconstructed the optical data from energy dependence of both integrated peak intensity and FWHM of the 1st order ML Bragg peak measured at the UHV triple axis soft-x-ray reflectometer at BESSY II. The experiments clearly demonstrate that the peak shape of the ML Bragg peak is most sensitive to any kind of electronic excitation and recombination in solid. The soft-ray reflectivity can give detailed information for MLs with thickness up to several tens of nanometers. In addition, measurements close to a resonance edge probe the chemical state of the respective constituent accompanied with a high sensitivity of changes close to the sample surface.

  13. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm2, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x106x[OH]0.11x[CD]0.62x[IBC]-0.57x[DSE]-0.04x[T] -2.98x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  14. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm{sup 2}, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10{sup 6}x[OH]{sup 0.11}x[CD]{sup 0.62}x[IBC]{sup -0.57}x[DSE]{sup -0.}= {sup 04}x[T]{sup -2.98}x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  15. Optical absorption of boron nitride nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption spectra have been measured for hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), rhombohedral BN(rh-BN), and material obtained by laser vaporization of BN target under a nitrogen atmosphere and contained single-wall BN-nanotubes. Band gap of the BN materials was found to have a value of 6.0-6.3 eV. The spectra of h -BN and vaporized material exhibited a peak at ∝5.5 eV, moreover, the latter sample showed an absorption band around 4.5 eV. The vaporized material has been fractionated to the BN-platelets and single-wall BN-nanotubes. Absorption peaks, located bellow the bottom of the conductance band, were found to be characteristics of thin BN-platelets and they could be attributed to defects in BN network. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Toan Trong; Bray, Kerem; Ford, Michael J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Artificial atomic systems in solids are widely considered the leading physical system for a variety of quantum technologies, including quantum communications, computing and metrology. To date, however, room-temperature quantum emitters have only been observed in wide-bandgap semiconductors such as diamond and silicon carbide, nanocrystal quantum dots, and most recently in carbon nanotubes. Single-photon emission from two-dimensional materials has been reported, but only at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature, polarized and ultrabright single-photon emission from a colour centre in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride. Density functional theory calculations indicate that vacancy-related defects are a probable source of the emission. Our results demonstrate the unprecedented potential of van der Waals crystals for large-scale nanophotonics and quantum information processing. PMID:26501751

  17. Boronized steels with corundum-baddeleyite coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes preparation and properties of anti-corrosion and anti-abrasive coatings from corundum-baddeleyite ceramics deposited on surface of low-carbon boronized steel S235JRH-1.0038 (EN 10025-1 by plasma spraying method. Adhesive interlayers Fe2B reaches bond strength of up to 20 MPa in the pull-off tests, the ZrO2 - Al2O3 - SiO2 coatings have a value of fracture adhesion of 4 - 6 MPa. Hardness of these ceramic coatings on steel is as high as 1 800 HV100 and its polarization resistance is 1 600 Ω/cm2 to 4 000 Ω/cm2.

  18. Quantum emission from hexagonal boron nitride monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Toan Trong; Bray, Kerem; Ford, Michael J.; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Artificial atomic systems in solids are widely considered the leading physical system for a variety of quantum technologies, including quantum communications, computing and metrology. To date, however, room-temperature quantum emitters have only been observed in wide-bandgap semiconductors such as diamond and silicon carbide, nanocrystal quantum dots, and most recently in carbon nanotubes. Single-photon emission from two-dimensional materials has been reported, but only at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature, polarized and ultrabright single-photon emission from a colour centre in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride. Density functional theory calculations indicate that vacancy-related defects are a probable source of the emission. Our results demonstrate the unprecedented potential of van der Waals crystals for large-scale nanophotonics and quantum information processing.

  19. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, M., E-mail: mihcu@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Pedersen, H., E-mail: henke@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Högberg, H., E-mail: hanho@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Filippov, S., E-mail: stafi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); O' Connel, J., E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A., E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp{sup 2}-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  20. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbin; Wagner, Lucas K; Aluru, Narayana R

    2016-04-28

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems. PMID:27131542

  1. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbin; Wagner, Lucas K.; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-04-01

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems.

  2. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp2-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  3. Pure and doped boron nitride nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Terrones

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available More than ten years ago, it was suggested theoretically that boron nitride (BN nanotubes could be produced. Soon after, various reports on their synthesis appeared and a new area of nanotube science was born. This review aims to cover the latest advances related to the synthesis of BN nanotubes. We show that these tubes can now be produced in larger amounts and, in particular, that the chemistry of BN tubes appears to be very important to the production of reinforced composites with insulating characteristics. From the theoretical standpoint, we also show that (BN-C heteronanotubes could have important implications for nanoelectronics. We believe that BN nanotubes (pure and doped could be used in the fabrication of novel devices in which pure carbon nanotubes do not perform very efficiently.

  4. Boron in Plants: Deficiency and Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. Camacho-Crist6bal; Jesus Rexach; Agustin González-Fontess

    2008-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of higher plants, and B availability in soil and irrigation water is an important determinant of agricultural production. To date, a primordial function of B is undoubtedly its structural role in the cell wall; however, there is increasing evidence for a possible role of B in other processes such as the maintenance of plasma membrane function and several metabolic pathways. In recent years, the knowledge of the molecular basis of B deficiency and toxicity responses in plants has advanced greatly. The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent findings related to these topics, which can contribute to a better understanding of the role of B in plants.

  5. Considerations on boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the radiotherapy technique called Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT. Herein, basic concepts in BNCT are addressed, particularly how BNCT has been used in the attempts of defeating multiform glioblastoma. The history of the BNCT trials in the 50's and 60's, including the previous trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are presented. The Japanese experience in BNCT is discussed. Recently, clinical trials at the MIT and BNL have started, focusing multiform glioblastoma and peripheral and intracranial melanomas. Radiobiological and clinical data from Phase I trials on MIT are discussed. Considerations in how BNCT can be developed in Brazil are presented. It shows that Cf-252 Brachytherapy coupled with NCT may be a non-expensive, alternative way of addressing BNCT. (author)

  6. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  7. Anesthetic management of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General anesthesia was given to twenty-seven patients who received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under craniotomy at Kyoto University Research Reactor from 1991 to 1999. Special considerations are required for anesthesia. (author)

  8. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Piezoelectric Boron Nirtride Nanotubes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) exhibit electroactive behavior in response to mechanical deformation, but the origin of this phenomenon is not well understood. Our...

  9. Isotopic compositions of boron in sediments and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Yingkai, X.

    The abundance and isotopic compositions of boron in sediments from the salt lakes of Qaidam Basin, China have been determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of cesium borate. The results show large variations in the isotopic compositions...

  10. Experimental core electron density of cubic boron nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Nanna; Bindzus, Niels; Bjerg, Lasse;

    boron nitride we may obtain a deeper understanding of the effect of bonding on the total density. We report here a thorough investigation of the charge density of cubic boron nitride with a detailed modelling of the inner atom charge density. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction data...... has been obtained. The displacement parameters reported here are significantly lower than those previously reported, stressing the importance of an adequate description of the core density. The charge transfer from boron to nitrogen clearly affects the inner electron density, which is evident from...... theoretical as well as experimental result. The redistribution of electron density will, if not accounted for, result in increased thermal parameters. It is estimated that 1.7-2 electrons is transferred from boron to nitrogen. [1]: N. Bindzus, T. Straasø, N. Wahlberg, J. Becker, L. Bjerg, N. Lock, A...

  11. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  12. Spectrographic determination of traces of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrographic method has been developed to determine quantitatively boron in steels in the 0.5 to 250 ppm concentration range. The samples are dissolved in acids and transformed into oxides, avoiding boron losses by the addition of mannitol. For the fluoride evolution of boron in the dc arc the following compounds have been considered: CuF2, LiF, NaF, and SrF2. CuF2, at a concentration of 10%, provides the highest line-to-background intensity ratio. An arc current of 5 amperes eliminates the interference from iron spectrum on the most sensitive boron line - B 2497.7 A. Variations in chromium and nickel contents have no effect on the analytical results. (author)

  13. Phonon transport in single-layer Boron nanoribbons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the successful synthesis of several allotropes, boron sheets have been one of the hottest spot areas of focus in various fields. Here, we study phonon transport in three types of boron nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges by using a non-equilibrium Green's function combined with first principles methods. Diverse transport properties are found in the nanoribbons. At the room temperature, their highest thermal conductance can be comparable with that of graphene, while the lowest thermal conductance is less than half of graphene's. The three boron sheets exhibit different anisotropic transport characteristics. Two of these sheets have stronger phonon transport abilities along the zigzag edges than the armchair edges, while in the case of the third, the results are reversed. With the analysis of phonon dispersion, bonding charge density, and simplified models of atomic chains, the mechanisms of the diverse phonon properties are discussed. Because all boron allotropes consists of hexagonal and tr...

  14. On surface Raman scattering and luminescence radiation in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Filipov, V; Schwarz, U; Armbrüster, M; Leithe-Jasper, A; Tanaka, T; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-02-01

    The discrepancy between Raman spectra of boron carbide obtained by Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman spectrometry is systematically investigated. While at photon energies below the exciton energy (1.560 eV), Raman scattering of bulk phonons of boron carbide occurs, photon energies exceeding the fundamental absorption edge (2.09 eV) evoke additional patterns, which may essentially be attributed to luminescence or to the excitation of Raman-active processes in the surface region. The reason for this is the very high fundamental absorption in boron carbide inducing a very small penetration depth of the exciting laser radiation. Raman excitations essentially restricted to the boron carbide surface region yield spectra which considerably differ from bulk phonon ones, thus indicating structural modifications. PMID:21386312

  15. Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses. PMID:24052052

  16. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Björkdahl, O.; Sørensen, P. G.; Hansen, T.; Jensen, M. R.; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Bjørnholm, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant...... melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded with...... boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy....

  17. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  18. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  19. Thin boron nitride nanotubes formed during annealing in ammonia gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a mechano-thermal process to synthesis thin boron nitride nanotubes of diameter around 7 nanometers. They were produced by mechanical milling of amorphous boron powder at ambient temperature, followed by thermal annealing in ammonia gas. High energy ball milling creates a precursor containing a high density of nanocrystalline BN seeds and fine particles of metal catalyst. Nanotubes grow out from the milled boron powder during subsequent annealing. The novelty of this approach lies in the formation of the thin BN nanotubes by annealing in ammonia gas instead of nitrogen gas. The boron nitride nanotubes produced have a well-defined crystalline structure and there is no iron within them. If nitrogen gas is used, thicker nanotubes of diameter in the range of 20-100 nm were obtained and iron was more likely to be found inside the nanotubes. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  20. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  1. Precipitation of boron in silicon on high-dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation of boron implanted in silicon with a dose of 1 x 1016 cm-2 is studied in relation to the concentration of substitutional boron CB0 introduced before implantation and before subsequent annealing at 900 deg. C. It is shown that CB0 = 2.5 x 1020 cm-3 is the critical concentration, at which the formation of precipitates is independent of the concentration of point defects introduced by implantation (far from or close to the mean projected range Rp) and constitutes the prevailing channel of deactivation of boron. At lower concentrations CB0 close to the equilibrium concentration, precipitation is observed only far from Rp, in the regions of reduced concentrations of point defects. At the same time, in the region of Rp with a high concentration of point defects, most boron atoms are drawn into clustering with intrinsic interstitial atoms with the formation of dislocation loops and, thus, become electrically inactive as well.

  2. Electrodialysis of boron-containing solutions using homogeneuos ionite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodialysis of boron-containing solutions is studied when preparing potable water from the sea one with the limiting admissible concentration (LAC) of boron 0.5 mg/dm3. It is ascertained that at pH>7 diffusion permeability of anion- and cation-exchange membranes as regards boron reduces both in the absence of external field and at current density 0.3 A/dm3. It is shown that when MK-100 homogeneous cationic membranes and MA-100 homogeneous anionic membranes are used, boron concentration in dialyzate decreases to LAC, if the process is realized in acid and low-acid media and if the depth of freshening increases to 0.2g/l

  3. Boron isotope method for study of seawater intrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 尹德忠; 刘卫国; 王庆忠; 魏海珍

    2001-01-01

    A distinct difference in boron isotopes between seawater and terrestrial water is emphasized by δ11B values reported for seawater and groundwater, with an average of 38.8‰ and in the range of -8.9‰ to 9.8‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in groundwater can be used to quantify seawater intrusion and identify intrusion types, e.g. seawater or brine intrusions with different chemical and isotopic characteristics, by using the relation of δ11B and chloride concentration. The feasibility of utilizing boron isotope in groundwater for studying seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Region, China, is reported in this study, which shows that boron isotope is a useful and excellent tool for the study of seawater intrusion.

  4. Electronic structure of boron-interstitial clusters in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deak, Peter [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Gali, Adam [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Solyom, Andras [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Buruzs, Adam [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Frauenheim, Thomas [University of Paderborn, Theoretical Physics, Paderborn, D-33095 (Germany)

    2005-06-08

    Hybrid functional calculations within density functional theory are carried out to investigate the electronic structure of boron-interstitial clusters (BICs). A one-parameter hybrid functional is chosen is to give accurate results for the whole electronic structure (including the gap) and the elastic properties of crystalline silicon. It is shown that this approach provides dependable defect level positions in the gap. Investigation of the boron+vacancy and boron+self-interstitial centres gives a consistent description of the experimentally observed G10 and G28 centres. The electronic structure of BICs, which may affect the activation rate of boron implantation, are reported. The one-electron level positions of isolated B{sub n}I{sub m} defects are given.

  5. Recent Advances in Boron-Containing Conjugated Porous Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous polymers, integrating the advantages of porous materials and conventional polymers, have been well developed and exhibited tremendous attention in the fields of material, chemistry and biology. Of these, boron-containing conjugated porous polymers, featuring tunable geometric structures, unique Lewis acid boron centers and very rich physical properties, such as high specific surface, chargeable scaffold, strong photoluminescence and intramolecular charge transfer, have emerged as one of the most promising functional materials for optoelectronics, catalysis and sensing, etc. Furthermore, upon thermal treatment, some of them can be effectively converted to boron-doped porous carbon materials with good electrochemical performance in energy storage and conversion, extensively enlarging the applicable scope of such kinds of polymers. In this review, the synthetic approaches, structure analyses and various applications of the boron-containing conjugated porous polymers reported very recently are summarized.

  6. Effect of boron on sintering of a ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the effect of boron on the density of a 409Nb ferritic stainless steel obtained by powder metallurgy during the process of sintering. The purpose of adding boron is to promote the formation of a liquid phase during sintering at temperatures below 120 degree centigrade . The boron contents varied from 0.0 to 1.5%wt. Specimens were compacted at 700MPa, and sintering was made at 1075 and 1150 degree centigrade during 60 minutes under a hydrogen atmosphere, using a heating rate of 20 degree centigrade/min. Density values were determined by the Archimedes method, and the samples were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. This work shows the dependence of the steel density and morphology of the microstructure as a function of boron content and the temperature of sintering. (Author) 29 refs

  7. Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, J., E-mail: will@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spiecker, E. [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-28

    X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900 °C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70 erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ∼13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450 °C.

  8. Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900 °C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70 erg/cm2) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ∼13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450 °C

  9. For boron neutron capture therapy,synthesizing boron-polymer compounds and testing in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to establish a focus point at Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) in the field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy which is a binary radiotherapy method for brain tumours. Moreover in the scope of the project, a new alternative of 10B-carrier compounds will be synthesized, the neutron source will be determined and the infrastructure to start the clinical trials of BNCT in our country will be established. BNCT is a binary radiotherapy method and the successful of this method is depend on the synthesized boron compounds which have the selective targeting property with tumour cells and neutron optimization. The water-soluble polymer based boron compounds having biochemical and physiological properties will be synthesized and cell culture experiment will be done. In addition, after the neutron source is set up in our country, the infrastructure studies will be started in order to start the clinical trials of BNCT. In this project, there are three different groups as boron compounds, neutron physics and medical group. Neutron physics group is starting the calculations of neutron beam parameters using in BNCT application. But, medical group has no active studies yet. Boron compounds group has been carried out two different experimental studies. In the first experimental study, functional groups have been bound to boron containing polymers to enhance the selectively targeting property and characterized by various analysis methods. Later, cell culture experiment will be done. The first study has been carried out with Hacettepe University. Up to present, completed studies are listed as: -Maleic anhydride oligomer was synthesized and then 2-aminoethyl diphenyl borate (2-AEPB) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was bound to this oligomer, respectively. Thus, [MAH]n-g1-2-AEPB-g2-PEG was synthesized. -2-AEPB compound were bound to poly(acrylic acid) polymer at different three mole ratio.Then, the selected Poli(Ac)-g1-2-AEPB polymer was

  10. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors. PMID:20596476

  11. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    CERN Document Server

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.

  12. Manufacturing uniform field silicon drift detector using double boron layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel SDDs with continuous junctions on both sides are fabricated using pure boron (PureB) depositions to create a shallow junction in the entrance window side and a continuous rectifying junction with different potentials as function of the drift coordinate in the device side. The SDDs made in this material offer lower leakage current. In addition, continuous SDD designed with two boron layers with different sheet resistances displays uniform electric field

  13. Cubic boron nitride- a new material for ultracold neutron application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the Fermi potential of cubic boron nitride (cBN) was measured at the ultra cold neutron source at the TRIGA reactor, Mainz using the time of flight method (TOF). The investigated samples have a Fermi potential of about 300 neV. Because of its good dielectric characteristics, cubic boron nitride could be used as suitable coating for insulator in storage chambers of future EDM projects. This talk presents recent results and an outlook on further investigations.

  14. Research of nanocomposite structure of boron nitride at proton radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Borodin, Yuri Viktorovich; Ermolaev, D. S.; Pak, V.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Using roentgen diffraction and electron microscopy, the influence of nanosecond irradiation by ion beams of high energy on forming of self-organized nanoblocks in near surface's layers of boron nitride (BN) has been studied. It was shown that low temperature transitions from hexagonal to wrutz boron nitrides is associated with changes of shape and sizes of self-organized particles consisting the nanoblocks. We have calculated the parameters of nanoblocks using the meanings of interplane dista...

  15. Does boron affect hormone levels of barley cultivars?

    OpenAIRE

    Muavviz Ayvaz; Mesut Koyuncu; Avni Guven; FAGERSTEDT, KURT V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When mineral nutrients are present in excess or in inadequate amounts, their effects can be severe in plants and can be considered as abiotic stress. In this study, we report how hormonal levels in barley cultivars respond to the toxic effect of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Material and methods: Two different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars (Vamik Hoca and Efes 98) were used as a study material. Boron was applied in three different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ppm) ...

  16. Determination of boron in nuclear grade sodium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of boron in nuclear grade sodium metal as rosocyanin and rubrocurcumin complexes is described. Separation of sodium matrix was attempted by vacuum distillation of sodium, methyl borate distillation and ion exchange methods. The ion exchange method was found to be most suitable. Optimum conditions were standardised for the estimation of boron in nuclear grade sodium. In the 200 ppb range an RSD of 5 per cent was obtained. (author). 12 refs

  17. Magnesium and Boron Combustion in Hot Steam Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    V. Rosenband; A. Gany; Timnat, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the combustion of magnesium and boron powders in hot steam. A thermochemical analysis reveals theoretical results of such interactions. An experimental investigation demonstrates that stable exothermic oxidation takes place, resulting in actual combustion at 1100 °c for magnesium and 800 °c for boron. The reaction generates large quantity of gaseous products consisting of almost pure hydrogen and corresponding to about 60 per cent of a complete chemical reaction

  18. Magnesium and Boron Combustion in Hot Steam Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rosenband

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion of magnesium and boron powders in hot steam. A thermochemical analysis reveals theoretical results of such interactions. An experimental investigation demonstrates that stable exothermic oxidation takes place, resulting in actual combustion at 1100 °c for magnesium and 800 °c for boron. The reaction generates large quantity of gaseous products consisting of almost pure hydrogen and corresponding to about 60 per cent of a complete chemical reaction

  19. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Swastik Mondal; Elena Bykova; Somnath Dey; Sk. Imran Ali; Natalia Dubrovinskaia; Leonid Dubrovinsky; Gleb Parakhonskiy; Sander van Smaalen

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichio...

  20. Vertical transport in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure devices

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Bruzzone; Demetrio Logoteta; Gianluca Fiori; Giuseppe Iannaccone

    2015-01-01

    Research in graphene-based electronics is recently focusing on devices based on vertical heterostructures of two-dimensional materials. Here we use density functional theory and multiscale simulations to investigate the tunneling properties of single- and double-barrier structures with graphene and few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) or hexagonal boron carbon nitride (h-BC2N). We find that tunneling through a single barrier exhibit a weak dependence on energy. We also show that in double...

  1. Boron-oxygen polyanion in the crystal structure of tunellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.R.

    1963-01-01

    The crystal structure of tunellite, SrO??3B2O 3??4H2O, with infinite sheets of composition n[B6O9(OH)2]2-, has cations and water molecules in the spaces within the sheets. Adjacent sheets are held together by hydrogen bonding through the water molecules. The boron-oxygen polyanions provide the first example in hydrated borate crystals of one oxygen linked to three borons.

  2. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, W G

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the terrestrial distribution of boron in rocks, soil, and water, the history of the discovery, early utilization, and geologic origin of borate minerals is summarized. Modern uses of borate-mineral concentrates, borax, boric acid, and other refined products include glass, fiberglass, washing products, alloys and metals, fertilizers, wood treatments, insecticides, and microbiocides. The chemistry of boron is reviewed from the point of view of its possible health e...

  4. Aromatic character of planar boron-based clusters revisited by ring current calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Tan; Lim, Kie Zen; Havenith, Remco W A; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-04-28

    The planarity of small boron-based clusters is the result of an interplay between geometry, electron delocalization, covalent bonding and stability. These compounds contain two different bonding patterns involving both σ and π delocalized bonds, and up to now, their aromaticity has been assigned mainly using the classical (4N + 2) electron count for both types of electrons. In the present study, we reexplored the aromatic feature of different types of planar boron-based clusters making use of the ring current approach. B3(+/-), B4(2-), B5(+/-), B6, B7(-), B8(2-), B9(-), B10(2-), B11(-), B12, B13(+), B14(2-) and B16(2-) are characterized by magnetic responses to be doubly σ and π aromatic species in which the π aromaticity can be predicted using the (4N + 2) electron count. The triply aromatic character of B12 and B13(+) is confirmed. The π electrons of B18(2-), B19(-) and B20(2-) obey the disk aromaticity rule with an electronic configuration of [1σ(2)1π(4)1δ(4)2σ(2)] rather than the (4N + 2) count. The double aromaticity feature is observed for boron hydride cycles including B@B5H5(+), Li7B5H5 and M@BnHn(q) clusters from both the (4N + 2) rule and ring current maps. The double π and σ aromaticity in carbon-boron planar cycles B7C(-), B8C, B6C2, B9C(-), B8C2 and B7C3(-) is in conflict with the Hückel electron count. This is also the case for the ions B11C5(+/-) whose ring current indicators suggest that they belong to the class of double aromaticity, in which the π electrons obey the disk aromaticity characteristics. In many clusters, the classical electron count cannot be applied, and the magnetic responses of the electron density expressed in terms of the ring current provide us with a more consistent criterion for determining their aromatic character. PMID:26956732

  5. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp2 hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.

  6. Spontaneous Boron-doping of Graphene at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lida; Que, Yande; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-03-01

    Doping graphene with boron or nitrogen is an effective way to modify its electronic properties. However, the reaction barrier for introducing these impurities is quite high, making the doping process difficult. In this work, we propose a low-energy reaction route derived from first-principles calculations and subsequently validated by experiments. The calculations show that, when graphene is placed on a ruthenium substrate and exposed to atomic boron, boron atoms can incorporate substitutionally into the graphene sheet with an energy barrier about 0.1 eV, displacing carbon atoms below the graphene sheet where they migrates away. This result suggests that spontaneous doping by boron can take place at room temperature. Following the prediction, we grew high-quality graphene on the Ru(0001) surface and then expose it to B2H6 which decomposes into atomic boron. XPS and STM results indicate that boron dopes graphene substantially without disturbing the graphene lattice, confirming the theoretical predictions. Doping by nitrogen and co-doping by B and N will also be discussed.

  7. Structural Modification in Carbon Nanotubes by Boron Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handuja Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have synthesized boron-incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNTs by decomposition of ferrocene and xylene in a thermal chemical vapor deposition set up using boric acid as the boron source. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies of the synthesized CNT samples showed that there was deterioration in crystallinity and improvement in alignment of the CNTs as the boron content in precursor solution increased from 0% to 15%. Raman analysis of these samples showed a shift of ~7 cm−1in wave number to higher side and broadening of the G band with increasing boron concentration along with an increase in intensity of the G band. Furthermore, there was an increase in the intensity of the D band along with a decrease in its wave number position with increase in boron content. We speculate that these structural modifications in the morphology and microstructure of CNTs might be due to the charge transfer from boron to the graphite matrix, resulting in shortening of the carbon–carbon bonds.

  8. High order boron transport scheme in TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In boiling water reactors (BWR), unlike pressurized water reactors (PWR) in which the reactivity control is accomplished through movement of the control rods and boron dilution, the importance of boron transport lies in maintaining the core integrity during ATWS-kind severe accidents in which under certain circumstances a boron injection is required. This is the reason for implementing boron transport models thermal-hydraulic codes as TRAC-BF1, RELAP5 and TRACE, bringing an improvement in the accuracy of the simulations. TRAC-BF1 code provides a best estimate analysis capability for the analysis of the full range of postulated accidents in boiling water reactors systems and related facilities. The boron transport model implemented in TRAC-BF1 code is based on a calculation according to a first order accurate upwind difference scheme. There is a need in reviewing and improving this model. Four numerical schemes that solve the boron transport model have been analyzed and compared with the analytical solution that provides the Burgers equation. The studied numerical schemes are: first order Upwind, second order Godunov, second-order modified Godunov adding physical diffusion term and a third-order QUICKEST using the ULTIMATE universal limiter (UL). The modified Godunov scheme has been implemented in TRAC-BF1 source code. The results using these new schemes are presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Adsorption of boron on a Mo(110) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T; Turiev, Anatolij M; Tsidaeva, Natal' ja I; Panteleev, Dmitrij G [Department of Physics, University of North Ossetia, Kesaev 121-83, Vladikavkaz 362020 (Russian Federation); Vladimirov, Georgij G; Rump, Gennadij A [Department of Physics, University of Saint Petersburg, Uljanovskaya 1-1, Saint Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: t_magkoev@mail.ru

    2008-12-03

    Adsorption of boron atoms in submonolayer to multilayer coverage on atomically clean Mo(110) surfaces has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and work function measurements. According to Auger results there is a layer-by-layer growth mode of the film on the substrate held at room temperature. In the submonolayer region the work function gradually increases with boron coverage until a saturation value of 5.8 eV is achieved after completion of the first monoatomic layer. The B-Mo(110) adsorbate system formed on the substrate at room temperature is not stable, dominated by a strong tendency of the boron atoms to diffuse into the bulk of the crystal. The latter is manifested by dramatic Mo(110) surface plasmon mode transformation upon boron adsorption, presumably as a result of penetration of boron atoms into the topmost substrate layer even at T = 300 K. Slight annealing up to 450 K facilitates this trend, leading to total dissolution of deposited boron atoms in the bulk of the crystal under further annealing, restoring the initial state of the Mo(110) surface after achieving a temperature of approximately 2000 K.

  10. Adsorption of boron on a Mo(110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Turiev, Anatolij M.; Tsidaeva, Natal'ja I.; Panteleev, Dmitrij G.; Vladimirov, Georgij G.; Rump, Gennadij A.

    2008-12-01

    Adsorption of boron atoms in submonolayer to multilayer coverage on atomically clean Mo(110) surfaces has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and work function measurements. According to Auger results there is a layer-by-layer growth mode of the film on the substrate held at room temperature. In the submonolayer region the work function gradually increases with boron coverage until a saturation value of 5.8 eV is achieved after completion of the first monoatomic layer. The B-Mo(110) adsorbate system formed on the substrate at room temperature is not stable, dominated by a strong tendency of the boron atoms to diffuse into the bulk of the crystal. The latter is manifested by dramatic Mo(110) surface plasmon mode transformation upon boron adsorption, presumably as a result of penetration of boron atoms into the topmost substrate layer even at T = 300 K. Slight annealing up to 450 K facilitates this trend, leading to total dissolution of deposited boron atoms in the bulk of the crystal under further annealing, restoring the initial state of the Mo(110) surface after achieving a temperature of approximately 2000 K.

  11. Mass spectral investigations of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising technique for the treatment of selected types of brain tumor and potentially for other tumor types. In this therapy, a 10B-enriched species is administered to the bloodstream and selectively deposited in the tumor. The selective deposition in the tumor is due to either the breakdown of the blood-grain barrier or to the chemical nature of the boron-containing compounds. Once a sufficient concentration of boron is attained in the tumor (approximately 25 ppm), the tumor is irradiated with a controlled energy neutron beam (preferable epithermal, 1 eV to 10 keV), at which time neutrons are captured by the incorporated boron atoms. The capture results in the reaction, 10B(n, ) Li, which produces a localized nuclear reaction capable of destroying the tumor cell containing the boron. A variety of boron containing compounds have been evaluated for use in BNCT. This paper addresses some of the most promising of the compounds, the disodium salt of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (Na2B12H11SH), commonly referred to as BSH

  12. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  13. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp(2) hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future. PMID:27219700

  14. Conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides: Softening bipolaron hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselage, T. L.; Emin, D.; McCready, S. S.

    2001-08-01

    The electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides B12+xC3-x with 0.06function of the composition x. This strong sensitivity to composition indicates that percolation effects, arising from boron carbides having carbon atoms in inequivalent locations, influence the conductivity at low temperature. With x holes per unit cell, boron carbides have very large Seebeck coefficients that depend only weakly on x. The magnitudes and temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficients are consistent with large contributions from carrier-induced softening of local vibrations. Softening effects can be exceptionally large when singlet bipolarons are stabilized among degenerate electronic energy levels by their softening of symmetry-breaking vibrations: ``softening bipolarons.'' The boron carbide transport properties are generally consistent with those expected of softening bipolarons. Finally, two high-temperature effects are observed in the boron carbide conductivities. The conductivities of samples having high carrier densities, x~1, are suppressed above 700 K. This suppression can arise when the rapid hopping of nearby carriers disrupts the energy coincidence required for a carrier's hop. At even higher temperatures, a sharp increase in the boron carbide conductivities (σ~T4) suggests a radiation-induced excitation of mobile charge carriers.

  15. Lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of boron carbide; Proprietes vibrationnelles du bore {alpha} et du carbure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vast, N

    1999-07-01

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of B{sub 4}C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In {alpha} boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B{sub 4}C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  16. The vapour phase deposition of boron on titanium by the reaction between gaseous boron trichloride and titanium metal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction, between boron trichloride vapour and titanium has been investigated in the temperature range 200 - 1350 deg. C. It has been found that an initial reaction leads to the formation of titanium tetrachloride and the deposition of boron on titanium, but that except for reactions between 900 and 1000 deg. C, the system is complicated by the formation of lower titanium chlorides due to secondary reactions between the titanium and titanium tetrachloride

  17. Determination of boron concentration in borosilicate glass, boron carbide and graphite samples by conventional wet-chemical and nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is an important element in nuclear technology. A comparative study was carried out for the determination of boron in borosilicate glass, boron carbide and graphite samples by wet-chemical and nuclear analytical methods. Wet chemical methods namely titrimetry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry and nuclear analytical methods namely Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission and Nuclear Reaction Analysis were used. Boron concentrations were in trace (mg kg-1) level in graphite and percentage level in borosilicate glass and boron carbide. (author)

  18. Design of a medical reactor generating high quality neutron beams for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that can selectively irradiate tumor tissue. BNCT uses drugs containing a stable isotope of boron, B-10, that are capable of preferentially accumulating in the tumor, which is then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The interaction of the B-10 with a thermal neutron causes the B-10 nucleus to split, releasing an alpha particle and a lithium nucleus. These products of the boron neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells but have a path length in tissue of approximately 14 micrometers, or roughly the diameter of one or two cells. Thus, most of the ionizing energy imparted to tissue is localized to B-10-loaded cells. Since the early 1980s, there have been considerable improvements in boron compounds and neutron beams. More is known now about the radiation biology of BNCT, which has reemerged as a potentially useful method for preferential irradiation of tumors. Clinical trials have been initiated at BNL and MIT, with an improved boron compound and epithermal neutrons. At this time, nuclear reactors are the only demonstrated satisfactory sources of epithermal neutrons. While some reactors are available and within reach of cancer treatment centers, a question arises as to the feasibility and practicality of placing new epithermal neutron sources in hospitals. In this thesis, we design a square reactor (that can easily be reconfigured into polygonal reactors as the need arises) with four slab type assemblies to produce two epithermal neutron beams and two thermal neutron beams for use in neutron capture therapy. This square reactor with four large-area faces consists of 1056 U3Si-Al fuel elements and 36 B4C control rods. The proposed facility, based on this square reactor core with a maximum operating power of 300kW, provides an epithermal neutron beam of 3.2x109 nepi/cm2 · s intensity with low contamination by fast neutrons (<1.6x10-13 Gy · cm2/nepi) and gamma rays (<1.0x10-13 Gy · cm2/nepi

  19. Use of scaled BWR lower plenum boron mixing tests to qualify the boron transport model used in TRACG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001 GEH applied best estimate methods combined with a statistical methodology to determine upper bound limits for key licensing parameters for anticipated operation occurrence (AOO) transient and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) overpressure analyses for operating Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). The methodology was subsequently extended for ESBWR AOO, ATWS, loss of coolant, and stability analyses. GEH is extending the methodology to long-term ATWS analyses for the operating BWRs. A long-term ATWS scenario uses injection of borated water to achieve reactor shutdown. Predicting the mixing and transport of boron is important for calculating the impact on the key licensing parameters. For the many operating BWRs where the denser boron solution is injected into the lower plenum, stratification may occur, delaying boron transport to the core region. CFD modeling can be used to model the stratification and mixing of the boron solution, but such calculations are extremely computer intensive and not cost effective; therefore, a more-empirical approach supported by a theoretical scaling of the dominant phenomena and backed by test data and benchmark calculations is used. The paper presents the TRACG lower plenum boron transport model qualification effort. The scaling basis used to implement the TRACG boron transport model for BWR applications is discussed. (authors)

  20. Stability and electronic structure of iron nanoparticle anchored on defective hexagonal boron nitrogen nanosheet: A first-principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe13 nanoparticle strongly interacts with the monovacancy of h-BN nanosheet. • Significant charges are transferred from Fe13 to the defective h-BN nanosheet. • The upshift of d-band center makes the surface Fe atoms of supported Fe13 with higher reactivity. - Abstract: By first-principle methods, we investigate the stability and electronic structures of Fe13 nanoparticles anchored on hexagonal boron nitrogen nanosheets (h-BNNSs) with monovacancy defect sites. It is found that the defect sites such as boron and nitrogen vacancy significantly increase the adsorption energies of Fe13, suggesting that the supported Fe13 nanoparticles should be very stable against sintering at high temperatures. From the calculated density of states, we testify that the strong interaction is attributed to the coupling between the 3d orbitals of Fe atoms with the sp2 dangling bonds at the defect sites. The Bader charge and differential charge density analyses reveal that there is significant charge redistribution at the interface between Fe13 and the substrates, leading to positive charges located on most of the Fe atoms. Additionally, our results show that the strong binding of the nanoparticle results in the upshift of d-band center of Fe13 toward the Fermi level, thus making the surface Fe atoms with higher reactivity. This work gives a detailed understanding the interaction between Fe13 nanoparticle and defective h-BNNS and will provide helpful instructions in the design and synthesis of supported Fe-based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis