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Sample records for borocaptate sodium bsh

  1. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  2. Biodistribution of sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Nievas, Susana; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of ¹⁰B carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We previously proved the therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by the boron compounds boronophenylalanine and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Based on the clinical relevance of the boron carrier sodium borocaptate (BSH) and the knowledge that the most effective way to optimize BNCT is to improve tumor boron targeting, the specific aim of this study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and evaluate the feasibility of BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3. The general aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology and optimize BNCT for head and neck cancer. Sodium borocaptate (50 mg ¹⁰B/kg) was administered to tumor-bearing hamsters. Groups of 3-5 animals were killed humanely at nine time-points, 3-12 h post-administration. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous pouch tissue, normal pouch tissue and other clinically relevant normal tissues were processed for boron measurement by optic emission spectroscopy. Tumor boron concentration peaked to therapeutically useful boron concentration values of 24-35 ppm. The boron concentration ratio tumor/normal pouch tissue ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Pharmacokinetic curves showed that the optimum interval between BSH administration and neutron irradiation was 7-11 h. It is concluded that BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3 would be feasible.

  3. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. Methods We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH, and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. Results CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5 were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p . In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as

  4. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  5. IS30-related transposon mediated insertional inactivation of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, Sunita; Kaushik, Jai K; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of niches, and its genome may express up to four bsh genes to maximize its survival in the mammalian gut. However, the ecological significance of multiple bsh genes in L. plantarum is still not clearly understood. Hence, this study demonstrated the disruption of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene due to the insertion of a transposable element in L. plantarum Lp20 - a wild strain of human fecal origin. Surprisingly, L. plantarum strain Lp20 produced a ∼2.0 kb bsh1 amplicon against the normal size (∼1.0 kb) bsh1 amplicon of Bsh(+)L. plantarum Lp21. Strain Lp20 exhibited minimal Bsh activity in spite of having intact bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 genes in its genome and hence had a Bsh(-) phenotype. Cloning and sequence characterization of Lp20 bsh1 gene predicted four individual open reading frames (ORFs) within this region. BLAST analysis of ORF1 and ORF2 revealed significant sequence similarity to the L. plantarum bsh1 gene while ORF3 and ORF4 showed high sequence homology to IS30-family transposases. Since, IS30-related transposon element was inserted within Lp20 bsh1 gene in reverse orientation (3'-5'), it introduced several stop codons and disrupted the protein reading frames of both Bsh1 and transposase. Inverted terminal repeats (GGCAGATTG) of transposon, mediated its insertion at 255-263 nt and 1301-1309 nt positions of Lp20 bsh1 gene. In conclusion, insertion of IS30 related-transposon within the bsh1 gene sequence of L. plantarum strain Lp20 demolished the integrity and functionality of Bsh1 enzyme. Additionally, this transposon DNA sequence remains active among various Lactobacillus spp. and hence harbors the potential to be explored in the development of efficient insertion mutagenesis system.

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) from Lactobacillus fermentum NCDO394.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Varikuti, Sudarshan Reddy; Athimamula, Ramakrishna; Shujauddin, Mohd; Ramagoni, Ramesh; Kondapalli, Narendrababu

    2013-08-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) active probiotic strains hydrolyze bile acid amino conjugates in vivo, which triggers cholesterol consumption in liver to synthesize new bile leading to consequential cholesterol lowering. Hence, bile salt hydrolyzing potential was the criterion to select L. fermentum NCDO394 for this study and its gene encoding Bsh was identified and cloned. The resulting nucleotide sequence of bsh gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 978 nucleotides encoding a predicted protein of 325 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 6.39. Moreover, deduced Bsh protein had high similarity with the Bshs of L. fermentum only and also exhibited significant similarity to the Pencillin V amidases of other Lactobacillus spp. Five catalytically important amino acids were highly conserved in L. fermentum Bsh while four amino acid motifs around these active sites, were not as consistent as in other Bsh proteins. Furthermore, L. fermentum bsh gene was sub-cloned into pET-28b(+) vector, and its expression was induced with 0.05 mM isopropylthiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant Bsh (rBsh) was purified with homogeneity using Ni+2-NTA column and characterized for substrate specificity, pH and temperature. The rBsh hydrolyzed six major human bile salts with a slight preference towards glycine-conjugated bile salts. The optimum pH of rBsh was six, and its enzymatic activity declined below pH 5 and above pH 7. The enzyme was stable and functional even at 65 °C while showed its maximum activity at 37 °C. In conclusion, L. fermentum NCDO394 may be a promising candidate probiotic which may affect cholesterol metabolism in vivo.

  7. 76 FR 17639 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    .... Geological Survey located at http://water.usgs.gov/owq/hardness-alkalinity.html ). Calculations Water Use... frequency is related to the level of water hardness. BSH included test results and calculations showing... granted by DOE. (75 FR 62127, Oct. 7, 2010). BSH states that the water used in the regeneration process...

  8. Disposition of TF-PEG-Liposome-BSH in tumor-bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College (Japan)], E-mail: ora059@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Kimura, Y.; Shimahara, T.; Ariyoshi, Y.; Shimahara, M. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College (Japan); Miyatake, S.; Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical College (Japan); Kasaoka, S. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima-International University (Japan); Ono, K. [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    BNCT requires high concentration and selective delivery of {sup 10}B to the tumor cell. To improve the drug delivery in BNCT, we conducted a study by devising TPLB. We administrated three types of boron delivery systems: BSH, PLB and TPLB, to Oral SCC bearing mice. Results confirmed that {sup 10}B concentration is higher in the TPLB group than in the BSH group and that TPLB is significantly effective as boron delivery system.

  9. Treatment protocol development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  10. 77 FR 33450 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... at http://water.usgs.gov/owq/hardness-alkalinity.html ). Calculations Water Use Based on the DOE... February 4th petition on June 29, 2011 (76 FR 38144). DOE granted an interim waiver to BSH for the model... (77 FR 19650). BSH states that ``hard'' water can reduce customer satisfaction with...

  11. 78 FR 17925 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to BSH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... introduction of a new model number, the instant petition is identical to petitions submitted by BSH on February... softeners for compliance, marketing, or other purposes only to the extent that such products have...

  12. Investigation of Microencapsulated BSH Active Lactobacillus in the Simulated Human GI Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase (BSH overproducing Lactobacillus plantarum 80 cells for oral delivery applications using a dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the human gastrointestinal (GI tract. Bile salt deconjugation rates for microencapsulated BSH overproducing cells were 4.87 ± 0.28 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards glycoconjugates and 0.79 ± 0.15 μmol/g microcapsule/h towards tauroconjugates in the simulated intestine, a significant (P< .05 increase over microencapsulated wild-type cells. Microcapsules protected the encased cells in the simulated stomach prior to intestinal release, maintaining cell viability above 109 cfu/mL at pH 2.5 and 3.0 and above 106 cfu/mL at pH 2.0 after 2-hour residence times. In the simulated intestine, encased cell viability was maintained above 1010 cfu/mL after 3, 6, and 12-hour residence times in bile concentrations up to 1.0%. Results show that microencapsulation has potential in the oral delivery of live BSH active bacterial cells. However, in vivo testing is required.

  13. 77 FR 19650 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...://water.usgs.gov/owq/hardness-alkalinity.html ). Calculations Water Use Based on the DOE Energy Test for... one submitted by BSH on February 4, 2011. The February 4 petition was granted on June 29, 2011 (76 FR... regeneration operation takes place infrequently, and the frequency is related to the level of water...

  14. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  15. Complexion of Boric Acid with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (DG) as a novel boron carrier for BNCT

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer; Demiroglu, Hasan; Avcibasi, Ugur; Oto, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Hulya; Deniz, Sabahattin; Basak, Ali Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an intensive research area for cancer researchers. Especially the side effects and inabilities of conventional therapies in some cases, directs researchers to find out a new cancer therapy methods such as BNCT. One of three important problem of BNCT is targeting of boron to tumor tissue. Borono Phenyl Alanine (BPA) and Borono Sodium Borocaptate (BSH) are already using in clinical studies as boron carriers. New boron carriers are searching fo...

  16. Catalytic Interactions and Molecular Docking of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) from L. plantarum RYPR1 and Its Prebiotic Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Singh, Puneet K.; Puniya, Anil K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are the non-digestible carbohydrate, which passes through the small intestine into unmetabolized form, reaches the large intestine and undergoes fermentation by the colonic bacteria thus; prebiotics stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Further, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is an enzyme that catalyses the deconjugation of bile salt, so it has enormous potential toward utilizing such capability of Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 toward detoxifying through BSH enzyme activity. In the present study, six isolates of Lactobacillus were evaluated for the co-aggregation assay and the isolate Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was further selected for studies of prebiotic utilization, catalytic interactions and molecular docking. The prebiotic utilization ability was assessed by using commercially available prebiotics lactulose, inulin, xylitol, raffinose, and oligofructose P95. The results obtained revealed that RYPR1 is able to utilize these probiotics, maximum with lactulose by showing an increase in viable cell count (7.33 ± 0.02 to 8.18 ± 0.08). In addition, the molecular docking of BSH from Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 was performed which revealed the binding energy –4.42 and 7.03 KJ/mol. This proves a considerably good interactions among BSH and its substrates like Taurocholic acid (–4.42 KJ/mol) and Glycocholic acid (–7.03 KJ/mol). These results from this study establishes that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 possesses good probiotic effects so it could be used for such applications. Further, molecular dynamics simulations were used to analyze the dynamic stability of the of modeled protein to stabilize it for further protein ligand docking and it was observed that residues Asn12, Ile8, and Leu6 were interacting among BSH and its substrates, i.e., Taurocholic acid and Lys88 and Asp126 were interacting with Glycocholic acid. These residues were interacting when the docking was carried out with stabilized BSH protein structure, thus, these residues may

  17. Historical bottle temperature and salinity data collected globally by multiple platforms from 1868 to 1959, submitted by the German Data Center (BSH) (NODC Accession 0071062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical bottle temperature and salinity data from the German data center, Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) in Hamburg. The data contain...

  18. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  19. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. Learn more and ... sodium with these printable and sharable infographics. The Salty Six – Common Foods that Add the Most Sodium ...

  20. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  2. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  3. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  4. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  5. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  6. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  7. Sodium - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  8. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  9. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  12. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  13. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  14. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  15. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  16. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  17. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  18. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  1. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  3. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  4. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  5. [Sodium and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  6. Bystander effect-induced mutagenicity in HPRT locus of CHO cells following BNCT neutron irradiation: Characteristics of point mutations by sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinashi, Yuko [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: kinashi@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    To investigate bystander mutagenic effects induced by alpha particles during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), we mixed cells that were electroporated with borocaptate sodium (BSH), which led to the accumulation of {sup 10}B inside the cells, with cells that did not contain the boron compound. BSH-containing cells were irradiated with {alpha} particles produced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, whereas cells without boron were only affected by the {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H and {sup 14}N(n,{rho}){sup 14}C reactions. The frequency of mutations induced in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus was examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells irradiated with neutrons (Kyoto University Research Reactor: 5 MW). Neutron irradiation of 1:1 mixtures of cells with and without BSH resulted in a survival fraction of 0.1, and the cells that did not contain BSH made up 99.4% of the surviving cell population. Using multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), molecular structural analysis indicated that most of the mutations induced by the bystander effect were point mutations and that the frequencies of total and partial deletions induced by the bystander effect were lower than those resulting from the {alpha} particles produced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction or the neutron beam from the {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H and {sup 14}N(n,{rho}){sup 14}C reactions. The types of point mutations induced by the BNCT bystander effect were analyzed by cloning and sequencing methods. These mutations were comprised of 65.5% base substitutions, 27.5% deletions, and 7.0% insertions. Sequence analysis of base substitutions showed that transversions and transitions occurred in 64.7% and 35.3% of cases, respectively. G:C{yields}T:A transversion induced by 8-oxo-guanine in DNA occurred in 5.9% of base substitution mutants in the BNCT bystander group. The characteristic mutations seen in this group, induced by BNCT {alpha} particles

  7. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  8. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  9. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  10. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  11. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  12. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  13. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  14. Effectiveness of BNCT for recurrent head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Itsuro E-mail: katoitsu@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ohmae, Masatoshi; Maruhashi, Akira; Imahori, Yoshio; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2004-11-01

    Recurrent head and neck malignancies (HNM) are often radio-/chemo-resistant and show extensive growth, necessitating a wide resection including surrounding tissues. To avoid severe impairment of oro-facial structures and functions, it is necessary to explore new treatments for HNM. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is tumor-cell targeted radiotherapy that has significant superiority over conventional radiotherapies in principle. We report here, first in the world, six patients with a recurrent HNM who have been treated with BNCT. The BNCT in combination with boronophenylalanine (BPA) and borocaptate sodium (BSH) was performed using the epithermal neutrons with Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The results of BNCT were as follows: (1) {sup 10}B concentration of tumor/normal tissue ratios (T/N ratio) of PET studies were SCC:1.8-4.4, sarcoma:3.1-4.0, parotid tumor:3.5. (2) Relative volume (%) of each tumor to the prior were 6-46%. (3) Remarkable reduction (46-100%) of huge tumor such as 40-675 cm{sup 3} (average: 315 cm{sup 3}), improvement of QOL and very mild side effects were recognized in all cases. These results indicate that BNCT represents a new and promising treatment approach even for a huge or far advanced HNM.

  15. Medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and invention of boron tracedrugs as innovative future-architectural drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hitoshi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Eiji

    2010-09-01

    We describe herein for the first time our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and boron tracedrugs as newly emerging drug classes. A new area of antineoplastic drugs and treatments has recently focused on neoplastic cells of the tumor environment/microenvironment involving accessory cells. This tumor hypoxic environment is now considered as a major factor that influences not only the response to antineoplastic therapies but also the potential for malignant progression and metastasis. We review our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting drugs, antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, and hypoxia-targeting 10B delivery agents, in which we design drug candidates based on their electronic structures obtained by molecular orbital calculations, not based solely on pharmacophore development. These drugs include an antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2036, a sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2244, new hypoxia-targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, and a hypoxia-targeting BNCT agent, BSH (sodium borocaptate-10B)-hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) hybrid drug TX-2100. We then discuss the concept of boron tracedrugs as a new drug class having broad potential in many areas.

  16. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  17. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause prob

  18. Hanford site sodium management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  19. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  1. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  2. Magnetometry with Mesospheric Sodium

    CERN Document Server

    Higbie, J M; Patton, B; Holzlöhner, R; Calia, D Bonaccini; Budker, D

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few-hundred-kilometer length scale is significant for a variety of geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean-circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a scheme for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic-sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide-star applications. The proposed scheme offers dramatic reduction in cost, opening the way to large-scale magnetic mapping missions.

  3. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  4. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......3] ratio, revealing that sodium is more mobile when it acts as a charge compensator to stabilize network formers than when it acts as a creator of non-bridging oxygens on tetrahedrally-coordinated silicon and trigonal boron. The impacts of both the addition of iron and its redox state on the sodium...... be attributed to the fact that for sodium inward diffusion, the charge compensation for electron holes is a rather slow process that limits the rate of diffusion. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  6. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  7. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serve food can Consider joining voluntary initiatives to reduce sodium such as the National Salt Reduction Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them reduce sodium in their diet by: Stocking lower sodium foods. ...

  9. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Janelle Peralez Gunn

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has r...

  10. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  11. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandran; R Nithya; K Sankaran; A Gopalan; V Ganesan

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, thermal decomposition behaviour, etc of their end products are essential. In order to generate such data, high purity sodium alkoxides, viz. sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide, were prepared by reacting sodium metal with respective alcohol. These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide are reported for the first time. The IR spectrum of sodium -propoxide is also reported for the first time.

  13. Designing microstructures for sodium reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, N. X. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the tools and knowledge to reduce dietary sodium by mitigating restrictions to flavour delivery and enhancing saltiness perception through sodium contrast effects in the mouth. This is achieved by restructuring semi-solid and liquid model food systems to achieve maximum flavour delivery for enhanced perception. The project considered two model systems: stable foams and double emulsions. Stable foams were developed to evaluate air inclusions as a p...

  14. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  15. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  16. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  17. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... l Fresh meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced- ... for foods labeled: sodium free, salt free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced or less sodium, light in ...

  18. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric...

  19. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  20. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  1. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  2. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  3. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  4. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  5. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  6. Clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rosina

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Rosina, Ferdinando Bottoni, Giovanni StaurenghiLuigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milano, ItalyAbstract: Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® blocks the extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF isoform VEGF165, whose elevated levels are associated with the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. This selective inhibition prevents binding to the VEGF receptors and the development of the increased vascular permeability and the CNV associated with neovascular age-related degeneration (AMD. The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularization (VISION demonstrated that pegaptanib sodium confers clinically meaningful benefit in the treatment of all angiographic subtypes of neovascular AMD. It also has a favorable safety profile after 1 and 2 years of continuous treatment, and recent data suggest that the agent has a disease-modifying effect. Post hoc analysis of VISION suggests that treatment benefit may be greatest in patients with early lesions, in whom 80% achieved the primary endpoint of <15 letters lost, 47% maintained visual acuity (VA, and 20% gained ≥15 letters of vision. Similarly, our own clinical experience indicates that pegaptanib sodium achieves better outcomes in early lesions than in established lesions, particularly in patients with previously untreated minimally classic and occult lesions in whom VA improvement and lesion size stabilization has been recorded. Observations indicate that pegaptanib sodium has a slower mode of action than unselective VEGF inhibitors, resulting in an average of 3–4 injections being required to stabilize VA and lesion size. Pegaptanib sodium has good efficacy and safety profiles and represents a good treatment option for patients with early CNV membranes associated with neovascular AMD.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, choroidal neovasularization (CNV, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, pegaptanib sodium, early lesions, visual acuity (VA

  7. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  8. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  9. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  10. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... manufacture of polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymers intended for use as articles or components of...

  11. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  13. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  14. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this coho...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  16. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity in a peanut-oil...

  17. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all pr

  18. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations...

  19. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. Polymorphism of Metallic Sodium under Nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, A V; Nefedov, D Yu; Charnaya, E V; Haase, J; Michel, D; Kumzerov, Yu A; Fokin, A V; Bugaev, A S

    2016-01-13

    (23)Na NMR studies of sodium nanoparticles confined to porous glass with the 3.5 nm mean pore size were carried out. The emergence of the second component of the NMR line was observed below 240 K that evidences the occurrence of another modification of metallic sodium. The phase transition temperature is much higher than the martensite transformation temperature in bulk sodium.

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  10. The influence of moderate reduction in dietary sodium on human salivary sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K; Navazesh, M; Engelman, K

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy subjects were placed for 12-13 weeks on diets that reduced average sodium intake from 145 to 74 m-equiv. Na+/day as determined by multiple 24-h urine collections before and during the diet. Whole-mouth resting and stimulated saliva was collected and analysed for flow rate and sodium concentration several times before and during the low-sodium period. Sodium restriction did not influence salivary flow rates but salivary sodium levels fell 25 per cent for resting and 17 per cent for stimulated saliva. Thus moderate reductions in sodium intake are accompanied by significantly lower salivary sodium levels.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods sold and served in schools that will reduce sodium up to 50% by 2022. Reducing sodium intake ... have already made efforts to reduce added sodium. Replace sodium with alternatives like spices, herbs, and vegetables. Shop ...

  12. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena; Grujičić Maja; Rađen Slavica; Novaković Budimka

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using...

  13. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  14. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturn...

  15. [Sodium determination in biological fluids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, J-P; Balint, B; Canaud, B; Daurés, M-F

    2007-09-01

    Electrolyte disorders are frequently observed in nephrology and intensive care unit department and Na determination is routinely performed in biochemistry laboratories. Three methods are currently available. Flame photometry remains the reference method. With this method the serum sample is diluted before the actual measurement is obtained. Results are expressed as molarity (per Liter of plasma). Potentiometric methods have an increasing importance due to the advances in ion sensitive (selective) electrodes (ISE). Whereas the instruments for routine chemical analysis typically use indirect potentiometry (involving te dilution of samples) to measure sodium levels, the equipment for measuring arterial blood gases use direct potentiometry without any dilution. Thus, results obtained with indirect potentiometry are expressed in molarity (per liter of plasma) while results obtained with direct potentiometry are initially given in morality (per kg of plasma water) then converted in molarity. Analytical performances are in all cases satisfactory and therefore all the methods could be used in both normal and pathological ranges. Methods involving sample dilution such as flame photometry or indirect potentiometry, the serum sodium value would be expected to be low in case of decrease plasma water (pseudohyponatremia). By contrast, with direct potentiometry where no sample dilution takes place, no interference would be expected since the activity of sodium in the water phase only is being measured. Thus, the classical pseudohyponatremia observed with hyperlipemia or paraproteinemia are not further observed with direct potentiometry. These differences in methodology should be taken into account to explain discrepancies between results obtained with classical biochemistry analyser and with blood gas apparatus.

  16. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy of EGFR or EGFRvIII positive gliomas using either boronated monoclonal antibodies or epidermal growth factor as molecular targeting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Barth, R.F. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: rolf.barth@osumc.edu; Wu, G. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tjarks, W. [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Binns, P.; Riley, K. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02215 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    In the present report we have summarized studies carried out over the past five years on molecular targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its mutant isoform, EFGRvIII, for BNCT of genetically engineered F98 rat gliomas, expressing either wildtype (F98{sub EGFR}) or mutant receptors (F98{sub npEGFRvIII}). EGF or the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), cetuximab (IMC-C225) and L8A4, which recognize wildtype EGFR and EGFRvIII, respectively, were heavily boronated using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (BD) linked to the targeting vehicles by means of heterobifunctional reagents. Boronated EGF or mAbs, alone or in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA), were administered intracerebrally (i.c.) by either intratumoral (i.t.) injection or convection enhanced delivery (CED) to rats bearing F98 gliomas following which BNCT was initiated. The best survival data were obtained in rats bearing F98{sub npEGFRvIII} gliomas that had received CED of BD-L8A4 either alone or in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA). Studies carried out in rats bearing composite tumors (F98{sub EGFR}/F98{sub npEGFRvIII}) demonstrated that it was essential to target both tumor cell populations in order to obtain an optimal therapeutic effect. Based on these observations, we have concluded that EGFR targeting vehicles are useful, but not stand-alone boron delivery agents due to the heterogeneity of receptor expression in brain tumors. They could, however, be quite useful in combination with the two drugs that currently are being used clinically, BPA and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for BNCT of either brain tumors or head and neck cancers.

  18. Effects of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on histamine secretion from human lung mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K B; Flint, K C; Brostoff, J; Hudspith, B N; Johnson, N M; Lau, H Y; Liu, W L; Pearce, F L

    1988-01-01

    Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium produced a dose dependent inhibition of histamine secretion from human pulmonary mast cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and by enzymatic dissociation of lung parenchyma. Both compounds were significantly more active against the lavage cells than against the dispersed lung cells, and nedocromil sodium was an order of magnitude more effective than sodium cromoglycate against both cell types. Tachyphylaxis was observed with the parenchymal cells but not with the lavage cells. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate also inhibited histamine release from the lavage cells of patients with sarcoidosis and extrinsic asthma. PMID:2462755

  19. Organic Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    mL) and stirring vigorously the dithiocarbamate was dissolved, and we got 2 yellow phases. Dimethyl sulfate (282 g, 2.24 mole) was added from a funnel...Yield 216 g (90 %) methyl dithiocarbamate . The methyl dithiocarbamate (216 g, 2.02 mole), together with 96% ethanol (250 mL), 50 % Chloroacetaldehyde...The glass beaker cell (Figure 3.5.2.3.1) was constructed with 2 screens of nickel (10-10-0.06 mm) and tungsten current collectors. Freshly cut sodium

  20. Sodium cacodylate as antimitotic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pure sodium cacodylate on dividing cells was studied. The root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. (the roots were squashed in acetoorcein and endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. (in vitro observations were used. Serious disturbances in karyokinesis and cytokinesis were found that led most often to the formation of polyploid or multinucleate (A. cepa cells. These results point to damage of the mitotic spindle and phragmoplast. Careful use of cacodylate buffer in ultrastructural studies of microtubules is advised.

  1. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  2. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A D; Connaughton, J J; Catterall, J R; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturnal oxygenation. This study suggests that mast cell degranulation may not be important in the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. PMID:3085257

  3. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  4. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C, formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate respectively. Statistical significance through methods like analysis of variance (ANOVA of some parameters on various concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was investigated. The effect of the varying compositions of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was also determined by using a gray scale (GS test, and also subjecting surfaces heavily stained with crude oil to determine and characterize the cleansing action of the degreaser. It was found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the cleansing ability also increases, whereas the increase in concentration of sodium carbonate had no effect on the cleansing ability. The work would enable production of effective, useful and property controlled degreasers at moderate cost.

  5. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...... of these neurotransmitters by a family of proteins called neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), which are driven using the large concentration difference of sodium (orange dots) between the outside and the inside of the cell...

  6. Neuronal Sodium Channels in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    NIL) of the Univ Michigan. Ann Arbor Mr, USA. rat pituitary gland exhibit a 40-50% decrease in sodium current density from postnatal day 3 (P3) to...that deleted all residues beyond the tyr (gIL182STOP). Ankyrin rec of channel production may underlie the suppression of sodium current density. To...subunits con- 11 critical is for ankyrin association. Homophilic cell adhesion through 81 subunits m tributes to the suppression of melanotrope sodium

  7. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...

  8. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  9. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  10. Development of dismantling and sodium removal technique for large sodium components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakai, Satoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    Large sodium test facilities that had been constructed to perform R and D for Monju were dismantled after the removal of sodium. Because experience of such tasks in limited, for the establishment of the technology, information on past experiences, R and D results, the results of small-scale sodium removal experiments and related information were gathered worldwide. Different sodium removal processes such as the alcohol process, water vapor nitrogen process, aestivation process etc. were selected based on the component structure and were applied to various components such as the steam generator, cold trap, intermediate heat exchanger etc. As a result, sodium removal and dismantling of these facilities were conducted successfully without sodium fires, injuries caused by sodium and with little burden to the environment. Furthermore, problems to be solved when applying these processes to the radioactive sodium components were identified and an R and D plan was drawn up. (author)

  11. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (...-analyses. RESULTS: No RCTs in healthy population samples were identified. Data from 23 cohort studies and 2 follow-up studies of RCTs (n = 274,683) showed that the risks of ACM and CVDEs were decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (ACM: HR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.99; CVDEs: HR = 0.......90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.99) and increased in high sodium vs. usual sodium intake (ACM: HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30; CVDEs: HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02-1.24). In population representative samples adjusted for multiple confounders, the HR for ACM was consistently decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake...

  12. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning; Enforcement... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved...

  13. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  14. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and fish in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use alone as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and...

  17. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; Tasche, Marjolein J. A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Ducharme, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. Objectives To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compare

  18. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  1. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  2. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  3. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products.

  4. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems.

  5. Design and Commissioning Test of WKN Sodium Thermodynamic Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the research of fast reactor a sodium thermodynamic test loop was designed and commissioned. Its highest operating temperature is 700℃, after the sodium is passed the cooler, the temperature of the sodium can be reduced to 300 ℃; the sodium flow is 0.2 m3/h. The loop consists of sodium electromagnetic pump, sodium flow meter, two groups of heater, two groups of cooler, surge tank, sodium vapor trap, diffusion cold trap, sodium transportation tank, electric control panel and microprocessor. It has two experimental bypass loops for research of heat transfer

  6. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  9. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  10. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  11. Formaldehyde impairs transepithelial sodium transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Li, Huiming; Wu, Sihui; Zhao, Runzhen; Du, Deyi; Ding, Yan; Nie, Hongguang; Ji, Hong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na+ currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes. α-ENaC protein was reduced, whereas phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) increased significantly post exposure. Moreover, both α- and γ-ENaC transcripts were down-regulated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated significantly by formaldehyde in addition to markedly augmented membrane permeability of oocytes. These data suggest that formaldehyde contributes to edematous acute lung injury by reducing transalveolar Na+ transport, through decreased ENaC activity and enhanced membrane depolarization, and by elevating ROS production over long-term exposure. PMID:27762337

  12. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons Ltd., Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/1 when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. Direct analysis of sodium cromoglycate concentrations in plasma samples collected up to several hours after the administration of single therapeutic doses of the compound is possible. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/1 which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  14. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of.... 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  16. Clinical evaluation of nedocromil sodium in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, S T

    1986-01-01

    The recognition that inflammatory events in the airways play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma has led to a relentless search for pharmacological agents which modify these processes. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade) represents one such agent. Nedocromil sodium, when inhaled by patients with asthma (0.05-0.50% nebulized, 0.5-4.0 mg m.d.i.), has been shown to inhibit immediate bronchoconstriction provoked by challenges with allergen (10 studies), exercise (five studies), isocapnic hyperventilation, fog and sulphur dioxide (one study each) and adenosine (two studies). With these challenges, inhibition of bronchoconstriction exhibited dose-dependency up to 4 mg, with nedocromil sodium being up to four times more potent than sodium cromoglycate. When inhaled prior to allergen provocation, nedocromil sodium inhibited the late asthmatic reaction; when taken regularly during the pollen season, it attenuated the allergen-induced increase in non-specific bronchial responsiveness. The efficacy of nedocromil sodium (4 mg q.i.d.) in the treatment of clinical asthma was initially shown in four open studies and subsequently confirmed in nine double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-12 week studies on patients with seasonal and perennial asthma. Further clinical trials (eight studies) identified some difficulty in replacing inhaled corticosteroids with nedocromil sodium, especially if the corticosteroids were reduced rapidly (four studies). However, two studies have shown that nedocromil sodium produced further improvement in asthma symptoms when used in addition to bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. Treatment with nedocromil sodium (4 mg q.i.d.) for up to 52 weeks demonstrated a progressive reduction in bronchodilator usage throughout the whole treatment period. During clinical assessment, nedocromil sodium was well tolerated, side-effects being unpleasant taste, nausea and headache. In most cases the adverse reactions were mild and transient, although in approximately 3% of

  17. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-02-18

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  18. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  19. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  1. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... common name or names of the ingredient or ingredients used as a salt substitute. (f) Low sodium colby... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  2. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients used as a salt substitute. (d) Low sodium cheddar cheese is subject to § 105.69 of this chapter. ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  3. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  4. Sodium Purification Device for Production of Tantalum Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the process of tantalum powder production it requires pure sodium to reduce potassium fluotantalate, thus the design of a sodium purification device is improved, later it is built and commissioned. The device includes sodium transportation tank, storage tank, filter, cold trap, final storage tank, metering tank, regulating valve, argon purification system, electric control panel and instrument. Industrial purity sodium is purified, the impurities in the sodium were reduced to very

  5. Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

    2010-01-01

    A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are n...

  6. Sodium stimulates growth of Panicum coloratum through enhanced photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoh, Toru; Murata, Shinji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    A sodium-requiring C{sub 4} plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate ({sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application.

  7. Sodium Stimulates Growth of Panicum coloratum through Enhanced Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoh, T; Murata, S

    1990-04-01

    A sodium-requiring C(4) plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate ((14)CO(2) fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application.

  8. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  9. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  10. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J K; Keyzer, C A; Binnenmars, S H; Kwakernaak, A J; Slagman, M C J; Laverman, G D; Bakker, S J L; de Borst, M H; Navis, G J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  11. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J. K.; Keyzer, C. A.; Binnenmars, S. H.; Kwakernaak, A. J.; Slagman, M. C. J.; Laverman, G. D.; Bakker, S. J. L.; de Borst, M. H.; Navis, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  12. Bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Barnes, P J

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of inhaled nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction have been studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled study, in eight mild asthmatic subjects. 2. The subjects attended on four occasions. Fifteen minutes after drug pre-treatment a bradykinin challenge was performed. Increasing concentrations were inhaled until a greater than 40% fall in expiratory flow at 30% of vital capacity from a partial flow volume manoeuvre (V p30) was demonstrated. 3. Inhaled bradykinin (0.06-8.0 mg ml-1) caused dose-related bronchoconstriction with the geometric mean cumulative dose causing a 40% fall in V p30 (PD40) of 0.035 (95% CI: 0.02-0.07) mumol, after placebo inhalation, which was similar to that measured before the trial (0.04: 0.02-0.09 mumol). 4. Both nedocromil sodium (4 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (10 mg) gave significant protection (P less than 0.05) against bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction (PD40 0.37: 0.19-0.72 mumol after nedocromil sodium and 0.22: 0.11-0.49 after sodium cromoglycate). 5. Since bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction is probably neurally mediated we conclude that both nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate have an action on neural pathways which may be useful in the control of asthma symptoms. PMID:2547408

  13. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fulgoni, Victor L.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Background Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. Methods NHANES 2007–2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to e...

  14. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  15. Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

    2013-06-01

    Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research.

  16. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiclin, Polona; Homar, Miha; Zupancic-Valant, Andreja; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2003-04-30

    Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a hydrophilic derivative of ascorbic acid, which has improved stability arising from its chemical structure. It is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations since it has many favorable effects in the skin, the most important being antioxidant action. In order to achieve this, it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degradation in the skin. In the present work, o/w and w/o microemulsions composed of the same ingredients, were selected as carrier systems for topical delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. We showed that sodium ascorbyl phosphate was stable in both types of microemulsion with no significant influence of its location in the carrier system. To obtain liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application, their viscosity was increased by adding thickening agents. On the basis of rheological characterization, 4.00% (m/m) colloidal silica was chosen as a suitable thickening agent for w/o microemulsions and 0.50% (m/m) xanthan gum for the o/w type. The presence of thickening agent and the location of sodium ascorbyl phosphate in the microemulsion influenced the in vitro drug release profiles. When incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, sustained release profiles were observed. This study confirmed microemulsions as suitable carrier systems for topical application of sodium ascorbyl phosphate.

  17. Idraparinux sodium: SANORG 34006, SR 34006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Idraparinux sodium [SANORG 34006, SR 34006], a synthetic, anti Xa pentasaccharide and analogue of SR 32701 and fondaparinux sodium, was in development with Sanofi (now Sanofi-Synthélabo) and Organon (Akzo Nobel) in Europe and the USA (now Sanofi-Synthélabo alone). It may have potential in the treatment and secondary prevention of thrombosis, especially deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Because of the long duration of action of idraparinux sodium, it may be suitable for once-weekly administration. In January 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo announced it was to acquire, before the end of the first quarter 2004, all the rights of Organon relating to idraparinux sodium, subject to approval of the regulatory authorities. Sanofi-Synthélabo is to make payments to Organon based on future sales. Idraparinux sodium has completed phase IIb development with the PERSIST study and it is in phase III clinical trials. In June 2003, Organon announced the initiation of pivotal phase III studies as a once-weekly treatment of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The AMADEUS study will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation while the Van Gogh PE, Van Gogh DVT and the Van Gogh extension (EXT) will focus on patients with DVT or PE.

  18. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products.

  19. The Effect of Chronic Sodium Loading and Sodium Restriction on Plasma Prostaglandin A, E and F Concentrations in Normal Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Randall M.; Spector, David; Caldwell, Burton V.; Speroff, Leon; Schneider, George; Mulrow, Patrick J.

    1973-01-01

    It has been suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in the control of sodium homeostasis. Prostaglandin A and prostaglandin E have been shown to increase renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion and prostaglandin A has been shown to stimulate aldosterone release. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic sodium loading and sodium restriction on plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations. Seven normal human volunteers were placed on three sodium intake diets: (a) ad lib. sodium intake, (b) high sodium intake, and (c) low sodium intake. Plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean prostaglandin A levels on the ad lib. diet were 1.60 ng/ml. Prostaglandin A levels decreased 49% to 0.82 ng/ml on the high sodium intake and increased 34% to 2.14 ng/ml on the low sodium intake. Prostaglandin A levels increased 161% on the low sodium diet in comparison with levels on the high sodium diet. Plasma prostaglandin E and F concentrations did not change significantly during variation in sodium intake. These results show that dietary sodium content markedly effects plasma prostaglandin A levels and that prostaglandins may play a role in the physiologic mechanism of sodium homeostasis. PMID:4700484

  20. An emerging antiarrhythmic target: late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyasz, T; Szentandrássy, N; Magyar, J; Szabo, Z; Nánási, P P; Chen-Izu, Y; Izu, L T

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac late sodium current (INa,L) has been in the focus of research in the recent decade. The first reports on the sustained component of voltage activated sodium current date back to the seventies, but early studies interpreted this tiny current as a product of a few channels that fail to inactivate, having neither physiologic nor pathologic implications. Recently, the cardiac INa,L has emerged as a potentially major arrhythmogenic mechanism in various heart diseases, attracting the attention of clinicians and researchers. Research activity on INa,L has exponentially increased since Ranolazine, an FDA-approved antianginal drug was shown to successfully suppress cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting INa,L. This review aims to summarize and discuss a series of papers focusing on the cardiac late sodium current and its regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. We will discuss critical evidences implicating INa,L as a potential target for treating myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias.

  1. Sodium Intake Requirements for Preterm Neonates: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Adrianne R; Tomlinson, Christopher; Belik, Jaques

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that sodium is an essential nutritional electrolyte and its deficiency is associated with neurological sequelae and poor growth. The provision of an adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates is hampered by the technical difficulty in clinically assessing total body sodium content. As addressed in this review, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of hyponatremia early in life, but there is no evidence that it should deviate from the widely accepted normative data for adult subjects. A low urinary sodium content is accepted by many as reflecting total body sodium deficiency, yet spot urinary sodium measurements are of questionable clinical value. The hormonal regulation of sodium homeostasis is here reviewed and the mechanism accounting for sodium deficiency-induced growth impairment in preterm infants addressed. Lastly, we provide evidence-based gestational and postnatal age-dependent recommendations for the provision of adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates.

  2. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  3. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  4. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching method; whereas the alkali solubility values of the SBH bleaching was superior to the H2O2 bleaching.

  5. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  6. LOW SODIUM DIET: PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is rather contradictory evidence on the effectiveness of a low sodium diet for the prevention of various diseases. At that, it is a generally accepted fact, that it is necessary to reduce salt intake in order to reduce high blood pressure. An internist should remember that the degree of blood pressure reduction is individual and not always depends on the level of salt intake. Moreover, the low-sodium diet helps to reduce the rate of telomere shortening, thereby slowing down the aging process.

  7. Analysis of Nitrogen in Sodium by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sodium sample in which nitrogen exists in form of sodium nitride, lithium nitride and calcium nitrideis solved by distilled water and produce ammonia. Ammonia is relieved when solution is heated, then it isabsorbed by hydrochloric acid to produce ammnium chloride. In alkaline solution, ammonium chlorideconverts into ammonia. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite and phenol that produces a blue indophenol.Nitrogen is determined by 751G type spectrophotometry at the absorption wavelength of 635 nm. The work condition of 751G type spectroscopy, colorimetric condition, smicture of the apparatus

  8. High Temperature Sodium Thermal Convection Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A project for the evaluation of compatibility characteristic of structural materials used in China experimental fast reactor(CEFR) has been in operation. The conditions which these structural materials contact with liquid sodium in reactor can be simulated by the tests in high temperature sodium thermal convection test loop. The main aims of designing and constructing the thermal convection test loop is for the corrosion test of CEFR materials, and the objective is to obtain the corrosion data of domestic materials.The main features of the test loop are shown in Fig.1. The primary components of the loop

  9. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  10. Wound healing evaluation of sodium fucidate-loaded polyvinylalcohol/sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    The cross-linked hydrogel films containing sodium fucidate were previously reported to be prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method and their physicochemical property was investigated. For the development of novel sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing, here its in vivo wound healing test and histopathology were performed compared with the conventional ointment product. In wound healing test, the sodium fucidate-loaded composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the hydrogel without drug, indicating the potential healing effect of sodium fucidate. Furthermore, from the histological examination, the healing effect of sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel was greater than that of the conventional ointment product and hydrogel without drug, since it might gave an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, the sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing composed of 5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug is a potential wound dressing with excellent wound healing.

  11. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  12. Inhibition of neutrophil and eosinophil induced chemotaxis by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.; Kreukniet, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrate the airways in association with the allergen-induced late phase asthmatic reaction. Mobilization of these cells takes place via lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. In this study platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were used as illustrative examples of both groups. Chemotaxis was studied in human neutrophils and eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were evaluated. 2. All chemotactic factors tested attracted neutrophils with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF identical to FMLP identical to LTB4. Eosinophils were only mobilized by PAF, LTB4 and ZAS with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF greater than LTB4. 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally active as the PAF antagonist BN 52021 in inhibiting the PAF-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M). Both drugs were also equally active in inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7)-10(-6) M), FMLP (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). 4. Nedocromil sodium significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by PAF (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M). The inhibitory potency of BN 52021 was similar to that of nedocromil sodium on the PAF-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Sodium cromoglycate was incapable of eliciting significant inhibition of these chemotactic responses. However, sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M), whereas nedocromil sodium was ineffective. PMID:2163279

  13. Increased brain tissue sodium concentration in Huntington's Disease - a sodium imaging study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Romanzetti, Sandro; Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Werner, Cornelius J; Schiefer, Johannes; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon

    2012-10-15

    The neuropathological hallmark of the autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease is progressive striatal loss starting several years prior to symptom manifestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used to detect altered structure in premanifest and early Huntington's disease. Given that neurodegeneration is likely preceded by substantial neuronal dysfunction, we used in vivo sodium MR imaging, which has been shown to be sensitive to cell death and viability, to investigate cellular and metabolic integrity of Huntington's disease brain tissue. We studied a total of thirteen healthy controls and thirteen Huntington's disease gene carriers (11 manifest and 2 premanifest). The manifest Huntington's disease group was subdivided into stages 1 and 2 according to their Total Functional Capacity scores. Clinical total motor and cognitive scores, as well as calibrated sodium and T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 4 T Siemens MR scanner. Sodium images were acquired by means of a constant time imaging technique with an ultra-short "echo time". T1-weighted MR images were further analysed with voxel-based morphometry. The absolute total sodium concentration and grey matter values were measured in several Huntington's disease-specific and also non-specific areas. Statistical analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were applied. In Huntington's disease subjects, we found an increase of total sodium concentration of the entire brain compared to controls. Increased total sodium concentration values were found in structurally affected, but also in some non-affected, regions. The highest total sodium concentration values were found in the bilateral caudate, which was associated with caudate grey matter atrophy and CAG repeat length. In all Huntington's disease subjects we further found a profound increase of total sodium concentration in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, insula, precuneus and occipital

  14. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  15. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  16. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  17. Positron Impact Mransitions of Atomic Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yong-Jun; ZHOU YarJun

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a new investigation of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering by using the coupled-channel optical method(CCO)at an incident energy region of 2-100eV.The ionization continuum and positronium formation channels have been included via a complex equivalent-local optical potential.The present calculations are compared with available theoretical data and our investigation indicates that the inclusion of ionization and Ps-formation channels in the present calculations has a significant effect on the cross sections of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering at lower energies.%We present a new investigation of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering by using the coupled-channel optical method (CCO) at an incident energy region of 2-100eV. The ionization continuum and positronium formation channels have been included via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The present calculations are compared with available theoretical data and our investigation indicates that the inclusion of ionization and Ps-formation channels in the present calculations has a significant effect on the cross sections of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering at lower energies.

  18. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  19. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  20. Decomposition of supersaturated sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启元; 李洁; 尹周澜; 张平民

    2003-01-01

    The decomposition of supersaturated sodium aluminate solution in the process of alumina production was reviewed. Some fundamental problems, such as the structure of supersaturated sodium aluminate solution and the growth unit of gibbsite precipitation as well as the decomposition mechanism of sodium aluminate solution, were investigated by model analytic technique and theoretical calculation. It is found that the main Al-contained species is S4 symmetric [Al(OH)4(H2O)4]-. [Na+(H2O)4*Al(OH)-4] is found to form in intermediate concentrated solution while [Na+(H2O)2*Al(OH)-4] in highly concentrated solution. Meanwhile, it is proved that [(H2O)2Al(OH)4]- is the basic growth unit of gibbsite and [Al6(OH)18(H2O)6] is a favorable growth unit. Based on above results and ab initio quantum mechanical calculation and transition state theory, a reaction pathway of the decomposition of supersaturated sodium aluminate solution was put forward, in which the transformation of pentacoordinate aluminates ion to hexacoordinate basic growth unit as well as the formation of circled growth unit [Al6(OH)22(H2O)2]4- are the controlling steps.

  1. 21 CFR 186.1771 - Sodium palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., CAS Reg. No. 408-35-5) is the sodium salt of palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid). It exists as a white... hydroxide and palmitic acid. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used as a...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  4. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bisulfite. 182.3739 Section 182.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  12. Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldé, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in the nanometer size range deposited on carbon materials, will be linked to the hydrogen storage characteristics. Moreover, r

  13. CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SODIUM SYSTEMS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W. O.; Yunker, W. H.; Scott, F. A.

    1970-06-01

    BNWL-1407 summarizes information gained from the Chemical Analyses of Sodium Systems Program pursued by Battelle- Northwest over the period from July 1967 through June 1969. Tasks included feasibility studies for performing coulometric titration and polarographic determinations of oxygen in sodium, and the development of new separation techniques for sodium impurities and their subsequent analyses. The program was terminated ahead of schedule so firm conclusions were not obtained in all areas of the work. At least 40 coulometric titrations were carried out and special test cells were developed for coulometric application. Data indicated that polarographic measurements are theoretically feasible, but practical application of the method was not verified. An emission spectrographic procedure for trace metal impurities was developed and published. Trace metal analysis by a neutron activation technique was shown to be feasible; key to the success of the activation technique was the application of a new ion exchange resin which provided a sodium separation factor of 10{sup 11}. Preliminary studies on direct scavenging of trace metals produced no conclusive results.

  14. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Wang; Hong-Long Ji

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel.Data Sources:The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases,primarily PubMed and Google Scholar.The terms used in the literature search were:(1) ENaCs;cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR);asthma/asthmatic,(2) ENaC/sodium salt;CF;asthma/asthmatic,(3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels;asthma/asthmatic,(4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt;asthma/asthmatic,lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar,and (5) CFTR;CF;asthma/asthmatic (ti).Study Selection:These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015).The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors.Results:Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction.ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance.Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations.Conclusions:Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease.

  15. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the properties, methods and potential clinical application of sodium ((23)Na) MRI in human heart. Because the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in heart is about ~40 µmol/g wet weight, and the (23)Na gyromagnetic ratio and sensitivity are respectively about one-quarter and one-11th of that of hydrogen ((1)H), the signal-to-noise ratio of (23)Na MRI in the heart is about one-6000th of that of conventional cardiac (1)H MRI. In addition, as a quadrupolar nucleus, (23)Na exhibits ultra-short and multi-component relaxation behavior (T1 ~ 30 ms; T2 ~ 0.5-4 ms and 12-20 ms), which requires fast, specialized, ultra-short echo-time MRI sequences, especially for quantifying TSC. Cardiac (23)Na MRI studies from 1.5 to 7 T measure a volume-weighted sum of intra- and extra-cellular components present at cytosolic concentrations of 10-15 mM and 135-150 mM in healthy tissue, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 0.1-1 ml in 10 min or so. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved without the use of potentially toxic shift reagents. Nevertheless, increases in TSC attributable to an influx of intra-cellular sodium and/or increased extra-cellular volume have been demonstrated in human myocardial infarction consistent with prior animal studies, and arguably might also be seen in future studies of ischemia and cardiomyopathies--especially those involving defects in sodium transport. While technical implementation remains a hurdle, a central question for clinical use is whether cardiac (23)Na MRI can deliver useful information unobtainable by other more convenient methods, including (1)H MRI.

  16. Antiorthostatic immobilization with varied sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Haditsch, B.; Pilz, K.; Rössler, A.; Laszlo, Z.

    The study investigated, in 10 normotensive male persons, heart rate responses to graded lower body suction (LBNP) with adaptation to various oral sodium clamping during both ambulatory (AMB) conditions for 4 days, and thereafter to additional antiorthostatic (6° head down) positioning. A ,low' (LS: 143+/-10 mM Na +/ d excreted) and a ,high' (HS: 434+/-17 mM Na +/d excreted) sodium treatment - in randomized order and separated =1 mo - followed a ,conditioning' run with moderate sodium (237+/-9 mM Na +/d excreted). Urinary volume and sodium output were monitored, hormone levels (PRA, aldosterone, AVP) determined, and extracellular volume (ECV) estimated by whole body electrical impedance spectroscopy. ECV was not differently reduced (p>0.1) in LS (-5.8+/-2.3%, p=0.018) and HS (-4.0+/-1.0%. p=0.002). Morning AVP was lower (5.5+/-0.1 pg/ml) in HS than in LS (7.2+/-0.3 pg/ml; N=7 days), as well as aldosterone (69+/-7 pg/ml in HS vs. 180+/-24 pg/ml in LS). LBNP dose responses of PRA and aldosterone were higher in LS than HS after 8 days AOB, whereas microvascular fluid filtration was unchanged by any experimental condition. Heart rate responses to LBNP were unchanged by sodium supply, whereas mean arterial and pulse pressure was lower in LS than HS during all LBNP intensities. Thus, HS was able to increase arterial blood and pulse pressure and reduced PRA and aldosterone levels during graded simulated orthostatic challenge, but did neither ameliorate AOB-induced ECV decrease nor alter LBNP-induced filtration and heart rate responses. These results are relevant for planning of future countermeasures in astronauts. Supported by the Austrian Research Fund (P13451-MED)

  17. Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian-zu; JIANG Ming-xi; LAI Qiong-lin; CHEN Jin-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were investigated.In order to decrease the consumption of sodium sulfide and increase the concentration of antimony in the leaching solution, two-stage leaching of jamesonite concentrate and combination leaching of high-grade stibnite concentrate and jamesonite concentrate were used. The experimental results showthat the consumptions of sodium sulfide for the two-stage leaching process and the combination leaching process are decreased by 20% and 60% compared to those of one-stage leaching process respectively. The final concentrations of antimony in the leaching solutions of both processes are above 100 g/L.

  18. Cementing properties of steel slag activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ni; En Wang; Jianping Li; Han Sun

    2005-01-01

    Steel slag which is mainly composed of γ-CasSiO4 and other silicates or alumino-silicates is activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide. The powders of such steel slag are usually inert to hydrate and subsequently have very low ability of cementing. But when sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide are used as activators the steel slag shows very good properties of cementing. When activated with NaOH solution the hardened slurry of the steel slag has a compressive strength of 11.13 MPa after being cured for 28 days. When activated with Na2SiO3 solution the samples after being cured for 28 days have an average compressive strength of 40.23 MPa. While the steel slag slurry which is only mixed with water has a compressive of 0.88 MPa after being cured for 28 days.

  19. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after cramophatyrgioma stagery.Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op-erative days. Hypematremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/l, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 nmml/L.Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients,simple hypematremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodium disorder was 11 patients. Condusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com-plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna-tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  20. Sodium Picosulfate, Magnesium Oxide, and Anhydrous Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and anhydrous citric acid combination powder is used to empty the colon (large ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium picosulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) is one of the important parameters in the design and safety analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In some serious accident conditions, for example the total instantaneous blockage (TIB) accident,

  2. Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache.

  3. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate.

  4. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  5. Research on Technology of Filling Sodium into Fuel Test Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Chi; XIE; Chun; WANG; Shu-xing; MI; Zheng-feng; YU; Tuan-jie; CUI; Chao; WANG; Ming-zheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a high pure sodium environment for properties testing in the fuel research for fast reactor,it is essential to fill sodium into fuel testing capsules.By the method of vacuum,temperature-controlling and inert gas protection,quantificational sodium had been filled into the fuel testing capsules.Fig.1shows the schematic diagram of sodium filling device.Table 1shows

  6. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  7. Attenuation of aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction by sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuschi, M; Gambaro, G; Sestini, P; Pieroni, M G; Refini, R M; Vaghi, A; Bianco, S

    1997-04-01

    The protective activity of nedocromil sodium and of sodium cromoglycate against aspirin-induced asthma has never been investigated in controlled studies. Because it has been reported that aspirin-induced platelet-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro is inhibited after treatment in vivo with nedocromil but not with cromoglycate, we investigated whether these compounds also exhibit a different protective activity against aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten patients with aspirin-induced asthma underwent three bronchial challenges with a single dose of lysine acetylsalicylate (LASA) that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 25% or more in a preliminary dose-response test 30 min after inhalation of 4 mg nedocromil sodium, 10 mg sodium cromoglycate, or placebo. FEV1 and SRaw were recorded at intervals for 195 min. After placebo, LASA caused a maximal decrease in FEV1 of 42 +/- 4% of baseline. After cromoglycate and nedocromil the maximal decrease in FEV1 was reduced to 20 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%, respectively (p sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are equally effective in attenuating aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction and that it is unlikely that platelet activation participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma.

  8. Survey of the transport properties of sodium superionic conductor materials for use in sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, M.; Tietz, F.

    2015-01-01

    One important issue in future scenarios predominantly using renewable energy sources is the electrochemical storage of electricity in batteries. Among all rechargeable battery technologies, Li-ion cells have the largest energy density and output voltage today, but they have yet to be optimized in terms of capacity, safety and cost for use as stationary systems. Recently, sodium batteries have been attracting attention again because of the abundant availability of Na. However, much work is still required in the field of sodium batteries in order to mature this technology. Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) materials are a thoroughly studied class of solid electrolytes. In this study, their crystal structure, compositional diversity and ionic conductivity are surveyed and analysed in order to correlate the lattice parameters and specific crystal structure data with sodium conductivity and activation energy using as much data sets as possible. Approximately 110 compositions with the general formula Na 1 + 2 w + x - y + zMw(II) Mx(III) My(V) M2- w - x - y (IV) (SiO4)z(PO4) 3 - z were included in the data collection to determine an optimal size for the M cations. In addition, the impact of the amount of Na per formula unit on the conductivity and the substitution of P with Si are discussed. An extensive study of the size of the structural bottleneck for sodium conduction (formed by triangles of oxygen ions) was carried out to validate the influence of this geometrical parameter on sodium conductivity.

  9. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected...

  10. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  11. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of

  12. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  18. Monitoring sodium in commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the sodium we eat comes from commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Sodium reduction in these foods is a key component of several recent public health efforts. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of USDA, CDC and FDA have launched a collaborative program to monitor sodium ...

  19. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  20. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  1. 21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. 173.325... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.325 Acidified sodium chlorite solutions. Acidified sodium chlorite solutions may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153.1065... Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a... solutions are immediately washed away. Approval of Surveyors and Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D...

  3. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Remme; C.R. Bezzina

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation an

  4. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  5. 76 FR 63305 - Approaches To Reducing Sodium Consumption; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... as current and emerging approaches designed to promote sodium reduction. The purpose of the public... review the FDA's Sodium Reduction Web page located at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging... to identify opportunities for sodium reduction. II. Purpose and Format of the Meeting If you wish...

  6. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium copper chlorophyllin. 73.125 Section 73.125... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.125 Sodium copper chlorophyllin. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder prepared from chlorophyll...

  7. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels. Effects on Neurotoxin-Stimulated Sodium Uptake in Synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    concentration in the nonaqueuus (membrane) phase (Lyon et aL, 1981). Concentration- effect summarized in table 1 . When sodium channels were activated curves were...Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels : Effects on Neurotoxin-Stimulated Sodium Uptake in DT (7 Synaptosomes E L C MICHAEL J. MULLIN’ and WALTER A. HUNT...1984). At the present time, the 8 1 structural and functional properties of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels are understood most completely

  8. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow...

  9. 76 FR 57050 - Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data, and... and other chronic illnesses, sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium... restaurant and packaged food industries to reduce sodium and appreciate the complexities of reducing...

  10. Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are not important for the action of SCBIs on insect sodium channels, suggesting unique interactions of SCBIs with insect sodium channels. However, the mechanism of action of LAs on insect sodium channels has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of lidocaine on a cockroach sodium channel variant, BgNa(v)1-1a, and determined whether F1817 and Y1824 are also critical for the action of LAs on insect sodium channels. Lidocaine blocked BgNa(v)1-1a channels in the resting state with potency similar to that observed in mammalian sodium channels. Lidocaine also stabilized both fast-inactivated and slow-inactivated states of BgNa(v)1-1a channels, and caused a limited degree of use- and frequency-dependent block, major characteristics of LA action on mammalian sodium channels. Alanine substitutions of F1817 and Y1824 reduced the sensitivity of the BgNa(v)1-1a channel to the use-dependent block by lidocaine, but not to tonic blocking and inactivation stabilizing effects of lidocaine. Thus, similar to those on mammalian sodium channels, F1817 and Y1824 are important for the action of lidocaine on cockroach sodium channels. Our results suggest that the receptor sites for lidocaine and SCBIs are different on insect sodium channels.

  11. Analysis of Design of Sodium Reception and Secondary Loop Sodium Plugging and Removal System for Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparison of sodium reception and secondary loop sodium plugging and removal system on CEFR with BN-800, the main difference of the two designs is as follows: 1) System division is different. BN-800 can be divided into sodium reception system,

  12. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  13. The effect of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the Ascaris-sensitive monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, R. P.; Greenwood, B.; Jackson, D. M.; Orr, T. S.; Wells, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium inhibited the bronchoconstriction caused by antigen challenge in Ascaris-sensitive monkeys and in addition it prevented the release of histamine from mast cells lavaged from sensitive monkeys. Sodium cromoglycate was relatively inactive in both these systems. It is suggested that nedocromil sodium can stabilize both mucosal and connective tissue mast cells and may represent a new type of drug. PMID:2992657

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  15. SODIUM LOSS INDUCED HYPONATREMIA IN THE ELDERLY ON A LOW SODIUM DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Macías Núñez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa hiponatremia es un desorden electrolítico que consiste en un aumento relativo a nivel corporal del contenido acuoso respecto del salino.La retención de agua libre o la pérdida de sodio son sus mecanismos causales principales, siendo el primero de ellos el más frecuente. Sin embargo, dado que los ancianos normales poseen un aumento en la excreción urinaria de sodio respecto de los jóvenes, pueden desarrollar hiponatremia secundaria a deplección salina cuando han estado en forma prolongada bajo una dieta hiposódica.En este reporte presentamos un caso de hiponatremia que fue resuelto mediante la restitución de sodio y no mediante la restricción hídrica. Analizamos también la baja confiabilidad de la excreción fraccional de urea en la interpretación de la etiología de la hiponatremia en los ancianos.BSTRACTHyponatremia is an electrolyte disorder which consist of a relative increase in body free water content respect to sodium one. Free water retention or sodium loss are its possible mechanisms, being the former more frequent than the latter. However, since urinary sodium loss is increased in healthy elderly, sodium depletion can be a frequent etiology of hyponatremia in this people when they have been on a low sodium diet for a long period.In this report a case of hyponatremia that solved with sodium restitution instead of water restriction is presented, and the name of senile sodium leakage hyponatremia is proposed for this entity. It is also analyzed the low reliability that fractional excretion of urea seems to have in the evaluation of this syndrome.

  16. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mushra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  17. Computer model for analyzing sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C C; Raue, D J

    1983-05-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions. The calculated pressure drop as a function of impurity mass content determines the capacity of the cold trap. The accuracy of the model was checked by comparing calculated mass distributions with experimentally determined mass distributions from literature publications and with results from our own cold trap experiments. The comparisons were excellent in all cases. A parametric study was performed to determine which design variables are most important in maximizing cold trap capacity.

  18. [Sodium transport in chronic renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, D

    1985-03-24

    From an analysis of the literature covering the problem of sodium contribution in uraemic patients subjected to both conservative treatment and maintenance dialysis, it has been shown that excessive reduction in dietary sodium intake can be harmful unless it is justified by severe hypertension or oedema since it aggravates the state of uraemia. In these cases, the addition of a minimum controlled amount of hyposodic salt to an otherwise salt free diet is undoubtedly useful. The hyposodic salt, "Misura" manufactured by the company "Plasmon" was used in the dietary treatment of a series of patients subjected to mild restriction in dietary salt intake. Misura was well tolerated and well accepted thanks to its pleasing taste.

  19. Sodium fast reactor evaluation: Core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Raison, J. P.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Carmack, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) Program the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. In this paper the status of available and developmental materials for SFR core cladding and duct applications is reviewed. To satisfy the Generation IV SFR fuel requirements, an advanced cladding needs to be developed. The candidate cladding materials are austenitic steels, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. A large amount of irradiation testing is required, and the compatibility of cladding with TRU-loaded fuel at high temperatures and high burnup must be investigated. The more promising F/M steels (compared to HT9) might be able to meet the dose requirements of over 200 dpa for ducts in the GEN-IV SFR systems.

  20. Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

  1. Gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a system to boil sodium in an LMFBR is examined. This design should be regarded as a first step in a series of boiling experiments. The reactor chosen for the design of the boiling apparatus is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), located at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Criteria broadly classified as design objectives and design requirements are discussed.

  2. Developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecawi, Andre S; Macchione, Ana F; Nuñez, Paula; Perillan, Carmen; Reis, Luis C; Vivas, Laura; Arguelles, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are the sensations responsible for the motivated behaviors of water and salt intake, respectively, and both are essential responses for the maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis in animals. These sensations and their related behaviors develop very early in the postnatal period in animals. Many studies have demonstrated several pre- and postnatal stimuli that are responsible for the developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite and, consequently, the pattern of water and salt intake in adulthood in need-free or need-induced conditions. The literature systematically reports the involvement of dietary changes, hydromineral and cardiovascular challenges, renin-angiotensin system and steroid hormone disturbances, and lifestyle in these developmental factors. Therefore, this review will address how pre- and postnatal challenges can program lifelong thirst and sodium appetite in animals and humans, as well as which neuroendocrine substrates are involved. In addition, the possible epigenetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the developmental programing of drinking behavior, the clinical implications of hydromineral disturbances during pre- and postnatal periods, and the developmental origins of adult hydromineral behavior will be discussed.

  3. How and when to prescribe sodium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, G E

    1989-03-01

    Sodium fluoride has now been used for 24 years in an effort to slow down or arrest sensorineural hearing nerve deterioration in patients with stapedial otosclerosis or after stapedectomy, as well as in patients with pure cochlear otosclerosis. Extensive clinical experience in thousands of patients with this therapy has demonstrated its value in arresting previously progressive sensorineural hearing loss. For a long time there were those who objected to this therapy on the basis that it had not been adequately proven by double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. They have been answered by Bretlau's study in Denmark and Fisch's from Switzerland; both investigators confirmed on small groups the value of sodium fluoride by double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Extensive research by Professor Petrovic of Strasbourg while at our tissue culture laboratory at Northwestern University demonstrated the action of sodium fluoride on bone. A nicely designed study with radioactive strontium by Linthicum, House, and Althaus demonstrated its value in promoting maturation of a spongiotic focus. Today there is no reason to hesitate in prescribing this useful, effective, and safe medication to promote maturation of otospongiotic lesions, and thus to slow down or to arrest progression in sensorineural hearing loss.

  4. Properties of enteric coated sodium valproate pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L Diane; Petereit, Hans-Ulrich; Beckert, Thomas; McGinity, James W

    2003-10-02

    The influence of subcoat application and micro-environmental pH on the dissolution properties of enteric coated sodium valproate pellets was investigated. The pellets were prepared by solution-layering or wet-mass extrusion-spheronization methods. In order to pass the USP enteric test, the solution-layered and wet-mass extruded pellets required 35 and 25% weight gain of Eudragit L 30D-55, respectively. The application of a subcoat of either Methocel-E5 (HPMC) or Opadry AMB to the pellets resulted in a delay in sodium valproate release in 0.1N HCl. Further delay in drug release was observed when citric acid was present in a HPMC subcoat or when added to the core pellet formulation. The amount of drug released from coated pellets was a function of the level of citric acid in the pellet core or subcoat and subsequent micro-environmental pH of the pellets. Citric acid exerted a plasticizing effect on the enteric polymer film and improved film formation and polymer coalescence. When greater than 10% (w/w) citric acid was present in the pellets, a decrease in drug content was observed due to the conversion of sodium valproate to the volatile compound, valproic acid. Pellets containing less than 10% (w/w) citric acid maintained potency during processing.

  5. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  6. Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S

    2014-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Many of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors.

  7. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam.

  8. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  9. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...... of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG....

  10. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after craniopharyngioma surgery. Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op erative days. Hypernatremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/1, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 mmol/L. Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients, simple hypernatremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodiu m disorder was 11 patients. Conclusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  11. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  12. Transient sodium current at subthreshold voltages: activation by EPSP waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett C; Giessel, Andrew J; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Bean, Bruce P

    2012-09-20

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels carry large transient currents during action potentials and also "persistent" sodium current, a noninactivating TTX-sensitive current present at subthreshold voltages. We examined gating of subthreshold sodium current in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons, studied at 37°C with near-physiological ionic conditions. Unexpectedly, in both cell types small voltage steps at subthreshold voltages activated a substantial component of transient sodium current as well as persistent current. Subthreshold EPSP-like waveforms also activated a large component of transient sodium current, but IPSP-like waveforms engaged primarily persistent sodium current with only a small additional transient component. Activation of transient as well as persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages produces amplification of EPSPs that is sensitive to the rate of depolarization and can help account for the dependence of spike threshold on depolarization rate, as previously observed in vivo.

  13. Spot urinary sodium for assessing dietary sodium restriction in cirrhotic ascites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abdelhamid El-Bokl; Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Khaled Zakaria El-Karmouty; Inas El-Khedr Mohammed; Sherif Monier Mohammed; Sherif Sadek Shabana; Hassan Shalaby

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of spot urinary Na/K and Na/creatinine (Cr) ratios as an alternative to 24-h urinary sodium in monitoring dietary compliance in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretics. METHODS: The study was carried on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretic therapy. Patients were divided into two groups according to 24-h urinary sodium. We measured spot urine Na/K ratio, Na/ Cr ratio and 24-h urinary sodium. Student's t test was used to compare the interval variables and χ2 test to compare the nominal variables between the two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for Na/K and Na/Cr ratio. RESULTS: The best cutoff point for Na/K ratio was 2.5 ( P < 0.001) and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9, and for Na/Cr ratio, the best cutoff point was 35 ( P < 0.001) and AUC was 0.885. Na/K ratio showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared to Na/Cr ratio (87.5% and 87% for Na/K ratio; 81% and 85% for Na/Cr ratio, respectively). CONCLUSION: Spot urine Na/K ratio has adequate accuracy for assessment of dietary sodium restriction compared with 24-h urinary sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

  14. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

  15. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

    1996-11-01

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  16. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  17. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan eWang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  18. NSAIDs in the Treatment of Adult Asthma: Sodium Cromoglycate and Nedocromil Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Y Rouleau

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of adult asthma, sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are the most frequently prescribed. These medications have a similar efficacy profile in asthma although it has been suggested that nedocromil is more powerful than cromoglycate, particularly in its steroid sparing effects. Both drugs have been recommended as alternatives to steroids in the treatment of mild asthma. They are useful in the prevention of bronchospasm induced by exposure to allergens or to a variety of other stimuli. In comparison with theophylline or low dose inhaled steroids, cromoglycate and nedocromil have shown a similar antiasthmatic efficacy, although this is variable among patients.

  19. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  20. Sodium movements in perfused squid giant axons. Passive fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Canessa-Fischer, M

    1968-08-01

    Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm(2)sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm(2)sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 +/- 3 pmoles/cm(2)sec and 41 +/- 10 pmoles/cm(2)sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm(2)impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium.

  1. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the following three hypotheses: ①plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm; ②the circadian rhyt hm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet; ③high NaCl diet elevates plasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arteria l pressure (MAP) of SHR. Methods After having been instrumen ted with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age, all rats (Spontaneously Hypertensi ve Rat, SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat, WKY) experienced two experimental protocols, th e mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples als o been analysed for sodium contents. Results On basal NaCl diet, plasma sodium concentrations in SHR w ere significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured a nd the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phase s; on high NaCl diet, the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposit e in WKY. In SHR, the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhyt hm. Conclusion Plasma sodium displays a significant circadian rhythm in rats. The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  2. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To test the following three hypotheses:(1)plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm;(2)the circadian rhythm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet;(3)high NaCl diet elevates lpasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arterial pressure(MAP)of SHR.Methods:After having been instrumented with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age,all rats(Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat,SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat,WKY) experienced two experimental protocols,the mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples also been analysed for sodium contents.Results:On basal NaCl diet,plasma sodium concentrations in SHR were significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured and the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phases;on high NaCl diet,the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposite in WKY,In SHR,the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhythm.Conclusion:Plasma sodium displays a significant ciradian rhythm in rats.The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  3. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  4. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  5. Toxicology and pharmacology of sodium ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G; Griffiths, James C

    2006-10-01

    Ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of the fatty acid content of castor oil. Castor oil is known for its purgative effects and can be used to induce labor. Both castor oil and ricinoleic acid are approved for use in food. The mechanistic basis for purgative actions likely includes the membrane-disruptive effects of detergent-like molecules, such as sodium ricinoleate (a 'soap'). These effects have been shown to be dose-related and to exhibit a threshold below which no laxative response was evident, in both animals and in humans. Castor oil was not toxic in subchronic feeding studies in rodents at doses ranging up to 10-20% of the diet. Sodium ricinoleate, as a surfactant, demonstrates predictable skin and mucus membrane irritant effects, and may induce a Type IV dermal sensitization response in those previously sensitized to it. However, food-grade castor oil and sodium ricinoleate are prepared in such a manner as to be free of the castor bean constituents that have been proven to be the source of reported Type I immediate hypersensitivity responses. Feeding studies with castor oil in rodents provide a basis for a no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) estimate of 7,500 mg/kg/day and 5,000 mg/kg/day in mice and rats, respectively (). Applying an uncertainty factor of 100 to the lesser of these NOAELs, one can thus estimate an acceptable daily intake (ADI) in man to be 50 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg of castor oil per day in an average 60 kg person. As ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of castor oil, applying this calculation to the 3,000 mg/day estimated ADI in humans for castor oil (given the rapid hydrolysis of castor oil glyceride in the gastrointestinal tract), the acceptable daily intake of ricinoleic acid may be as high as 2,400 mg/person.

  6. Effects of low-sodium diet vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride (Cochrane Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids.......The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids....

  7. Photoabsorption of small sodium and magnesium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We predict the strong enhancement in the photoabsorption of small Mg clusters in the region of 4-5 eV due to the resonant excitation of the plasmon oscillations of cluster electrons. The photoabsorption spectra for neutral Mg clusters consisting of up to N=11 atoms have been calculated using it a...... deformation is analysed. The reliability of the used calculation scheme has been proved by performing the test calculation for a number of sodium clusters and the comparison of the results obtained with the results of other methods and experiment....

  8. Sodium N-chloro-2-methylbenzenesulfonamidate sesquihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, Na+·C7H7ClNO2S−·1.5H2O, one of the water molecules lies on a twofold axis. The sodium ion shows an O6 octahedral coordination defined by three water O atoms and three sulfonyl O atoms derived from three different anions. The S—N distance of 1.5898 (19 Å is consistent with an S=N double bond. The crystal structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  9. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, BP; Cohen, CJ; Tsien, RW

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 μM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 μM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 μM, at a depolarized holding pote...

  10. [Color reactions for identification of sodium cromoglycate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlitzer, K; Badia, G; Jones, P G

    2001-05-01

    Chromone-2-carboxylic acid (3) reacts with aminopyrazolone (2) in methanolic hydrochloric acid to yield the orange-red polymethine dye 4. Treating dimethyl cromoglicate (6) with compound 2 and perchloric acid leads to the tetraperchlorate 7 of the red azamerocyanine 8. The phenol 9, obtained from alkaline hydrolysis of sodium cromoglicate (1a), couples with diazotized sulfanilic acid to form the red azo dye 10. The chromone 6 condenses with 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid (DMBA) in acetic anhydride/acetic acid to the red oxonole 12. Cromoglicinic acid (1b) reacts under these conditions to yield the yellow polymethine dye 14, whose structure is elucidated by X-ray analysis.

  11. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.

  12. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium.

  13. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypertonic saline infusion induces a greater natriuresis than infusion of the same amount of sodium as isotonic saline was tested in 8 supine subjects on fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol NaCl day(-1). Sodium loads equivalent to the amount of sodium contained in 10% of measured...... extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour....... Plasma sodium concentrations only increased following hypertonic saline infusion (by 2.7 +/- 0.3 mmol L(-1)). Oncotic pressure decreased significantly more with isotonic saline (4.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg) than with hypertonic saline (3.2 +/- 0.2 mmHg), indicating that isotonic saline induced a stronger volumetric...

  14. Imaging of sodium in the brain: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N Jon; Worthoff, Wieland A; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-based MRI plays a vital role in the study of metabolism and can unveil valuable information about emerging and existing pathology--in particular in the human brain. Sodium is the second most abundant MR active nucleus in living tissue and, due to its quadrupolar nature, has magnetic properties not common to conventional proton MRI, which can reveal further insights, such as information on the compartmental distribution of intra- and extracellular sodium. Nevertheless, the use of sodium nuclei for imaging comes at the expense of a lower sensitivity and significantly reduced relaxation times, making in vivo sodium studies feasible only at high magnetic field strength and by the use of dedicated pulse sequences. Hybrid imaging combining sodium MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) simultaneously is a novel and promising approach to access information on dynamic metabolism with much increased, PET-derived specificity. Application of this new methodology is demonstrated herein using examples from tumour imaging.

  15. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  16. Reproductive toxicity of sodium valproate in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairy Laxminarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm motility were decreased significantly by sodium valproate. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. A histopathological study revealed that sodium valproate had caused sloughing of epithelial cells in testes. Conclusion: Sodium valproate causes reversible change in sperm motility, sperm count, morphology, and cytoarchitecture of testes.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: past history, current status, and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R F; Soloway, A H; Brugger, R M

    1996-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. High-grade astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, and metastatic brain tumors constitute a major group of neoplasms for which there is no effective treatment. There is growing interest in using BNCT in combination with surgery to treat patients with primary, and possibly metastatic brain tumors. For BNCT to be successful, a large number of 10B atoms must be localized on or preferably within neoplastic cells, and a sufficient number of thermal neutrons must reach and be absorbed by the 10B atoms to sustain a lethal 10B(n, alpha)7 Li reaction. Two major questions will be addressed in this review. First, how can a large number of 10B atoms be delivered selectively to cancer cells? Second, how can a high fluence of neutrons be delivered to the tumor? Two boron compounds currently are being used clinically, sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA), and a number of new delivery agents are under investigation, including boronated porphyrins, nucleosides, amino acids, polyamines, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, liposomes, and epidermal growth factor. These will be discussed, and potential problems associated with their use as boron delivery agents will be considered. Nuclear reactors, currently, are the only source of neutrons for BNCT, and the fission process within the core produces a mixture of lower-energy thermal and epithermal neutrons, fast or high (> 10,000 eV) energy neutrons, and gamma rays. Although thermal neutron beams have been used clinically in Japan to treat patients with brain tumors and cutaneous melanomas, epithermal neutron beams should be more useful because of their superior tissue-penetrating properties. Beam sources and characteristics will be discussed in the context of current and future BNCT trials. Finally, the past and present

  18. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  19. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  20. Photodissociation of sodium iodide and resonant ionization of sodium atom produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Bing-hai; Z.T.Salim; A.H.Bakery

    2004-01-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonant ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) are employed to detect the photodissociation product of sodium iodide molecules in a molecular beam in an intense laser field in the absence of the buffer gases. Time of flight mass spectra is recorded. In particular, the appearances of multiphoton ionization are discussed.

  1. Canadian initiatives to prevent hypertension by reducing dietary sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Willis, Kevin J; L'Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada's dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  2. Sodium valproate induced increased frequency of micturition and enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosavi, Devesh D; Suman, Akanksha; Jain, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiepileptic drug (AED) for control of a broad range of seizures. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to sodium valproate range from sedation to nausea, vomiting, weight gain, idiosyncratic adverse effects like hepatotoxicity and life threatening conditions like pancreatitis. We present a case of sodium valproate induced enuresis in child. This ADR of valproate is an underreported ADR and requires special attention of pediatricians as it can interfere with the further treatment of the disease.

  3. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  4. A TRIAL OF SODIUM VALPROATE IN TARDIVE-DYSKINESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chadda, R.; Kulhara, P.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the results of an open trial of Sodium Valproate in tardive-dyskinesia. Fifteen patients identified having tardive dyskinesia by two psychiatrists independently were treated with Sodium Valproate in dosage of 1200 mg/day for 4 weeks. Assessments were made on abbreviated Dyskinesia Scale. There was statistically significant improvement after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Authors found Sodium Valproate quite effective in the management of tardive-dyskinesia.

  5. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  6. Modelling Homogeneous Nucleation in Sodium Fast Reactors under BDBA Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Herranz, L. E.; Kissane, M.

    2014-07-01

    During postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), the contaminated coolant discharge at high temperature into the containment is considered as a potential scenario during the severe accident progression. In this scenario, the vaporization of sodium and its subsequent combustion (oxidation) would result in supersaturated sodium oxide vapours and formation of large quantities of contaminated aerosols by nucleation of these combustion products. (Author)

  7. Simultaneous modifications of sodium channel gating by two scorpion toxins.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The effects of purified scorpion toxins from two different species on the kinetics of sodium currents were evaluated in amphibian myelinated nerves under voltage clamp. A toxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus slowed and prevented sodium channel inactivation, exclusively, and a toxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing reduced transient sodium currents during a maintained depolarization, and induced a novel inward current that appeared following repolarization, as previously reported by Cahalan ...

  8. Determination of solubility of uranium in liquid sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tongzai; XING Pifeng; YE Shiyou; LONG Kaiming; FU Zhonghua; HE Yuhui; JIANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    An experimental technique has been developed which overcomes the two major problems common to liquid metal solubility measurements, namely, maintaining the integrity of the samples during transfer of the liquid sodium from container to whatever device is used for analysis and detecting solute at very low concentration in liquid sodium. The solubility of uranium in liquid sodium has been measured over the temperature range 150~400℃, by equilibration and sampling technique, the solubility of uranium is approximately 0.00001%.

  9. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  10. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  11. CDC grand rounds: dietary sodium reduction - time for choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Excess dietary sodium is a major contributor to hypertension (high blood pressure) and a critical public health issue in the United States. Nearly one in three U.S. adults, or 68 million persons, has hypertension, and half of those do not have their condition under control. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases, which are a leading cause of death, disability, and health-care costs in the United States. The average sodium intake among persons in the United States aged ≥2 years is 3,266 mg/day (excluding table salt). Current dietary guidelines recommend that reducing consumption of sodium to sodium intake by most U.S. residents considerably exceeds recommended levels. Reducing sodium intake to 2,300 mg/day potentially could prevent 11 million cases of hypertension and save billions of dollars in health-care expenditures; reducing sodium intake further would yield additional benefits. To achieve those reductions and help consumers make healthful choices, expanded educational efforts and monitoring of the sodium content of the food supply are needed. Increased availability of lower sodium products and reductions in the amount of sodium in foods served or sold in the marketplace also are needed.

  12. Decaying wood is a sodium source for mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Van Soest, Peter J; Pell, Alice N

    2006-09-22

    Like several other non-human primates, mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda consume decaying wood, an interesting but puzzling behaviour. This wood has little obvious nutritional value; it is low in protein and sugar, and high in lignin compared to other foods. We collected pieces of wood eaten and avoided by gorillas, and other foods consumed by gorillas, and measured their sodium content. Wood was substantially higher in sodium than other dietary items, and wood pieces from stumps eaten contained more sodium than those that were avoided. Wood represented only 3.9% of the wet weight food intake of gorillas, but contributed over 95% of dietary sodium, leading us to conclude that decaying wood is an important sodium source for Bwindi gorillas. Because sodium has been leached from the weathered soils characteristic of the subhumid and humid tropics, and because terrestrial plants generally do not require sodium, tropical herbivores, including gorillas, often encounter problems locating the sodium essential for their well-being. Decaying wood is an unexpected sodium source.

  13. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption: a food industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.

  14. Phenomenological studies on sodium for CSP applications: A safety review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Andraka, Charles E.

    2016-05-01

    Sodium Heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as sodium, can achieve temperatures above 700°C to obtain power cycle performance improvements for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF's (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal power cycles. This advantage could increase the efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sensible sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium receiver designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Lessons obtained from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  15. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC, which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.

  16. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Approaches to Sodium Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby PhD, Jan L.; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S.; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design A multiple case study design was used. Setting This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semi structured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

  17. Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Skram, Thomas Ulrik; Bestle, M H;

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogas......The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered......-angiotensin system....

  18. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  19. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  2. Sodium adduct formation efficiency in ESI source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruve, Anneli; Kaupmees, Karl; Liigand, Jaanus; Oss, Merit; Leito, Ivo

    2013-06-01

    Formation of sodium adducts in electrospray (ESI) has been known for long time, but has not been used extensively in practice, and several important aspects of Na(+) adduct formation in ESI source have been almost unexplored: the ionization efficiency of different molecules via Na(+) adduct formation, its dependence on molecular structure and Na(+) ion concentration in solution, fragmentation behaviour of the adducts as well as the ruggedness (a prerequisite for wider practical use) of ionization via Na(+) adduct formation. In this work, we have developed a parameter describing sodium adducts formation efficiency (SAFE) of neutral molecules and have built a SAFE scale that ranges for over four orders of magnitude and contains 19 compounds. In general, oxygen bases have higher efficiency of Na(+) adducts formation than nitrogen bases because of the higher partial negative charge on oxygen atoms and competition from protonation in the case of nitrogen bases. Chelating ability strongly increases the Na(+) adduct formation efficiency. We show that not only protonation but also Na(+) adduct formation is a quantitative and reproducible process if relative measurements are performed.

  3. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  4. Nanostructures of sodium titanate/zirconium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M., E-mail: carolina@iqm.unicamp.br; Ferreira, Odair P., E-mail: opferreira@gmail.com; Alves, Oswaldo L., E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.b [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido (LQES) (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In this work is reported the synthesis of nanotubes and nanoribbons from mixed oxides (Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O), employing hydrothermal treatment in a highly alkaline medium. The morphology and crystal structure of the products obtained via hydrothermal treatment depend on the value of x. For example, for x equal to 0 and 0.50 were observed the presence of nanotubes (diameter around 9 nm) and nanoribbons (diameter around 200 nm), respectively. However, for x values above 0.50, there was no morphological change. Regarding the crystalline structure of these samples, for x equal to 0 was observed the sodium titanate phase; already for x values up to 0.50, we observed the presence of two crystalline phases: sodium titanate and tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}. For x values above 0.50, only tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} was observed. Furthermore, only the product obtained from x equal to 0.15 was observed the presence of three-dimensional flower-like arrangements. The results obtained by the characterization techniques showed the segregation of zirconium after hydrothermal treatment of precursors with x less or equal to 0.50. Thus, we describe the important role that Ti/Zr molar ratio of the precursor plays on the morphology and crystalline phase of the products formed by hydrothermal treatment.

  5. Working with grocers to reduce dietary sodium: lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Yvonne A; McFadden, Mary; Lamphere, Marissa; Buch, Karen; Stark, Beth; Salton, Judith Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe implementation of and lessons learned from the Broome County Sodium Reduction in Communities grocery store initiative. This pilot project was conducted in collaboration with a regional supermarket chain and endeavored to develop population-based strategies for reducing sodium intake. Key interventions included marketing strategies, taste test demonstrations, and a public media campaign. Project staff worked closely with corporate registered dietitian nutritionists, a nutrition specialist, and an advertising agency in its development and implementation. A social marketing approach was used to educate consumers about the hidden sources of dietary sodium, to raise awareness of the adverse health effects of excess sodium intake, to encourage consumers to read food labels, and to urge them to purchase food items lower in sodium. The lessons learned from this experience may be of assistance to other communities that seek to implement similar sodium-reduction strategies in the grocery store environment.

  6. Effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on sodium sensitivity and renal sodium handling in hypertensive Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Richard A; Afshartous, David; Materson, Barry J; Rodco, Rolando; Alonso, Alberto B

    2014-08-01

    Several consistent lines of evidence indicate an association between sodium sensitivity and impaired nitric oxide bioactivity. Nevertheless, whether restoring nitric oxide in humans by pharmacological means can ameliorate sodium sensitivity has not been investigated. Because nebivolol has been demonstrated to increase nitric oxide bioactivity in both laboratory and clinical investigations, we hypothesized that nebivolol might ameliorate sodium sensitivity and improve renal sodium handling in comparison to metoprolol. We therefore conducted a randomized, 2-treatment-period crossover trial in 19 Hispanic postmenopausal women with hypertension to determine the comparative effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on (1) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure response to an increase in dietary sodium from 5 days of low sodium to 5 days of high sodium, (2) renal natriuretic response to a 1-L saline challenge, and (3) asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Clinic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced after 4 weeks of treatment with both nebivolol and metoprolol. Twenty-four–hour mean systolic blood pressure increased sharply from low sodium to high sodium for both nebivolol and metoprolol. Nevertheless, the increases in blood pressure did not differ between the 2 drugs: 7.7 (3.1, 12.3) mm Hg with metoprolol and 9.3 (4.6, 13.9) mm Hg with nebivolol (P=0.63). Furthermore, we observed no differences between the drugs in natriuretic response to saline challenge or asymmetrical dimethylarginine. In a sodium-sensitive population, at doses sufficient to produce reductions in blood pressure and heart rate, nebivolol did not demonstrate a significant effect on sodium sensitivity or sodium handling compared with metoprolol.

  7. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiozer, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  8. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes urinary sodium excretion by inhibiting epithelial sodium channel α subunit-mediated sodium reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Fei; Wei, Xing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yuanting; Gao, Feng; Zhong, Jian; Pu, Yunfei; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Arendshorst, William J; Nilius, Bernd; Chen, Jing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-08-01

    High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake.

  9. Adsorption of sodium ions and hydrated sodium ions on a hydrophobic graphite surface via cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Guo-Sheng; Wang Zhi-Gang; Zhao Ji-Jun; Hu Jun; Fang Hai-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory computation, we show that sodium ions and hydrated sodium ions can be strongly adsorbed onto a hydrophobic graphite surface via cation-π interactions. The key to this cation-π interaction is the coupling of the delocalized π states of graphite and the empty orbitals of sodium ions. This finding implies that the property of the graphite surface is extremely dependent on the existence of the ions on the surface, suggesting that the hydrophobic property of the graphite surface may be affected by the existence of the sodium ions.

  10. Methodology for sodium fire vulnerability assessment of sodium cooled fast reactor based on the Monte-Carlo principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wei [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, P. O. Box 8088, Beijing (China); Wu, Yuanyu [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Hu, Wenjun [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P. O. Box 275(34), Beijing (China); Zuo, Jiaxu, E-mail: zuojiaxu@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, P. O. Box 8088, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Monte-Carlo principle coupling with fire dynamic code is adopted to perform sodium fire vulnerability assessment. • The method can be used to calculate the failure probability of sodium fire scenarios. • A calculation example and results are given to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. • Some critical parameters and experience are shared. - Abstract: Sodium fire is a typical and distinctive hazard in sodium cooled fast reactors, which is significant for nuclear safety. In this paper, a method of sodium fire vulnerability assessment based on the Monte-Carlo principle was introduced, which could be used to calculate the probabilities of every failure mode in sodium fire scenarios. After that, the sodium fire scenario vulnerability assessment of primary cold trap room of China Experimental Fast Reactor was performed to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. The calculation result of the example shows that the conditional failure probability of key cable is 23.6% in the sodium fire scenario which is caused by continuous sodium leakage because of the isolation device failure, but the wall temperature, the room pressure and the aerosol discharge mass are all lower than the safety limits.

  11. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  12. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  13. Fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium Phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solos, utilizando o milho como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de espécies (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus, semeadas anteriormente à cultura do milho, mais um tratamento controle (sem cultivo prévio e três doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, sendo utilizadas três repetições. A semeadura das espécies vegetais nos vasos foi feita no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron sodium. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto, descartando-se a sua parte aérea. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do milho (cultivar AG-122. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de milho foram avaliadas a altura de plantas e a sua biomassa seca da parte aérea. Verificou-se que as espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis foram eficientes na descontaminação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solo.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of plant species in the phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium in soils, by using corn crop as a bioindicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus sowed before the corn, without previous cultivation (control

  14. Synthesis of sodium polyhydrides at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Kim, Duck Young; Stavrou, Elissaios; Muramatsu, Takaki; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2016-07-01

    The only known compound of sodium and hydrogen is archetypal ionic NaH. Application of high pressure is known to promote states with higher atomic coordination, but extensive searches for polyhydrides with unusual stoichiometry have had only limited success in spite of several theoretical predictions. Here we report the first observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na (NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K. We combine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and theoretical random structure searching, which both agree on the stable structures and compositions. Our results support the formation of multicenter bonding in a material with unusual stoichiometry. These results are applicable to the design of new energetic solids and high-temperature superconductors based on hydrogen-rich materials.

  15. Synthesis of sodium polyhydrides at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V; Kim, Duck Young; Stavrou, Elissaios; Muramatsu, Takaki; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, Richard J; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    The only known compound of sodium and hydrogen is archetypal ionic NaH. Application of high pressure is known to promote states with higher atomic coordination, but extensive searches for polyhydrides with unusual stoichiometry have had only limited success in spite of several theoretical predictions. Here we report the first observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na (NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K. We combine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and theoretical random structure searching, which both agree on the stable structures and compositions. Our results support the formation of multicenter bonding in a material with unusual stoichiometry. These results are applicable to the design of new energetic solids and high-temperature superconductors based on hydrogen-rich materials.

  16. Sodium-24 studies in postmastectomy lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, E.F.; Milland, F.P.; Hellman, L. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Seven patients were studied with {sup 24}Na to determine the relative disappearance time of the isotope from the postmastectomy lymphedematous arm as compared to the normal side. The results tend to confirm previously held convictions that the edema is usually confined to the subcutaneous fat and skin. The disappearance time (T1/2) of the radioactive sodium from the muscle of the edematous side was usually comparable to that of the control side. The data also indicate that the impairment of fluid drainage from other areas, such as the lateral chest wall, that normally drain into the axilla, is impaired similarly to that of the subcutaneous fat of the arm. Operative procedures designed to relieve the edema of the arm by providing an alternate route of drainage should provide a conduit for the fluid to an area that does not normally drain to the axilla of the affected side.

  17. [Dosage problems of sodium nitroprusside (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, B

    1976-12-01

    Sodium nitroprusside has proved a useful completion of anaesthesiologist's armament. Nevertheless there still exist some doubts concerning correct dosage. This uncertainity is aggravated by communications in literature about fatal outcomes of hypotensions induced with this drug. For the patient's safety, we recommend not to exceed an infusion rate of 15mcg/kg/minute or a total of 1.5-3mg/kg irrespective of the time of administration. In any case the development of metabolic acidosis or the occurence of tachyphylaxis or resistance should be a strong argument for discontinuing nitroprusside and changing to an other method of hypotensive anaesthesia. A useful aid is the control of infusion rate by the IVAC-531-machine.

  18. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  19. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin sodium. 522.90c Section 522.90c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ampicillin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ampicillin...

  20. Dietary sodium in chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.

  1. Research on Valve Body Design of Large Bore Sodium Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Large bore sodium valve is one kind of key equipments of China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). It is installed in the pipeline before and behind SG units as a locking mechanism. Valve body which is used to bear pressure is the core of sodium valve design.

  2. 21 CFR 522.313c - Ceftiofur sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceftiofur sodium. 522.313c Section 522.313c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ceftiofur sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ceftiofur...

  3. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamat Jinap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG, as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl (0–1.2% and MSG (0–1.2%. They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG.

  4. Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero

    2012-01-01

    High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Ef

  5. Sodium Valproate Exacerbating an Underlying Disorder of Fatty Acid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinge, Jamie; Herath, Sanjaya; Sonigra, Dharmesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 29-year-old female who presented with rhabdomyolysis shortly after starting a course of sodium valproate. A thorough investigation revealed a likely mitochondrial origin inducing this susceptibility. An underlying mitochondrial disorder should be considered in all patients who present with undifferentiated disease whilst taking sodium valproate.

  6. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S;

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution of the...

  7. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Lou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1 is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5, sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3, sodium-chloride symporter (NCC, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2; as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A. Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure.

  8. Modelling sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholtzer, A; Akunna, J C

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is a known process inhibitor in anaerobic systems and impacts on methanogens through an increase of osmotic pressure or complete dehydration of microorganisms. In this study, a combination of experimental and modelling approaches has been employed to determine and simulate sodium inhibition on the anaerobic digestion process. The ADM1, which has been successfully used in modelling anaerobic processes, has been modified to include an extra inhibition function that considers the effect of sodium on acetoclastic methanogens and the impact on biogas production and composition. A non-competitive inhibition function was added to the rate of acetate uptake for the model to take into account sodium toxicity. Experimental studies consisted of both batch and reactor tests to obtain parameters for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model was used to predict the effect of ammonia nitrogen on sodium toxicity. It was found that relatively low sodium levels can bring about significant levels of process inhibition in the presence of high levels of ammonia. On the other hand, where the concentration of ammonia is relatively low, the tolerance threshold for sodium ions increases. Hence, care must be taken in the use of sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment during anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates.

  9. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by....1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  10. Sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated.

  11. Design and Development of Electrochemical Oxygen Meter in Liquid Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Mi; DONG; Jing-ya; MI; Zheng-feng; FU; Xiao-gang

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack,so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial.China Institute of Atomic Energy has been developing online oxygen meter for liquid sodium since last year.Oxygen meter can

  12. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium, low salt diet that might reduce the risk of hypertension or high blood pressure. ... sodium reduction, include those with family histories of high blood pressure, the elderly, males because...) Nature of the food. The food shall meet all of the nutrient content requirements of § 101.61 for a...

  13. Melting of sodium clusters in electron irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, AV; Vainshtein, DI; Turkin, AA; den Hartog, HW; Bukharaev, AA

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first systematic investigation of the geometrical properties of sodium nanoclusters in NaCl using the combined results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The melting behaviour of the sodium nanoclusters which had

  14. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Flow Distribution in a Sodium Chamber of a Finned-tube Sodium-to-Air Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Youngchul; Son, Seokkwon; Kim, Hyungmo; Eoh, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    DHR systems consist of two diverse heat removal loops such as passive and active DHR systems, and the heat load imposed on the primary sodium pool is safely rejected into the environment through different kinds of sodium-to-air heat exchangers, e.g. M-shape and helical-coil type air-coolers. The former is called as an FHX(Forced-draft sodium-to-air Heat Exchanger) and the latter is simply called as an AHX(natural-draft sodium-to-Air Heat Exchanger). In a general sodium-to-air heat exchanger design, convection resistance in a shell-side air flow path becomes dominant factor affecting the mechanism of conjugate heat transfer from the sodium flow inside the tube to the air path across the sodium tube wall. Hence verification of the flow and heat transfer characteristics is one of the most important tasks to demonstrate decay heat removal performance. To confirm a kind of ultimate heat sink heat exchanger, a medium-scale Sodium thermal-hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air Heat exchanger (here after called the SELFA) has been designed and is recently being constructed at KAERI site. The introduction of the flow baffle inside the upper sodium chamber of the model FHX unit in the SELFA facility is briefly proposed and discussed as well. The present study aims at introducing a flow baffle design inside the upper sodium chamber to make more equalized flowrates flowing into each heat transfer tube of the model FHX unit. In the cases without the flow baffle geometry, it was observed lager discrepancies in flowrates at the heat transfer tubes. However it was also found that those kinds of discrepancies could be definitely decreased at around 1/10 by employing a flow baffle.

  16. Sodium arsenite reduces severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua J. MALAGO; Hortensia NONDOLI

    2008-01-01

    The histopathological features and the associated clinical findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) are due to persistent inflammatory response in the colon mucosa. Interventions that suppress this response benefit UC patients. We tested whether sodium arsenite (SA) benefits rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The DSS-colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water. SA (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) was given 8 h before DSS treatment and then every 48 h for 3 cycles of 7,14 or 21 d. At the end of each cycle rats were sacrificed and colon sections processed for histological examination. DSS induced diarrhea, loose stools, hemoccult positive stools, gross bleeding, loss of body weight, loss of epithelium, crypt damage, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The severity of these changes increased ir the order of Cycles 1,2 and 3. Treatment of rats with SA significantly reduced this severity and improved the weight gain.

  17. Self-association of sodium deoxycholate with EHEC cellulose cooperatively induced by sodium dodecanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolon, Samuel de M; Felippe, Arlindo C; Fizon, Tiago E; da Silva, Luciano; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G

    2014-10-13

    Some aspects of ethyl (hydroxyethyl) cellulose (EHEC) aqueous behavior in the presence of ionic surfactants are described in the literature; however, most of the studies reported address moderately concentrated solutions. Few studies have been carried out in the dilute regime using mixtures of biosurfactants. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the interaction of EHEC in the dilute regime and to verify the mixture of two surfactants: sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium dodecanoate (SDoD). The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration (cac) and saturation of the polymer by surfactants (psp) were determined from the plots of surface tension and specific conductivity versus surfactant concentration in basic conditions. The cmc of NaDC-SDoD mixtures showed non-ideal behavior. However, EHEC added to mixtures of SDoD and NaDC acts as a stabilizer for the mixed aggregate during the association process.

  18. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  19. Axon Membrane Skeleton Structure is Optimized for Coordinated Sodium Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yihao; Li, He; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-01-01

    Axons transmit action potentials with high fidelity and minimal jitter. This unique capability is likely the result of the spatiotemporal arrangement of sodium channels along the axon. Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under entropic tension. Sodium channels also exhibit a periodic distribution pattern, as they bind to ankyrin G, which associates with spectrin. Here, we elucidate the relationship between the axon membrane skeleton structure and the function of the axon. By combining cytoskeletal dynamics and continuum diffusion modeling, we show that spectrin filaments under tension minimize the thermal fluctuations of sodium channels and prevent overlap of neighboring channel trajectories. Importantly, this axon skeletal arrangement allows for a highly reproducible band-like activation of sodium channels leading to coordinated sodium propagation along the axon.

  20. Molybdenum removal from copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Youcai; Zhong Hong; Cao Zhanfang

    2011-01-01

    The removal of molybdenum from a copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching was investigated. The results show that leaching time, liquid to solid ratio, leaching ternperature, agitation speed, and sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide concentrations all have a significant effect on the removal of molybdenum. The optimum process operating parameters were found to be: time, 4 h: sodium hydroxide concentration, 10%; sodium hypochlorite concentration, 8%; liquid to solid ratio, 10:1; temperature, 50℃; and,agitation speed, 500 r/min. Under these conditions the extraction of molybdenum is greater than 99.9% and the extraction of copper is less than 0.01%. A shrinking particle model could be used to describe the leaching process. The apparent activation energy of the dissolution reaction was found to be approximately 8.8 kJ/mol.

  1. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption with a decrease in basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity and an increase in the density of membranes containing apical membrane sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE3) [Y. Zhang, A. K. Mircheff, C. B....... Renal cortex lysate was fractionated on sorbitol gradients. Basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity (but not subunit immunoreactivity) decreased one-third to one-half after BP was elevated and recovered after BP was normalized. After BP was elevated, 55% of the apical NHE3 immunoreactivity......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  2. Proteinuric diseases with sodium retention: Is plasmin the link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Skøtt, Ole; Jensen, Boye L

    2012-01-01

    1. Sodium retention in disease states characterized by proteinuria, such as nephrotic syndrome, preeclampsia, and diabetic nephropathy, occurs through poorly understood mechanism(s). 2. In the nephrotic syndrome, data from experimental and clinical studies indicate that the sodium retention...... originates in the renal cortical collecting duct and involves hyper-activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). 3. The stimulus for the increased ENaC activity does not appear to involve any of the classical sodium retaining mechanisms, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, arginine...... aminonucleoside (PAN) rat model of nephrotic syndrome. 6. This finding suggests that a defective glomerular filtration barrier allows filtration into the tubular fluid of substances that activate ENaC and enhance sodium reabsorption. This concept may be expanded to other disease state, such as preeclampsia...

  3. Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhe Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr, in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel.

  4. Sodium Channel Mutations and Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr), in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes. This mini-review aims to provide an update on the identification and functional characterization of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel mutations from Aedes aegypti. The collection of kdr mutations not only helped us develop molecular markers for resistance monitoring, but also provided valuable information for computational molecular modeling of pyrethroid receptor sites on the sodium channel. PMID:27809228

  5. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  6. Sodium sensing in neurons with a dendrimer-based nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Christophe M; Sallin, Olivier; Loussert, Céline; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2012-02-28

    Ion imaging is a powerful methodology to assess fundamental biological processes in live cells. The limited efficiency of some ion-sensing probes and their fast leakage from cells are important restrictions to this approach. In this study, we present a novel strategy based on the use of dendrimer nanoparticles to obtain better intracellular retention of fluorescent probes and perform prolonged fluorescence imaging of intracellular ion dynamics. A new sodium-sensitive nanoprobe was generated by encapsulating a sodium dye in a PAMAM dendrimer nanocontainer. This nanoprobe is very stable and has high sodium sensitivity and selectivity. When loaded in neurons in live brain tissue, it homogenously fills the entire cell volume, including small processes, and stays for long durations, with no detectable alterations of cell functional properties. We demonstrate the suitability of this new sodium nanosensor for monitoring physiological sodium responses such as those occurring during neuronal activity.

  7. Sodium valproate in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D G; Johnson, R H; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1980-09-01

    The value of sodium valproate in the management of patients during withdrawal from alcohol dependence has been assessed. Alcoholic inpatients were randomly allocated to two groups - one treated with sodium valproate and the other acting as a control. All patients received multivitamins and fluid and electrolyte replacement, and some received chlormethiazole or other tranquillisers. Treatment with sodium valproate (1200 mg daily) was continued for one week. The occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms (tremulousness, nausea, sweating, disorientation) were noted daily. Forty-nine episodes of withdrawal have been included in the trial - 22 in the sodium valproate group and 27 in the control group. Five patients, all in the control group, had seizures. Other withdrawal symptoms disappeared more quickly in the sodium valproate group even though fewer patients were receiving chlormethiazole.

  8. Electrode Materials for Lithium/Sodium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Shen systematically investigated the controlled synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries. She also investigated their formation mechanisms and structural evolution during the operation of batteries using in situ/operando X-ray diffraction techniques. The research findings...... provide insights into formation mechanisms of Li4Ti5O12 anode material from both hydrothermal and solid-state reaction. The results also contribute to a thorough understanding of the intercalation and decay mechanisms of O3/P2 layered sodium cathode materials in sodium ion batteries.......The synthesis of electrode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries and their structural stability during lithium/sodium insertion/extraction are the two essential issues that have limited battery application in the fields requiring long cycle life and high safety. During her PhD studies, Yanbin...

  9. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  10. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnarsson, M. K., E-mail: marga@kth.se; Hallén, A. [Integrated Devices and Circuits, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  11. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1996-08-01

    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  12. Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium-sodium alginate microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmoud M; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20-96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres' surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae.

  13. Nedocromil sodium versus sodium cromoglycate in treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K D; Spooner, C H; Rowe, B H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare the effects of prophylactic doses of nedocromil sodium (NCS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on postexercise lung function, in persons diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Randomized controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Asthma Register, plus hand searching for trials in journals, bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles. Randomized controlled trials comparing NCS to SCG in prophylactic treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction were eligible. Studies were pooled using odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous outcomes or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for continuous outcomes. No significant differences were noted between NCS and SCG with respect to the maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (WMD=-0.88; 95% CI -4.50-2.74), complete protection (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.50-1.81), clinical protection (OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.36-1.39), unpleasant taste (OR=6.85; 95% CI 0.77-60.73), or sore throat (OR=3.46; 95% CI 0.32-37.48). Subgroup analyses based on age, dosages of medications and timing of exercise postinhalation were consistent with the overall pooled analyses. No significant differences were evident between the effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate during the immediate postexercise period in adults and children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, with regards to maximum per cent decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second, complete protection, or clinical protection. Side-effect profiles were similar.

  14. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A

    1994-09-15

    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  15. Effect of sodium fluoride and sodium nitroprouside on Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the individual and combine effect of sodium fluoride (NaF and sodium nitroprouside (SNP on germination and biochemical parameters (pigments, sugar, protein, amino acid, and phenol of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum and peas (Pisum sativum has been studied. After three days of NaF treatment, reductions were observed in percentage of seed germination, root and shoot length, and pigment content with increasing concentration of NaF (1 to 4 mg L-1. Seedlings treated with SNP, both alone and in combination of NaF, showed enhancement in seed germination as well as other growth parameters. NaF-treated seedlings were found to accumulate more soluble sugars and phenols, which were further increased by SNP treatment thereby indicating a synergistic effect of the possible reasons for the ameliorative effects of SNP in seedlings of Pisum sativum growing under NaF stress. Results also demonstrated that SNP application did not show any improvement in both morpho-physiologically and biochemically under sodium fluoride stress condition.

  16. Enhancement by sodium caprate and sodium deoxycholate of the gastrointestinal absorption of berberine chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dongjiao; Wu, Xiaorong; Dong, Wenna; Sun, Wei; Li, Jinzhuo; Tang, Xing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two absorption enhancers, sodium caprate (C10) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), in increasing the bioavailability of a poorly absorbed paracellar flux drug, berberine chloride, across the intestinal mucosae of rats in vivo, together with examination of their effects on mucosal damage. In addition, all four intestinal segments were collected after administration of the enhancers and sodium saline. The results of the bioavailability experiments showed the oral absorption of berberine chloride was poor and both C10 and SDC could significantly improve the very poor absorption of berberine chloride. After co-administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine chloride was increased 41.1-fold by C10 (100 mg/kg) and 35.3-fold by SDC (100 mg/kg) compared with that in the absence of C10 and SDC, respectively. Local toxicity experiment indicated that both enhancers caused no specific damage to the intact intestine. This study demonstrates that C10 and SDC could significantly promote the absorption of berberine chloride from the gastrointestinal tract with few toxic effects, which might be due mainly to relaxing the absorption limitation while inhibiting the efflux transporter of berberine chloride by the enhancers. Besides, this could lead to the development of new drug-enhancers.

  17. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sodium Zinc and
Sodium Iron Chlorophyllins from Pine Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ruzhen; Wu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chlorophyll was extracted from pine needles, and then sodium zinc chlorophyllin (SZC) and sodium iron chlorophyllin (SIC) were synthesised by saponification, purification and substitution reaction, using sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) as a control. Their crystalline structures were verified by atomic absorbance spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy and HPLC. Moreover, their antioxidant activities were evaluated and compared with that of ascorbic acid through four biochemical assays: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and O2– scavenging activity. SZC had better antioxidant properties at a lower dosage than SIC and SCC in all assays. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, EC50 of SZC, SIC and SCC was 0.04, 0.38 and 0.90 mg/mL, respectively, much lower than that of ascorbic acid (4.0 mg/mL). SZC showed a better result (pchlorophyllins had lower activities than ascorbic acid. These results demonstrated the potential bioactivities of chlorophyll derivatives and supported their possible role in human health protection and disease prevention. PMID:27904324

  18. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. (Bart) Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  19. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2011-01-01

    In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved.......In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of reduced sodium intake as a health prophylaxis initiative is still unsolved....

  20. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Graudal, N A

    2004-01-01

    One of the controversies in preventive medicine is, whether a general reduction in sodium intake can decrease the blood pressure of a population and thereby reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In recent years the debate has been extended by studies indicating that reducing sodium intake...

  1. CT-determined canine kidney and urine iodine concentration following intravenous administration of sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R E; Rapoport, S; Weinberg, I; Pollack, H M; Curtis, J A

    1982-01-01

    Following 24-hour fasting and fluid deprivation, sequential changes in CT numbers of the canine kidney were determined in 4 dogs, each of whom received, at intervals, IV sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate at a dose of 500 mgI/kg body weight. The urinary bladder was catheterized for baseline determination of urine osmolality and, subsequently, urine volume and CT number, CT number of the bladder urine from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes post-injection was obtained by scanning known dilutions of urine in vitro. Peak renal cortical enhancement occurred within 2 minutes of bolus injection and was not dependent on the chemical make-up of the contrast agent. Peak medullary enhancement occurred within 3 minutes of bolus injection. Peak medulla CT number following sodium diatrizoate was significantly less than that following metrizamide (P less than 0.025) or iopamidol (P less than 0.01). Peak medulla CT number was significantly less following sodium diatrizoate (P less than 0.01), metrizamide (P less than 0.01) and iopamidol (P less than 0.05) than following sodium ioxaglate. Urine iodine concentrations followed a similar pattern, with significant differences as follows: sodium diatrizoate less than metrizamide = iopamidol less than sodium ioxaglate. It was concluded that the investigational agents metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate have theoretical advantage for excretory urography. Differences in renal handling of these agents are detectable, with CT scanning as differences in renal medullary enhancement and urine iodine concentration.

  2. The effect of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium, sodium cromoglycate and codeine phosphate on citric acid-induced cough have been studied in conscious tracheostomised dogs. 2. Nedocromil sodium (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) and codeine phosphate (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly increased the time to the first cough when dogs were challenged with citric acid aerosol. The mean number of coughs in the initial period of coughing fell after treatment of dogs with nedocromil sodium or with codeine phosphate, but this reduction in mean cough number was not statistically significant. 3. Neither sodium cromoglycate (approximately 15 mg given as an aerosol) nor saline had significant effect on a citric acid challenge. 4. It is concluded that nedocromil sodium, but not sodium cromoglycate, possesses an anti-tussive action that may result from inhibition of sensory nerve activity in the lung. Nedocromil sodium may prove useful in the treatment of unproductive cough in situations where the use of a centrally-acting antitussive is undesirable. PMID:2836011

  3. Effect Of Heparin Sodium In Protection Of The Lens Against Cataract Induced With Intravitreal Injection Of Sodium Selenite- In Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa A. Abdul-Hussein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the possible protective role of heparin sodium eye drops against sodium selenite induced cataract in rabbits.Materials and Methods A group of 18 adult rabbits Oryctologus cuniculus were divided into 3 groups each one of 6 rabbits normal group without treatment and induction control group received DW pre and post induction of cataract and heparin sodium group received heparin sodium eye drops pre and post induction of cataract. The cataract had been induced by intravitreal injection of 0.1ml sodium selenite 0.01 wv in the right eye. Results Heparin sodium was effective in prevention of cataract and the mean score of opacity was 0.170.01 at the end of trial period in stead of the expected score 4 0.00 which observed in DW group and there was non significant difference comparing to pre induction p0.05. Conclusions Heparin sodium eye drops exerted a detectable preventive effect against sodium selenite - induced cataract in rabbits also it was found to be apparently safe and tolerable along the trial period.

  4. Understanding the Role of Sodium during Adsorption: A Force Field for Alkanes in Sodium-Exchanged Faujasites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calero, S.; Dubbeldam, D.; Krishna, R.; Smit, B.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Denayer, J.F.M.; Martens, J.A.; Maesen, T.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a united atom force field able to accurately describe the adsorption properties of linear alkanes in the sodium form of FAU-type zeolites. This force field successfully reproduces experimental adsorption properties of n-alkanes over a wide range of sodium cation densities, temperat

  5. 40 CFR 422.60 - Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium phosphates subcategory. 422.60 Section 422.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.60 Applicability; description of the sodium phosphates subcategory....

  6. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  7. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  8. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007–2010 analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007–2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA‐LO ® Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes ...

  9. Sodium turnover rate determines sensitivity to acute copper and silver exposure in freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Nielsen, Claus; Bianchini, A.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Silver, Freshwater, Fish, Crustaceans, Sodium transport, Ammonia excretion, Predicting mortality......Copper, Silver, Freshwater, Fish, Crustaceans, Sodium transport, Ammonia excretion, Predicting mortality...

  10. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  11. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods.

  12. Adsorption of Potassium and Sodium Ions by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHONG-YAN; JIGUO-LIANG

    1992-01-01

    Adsorption of potassium and sodium ions by four typical variable charge soils of South China was studied.The results indicated that the variable charge soils saturated with H and Al showed a much higher preference for potassium ions relative to sodium ions,and this tendence could not be changed by such factors as the pH,the concentration of the cations,the dielectric constant of solvent,the accompanying anions and the iron oxide content etc.,suggesting that this difference in affinity is caused by the difference in the nature of the two cations.It was observed that a negative adsorption of sodium ions by latosol and lateritic red soil in a mixed system containing equal amount of potassium and sodium ions at low pH,which is caused by a competitive adsorption of potassium and sodium ions and repulsion of positive charge on the surfaces of soil particles for cations.The adsorption of potassium and sodium ions increased with the decreases in the dielectric constant of solvent and the iron oxide content.Sulfate affected the adsorption of potassium and sodium ions through changing the surface properties of the soils.

  13. Reduction of Sodium in the NASA Space Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie L.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive sodium content of the average American diet is an issue that is gaining more and more attention due to the implications for chronic disease and thus health care costs. The typical astronaut or cosmonaut dining on the International Space Station (ISS) is consuming even more sodium per day than the average American due to the lack of refrigeration for food and the limited amount of fresh food in the diet. NASA has known for many years that the high sodium in the on orbit diet is an exacerbating factor for the bone loss that occurs in all crew members in microgravity. However, bone loss is reversed upon return to earth normal gravity. After ten years of having US crewmembers on ISS, additional medical issues have emerged in some long duration ISS crewmembers that are not necessarily being reversed upon return to earth. While it is not necessarily thought that the high sodium content of the diet is the cause of these issues, it is thought that reducing sodium intake could potentially help alleviate some of the on orbit symptoms. Thus, there is an urgent focus on sodium reduction in space food. This paper will discuss the strategies and progress of an on-going project at NASA to reformulate the US space food system to reduce the sodium content.

  14. Effective shelf-life of prepared sodium hypochlorite solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B R; Remeikis, N A

    1993-01-01

    Although the tissue solvent and bactericidal properties of sodium hypochlorite are well known, the effective shelf-life of prepared sodium hypochlorite solutions is not known. The stability of sodium hypochlorite is adversely affected by exposure to high temperature, light, air, and the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables of storage conditions and time on the tissue-dissolving capacity of three different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. Fresh frozen human umbilical cord was used as the tissue sample for this experiment. Tissue samples were dissolved at time intervals ranging from 1 day to 10 wk in 5.25%, 2.62%, and 1.0% solutions of sodium hypochlorite. The tissue-dissolving ability of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite remains stable for at least 10 wk. The tissue-dissolving ability of 2.62% and 1.0% sodium hypochlorite remains relatively stable for 1 wk after mixing, then exhibits a significant decrease in tissue-dissolving ability at 2 wk and beyond.

  15. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  16. Dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular mortality: controversy resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Michael H; Cohen, Hillel W

    2012-07-01

    Universal reduction in sodium intake has long been recommended, largely because of its proven ability to lower blood pressure for some. However, multiple randomized trials have also demonstrated that similar reductions in sodium increase plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion, insulin resistance, sympathetic nerve activity, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Thus, the health consequences of reducing sodium cannot be predicted by its impact on any single physiologic characteristic but will reflect the net of conflicting effects. Some 23 observational studies (>360,000 subjects and >26,000 end points) linking sodium intake to cardiovascular outcomes have yielded conflicting results. In subjects with average sodium intakes of less than 4.5 g/day, most have found an inverse association of intake with outcome; in subjects with average intakes greater than 4.5 g/day, most reported direct associations. Finally, in two, a "J-shaped" relation was detected. In addition, three randomized trials have found that heart failure subjects allocated to 1.8 g of sodium have significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared with those at 2.8 g. At the same time, a randomized study in retired Taiwanese men found that allocation to an average intake of 3.8 g improved survival compared with 5.3 g. Taken together, these data provide strong support for a "J-shaped" relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcomes. Sodium intakes above and below the range of 2.5-6.0 g/day are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This robust body of evidence does not support universal reduction of sodium intake.

  17. Effects of sodium mal-distribution on AHX thermal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Sujin; Hong, Jonggan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The uniform distribution of a refrigerant is very important to the heat transfer performance of heat exchangers. In particular, for a sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX), transferring heat from high temperature liquid metal to air, a mal-distribution of the refrigerant can cause degradation of heat transfer performance or even failure of system by unexpected sodium solidification in flow paths. However, there are little quantitative studies about the effect of maldistribution on thermal characteristics with liquid metal as a coolant. This paper discusses the effects of mal-distribution on heat transfer performance and cold-spot temperature of liquid sodium coolant at the branched tube outlet in AHX unit. The technical issues, which need to be verified for the robust AHX design regarding uniform flow distribution inside heat transfer sodium tubes, are tentatively proposed as well. In this paper, the effects of sodium mal-distribution on heat removal rate and sodium outlet temperature at the branched tubes of the AHX were quantitatively investigated and the following features were tentatively obtained - The effect of mal-distribution on the total heat removal rate is not significant. - The outlet temperature difference between low and high flow rate tubes (T{sub NA,out}) increases as the degree of mal-distribution increases. - In some conditions, the outlet temperature of branched tube reaches the sodium solidification temperature when the degree of mal-distribution increases. An important point is that the sodium mal-distribution would finally result in a system failure by unexpected sodium solidification. Therefore, the studies about the improvement of coolant distribution at the AHX unit need to be conducted by carefully considering characteristics of liquid metal coolant as a future work.

  18. Sodium ferulate inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in rat balloon injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline for 7 days before sacrificed. RESULTS: In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle α-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total β-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. CONCLUSION: Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs.

  19. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  20. [Allergy caused by sodium fluoride glycerin: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jihong

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, though more and more ulcerations of oral mucosa caused by allergy to drug occurred clinically, allergy to sodium fluoride glycerin is extremely rare. A case of allergy to sodium fluoride glycerin occurred in Qianfoshan Campus Hospital of Shandong University. After treatment by sodium fluoride glycerin, there was mucosal edema, a large number of red miliary granules in buccal and palatal mucosa. After 3 hours, there were swallowing difficulties, but no breathing difficulties. Next day large ulcers of oral mucosa developed. The patient was cured 7 days after treatment. Fluoride-sensitive test result was positive.

  1. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  2. Solubilization of benzene and cyclohexane by sodium deoxycholate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Smith, L.S.; Bushong, D.S.; Tucker, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Vapor pressure-solubility data were obtained for the aqueous systems benzene-sodium deoxycholate and cyclohexane- sodium deoxycholate at 25/sup 0/C. The results are consistent with a mass action model similar to the BET equation. Equilibrium constants are inferred to characterize interactions of hydrocarbons with solubilization sites assumed to consist of units of four deoxycholate anions. Although addition of sodium chloride increases the middle aggregation number, solubilization results are affected very little by variation in salt concentration. When pure liquid hydrocarbon standard states are employed, solubilization results for benzene and cyclohexane (at varying salt concentrations) are quite similar. 26 references.

  3. Towards optimization of pulsed sodium laser guide stars

    OpenAIRE

    Rampy, Rachel; Gavel, Donald; Rochester, Simon M.; Holzlohner, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed sodium laser guide stars (LGS) are useful because they allow for Rayleigh blanking and fratricide avoidance in multiple-LGS systems. Bloch-equation simulations of sodium-light interactions show that these may be able to achieve photon returns nearly equal to, and in some cases greater than, what is seen from continuous-wave (CW) excitation. In this work, we study the time-dependent characteristics of sodium fluorescence, and investigate the optimal format for the new fiber laser LGS th...

  4. Renin secretion and total body sodium: Pathways of integrative control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Damkjaer, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Abstract 1. We review mechanisms of sodium balance operating at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), i.e., conditions where MABP does not provide the primary signal to the kidney. 2. Relative constancy of body fluids requires accurate regulation of total body sodium (TBS). Normally, plenty......), but not necessarily in MABP. Signals different from MABP, therefore, seem to be the primary link between TBS and kidney function. 3. Renal functions involved in sodium homeostasis include (i) the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR) determined by renal hemodynamics including tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF), (ii...

  5. Sodium reactivity with anthracitic carbons at 700{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechet, C.; Sarmeo, D.; Mermoux, M.; Touzain, P.; Bonnetain, L.; Dumas, D.; Allard, B.; Paulus, R. [Institut National Polytechnique, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    The reaction of sodium with an anthracite sample is studied at 700{degree}C for various sodium relative pressures and is compared to the simple ease of intercalation in a pitch coke. The behaviour of the anthracite samples is similar to that observed with non-graphitizing carbon - intercalation and capillary condensation take place simultaneously. The sodium intercalation is found to be very sensitive to the previous heat treatment temperature of the sample, which determines the extent of order, and perfection of the carbon layers.

  6. Electrochemical Intercalation of Sodium into Silicon Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Yeon Kim; Hyo-Jun Ahn; Gyu-Bong Cho; Jong-Seon Kim; Ho-Suk Ryu; Ki-Won Kim; Jou-Hyeon Ahn; Won-Cheol Shin

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of Si thin film as an anode for Na battery, we studied the electrochemical intercalation of sodium into the Si film. Amorphous Si thin film electrode was prepared using DC magnetron sputtering. Sodium ion could intercalate into Si thin film upto Na0.52Si, i.e. 530mAh · g-1-Si. The first discharge capacity was 80mAh.·g-1-Si, which meant reversible amount of sodium intercalation. The discharge capacity slightly decreased to 70mAh · g-1-Si after 10 cycles.

  7. Laser remote magnetometry using mesospheric sodium

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas J; Denman, Craig A; Hart, Michael; Scott, R Phillip; Purucker, Michael E; Potashnik, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a remote magnetometer based on sodium atoms in the Earth's mesosphere, at a 106-kilometer distance from our instrument. A 1.33-watt laser illuminated the atoms, and the magnetic field was inferred from back-scattered light collected by a telescope with a 1.55-meter-diameter aperture. The measurement sensitivity was 162 nT/$\\sqrt{Hz}$. The value of magnetic field inferred from our measurement is consistent with an estimate based on the Earth's known field shape to within a fraction of a percent. Projected improvements in optics could lead to sensitivity of 20 nT/$\\sqrt{Hz}$, and the use of advanced lasers or a large telescope could approach 1-nT/$\\sqrt{Hz}$ sensitivity. All experimental and theoretical sensitivity values are based on a 60$^\\circ$ angle between the laser beam axis and the magnetic field vector; at the optimal 90$^\\circ$ angle sensitivity would be improved by about a factor of two.

  8. Epithelial sodium channel modulates platelet collagen activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo, Doris; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia; Ortega, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Activated platelets adhere to the exposed subendothelial extracellular matrix and undergo a rapid cytoskeletal rearrangement resulting in shape change and release of their intracellular dense and alpha granule contents to avoid hemorrhage. A central step in this process is the elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration through its release from intracellular stores and on throughout its influx from the extracellular space. The Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a highly selective Na(+) channel involved in mechanosensation, nociception, fluid volume homeostasis, and control of arterial blood pressure. The present study describes the expression, distribution, and participation of ENaC in platelet migration and granule secretion using pharmacological inhibition with amiloride. Our biochemical and confocal analysis in suspended and adhered platelets suggests that ENaC is associated with Intermediate filaments (IF) and with Dystrophin-associated proteins (DAP) via α-syntrophin and β-dystroglycan. Migration assays, quantification of soluble P-selectin, and serotonin release suggest that ENaC is dispensable for migration and alpha and dense granule secretion, whereas Na(+) influx through this channel is fundamental for platelet collagen activation.

  9. On conduction in a bacterial sodium channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Furini

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.

  10. Is sodium a superconductor under high pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutchton, Roxanne; Chen, Xiaojia; Wu, Zhigang

    2017-01-07

    Superconductivity has been predicted or measured for most alkali metals under high pressure, but the computed critical temperature (Tc) of sodium (Na) at the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase is vanishingly low. Here we report a thorough, first-principles investigation of superconductivity in Na under pressures up to 260 GPa, where the metal-to-insulator transition occurs. Linear-response calculations and density functional perturbation theory were employed to evaluate phonon distributions and the electron-phonon coupling for bcc, fcc, cI16, and tI19 Na. Our results indicate that the maximum electron-phonon coupling parameter, λ, is 0.5 for the cI16 phase, corresponding to a theoretical peak in the critical temperature at Tc≈1.2 K. When pressure decreases or increases from 130 GPa, Tc drops quickly. This is mainly due to the lack of p-d hybridization in Na even at 260 GPa. Since current methods based on the Eliashberg and McMillian formalisms tend to overestimate the Tc (especially the peak values) of alkali metals, we conclude that under high pressure-before the metal-to-insulator transition at 260 GPa-superconductivity in Na is very weak, if it is measurable at all.

  11. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  12. Melting behavior of large disordered sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2000-01-01

    The melting-like transition in disordered sodium clusters Na_N, with N=92 and 142 is studied by using a first-principles constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method. Na_142, whose atoms are distributed in two (surface and inner) main shells with different radial distances to the center of mass of the cluster, melts in two steps: the first one, at approx. 130 K, is characterized by a high intrashell mobility of the atoms, and the second, homogeneous melting, at approx. 270 K, involves diffusive motion of all the atoms across the whole cluster volume (both intrashell and intershell displacements are allowed). On the contrary, the melting of Na_92 proceeds gradually over a very wide temperature interval, without any abrupt step visible in the thermal or structural melting indicators. The occurrence of well defined steps in the melting transition is then shown to be related to the existence of a distribution of the atoms in shells. Thereby we propose a necessary condition for a cluster to be considered r...

  13. Dietary sodium, added salt, and serum sodium associations with growth and depression in the U.S. general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Pavel; Leshem, Micah

    2014-08-01

    It is not known why salt is so attractive to humans. Here, guided by hypotheses suggesting that the attraction of salt is conditioned by postingestive benefits, we sought to establish whether there are such benefits in a population by analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 database (n = ~ 10,000). We focus on two potential benefits supported by the literature, growth and moderation of depression, and examine their relationship to sodium, dietary, added at table, and serum. We find that during growth (sodium intake, independent of caloric or other electrolyte intakes. We find that adding salt and depression are related. In contrast, and in women only, dietary sodium and depression are inversely related. The relationships are correlational, but we speculate that this constellation may reflect self-medication for depression by adding salt, and that men may be protected by their higher dietary sodium intake. Additional findings are that women add more salt than men below age ~30, after which men add more, and below 40 years of age, serum sodium is lower in women than in men. It remains possible that small but beneficial effects of sodium could condition salt preference and thus contribute to population-wide sodium intake.

  14. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension, and to a......Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension......, and to analyze whether any such changes were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. Four groups of subjects were evaluated: 28 normotensive (NTO) and 20 borderline hypertensive (BHO) offspring of hypertensives, 12 borderline hypertensives with normotensive parents (BH) and 28 normotensive...... efflux was significantly increased in borderline hypertensives (BHO + BH) compared to normotensives (NT + NTO). These results indicate that leucocytes from subjects predisposed to hypertension possess an increased ouabain insensitive sodium transport mechanism and in subjects with borderline hypertension...

  15. Microbiota of regular sodium and sodium-reduced ready-to-eat meat products obtained from the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Petr; Liu, Xiaoji; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sodium content on the microbiota on the surface of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products purchased from the retail market in Canada. Products, including sliced and sausage-type deli meats, were analysed with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria were identified from 23 brands of products from different meat processors with claims of sodium content ranging from 390 to 1200 mg per 100 g of product. Out of 150 bacterial isolates, the most common were identified as Leuconostoc gelidum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. Vacuum-packaged RTE deli sliced meat products had the largest population of bacteria. Leuconostocci were the most common isolates in this group of products, while carnobacteria were prevalent on products with moderate loads of bacteria. A higher incidence of carnobacteria and lower incidence of B. thermosphacta were detected on sodium-reduced products. Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices showed that low sodium products (25%-50% less sodium) had an overall higher bacterial diversity. This was also observed when individual low sodium products were compared with their regular sodium counterpart.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium in pharmaceutical products using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic as the chromogentic reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixiao; Wang, Huaiyou; Xiao, Yan

    2004-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin sodium is described. The ampicillin sodium reacts with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic in pH 9.00 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 463 nm, ɛ463=1.14×10 4. The absorbance of ampicillin sodium from 2.0-80 μg ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=40.24 A-2.603, with a linear regression correlation coefficient is 0.9997, the detection limit is 1.5 μg ml -1, recovery is from 97.23 to 104.5%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvents, and foreign ions on the determination of ampicillin sodium have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of ampicillin sodium in the injection solution of ampicillin sodium. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (HPLC).

  17. Observation on the compatible stability of injected cefoxitin sodium and dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qing Xie

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the compatible stability of cefoxitin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Methods:The cefoxitin sodium was compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 25℃. HPLC was used to determine the change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h. The appearance of pharmaceutical liquids was observed, and the change of PH value was detected.Results:No obvious change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h, and no change of PH value, appearance, and characteristics were observed. The insoluble particles conformed to the specifications.Conclusions:Cefoxitin sodium can be compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection within 6 h.

  18. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  19. A Sodium laser guide star coupling efficiency measurement method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Feng; Xue, Suijian; Li, Yang-Peng; Jin, Kai; Otarola, Angel; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Bian, Qi; Wei, Kai; Hu, Jing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Large telescope's adaptive optics (AO) system requires one or several bright artificial laser guide stars to improve its sky coverage. The recent advent of high power sodium laser is perfect for such application. However, besides the output power, other parameters of the laser also have significant impact on the brightness of the generated sodium laser guide star mostly in non-linear relationships. When tuning and optimizing these parameters it is necessary to tune based on a laser guide star generation performance metric. Although return photon flux is widely used, variability of atmosphere and sodium layer make it difficult to compare from site to site even within short time period for the same site. A new metric, coupling efficiency is adopted in our field tests. In this paper, we will introduce our method for measuring the coupling efficiency of a 20W class pulse sodium laser for AO application during field tests that were conducted during 2013-2015.

  20. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  1. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  2. Microencapsulation of sodium alendronate reduces drug mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Letícia; Assumpção, Evelise; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Conrado, Daniela Joyce; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2010-05-01

    Sodium alendronate is an effective treatment for osteoporosis, but its oral administration is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate gastroresistant sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles prepared by spray-drying using Eudragit S100 or a blend of Eudragit S100/Methocel E4M. Both formulations presented high encapsulation efficiencies, mean diameters below 17 microm, and similar collapsed shape. Dissolution experiments showed good gastro-resistance for the microparticles at pH 1.2. At pH 6.8, the blended microparticles retarded the drug release. In vivo studies showed that the formulations were able to protect the rat stomachs against ulcer formation by sodium alendronate. In conclusion, the microparticles seems to be promising oral carriers for sodium alendronate.

  3. Survival after severe self poisoning with sodium valproate.

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhani, M; McMurdo, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    A 48 year old patient deliberately poisoned herself with 25 g of sodium valproate and survived with supportive measures only. This case contradicts the experience of those who advocate aggressive management of such severe overdoses.

  4. Structural chemistry of anhydrous sodium silicates - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Sodium silicates are of considerable importance for many fields of inorganic chemistry and applied mineralogy, being either raw materials for synthesis or already finished products. In addition to their industrial relevance they have also been studied intensively because of their interesting physico-chemical properties including high ion-exchange capacity and selectivity or two-dimensional sodium diffusion and conductivity. Furthermore, the structural chemistry of crystalline sodium silicates offers the crystallographer challenging tasks such as polytypism, polymorphism, temperature and/or pressure-dependent phase transitions, pseudo-symmetry, complex twinning phenomena as well as incommensurately modulated structures. Many of these structural problems have been solved only recently, although in some cases they have been known for several decades. This article will provide an overview on the structurally characterized sodium silicates and their fascinating crystallochemical characteristics.

  5. Characterization of gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Ujwala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gelatin and sodium alginate complex coacervation system was studied and an effect of pH and colloid mixing ratios on coacervation was investigated. A colloid mixing ratio at which optimum coacervation occurred varied with the coacervation pH. Viscometric, turbidity and coacervate dry yield investigations were used to investigate optimum conditions for complex coacervation. Optimum coacervation occurred at pH 3.5 at a gelatin sodium alginate ratio 4:1. Coacervate and equilibrium fluid was analyzed for gelatin and sodium alginate contents and yields calculated on the basis of chemical analysis showed that optimum coacervation occurred at 25% sodium alginate fraction at pH 3.5.

  6. Dynamical Evolution of Sodium Anysotropies in the Exosphere of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, V; Milillo, A; Mura, A; Orsini, S; Leblanc, F

    2012-01-01

    The exosphere, the tenuous collisionless cloud of gas surrounding Mercury is still a poorly known object because it is the result of many various interactions between the surface, the interplanetary medium (Solar wind, photons and meteoroids), the planetary and the interplanetary magnetic fields. Many ground-based observations have allowed the detection of intense and variable sodium emissions at global and local spatial scales, the latter being mostly concentrated in the polarmid latitude regions. These regions are indeed the preferred location of solar wind precipitation on the surface of the planet. In the present paper, by using high resolution Na observations obtained at the Canary Islands with the THEMIS solar telescope, we analyze the variability of the sodium exosphere on time-scale of 1 hour and investigate the possible mechanisms that could explain the exospheric sodium emission distribution and its dynamics. Our interpretation relates the observed sodium asymmetries to the combined effects of plasm...

  7. Combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation enhances interval swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Antti A; Keskinen, Kari L; Malvela, Marko T; Sallinen, Janne M

    2004-05-01

    This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of creatine and sodium bicarbonate on consecutive maximal swims. Sixteen competitive male and female swimmers completed, in a randomized order, 2 different treatments (placebo and a combination of creatine and sodium bicarbonate) with 30 days of washout period between treatments in a double-blind crossover procedure. Both treatments consisted of placebo or creatine supplementation (20 g per day) in 6 days. In the morning of the seventh day, there was placebo or sodium bicarbonate supplementation (0.3 g per kg body weight) during 2 hours before a warm-up for 2 maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 10 minutes in between. The first swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 0.9 seconds less (p creatine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in consecutive maximal swims.

  8. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)

  9. Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jina; Fan Zitian; Zan Xiaolei; Pan Di

    2009-01-01

    The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages,such as low sodium silicate adding quantity,fast hardening speed,high room temperature strength,good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However,it has big moisture absorbability in the air,which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study,the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in different humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile,the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed.Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability,bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: an antidotal role for sodium nitrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A H; Rumack, B H

    1997-06-01

    In 2 separate incidents, 6 patients were poisoned with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer gas. In the first incident, mixing acid- and sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaners in a confined space resulted in 4 poisonings and 2 deaths. Three would-be rescuers were seriously poisoned and 1 died. Two survivors had neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite appeared to have some clinical efficacy in 1 case. The second incident involved 2 patients working on a pump in a sewage pond. A patient lying on a raft close to the pond surface was seriously poisoned; sodium nitrite was clinically efficacious and this patient survived without developing neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite deserves further clinical study as a potential H2S antidote.

  11. Textbook Errors, 136: The Reducing Action of Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, David

    1979-01-01

    This column generally relates errors which have been discovered in textbooks. The error discussed in this issue is the prevalence of erroneous ideas in organic chemistry textbooks, related to the chemistry of sodium borohydride. (Author/SA)

  12. Sodium retention by insulin may depend on decreased plasma potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, C E; Koomans, H A; Bijlsma, J A; Rabelink, T J; Dorhout Mees, E J

    1991-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insulin is a hypertensive factor in humans. The involved mechanism may be its sodium-retaining effect. We examined whether insulin causes sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, as is generally assumed, or indirectly through hypokalemia. Insulin was infused (euglycemic clamp technique) with and without potassium infusion to prevent hypokalemia in six healthy subjects. Without potassium infusion, insulin caused a marked decrease in plasma potassium (-0.75 mmol/L), and decreased urinary sodium and potassium excretions by, approximately 38% and 65%, respectively. Simultaneous potassium infusion largely prevented the decrease in plasma potassium, as well as the decrease in urinary sodium and potassium excretions. These data suggest that the acute antinatriuretic effect of insulin may be largely mediated in an indirect way, ie, through hypokalemia.

  13. Purity of EBR-II sodium: 1967--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C R.F.; Holmes, J T

    1975-12-01

    This report consolidates all information available on radiometric and chemical analyses made on sodium in EBR-II for 1967-1974. Systems, equipment, and techniques used for sampling the sodium are described and evaluated. The behavior of 11 radionuclides, 22 metallic impurities, and 4 nonmetallic impurities measured in EBR-II sodium during this 8-year period are shown graphically, and their trends are discussed with respect to half-life, reactor power level, cold-trap operation, and incursion of foreign material. Sodium-22, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 113m/In, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 210/Po, and tin clearly show increasing radioactivities or concentrations since 1967. EBR-II cold traps are effective in controlling Bi, Cu, O, H, and /sup 3/H, but they are only partially effective for /sup 137/Cs and appear ineffective for /sup 131/I.

  14. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  15. Highly Stable Sodium Batteries Enabled by Functional Ionic Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuya; Choudhury, Snehashis; Xu, Jun; Nath, Pooja; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2017-01-23

    A sodium metal anode protected by an ion-rich polymeric membrane exhibits enhanced stability and high-Columbic efficiency cycling. Formed in situ via electropolymerization of functional imidazolium-type ionic liquid monomers, the polymer membrane protects the metal against parasitic reactions with electrolyte and, for fundamental reasons, inhibits dendrite formation and growth. The effectiveness of the membrane is demonstrated using direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition.

  16. Dipolar relaxation of cold sodium atoms in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Zygelman, B

    2002-01-01

    A quantum mechanical close coupling theory of spin relaxation in the stretched hyperfine level of sodium is presented. We calculate the dipolar relaxation rate of magnetically trapped cold sodium atoms in the magnetic field. The influence of shape resonances and the anisotropy of the dipolar interaction on the collision dynamics are explored. We examine the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections on the choice of asymptotic atomic state basis.

  17. Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1 lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four h after exposure chlorate...

  18. Shape optimization of a sodium cooled fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Damien; Allaire, Grégoire; Pantz, Olivier; Pozin, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Traditional designs of sodium cooled fast reactors have a positive sodium expansion feedback. During a loss of flow transient without scram, sodium heating and boiling thus insert a positive reactivity and prevents the power from decreasing. Recent studies led at CEA, AREVA and EDF show that cores with complex geometries can feature a very low or even a negative sodium void worth.(1, 2) Usual optimization methods for core conception are based on a parametric description of a given core design(3).(4) New core concepts and shapes can then only be found by hand. Shape optimization methods have proven very efficient in the conception of optimal structures under thermal or mechanical constraints.(5, 6) First studies show that these methods could be applied to sodium cooled core conception.(7) In this paper, a shape optimization method is applied to the conception of a sodium cooled fast reactor core with low sodium void worth. An objective function to be minimized is defined. It includes the reactivity change induced by a 1% sodium density decrease. The optimization variable is a displacement field changing the core geometry from one shape to another. Additionally, a parametric optimization of the plutonium content distribution of the core is made, so as to ensure that the core is kept critical, and that the power shape is flat enough. The final shape obtained must then be adjusted to a get realistic core layout. Its caracteristics can be checked with reference neutronic codes such as ERANOS. Thanks to this method, new shapes of reactor cores could be inferred, and lead to new design ideas.

  19. Sodium artesunate-induced diuresis in a patient with malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ahmed Zaki; Preeti Shanbag; Vijay Lad; Prithi Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Sodium artesunate is used in the treatment of malaria. We report a case of sodium artesunate induced diuresis and natriuresis in a patient with malaria. Following artesunate administration there was polyuria accompanied by natriuresis that was reversed after discontinuation of artesunate treatment. The diuretic effect of artesunate can modify the course of renal failure in severe malaria. Prescribers should be aware of this effect of artesunate, so that it can be used judiciously and to the a...

  20. Bonding of metal oxides in sodium silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, D.J.; Veal, B.W.; Chen, H.; Knapp, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies have been undertaken on sodium disilicate glasses containing varying amounts of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and UO/sub 2/. The XPS results enable one to distinguish the different bonding characteristics of iron and uranium in these glasses. A three dimensional model for the iron coordination in the sodium disilicate glass is inferred from the combined XPS and EXAFS results.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate in pre-ruminant cattle

    OpenAIRE

    E.J. Picco; D.C. Diaz David; Encinas,T.; Rubio,M.R.; J.C. Boggio

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of sodium meclofenamate, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, was determined in six pre-ruminant calves after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a dose of 2.2mg/kg of body weight. Meclofenamate concentrations were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography assay. The pharmacokinetics of sodium meclofenamate after intravenous and intramuscular administration to calves were characterised by a rapid distribution phase (t½alpha ), 15.45&plus...

  2. Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cole Johnny; Clarke Juliette; Currell Kevin; Jeukendrup Asker E; Blannin Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid fluid delivery from ingested beverages is the goal of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and sports drinks. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing carbohydrate and sodium content upon fluid delivery using a deuterium oxide (D2O) tracer. Design Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups of 10, the first group was a carbohydrate group (CHO) and the second a sodium group (Na). The CHO group ingested four differen...

  3. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris; Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy; Mueller, Karl T.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a 13C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC-MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H2O and CO2 without any contribution to chemical bonding at the interface.

  4. Mechanisms regulating the renal excretion of sodium during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, C A; Davis, J O; Johnson, J A; Blaine, E H; Schneider, E G; Baumber, J S

    1970-05-01

    Observations were made on the relation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal hemodynamic function to sodium balance in 43 pregnant dogs. Daily balance studies revealed that about 30-40% of ingested sodium was retained during the last half of pregnancy; during the same period, potassium balance was also positive but to a lesser extent. For groups of pregnant dogs, plasma renin activity (n = 14) and aldosterone secretion (n = 19) were significantly higher than normal; however, in some animals one or both functions were normal even though sodium retention was present. In contrast, plasma renin substrate concentration was consistently elevated during pregnancy in seven dogs. In a group of nine dogs in which both aldosterone secretion and plasma renin activity were measured, aldosterone secretion was elevated in the three dogs with the highest values for plasma renin activity; in two of the remaining six animals aldosterone secretion was elevated but plasma renin activity was normal or only slightly increased. The sequestration of sodium and water into the uterine contents was defined quantitatively in this study but evidence was lacking to support the idea that such changes led to renin release. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly elevated throughout pregnancy but a significant decrease from the high level of mid-pregnancy occurred during the last half of pregnancy; this decrease in GFR probably contributed to the sodium retention. Administration of a large dose of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) to dogs in late pregnancy produced marked sodium retention but "escape" from the sodium-retaining steroid occurred. The data demonstrate that although increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was frequently present during pregnancy, a normal rate of aldosterone secretion occurred. This finding and the observed "escape" from DOCA suggest the existence of sodium-retaining mechanisms other than the mechanism provided by

  5. Toxicological profile for o-phenylphenol and its sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouten, H

    1998-01-01

    As part of a health-hazard survey on the health risk of hospital cleaning workers from exposure to Lyorthol, a hazard assessment of o-phenylphenol (and its sodium salt), one of the constituents of Lyorthol, has been prepared. In this paper, the physical and chemical characteristics, kinetics and effects of o-phenylphenol and its sodium salt are described and discussed, and an overall, summarizing hazard evaluation is presented.

  6. Life cycle assessment of sodium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries. This study presents a prospective life cycle assessment for the production of a sodium-ion battery with a layered transition metal oxide as a positive electrode material and hard carbon as a negative electrode material on the battery component level. The complete and transparent inventory data are disclosed, which can easily be used as a basis for future environmental assessments. Na-ion batteries are found ...

  7. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [MNCN-CSIC, c/ J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rivera, T. [CICATA-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or{sub 1}Ab{sub 99}. Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na{sup +} ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti{sup 4+}. The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  8. Molecular imaging using sodium iodide symporter (NIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Yoel [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Radioiodide uptake in thyroid follicular epithelial cells, mediated by a plasma membrane transporter, sodium iodide symporter (NIS), provides a first step mechanism for thyroid cancer detection by radioiodide injection and effective radioiodide treatment for patients with invasive, recurrent, and/or metastatic thyroid cancers after total thyroidectomy. NIS gene transfer to tumor cells may significantly and specifically enhance internal radioactive accumulation of tumors following radioiodide administration, and result in better tumor control. NIS gene transfers have been successfully performed in a variety of tumor animal models by either plasmid-mediated transfection or virus (adenovirus or retrovirus)-mediated gene delivery. These animal models include nude mice xenografted with human melanoma, glioma, breast cancer of prostate cancer, rats with subcutaneous thyroid tumor implantation, as well as the rat intracranial glioma model. In these animal models, non-invasive imaging of in vivo tumors by gamma camera scintigraphy after radioiodide or technetium injection has been performed successfully, suggesting that the NIS can serve as an imaging reporter gene for gene therapy trials. In addition, the tumor killing effects of I-131, ReO4-188 and At-211 after NIS gene transfer have been demonstrated in in vitro clonogenic assays and in vivo radioiodide therapy studies, suggesting that NIS gene can also serve as a therapeutic requires a more efficient and specific system of gene delivery with better retention of radioiodide in tumor. Results thus far are, however, promising, and suggest that NIS gene transfer followed by radioiodide treatment will allow non-invasive in vivo imaging to assess the outcome of gene therapy and provide a therapeutic strategy for a variety of human diseases.

  9. Development of antidotes for sodium monofluoroacetate (1080).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J; Eason, C T; Wickstrom, M; Devine, C D

    2001-01-01

    Baits containing sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) are commonly used in New Zealand during feral pest control operations. However, each year, a number of domestic dogs are unintentionally killed during these control operations, and a suitable antidote to 1080 intoxication is required. The primary toxic mechanism of 1080 is well known. However, as with other pathologies where energy deprivation is the main effect of intoxication, the cascade of effects that arises from this primary mechanism is complex. At present, putative antidotes for 1080 are generally unable to address the primary mechanism of intoxication but such agents may be able to control the cascade of secondary effects, which can result during intoxication. Part of the reason for this is that targeting the cascade can provide a longer window of time for antidote success. We have undertaken studies that identified some of the central nervous system (CNS) and systemic pathophysiological cascades caused by 1080 intoxication. Using this information we designed antidotes, on the basis of preventing different steps in this cascade. In the chicken model targeting systemic changes, in particular reducing effects of nitric oxide derivatives generated in cardiac muscle, proved successful in reducing fatality associated with 1080. In rats and sheep, targeting the CNS with a number of compounds including: glutamate; calcium and dopamine antagonists; gamma amino butyric acid agonists, and astressin-like compounds reduced fatalaties. However, to be successful in the rat and sheep model a given antidote needed to move quickly from systemic circulation across the blood brain barrier and into the CNS. The work also suggests ways in which specific biomarkers of 1080 exposure may be developed with respect to different species.

  10. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  11. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, B P; Cohen, C J; Tsien, R W

    1983-05-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 muM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 muM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 muM, at a depolarized holding potential where inactivation was nearly complete. Lidocaine block showed prominent use dependence with trains of depolarizing pulses from a negative holding potential. During the interval between pulses, repriming of I (Na) displayed two exponential components, a normally recovering component (tauless than 0.2 s), and a lidocaine-induced, slowly recovering fraction (tau approximately 1-2 s at pH 7.0). Raising the lidocaine concentration magnified the slowly recovering fraction without changing its time course; after a long depolarization, this fraction was one-half at approximately 10 muM lidocaine, just as expected if it corresponded to drug-bound, inactivated channels. At less than or equal to 20 muM lidocaine, the slowly recovering fraction grew exponentially to a steady level as the preceding depolarization was prolonged; the time course was the same for strong or weak depolarizations, that is, with or without significant activation of I(Na). This argues that use dependence at therapeutic levels reflects block of inactivated channels, rather than block of open channels. Overall, these results provide direct evidence for the "modulated-receptor hypothesis" of Hille (1977) and Hondeghem and Katzung (1977). Unlike tetrodotoxin, lidocaine shows similar interactions with Na channels of heart, nerve, and skeletal muscle.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  13. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium through acrylamide grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed A; Sherigara, B S

    2014-04-15

    To reinforce the hydroxyethyl cellulose for using it in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as a drug delivery systems, the grafting of acrylamide onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (AAm-g-HEC) was achieved by Ce(IV) induced free radical polymerization. The AAm-g-HEC was then blended with sodium alginate (NaAlg) to prepare pH-sensitive interpenetrating network (IPN) microspheres (MPs) by emulsion-crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent. The produced MPs are almost spherical in nature with smooth surfaces. Diclofenac sodium (DS), an anti-inflammatory drug, was successfully encapsulated into the MPs. The % encapsulation efficiency was found to vary between 54 and 67. The MPs were characterized by DSC, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro release studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 for 2h followed by simulated intestinal fluid of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The release data have been fitted to an empirical equation to investigate the diffusional exponent (n), which indicated that the release mechanism shifted from anomalous to the super Case-II transport.

  14. Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usharani Subuddhi; Ashok K Mishra

    2007-03-01

    Effects of two bile salts, namely sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), on DPPC small unilamellar vesicles have been investigated using the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy () of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a tool. It was found that the variation of is sensitive enough to monitor different stages of interaction of bile salts with DPPC vesicles. NaDC induced significant changes in the membrane well below its CMC (6 mM). Even at 4 mM, which is still lower than the CMC, the phospholipids were completely solubilised by the NaDC micelles. The effect of NaC on DPPC vesicles, however, was much less significant, especially in the sub-micellar concentration regime. Being more hydrophilic NaC does not interact with the membrane efficiently. Complete solubilisation of phospholipids took place only when the concentration of NaC was above its CMC (16 mM). The experiments also showed that the bile salt-induced changes of vesicle structure were strongly dependent on the concentration of the bile salt and not on the molar ratio of lipid and bile salt.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  16. Sodium and water disturbances in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, P C; Pham, P A; Pham, P T

    2001-09-01

    Sheehan's syndrome has been attributed to ischemic damage of the pituitary gland or hypothalamic-pituitary stalk during the peripartum period. Well-described clinical features of Sheehan's syndrome include hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, hypoprolactinemia, and different sodium and water disturbances. The occurrence of sodium and water disturbances associated with Sheehan's syndrome depends on the degree of pituitary damage, time of onset since the initial pituitary insult, and concurrent medical conditions that also may play a role in sodium and water balance. We present a patient with Sheehan's syndrome with severe chronic hyponatremia; discuss a potential problem in the patient's management; and review the literature for various sodium and water disturbances, including acute and chronic hyponatremia as well as overt and subclinical central diabetes insipidus. Although Sheehan's syndrome is more prevalent in developing countries, the increasingly large immigrant population within the United States warrants better awareness of this syndrome and its potential complicating sodium and water disturbances. Prompt diagnosis and an understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of sodium and water disturbances associated with Sheehan's syndrome may avoid potential treatment-related complications.

  17. The Epithelial Sodium Channel and the Processes of Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Chifflet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC mediates passive sodium transport across the apical membranes of sodium absorbing epithelia, like the distal nephron, the intestine, and the lung airways. Additionally, the channel has been involved in the transduction of mechanical stimuli, such as hydrostatic pressure, membrane stretch, and shear stress from fluid flow. Thus, in vascular endothelium, it participates in the control of the vascular tone via its activity both as a sodium channel and as a shear stress transducer. Rather recently, ENaC has been shown to participate in the processes of wound healing, a role that may also involve its activities as sodium transporter and as mechanotransducer. Its presence as the sole channel mediating sodium transport in many tissues and the diversity of its functions probably underlie the complexity of its regulation. This brief review describes some aspects of ENaC regulation, comments on evidence about ENaC participation in wound healing, and suggests possible regulatory mechanisms involved in this participation.

  18. Simulation of chemical kinetics in sodium-concrete interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sodium-concrete interaction is a key safety-related issue in safety analysis of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The chemical kinetics model is a key component of the sodium-concrete interaction model. Conservation equations integrated in sodium-concrete interaction model cannot be solved without a set of relationships that couple the equations together, and this may be done by the chemical kinetics model. Simultaneously,simulation of chemical kinetics is difficult due to complexity of the mechanism of chemical reactions between sodium and concrete. This paper describes the chemical kinetics simulation under some hypotheses. The chemical kinetics model was integrated with the conservation equations to form a computer code. Penetration depth, penetration rate,hydrogen flux, reaction heat, etc. can be provided by this code. Theoretical models and computational procedure were recounted in detail. Good agreements of an overall transient behavior were obtained in a series of sodium-concrete interaction experiment analysis. Comparison between analytical and experimental results showed that the chemical kinetics model presented in this paper was creditable and reasonable for simulating the sodium-concrete interactions.

  19. Sodium cromoglycate in asthma: correlation between response and serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Y; Dany, S; Katznelson, D; Farfel, Z

    1988-01-01

    The clinical response to sodium cromoglycate treatment was compared with its concentration in serum. Twenty five children with asthma entered a 10 week trial of two baseline weeks followed by eight weeks of treatment by the inhalation of 20 mg of sodium cromoglycate spincaps four times a day. Individual clinical response was determined by the differences between baseline and treatment periods of: (a) percentage of symptomless days (delta score 0); (b) diary derived daily score for four symptoms (delta DS); and (c) peak expiratory flow rate (delta PEFR). At the end of the treatment period, patients inhaled a 20 mg spincap of sodium cromoglycate and the technique of inhalation was graded. Concentrations of sodium cromoglycate in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples withdrawn 5 to 120 minutes after inhalation. Delta Score 0, delta DS, and delta PEFR correlated significantly with the area under the concentration time curve. Both the area under the sodium cromoglycate concentration time curve and clinical response correlated significantly with inhalation technique score. We suggest that response of children with asthma to inhalation treatment with sodium cromoglycate is correlated to its serum concentrations. PMID:3133990

  20. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, M R; Benson, M K

    1995-01-07

    Cough is a frequent side-effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We examined the effects of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in 10 patients with ACE-inhibitor cough in a double-blind crossover study. After a 2-week run-in, patients were randomised to either 2 weeks' inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo followed by a further 2 weeks on the other treatment. Patients kept a cough diary during each study period. Cough severity was recorded on a scale from 0 to 12. At the end of each study period the cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin was measured. 9 patients reported a reduction in cough after sodium cromoglycate. Median (range) daily cough scores during run-in and placebo periods were 3.6 (1.9-6.4) and 4.1 (0.6-8.1), respectively (p > 0.05). Median daily cough score after sodium cromoglycate was 1.8 (0.4-3; p sodium cromoglycate; and cough-reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was significantly reduced. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE-inhibitor cough. Its effect may be due to suppression of afferent vagal activity.

  1. Sodium hydrazinidoborane: a chemical hydrogen-storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Romain; Demirci, Umit B; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chiriac, Rodica; van der Lee, Arie; Miele, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we present the successful synthesis and full characterization (by (11) B magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction) of sodium hydrazinidoborane (NaN2 H3 BH3 , with a hydrogen content of 8.85 wt %), a new material for chemical hydrogen storage. Using lab-prepared pure hydrazine borane (N2 H4 BH3 ) and commercial sodium hydride as precursors, sodium hydrazinidoborane was synthesized by ball-milling at low temperature (-30 °C) under an argon atmosphere. Its thermal stability was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that under heating sodium hydrazinidoborane starts to liberate hydrogen below 60 °C. Within the range of 60-150 °C, the overall mass loss is as high as 7.6 wt %. Relative to the parent N2 H4 BH3 , sodium hydrazinidoborane shows improved dehydrogenation properties, further confirmed by dehydrogenation experiments under prolonged heating at constant temperatures of 80, 90, 95, 100, and 110 °C. Hence, sodium hydrazinidoborane appears to be more suitable for chemical hydrogen storage than N2 H4 BH3 .

  2. Preparation and evaluation of thin-film sodium tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, H. E.; Fielder, W. L.; Singer, J.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of sodium tungsten bronze (NaxWO3) were investigated as reversible sodium ion electrodes for solid electrolytes. The films were made by electron beam evaporation of the three phases, W metal, Na2WO4, and WO3, followed by sintering. The substrates were sodium beta alumina disks and glass slides. X-ray diffraction analyses of the films showed that sintering in dry nitrogen with prior exposure to air lead to mixed phases. Sintering in vacuum with no air exposure produced tetragonal I bronze with a nominal composition of Na0.31WO3, single phase within the limits of X-ray diffraction detectability. The films were uniform and adherent on sodium beta alumina substrates. The ac and dc conductivities of the beta alumina were measured with the sodium tungsten bronze films as electrodes. These experiments indicated that the tetragonal I bronze electrodes were not completely reversible. This may have resulted from sodium ion blocking within the bronze film or at the bronze beta alumina interface. Methods for attempting to make more completely reversible electrodes are suggested.

  3. Sensory profile of beef burger with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barbosa Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the sensory profile of three beef burger samples, namely, CON (control, F25 (25% sodium reduction and F50 (50% sodium reduction, based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The samples´ microbial, physical and chemical composition was evaluated. Twelve panelists were selected and trained using as criteria the panelists´ discrimination power, reproducibility and consensus. Eleven terms were generated by the method of network descriptors. The intensity of each descriptor in each sample was evaluated by unstructured scale of 9 cm. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan´s mean test and principal component analysis. The sensory profile shows that low sodium beef burgers had lower fat and salty flavor when compared to untreated control and greater flavor and spice aroma. The above proves that reducing sodium intake causes increased perception burger tasters when compared to the presence of spices in the product. Treatment with 50% sodium reduction obtained the best results for texture softness and appearance. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in the chemical composition of ash, protein and fat in all burgers. In the case of general sensory attributes, treatments with sodium reduction obtained higher intensities of the attributes evaluated, except for meat and salt flavors.

  4. Designing & Optimizing a Moving Magnet Pump for Liquid Sodium Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, Michael G.

    Advanced materials such as NF-616, NF-709, HT-UPS, and silicon carbide (SiC) have greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. Thus, using these high-strength materials to build sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) could potentially reduce construction costs by lessening the required amount of material, and increase the efficiency of electromagnetic pumps by limiting ohmic heating within the pump duct walls. However, information pertaining to the sodium-compatibility of these alloys and ceramics is very sparse. Therefore, two separate test facilities were built to study the impact of both static and dynamic sodium corrosion The dynamic test facility enabled sodium corrosion to be studied under prototypic SFR operating conditions (T = 500 [C], V = 9.35 [m/s], CO = 2-3 [wppm]). The oxygen concentration, CO, within the dynamic test facility was maintained using a cold trap and measured with a plugging meter. The flow rate of the sodium was measured using a calibrated electromagnetic flowmeter. A moving magnet pump (MMP) was used to move the liquid sodium past the corrosion samples at a high velocity. Using newly developed theory, it was found that MMP performance could be accurately modeled and predicted for a wide variety of pump configurations.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  6. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  7. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  8. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  9. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels: Effects on Neurotoxin Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    sodium inhibitory effect of ethanol on channel - mediated sodium influx channels ...Exprnmantal Trherpeutics Ped in I.SA. Actions of Ethanol on Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channels : Effects on Neurotoxin Binding1 MICHAEL J. MULLIN 2 and... sodium channels . This indirect allosteric mechanism for inhibition of [H]BTX-B binding. effect orethanol was concentration-dependent and was

  10. 76 FR 74039 - Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... both Agencies about current and emerging practices by the private sector regarding sodium reduction in... issues associated with the development of targets for sodium reduction in foods to promote reduction in... regarding sodium reduction; current consumer understanding of the role of sodium in hypertension and...

  11. Sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - United States, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed p...

  12. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference: Sodium in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium in foods primarily comes from food processing (77%) but also from salting at the table, home cooking, and inherent food sodium. Excessive sodium intake in the U.S. is a public health concern. Comprehensive data on the sodium content of the U.S. food supply is essential to assessing levels of ...

  13. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange m...

  14. Corrosion Verification Test for the Welds of CEFR Sodium Storage Tank and Sodium Drainage Under the First-Grade Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this test is to observe and analyze the compatibility between the welds and hightemperature sodium at the simulated realistic working conditions of CEFR sodium storage tank andsodium drainage under the first-grade accident. The observation and analysis are focused on theintergranular corrosion at the weld and its heat affection region, in order to provide the test basis for thesafe operation and analysis of CEFR.

  15. [Sodium azide--clinical course of the poisoning and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopaciński, Bogdan; Kołacinski, Zbigniew; Winnicka, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Sodium azide poisonings occur very rarely. The mechanism of sodium azide toxic effect has not yet been fully explained. Despite the lack of an explicit procedure for the cases of sodium azide poisonings, in vitro tests and rare case reports suggest that treatment with antidotes for cyanide poisoning victims can be effective. This study describes two cases of suicidal sodium azide ingestion. Case 1. 30-year-old male ingested ca. 180 mg of sodium azide. On admission to hospital, within 4 hours from poisoning, the man complained of dizziness and anxiety. Physical examination revealed horizontal nystagmus, flapping tremor, HR 135/min. In laboratory tests, higher blood concentration of lactates (3 mmol/l) was detected, as well as lower potassium concentration (3.4 mmol/L) and increased transaminase activity (ALT 74 U/l, AST 90 U/l). Electrocardiographic tests showed a negative T wave in limb lead III. Other results were within normal. As the patient ingested a toxic dose of sodium azide, he was treated according to the therapy prescription for cyanide poisoning (amyl nitrite inhalation followed by intravenous administration of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulphate). ECG record of the last day of hospitalization (7th day of treatment) showed negative T waves in lead III, V4-V6. He was discharged from hospital in good condition. Case 2.23-year-old male ingested 10 g of sodium azide 1.5 hours prior to admission to hospital. At the beginning, the patient's condition was good, but it changed to critical state within the first hours of hospitalization. He developed a deep coma, respiratory and circulatory insufficiency, metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrrhythmias and anuria. Cardiac activity monitoring showed alternating tachycardia (140 beats per minute) and bradycardia (48 beats per minute), numerous additional supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles and sinus dysrrhythmia. Cardiac arrest (asystolia) occurred twice, the second incident with fatal outcome. The patient

  16. Structure of aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General, Ignacio J; Asciutto, Eliana K; Madura, Jeffry D

    2008-12-01

    Salt solutions have been the object of study of many scientists through history, but one of the most important findings came along when the Hofmeister series were discovered. Their importance arises from the fact that they influence the relative solubility of proteins, and solubility is directly related to one of today's holy grails: protein folding. In this work we characterize one of the more-destabilizing salts in the series, sodium perchlorate, by studying it as an aqueous solution at various concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1.60 mol/L. Molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature permitted a detailed study of the organization of solvent and cosolvent, in terms of its radial distribution functions, along with the study of the structure of hydrogen bonds in the ions' solvation shells. We found that the distribution functions have some variations in their shape as concentration changes, but the position of their peaks is mostly unaffected. Regarding water, the most salient fact is the noticeable (although small) change in the second hydration shell and even beyond, especially for g(O(w)***O(w)), showing that the locality of salt effects should not be restricted to considerations of only the first solvation shell. The perturbation of the second shell also appears in the study of the HB network, where the difference between the number of HBs around a water molecule and around the Na(+) cation gets much smaller as one goes from the first to the second solvation shell, yet the difference is not negligible. Nevertheless, the effect of the ions past their first hydration shell is not enough to make a noticeable change in the global HB network. The Kirkwood-Buff theory of liquids was applied to our system, in order to calculate the activity derivative of the cosolvent. This coefficient, along with a previously calculated preferential binding, allowed us to establish that if a folded AP peptide is immersed in the studied solution, becoming the solute, then

  17. Optimum Metallic-Bond Scheme: A Quantitative Analysis of Mass Spectra of Sodium Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏长荣; 李家明

    2001-01-01

    Based on the results of the optimum metallic-bond scheme for sodium clusters, we present a quantitative analysis of the detailed features of the mass spectra of sodium clusters. We find that, in the generation of sodium clusters with various abundances, the quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium atom dominate. The quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium dimer are also important to understand the detailed features of mass spectra for small clusters.

  18. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  19. Sodium Content in Packaged Foods by Census Division in the United States, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alexandra K.; Schieb, Linda J.; Yuan, Keming; Maalouf, Joyce; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving c...

  20. Assessing the Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods with Nutrition Declarations: The Importance of Sales Data

    OpenAIRE

    Živa Korošec; Igor Pravst

    2014-01-01

    Processed foods are recognized as a major contributor to high dietary sodium intake, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different public health actions are being introduced to reduce sodium content in processed foods and sodium intake in general. A gradual reduction of sodium content in processed foods was proposed in Slovenia, but monitoring sodium content in the food supply is essential to evaluate the progress. Our primary objective was to test a new approach for ass...

  1. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The terms “very low sodium” or “very low in sodium” may be used on the label or in labeling of...) The terms “low sodium,” “low in sodium,” “little sodium,” “contains a small amount of sodium,” or “low... product meets the definition for “low sodium.” (7) The terms defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this...

  2. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “very low sodium” or “very low in sodium” may be used on the label or in labeling of products, except...) The terms “low sodium,” “low in sodium,” “little sodium,” “contains a small amount of sodium,” or “low... product meets the definition for “low sodium.” (7) The terms defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this...

  3. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food (e.g., “leaf lettuce, a sodium free food”). (2) The terms “very low sodium,” or “very low in... merely to the particular brand to which the label attaches. (4) The terms “low sodium,” or “low in sodium... particular brand to which the label attaches (e.g., “fresh spinach, a low sodium food”); and (5) The...

  4. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gawałek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The material for investigations was typical commercial sodium caseinate in the form of dry powder manufactured in Poland from acid casein using the method of extrusion. The objective of the undertaken empirical studies was the assessment of the impact of the concentration on rheological properties of sodium caseinate concentrates. Investigations were carried out for five concentrates manufactured in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator at concentrations ranging X (% Î (2.5¸12.5 and changing mass proportions of sodium caseinate in the aqueous solution as follows: GS/G (kgS·kg-1 = 0.025. On the basis of the obtained research results, classical flow curves were plotted for individual concentrates. The determined values of viscosity and density of the examined solutions were correlated in the form of h = f(GS/G and r = f(GS/G dependencies which were used during the determination of classical characteristics of mixing forces essential for the assessment of energetic expenditures required to manufacture concentrates in a mixer equipped in a mechanical agitator. The density of the examined concentrates increased in a way directly proportional, while the dynamic viscosity coefficient increased exponentially together with the increase of sodium caseinate concentration. Sodium caseinate concentrates exhibited Newtonian character in the examined range of concentrations.

  5. Accuracy of Canadian Food Labels for Sodium Content of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fitzpatrick

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories. Results were requested for products with ≥1 of the following nutrients tested: sodium, calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sugar. Differences between the label and laboratory values were calculated for each product. Overall, 16.7% (n = 169 of products were “unsatisfactory” with laboratory values exceeding ±20% of the NFt value. Sodium had the highest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 49, 18.4% and trans fat had the lowest number of unsatisfactory products (n = 16, 4.3%. The proportion of unsatisfactory products for saturated fat, calories, and sugar was 15.8%, 14.2%, and 12.9%, respectively. All of the unsatisfactory products had excess nutrient content relative to the NFt. Sodium and calories were consistently underreported (p < 0.05, while NFt values for the other nutrients were not statistically different than laboratory values. Increased monitoring of NFt sodium values is recommended in order to increase consumer confidence in this nutrition tool, to encourage industry to accurately report nutrient content and to continue using the NFt to guide research, education, and policy development.

  6. Serum electrolyte shifts following administration of sodium phosphates enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Peery, Jessica; Thompson, William O; Kanapka, Joseph A; Caswell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The misuse of sodium phosphates enemas has resulted in reports of potentially severe metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances. Despite their long availability, these products have not been fully characterized pharmacokinetically. This trial sought to evaluate changes in the metabolic and hemodynamic parameters following the administration of one of two standard sodium phosphates enemas. Enema Casen (250 ml) is available only in Spain, and Fleet Enema (133 ml) is available in 66 countries in six continents of the world. These changes were correlated with scientific literature reports of hyperphosphatemia following phosphate enema use. Forty-five adult participants aged 50 years or older enrolled in the trial. Twenty-five participants were given one Enema Casen, whereas 20 participants received one Fleet Enema. Blood pressure, pulse, and serum chemistries were evaluated at screening; baseline; and 10, 60, and 120 minutes after receiving the enema. Each participant had a bowel movement within 10 minutes of receiving his enema. Asymptomatic, transient hyperphosphatemia was associated with increase in retention time but not with increase in volume of sodium phosphates enemas. Increased serum phosphate concentration and increased area under the curve of serum phosphate were associated with increased enema retention time. The Enema Casen induced a greater mean AUC of serum sodium concentration than did the Fleet Enema. There were no drug-related adverse events. Transient hyperphosphatemia following the use of sodium phosphates enemas correlates with retention time but not with dose. A scientific literature review of serious adverse events revealed that overdose, concomitant use of oral and rectal sodium phosphates products, and use in a contraindicated patient were associated with sodium phosphates enema and hyperphosphatemia.

  7. Surface and thermodynamic properties of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczuk, B. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, M.L. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Bruque, J.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Dorado-Calasanz, C. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    Determinations of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate were made in the presence of a neutral salt (NaCl; 0.1 M) at 20 C. On the basis of these determinations the isotherms and the standard thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were determined. The equation of state for a monolayer film of the studied surfactants was also discussed. A linear dependence was found between log {Gamma} and log c in the range of low surfactant concentrations. The limiting value of {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) was found to be 1 kT in contrary to the case in which the solutions were made in the absence of neutral salt. It has been suggested that there are not only attractive forces of the Lifshitz-van der Waals type but also acid-base forces which can affect the {Pi} parameter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Grenzflaechenspannung waessriger Loesungen von Natriumdodecylsulfat und Natriumdodecylsulfonat bei 20 C in Gegenwart eines Neutralsalzes (0,1 M NaCl) wurde bestimmt. Auf der Grundlage dieser Messungen wurden die Isothermen und die thermodynamischen Standardgroessen der Adsorption ermittelt. Die Zustandsgleichung fuer einen monomolekularen Film der untersuchten Tenside wird diskutiert. Es wurde eine lineare Beziehung zwischen log {Gamma} und log c fuer niedrige Tensidkonzentrationen gefunden. Ferner wurde festgestellt, dass der Grenzwert von {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) in den Loesungen gleich 1 kT ist, anders als bei Abwesenheit eines Neutralsalzes. Daraus wurde geschlossen, dass nicht nur Anziehungskraefte des Lifshitz-van der Waals-Typs vorliegen, sondern auch Saeure-Base-Kraefte, die die {Pi}-Parameter beeinflussen koennen. (orig.)

  8. Protective effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on gastroduodenal ulcers: a comparative study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Moutaery, Meshal Al; Elfaki, Ibrahim; Arshaduddin, Mohammad; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-08-01

    Stabilization of mast cells plays a key mechanism to protect gastrointestinal tract from injury. This study presents a comparative evaluation of mast cell stabilizers nedocromil sodium (NDS) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in experimental gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. Wistar rats of either sex were used in this study. Both NDS and SCG, in the doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg were given intraperitoneally for gastric secretion studies and by gavage for antiulcer studies. Acid secretion studies were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric lesions were induced by water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), indomethacin and ethanol whereas duodenal ulcers were produced by cysteamine. The level of glutathione (GSH) and gastric wall mucus were measured in glandular stomach of rats following ethanol-induced gastric lesions. SCG was more effective than NDS in preventing WIRS- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions whereas reverse was true in ethanol- and cysteamine-induced ulcers. All the 3 doses of SCG offered almost equal protection against WIRS-induced gastric lesions whereas only medium and high dose of NDS provided significant protection in this model of ulcer. NDS significantly inhibited cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers whereas SCG failed to do so. Pretreatment with NDS or SCG significantly and dose-dependently protected gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced injury, while the former drug appeared to be more effective. The cytoprotective effects of these two drugs were accompanied by the attenuation of ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus and GSH. The differential effects of NDS and SCG against various gastric lesions rationalize the possible benefits of a combined therapy (NDS+SCG) for the treatment of complex gastroduodenal ulcers.

  9. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  10. A double blind placebo controlled group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hennawi, M

    1994-05-01

    In a 4 week double masked comparative study, patients received 2% nedocromil sodium (48), 2% sodium cromoglycate (48), or placebo eye drops (42), four times daily, for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Clinical examinations of eye condition and symptom severity were made before and after a 1 week baseline before starting test treatment, and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diary card records of symptom severity and concomitant therapy. At the clinic, significant improvements were seen with both active treatments after 2-4 weeks. During the final visit, significant benefits over placebo were recorded for five ocular signs with nedocromil sodium and three with sodium cromoglycate, bulbar and lower tarsal chemosis being better controlled by nedocromil sodium (p sodium cromoglycate). Diary card trends showed improvement with all three treatments, which was greatest with nedocromil sodium and least with placebo. Compared with placebo, both the active drugs produced statistically significant improvements in general eye condition during weeks 1-2, and nedocromil sodium significantly reduced itching within the first week. Overall, nedocromil sodium had the greatest effect on symptoms, although diary card data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two active drugs. In conclusion, both 2% nedocromil sodium and 2% sodium cromoglycate were effective in controlling VKC when administered four times daily into the eyes, while the marked anti-inflammatory activity of nedocromil sodium was apparent in its more pronounced overall therapeutic effect.

  11. Performance evaluation of PFBR wire type sodium leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, G., E-mail: viju@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajan, K.K.; Nashine, B.K.; Chandramouli, S. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Madhusoodanan, K. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kalyanasundaram, P. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Performance evaluation of wire type leak detectors was conducted in LEENA facility by creating sodium leaks. > The lowest leak rate of 214 g/h was detected in 50 min and the highest detection time was 6 h for a leak rate of 222 g/h. > Factors affecting the leak detection time are packing density of thermal insulation, layout of heater, temperature, etc. > Relationship between leak rate and detection time was established and a leak rate of 100 g/h is likely to be detected in 11.1 h. > Contact resistance of leaked sodium increased to 3.5 kilo ohms in 20 h. - Abstract: Wire type leak detectors working on conductivity principle are used for detecting sodium leak in the secondary sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors. It is required to assess the performance of these detectors and confirm that they are meeting the requirements. A test facility by name LEENA was constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam to test the wire type leak detector lay out by simulating different sodium leak rates. This test facility consists of a sodium dump tank, a test vessel, interconnecting pipelines with valves, micro filter and test section with leak simulators. There are three different test sections in the test set up of length 1000 mm each. These test sections simulate piping of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) secondary circuit and the wire type leak detector layout in full scale. All test sections are provided with leak simulators. A leak simulator consists of a hole of size one mm drilled in the test section and closed with a tapered pin. The tapered pin position in the hole is adjusted by a screw mechanism and there by the annular gap of flow area is varied for getting different leak rates. Various experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the leak detectors by creating different sodium leak rates. This paper deals with the details of wire type leak detector layout for the secondary sodium circuit of PFBR

  12. Role of Sodium Channel on Cardiac Action Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sabzpoushan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is a major cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it's caused by abnormal action potential propagation that leads to cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this article is to study the abnormal action potential propagation through sodium ion concentration variations. We use a new electrophysiological model that is both detailed and computationally efficient. This efficient model is based on the partial differential equation method. The central finite difference method is used for numerical solving of the two-dimensional (2D wave propagation equation. Simulations are implemented in two stages, as a single cardiac cell and as a two-dimensional grid of cells. In both stages, the normal action potential formation in case of a single cell and it's normal propagation in case of a two-dimensional grid of cells were simulated with nominal sodium ion conductance. Then, the effect of sodium ion concentration on the action potential signal was studied by reducing the sodium ion conductance. It is concluded that reducing the sodium ion conductance, decreases both passing ability and conduction velocity of the action potential wave front.

  13. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  14. Respiration and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, S U; Eaton, D C

    1982-07-28

    Respiration of rabbit urinary bladder was measured in free-floating pieces and in short-circuited pieces mounted in an Ussing chamber. Ouabain, amiloride, and potassium-free saline inhibited respiration approx. 20%; sodium-free saline depressed respiration approx. 40-50%. The coupling ratio between respiration and transport in short-circuited tissues was about two sodium ions per molecule O2. Chloride-free saline depressed mean oxygen consumption 21% in free-floating tissue pieces; 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and furosemide had no effect. The effect of chloride-free saline in short-circuited tissues was variable; in tissues with low transport rates, respiration was stimulated about 21% while in tissue with high transport rates respiration was reduced about 24%. Nystatin and monensin, both of which markedly increase the conductance of cell membranes with a concomitant increase in sodium entry, stimulated respiration. These data indicate that 50-60% of the total oxygen consumption is not influenced by sodium, 20-25% is linked to (Na+ +K+)-ATPase transport, while the remaining 25-30% is sodium-dependent but not ouabain-inhibitable.

  15. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  16. Nebulised sodium cromoglycate in recurrently wheezy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, J J; Simpkiss, M J

    1985-01-01

    A double blind crossover study of nebulised sodium cromoglycate in 27 asthmatic preschool children was carried out over a one year period. All subjects had sufficiently severe asthma to have had at least one admission to hospital. The active treatment was sodium cromoglycate 20 mg (in 2 ml) administered by a nebuliser four times daily. Assessment was made by a diary card and clinical examination. Results were analysed in 24 subjects who completed the study. Statistical analysis allowed for order of treatment and seasonal effects. Significant results in favour of treatment with sodium cromoglycate were obtained for night cough, day activity, percentage of symptom free days, and overall severity of asthma. During active treatment there was no reduction in the rate of admissions to hospital or intravenous drugs used. The wheeze score during the week after an upper respiratory tract infection was not reduced during treatment with sodium cromoglycate. Nebulised sodium cromoglycate is a tedious prophylactic treatment for the young asthmatic child but is useful when other treatments have failed. PMID:3929698

  17. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  18. Pathogenesis of water and sodium retention in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P Y; Schrier, R W

    1997-06-01

    The pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis involves extrarenal mechanisms because when kidneys from cirrhotic patients are transplanted into persons with normal livers, renal sodium and water retention no longer occurs. Cirrhosis is accompanied by portal hypertension, which leads to a hyperdynamic circulatory state. The Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation Hypothesis incriminates a relative underfilling of the arterial vascular compartment, which leads to the same neurohumoral responses that occurs in low cardiac output. Activation of the renain-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and the sympathetic system as well as non-osmotic release of vasopressin are well documented in cirrhosis. This sequence of events results in renal water and sodium retention, failure to escape from the sodium-retaining effect of aldosterone, and renal resistance to atrial natriuretic peptide. Dilutional hyponatremia is the strongest predictor of the occurrence of hepatorenal syndrome. The pathogenesis of the peripheral arterial vasodilation is not completely elucidated, but there is evidence for a major role of nitric oxide (NO). Increased vascular NO production has been demonstrated in cirrhosis. In the rat model of cirrhosis, normalization of vascular NO production with a NOS inhibitor corrects the hyperdynamic circulation, improves sodium and water excretion, and decreases neurohumoral activation. This insight into the mechanism(s) of the peripheral arterial vasodilation in cirrhosis should provide new tools in the treatment of edema and ascites, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis.

  19. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  20. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress.