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Sample records for borocaptate sodium bsh

  1. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  2. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  3. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  4. Electroporation increases the effect of borocaptate (10B-BSH) in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The cell membrane permeability of borocaptate (10B-BSH) and its extent of accumulation in cells are controversial. This study was performed to elucidate these points. Methods and Materials: Two different treatments were applied to SCCVII tumor cells. The first group of tumor cells was incubated in culture medium with 10B-BSH or 10B-enriched boric acid, and was exposed to neutrons from the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). More than 99% of neutrons were thermal neutrons at flux base. The second group was pretreated by electroporation in combination with 10B-BSH, and thereafter the cells were irradiated with neutrons. The cell killing effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using BSH were investigated by colony formation assay. Results: Surviving cell fraction decreased exponentially with neutron fluence, and addition of BSH significantly enhanced the cell killing effect of neutron capture therapy (NCT) depending on 10B concentration. The effect of BSH-BNCT also increased with preincubation time of cells in the medium containing BSH. The electroporation of cells with BSH at 10 ppm 10B markedly enhanced BSH-BNCT effects in comparison with that of preincubation alone. The effect of BSH-BNCT with electroporation was equal to that of BNCT using 10B-boric acid at a same 10B concentration (10 ppm). Conclusions: BSH is suggested to penetrate the cells slowly and remained after washing. Electroporation can introduce BSH into the cells very efficiently, and BSH stays in the cells and is not lost by washing. Therefore, if electroporation is applied to tumors after BSH injection, 10B remains in tumors but is cleared from normal tissues, and selective accumulation of 10B in tumors will be achieved after an adequate waiting time

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: investigation of urinary metabolites and oxidation products of sodium borocaptate by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C R; Staubus, A E; Barth, R F; Yang, W; Kleinholz, N M; Jones, R B; Green-Church, K; Tjarks, W; Soloway, A H

    2001-12-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on a nuclear capture reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy neutrons to produce high-energy alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. The purpose of the present study was to determine what urinary metabolites, if any, could be detected in patients with brain tumors who were given sodium borocaptate (BSH), a drug that has been used clinically for BNCT. BSH was infused intravenously over a 1-h time period at doses of 26.5, 44.1, or 88.2 mg/kg of body weight to patients with high-grade brain tumors. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been used to investigate possible urinary metabolites of BSH. Chemical and instrument conditions were established to detect BSH and its possible metabolites in both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. Using this methodology, boronated ions were found in patients' urine samples that appeared to be consistent with the following chemical structures: BSH sulfenic acid (BSOH), BSH sulfinic acid (BSO(2)H), BSH disulfide (BSSB), BSH thiosulfinate (BSOSB), and a BSH-S-cysteine conjugate (BSH-CYS). Although BSH has been used clinically for BNCT since the late 1960s, this is the first report of specific biotransformation products following administration to patients. Further studies will be required to determine both the biological significance of these metabolites and whether any of these accumulate in significant amounts in brain tumors. PMID:11717178

  6. Optimal timing of neutron irradiation for boron neutron capture therapy after intravenous infusion of sodium borocaptate in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A cooperative study in Europe and Japan was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics and boron uptake of sodium borocaptate (BSH: Na2B12H11SH), which has been introduced clinically as a boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy in patients with glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: Data from 56 patients with glioblastoma who received BSH intravenous infusion were retrospectively reviewed. The pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 50 patients, and boron uptake was investigated in 47 patients. Patients received BSH doses between 12 and 100 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation, the infused boron dose was scaled linearly to 100 mg/kg BSH. Results: In BSH pharmacokinetics, the average value for total body clearance, distribution volume of steady state, and mean residence time was 3.6±1.5 L/h, 223.3±160.7 L, and 68.0±52.5 h, respectively. The average values of the boron concentration in tumor adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, the boron concentration in blood adjusted to 100 mg/kg BSH, and the tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 37.1±35.8 ppm, 35.2±41.8 ppm, and 1.53±1.43, respectively. A good correlation was found between the logarithmic value of Tadj and the interval from BSH infusion to tumor tissue sampling. About 12-19 h after infusion, the actual values for Tadj and tumor/blood boron concentration ratio were 46.2±36.0 ppm and 1.70±1.06, respectively. The dose ratio between tumor and healthy tissue peaked in the same interval. Conclusion: For boron neutron capture therapy using BSH administered by intravenous infusion, this work confirms that neutron irradiation is optimal around 12-19 h after the infusion is started

  7. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p < 0.05). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH

  8. Mutagenic effect of boronophenylalanine and borocaptate in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the mutagenic effect in BNCT, CHO cells were incubated for 2 hours or 20 hours in culture medium with borocaptate sodium (BSH: Na2B12H11SH), or boronophenylalanine (BPA) prior exposure to neutrons from the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and the occurrence of mutations at the HPRT locus was measured. The mutagenicity of BSH and BPA was almost similar to the mutagenicity of 10B-boric acid at the same 10B concentration when cells were irradiated by iso-survival neutron dose. Pre-incubation to BSH for 20 hours caused an increase both in the cell killing effect and mutagenic effect in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) compared with pre-incubation to BSH for 2 hours. However, pre-incubation to BPA for 20 hours caused an increase in the cell killing effect but induced a decrease in mutagenic effect in BNCT compared with pre-incubation to BPA for 2 hours. (author)

  9. Large animal normal tissue tolerance using an epithermal neutron beam and borocaptate sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of the canine head following intravenous Na2B12H11SH (BSH) administration has provided useful information concerning the tolerance of skin and brain to the resultant complex form of irradiation. The effect of the boron capture reaction in skin and brain has provided estimates of the influence of the microscopic dosimetry involved. Dogs irradiated with the epithermal bam alone provided valuable insight into the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the fast neutron component (>10 keV) of the epithermal beam. When comapred with literature values for X-rays for the occurrence of skin necrosis in dogs, an RBE of 4.5 was derived. Previous pharmacokinetic data concerning the distribution of Na2B12H11SH (BSH) to blood and bran has been used to obtain input parameters for computer models of the microvasculature of the brain. Monte Carlo computer models were used to simulate the microscopic distribution of BSH in the normal brain. The term compo- und factor describes the product of the microscopic boron fission fragment dose hitting the nucleus and the relative biologic effectiveness divided by the macroscopic equilibrium dose of the boron reaction in the tissue of interest. The computed compound factor for Na2B12H11SH (BSH) in normal brain was 0.37. This factor agreed very well with the value of 0.32 obtained for the brain necrosis with the dog irradiations. The compound factor for the dog's skin was experimentally derived from the dog experiments and was equal to 0.5. (orig.)

  10. Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH), a boron carrier that merits more attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Andrea, E-mail: wittig@med.uni-marburg.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn [NCT Physics, Nassaulaan 12, 1815 GK Alkmaar (Netherlands); Hilger, Ralf A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Rassow, Juergen [NCTeam, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Mauri, Pierluigi [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Tecnologie, Biomediche (CNR-ITB), Via Fratelli Cervi, 93, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Sauerwein, Wolfgang [NCTeam, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy relies on the preferential delivery of a {sup 10}B-compound to tumor cells. The BSH-biodistribution was investigated in nu/nu mice and human patients. The boron concentration was measured with prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. BSH accumulates to a very low extent not only in brain, but also in fat tissue, bone and muscle, which makes BSH an interesting drug not only for brain lesions but also for tumors located at the extremities. The differential uptake in different organs indicates a complex mechanism.

  11. Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH), a boron carrier that merits more attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy relies on the preferential delivery of a 10B-compound to tumor cells. The BSH-biodistribution was investigated in nu/nu mice and human patients. The boron concentration was measured with prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. BSH accumulates to a very low extent not only in brain, but also in fat tissue, bone and muscle, which makes BSH an interesting drug not only for brain lesions but also for tumors located at the extremities. The differential uptake in different organs indicates a complex mechanism.

  12. The combined effect of electroporation and borocaptate in boron neutron capture therapy for murine solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B-Enriched borocaptate (BSH) was administered intraperitoneally to SCCVII tumor-bearing C3H/He mice. Electroporation (EP) was conducted by using a tweezers-type electrode. The 10B contents in tumors were measured by prompt γ-ray spectrometry. The colony formation assay was applied to investigate the antitumor effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and thereby to estimate the intratumor localization of BSH. The 10B concentrations in tumors decreased with time following BSH administration, falling to 5.4(±0.1) ppm at 3 h, whereas EP treatment (3 repetitions) 15 min after BSH injection delayed the clearance of BSH from tumors, and the 10B level remained at 19.4(±0.9) ppm at 3 h. The effect of BNCT increased with the 10B concentration in tumors, and the combination with EP showed a remarkably large cell killing effect even at 3 h after BSH injection. The effect of BNCT, i.e., slope coefficient of the cell survival curve of tumors, without EP was proportional to tumor 10B level (r=0.982), and that of BSH-BNCT combined with EP lay close to the same correlation line. However, tumors subjected to EP after BSH injection did not show high radiosensitivity when irradiated after conversion to a single cell suspension by enzymatic digestion. This indicates that the increase of the BNCT effect by EP was a consequence of enclosure of BSH in the interstitial space of tumor tissue and not within tumor cells. This is different from a previous in vitro study. The combination of EP and BNCT may be clinically useful, if a procedure to limit EP to the tumor region becomes available or if an alternative similar method is employed. (author)

  13. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • We study the biodistribution of BPA+BSH for BNCT in experimental oral cancer. • The 3 BPA+BSH protocols assayed are potentially therapeutic. • Different proportions of B compounds with different CBE factors will affect response

  14. Subcellular targets of mercaptoborate (BSH), a carrier of 10B for neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Krajčí, D.; Lisá, Věra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2003), s. 629-635. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MPO FD-K/048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thermal neutrons * brain tumors * sodium borocaptate Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  15. BNCT - Quality of BPA and BSH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Otomar; Mandel, M.

    Pisa : OERTC, 2003, s. 41. [International workshop on Neutron Capture Therapy State of the Art . Pisa (IT), 28.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : BPA * BSH * Good manufactory practice Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  16. Cellular and subcellular distribution of BSH in human glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and subcellular distribution of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) in seven glioblastoma multiforme tissue sections of six patients having received BSH prior to surgery was investigated by light, fluorescence and electron microscopy. With use of specific antibodies against BSH its localization could be found in tissue sections predominantly (approx. 90%) in the cytoplasm of GFAP-positive cells of all but one patient. The latter was significantly younger (33 years in contrast of 46-71 (mean 60) years). In none of the tissue sections BSH could be found to a significant amount in the cell nuclei. In contrast, electron microscopy studies show BSH as well associated with the cell membrane as with the chromatin in the nucleus. (author)

  17. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  18. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with clinical

  19. Characterization of BshA, bacillithiol glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, Heather; Newton, Gerald L.; Gushiken, Melissa; Lo, Kelly; Holden, D; Fahey, Robert C.; Rawat, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    The first step during bacillithiol (BSH) biosynthesis involves the formation of N-acetylglucosaminylmalate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and L-malate and is catalyzed by a GT4 class glycosyltransferase enzyme (BshA). Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis BshA were highly specific and active with L-malate but the former showed low activity with D-glyceric acid and the latter with D-malate. We show that BshA is inhibited by BSH and similarly that MshA (first enzyme of mycothiol...

  20. Monoclonal antibody against boron carriers of BNCT. Part 1. Preparation and characterization of anti mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate antibody (anti-BSH MAb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monoclonal antibody against mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) was prepared, which recognized specifically the icosahedral boron cluster moiety and named 'anti-BSH MAb'. The dissociation constant of anti-BSH MAb against BSH was determined, and the cross reactivity was also clarified by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the amino acid sequences of the antigen-binding site in the variable region of heavy and light chains were partly determined and characterized upon protein database. Furthermore, a highly specific, rapid and practical immunoassay for BSH including quantitative determination of the BSH concentrations in blood by the competitive ELISA system using anti-BSH MAb has been explored. (author)

  1. Pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine enhanced uptake and retention of BSH in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the influence of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on boron biodistribution after sulfhydryl borane (BSH) administration for boron neutron capture therapy, the effectiveness of the combination of BSO with sulfhydril- (BSH) and non-sulfhydril (B12H12 and BNH3) boron compounds, and the interval between BSO and BSH administration, the retention of boron in tissues have been evaluated using a 9L rat tumor model. Simultaneous administration of BSH and BSO showed significantly higher boron accumulation compared to that without BSO, however there was no difference in tissue boron level between B12H12 and BNH3 administration with BSO or without BSO. The longer interval (6 h) between BSH and BSO administration related to the highest boron concentration in the brain and subcutaneous tumors compared to shorter intervals (0.5, 3 h). Boron concentration in subcutaneous and brain tumors was maintained for 6 and 12 h after the administration of BSH following BSO pretreatment. - Highlights: • Coadministration of BSH and BSO showed higher tumor boron uptake than BSH only. • Higher boron uptake was not observed after B12H12 or BNH3 administration. • The increase in tumor boron accumulation might be related to SH-groups. • BSO injection 6 h before BSH showed further increase in tumor boron uptake. • High boron concentration maintained for 6 and 12 h after BSH with BSO administration

  2. Dosimetry implications of BSH biodistribution study at OSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A BSH biodistribution study was performed at Ohio State University, where tumor, normal brain, and blood boron concentrations of patients undergoing tumor debulking surgery were acquired. The results of this biodistribution study are subjects of other presentations in this meeting. In this paper, we present an overview of the dosimetry implications of this biodistribution data. The analysis for this paper assumed that the tumor boron RBE was factor of two higher than the normal brain boron RBE. Our conclusions from this analysis were that with the tumor/blood ratios observed in our patients for times of up to 14 hours post commencement of boron infusion, one could not successfully treat patients with BNCT using BSH. (author)

  3. Is BSH effective or not on BNCT for malignant brain tumors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990, Boron neutron capture therapy using sodium borocaptate have been performed on 7 patients of glioblastoma at the NCT facility of Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Five cases out of seven died of brain tumors 67-266 days after the BNCT. Mean life time post BNCT was 181 days at the end of January 1993, sometimes even lower than expected natural course due to the normal brain damage and/or local recurrence of tumor cells. Our cases revealed the shortness of the absolute absorbed dose onto tumor. This insufficiency was mainly due to the poor penetration of thermal neutrons in tissue and the insufficient boron concentration in tumor. The former could be improved on some cases through installment of small voids as a neutron penetrator into tumor cavity. However, the essential factor of boron concentration in tumor was around 10ppm which was still lower than the theoretically minimal requirement of 28ppm. BNCT was partially effective on the cases of superficially located tumors, and it should be performed within several weeks after the definite diagnosis of glioblastoma. The clinical prognosis may be considerably improved through the efforts by which the selective and absolute boron concentration in tumor and in haste treble. (author)

  4. 76 FR 17639 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... granted by DOE. (75 FR 62127, Oct. 7, 2010). BSH states that the water used in the regeneration process is... determined that BSH's application for interim waiver does not provide sufficient market, equipment price..., Haier America, Indesit Company Sa, KuppersbuschUSA, LG Electronics USA, Miele, Inc., Samsung...

  5. Uptake of BSH in M2R melanoma cells monitored by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation ratio of BSH, relative to that of boric acid, in M2R mouse melanoma cells, was measured using 11B NMR of the cell extracts. The cells were incubated in growth medium for up to 24 h, in the presence of 0.8 mM boric acid and 0.25-1.5 mM BSH. The aqueous phase of the cellular extracts was re-suspended for NMR spectroscopy. The relative accumulation ratio of BSH/boric acid determined from 9 separate experiments was 0.45±0.09. (author)

  6. Plasmid DNA damage by neutron and γ-ray in the presence of BSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the extent of plasmid DNA damage was observed according to concentration of BSH(Boron Sulfhydry1 Hydride) and irradiation doses of neutron and γ-ray. The plasmid used was both pBR 322 (2870 bp) and φX174 RF(5386 bp) DNA. Plasmid DNA damage by irradiation in the presence of BSH was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the neutron experiment, DNA damage of both plasmid DNAs was increased according to increasing the concentration of BSH and neutron doses. But in the γ-ray experiment, there appeared no dose dependency as compared to the neutron experiment. The extent of the plasmid DNA damage in the presence of BSH was somewhat different according to irradiation by neutron or γ-ray

  7. Treatment protocol development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue

  8. Treatment protocol development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  9. Intracellular targeting of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) to malignant glioma by transferrin-PEG liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant glioma is one of the most difficult tumor to control with usual therapies. In our institute, we select boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an adjuvant radiation therapy after surgical resection. This therapy requires the selective delivery of high concentration of 10B to malignant tumor tissue. In this study, we focused on a tumor-targeting 10B delivery system (BDS) for BNCT that uses transferrin-conjugated polyethylene-glycol liposome encapsulating BSH (TF-PEG liposome-BSH) and compared 10B uptake of the tumor among BSH, PEG liposome-BSH and TF-PEG liposome-BSH. In vitro, we analyzed 10B concentration of the cultured human U87Δ glioma cells incubated in medium containing 20 μg 10B/ml derived from each BDS by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In vivo, human U87Δ glioma-bearing nude mice were administered with each BDS (35mg 10B/kg) intravenously. We analyzed 10B concentration of tumor, normal brain and blood by ICP-AES. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH showed higher absolute concentration more than the other BDS. Moreover, TF-PEG liposome-BSH decreased 10B concentration in blood and normal tissue while it maintained high 10B concentration in tumor tissue for a couple of days. This showed the TF-PEG liposome-BSH caused the selective delivery of high concentration of 10B to malignant tumor tissue. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH is more potent BDS for BNCT to obtain absolute high 10B concentration and good contrast between tumor and normal tissue than BSH and PEG liposome-BSH. (author)

  10. UPRAVLJANJE NEPREKINJENEGA POSLOVANJA IT V PODJETJU BSH HIŠNI APARATI D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Skaza, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljeno teoretično ozadje neprekinjenega poslovanja ter standardi in dobre prakse na tem področju. Predstavljena je družba BSH Hišni aparati, d. o. o., ter njeni ključni IT procesi, v katerih smo na praktičnem primeru upravljali neprekinjeno poslovanje informacijske tehnologije. Vpeljano rešitev smo nato ovrednotili s priporočili COBIT 5.

  11. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant gliomas using BSH and BPA simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2002 to 2006, we applied BNCT for 41 cases of malignant gliomas. We used 3 different protocols. In each protocol, we used BSH and BPA simultaneously. In protocol 1, BSH 5g/body and BPA 250 mg/kg were used for consecutive 13 cases. Median survival time (MST) of newly diagnosed 4 cases of GB was 23 months after diagnosis. 2 cases were still alive. All cases including recurrent ones showed radiographic improvement. Eight out of 12 cases showed more than 50% mass reduction on images. Major cause of death was CSF dissemination. In protocol 2, BNCT were applied for 4 patients, two times with one to 2 week-interval. MST after BNCT was 13.3 months. In protocol 3, BPA 700 mg/kg were used with 20 to 30 Gy XRT after BNCT. XRT boost was applied especially for deeper part of the tumor. In protocol 3, 6 newly diagnosed GB patients were observed more than 16 months. 3 were dead and 3 were still alive on the preparation of this abstract. MST of these 6 patients was 17.3 months after diagnosis. In each protocol, radiation necrosis was the problem for recurrent cases, while removal of the necrosis prolonged the survival and recovered the neurological deficits. (author)

  12. Adjustment methodology for preliminary study on the distribution of bone tissue boron. Potential therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron is an element that has an affinity for bone tissue and represents a considered element in bone health . Other boron compounds are used in the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT ) in the form of sodium borocaptate (BSH ) and borono phenylalanine (BPA). The results of clinical trials up to date are encouraging but not conclusive . At an experimental level , some groups have applied BNCT in osteosarcomas . We present preliminary methodological adjustments for the presence of boron in bone. (author)

  13. 78 FR 53448 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to BSH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Decision and Order In the Matter of: BSH Home Appliances... test procedures that are reasonably designed to produce results which measure energy efficiency, energy... for Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  14. Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains as potential probiotics with their bsh gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Özer; Aslim, Belma; Aydaş, Selcen Babaoğlu

    2014-01-01

    The bile salt hydrolase (BSH) enzyme activities of human-derived lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were evaluated. The highest enzyme activity was identified as 1.76 ± 0.23 U/mg protein for Bifidobacterium breve A26 and 1.42 ± 0.11 U/mg protein for Lactobacillus plantarum LA3. The bile salt deconjugation ability of the 6 isolates representing the highest BSH enzyme activity was calculated as the release of cholic acid and was between the range of 2.03 ± 0.22 and 1.05 ± 0.25 mM. The strains with high BSH enzyme activity also showed high deconjugation ability (p bacteria and their cholesterol removal abilities based on cholesterol precipitation were determined. Cholesterol removal in control medium was between 22.6 ± 0.4 and 26.5 ± 0.4%. The highest value was recorded at a 0.2% bile concentration. As the biliary concentration increased, a decrease in cholesterol removal and viability of the bacteria was noted in all strains. The percent of similarity of the bsh gene region between different genes was specified. The results may throw some light on proving the ability of these probiotics either as a novel alternative or as adjuvants to chemical drugs in treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24158048

  15. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  16. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. PMID:24559940

  17. Computer modeling the boron compound factor in normal brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscopic distribution of borocaptate sodium (Na2B12H11SH or BSH) in normal tissues has been determined and can be accurately predicted from the blood concentration. The compound para-borono-phenylalanine (p-BPA) has also been studied in dogs and normal tissue distribution has been determined. The total physical dose required to reach a biological isoeffect appears to increase directly as the proportion of boron capture dose increases. This effect, together with knowledge of the macrodistribution, led to estimates of the influence of the microdistribution of the BSH compound. This paper reports a computer model that was used to predict the compound factor for BSH and p-BPA and, hence, the equivalent radiation in normal tissues. The compound factor would need to be calculated for other compounds with different distributions. This information is needed to design appropriate normal tissue tolerance studies for different organ systems and/or different boron compounds

  18. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  19. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  20. The effects of boron neutron capture therapy on liver tumors and normal hepatocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the feasibility of employing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to treat liver tumors, the effects of BNCT were investigated by using liver tumor models and normal hepatocytes in mice. Liver tumor models in C3H mice were developed by intrasplenic injection of SCCVII tumor cells. After borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) administration, 10B concentrations were measured in tumors and liver and the liver was irradiated with thermal neutrons. The effects of BNCT on the tumor and normal hepatocytes were studied by using colony formation assay and micronucleus assay, respectively. To compare the effects of BSH-BNCT and BPA-BNCT, the compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor was determined. The CBE factors for BSH on the tumor were 4.22 and 2.29 using D10 and D0 as endpoints, respectively. Those for BPA were 9.94 and 5.64. In the case of hepatocytes, the CBE factors for BSH and BPA were 0.94 and 4.25, respectively. Tumor-to-liver ratios of boron concentration following BSH and BPA administration were 0.3 and 2.8, respectively. Considering the accumulation ratios of 10B, the therapeutic gain factors for BSH and BPA were 0.7-1.3 and 3.8-6.6, respectively. Therefore, it may be feasible to treat liver tumors with BPA-BNCT. (author)

  1. Histopathological changes of testes and eyes by neutron irradiation with boron compounds in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeon-Joo; Yoon, Won-Ki; Ryu, Si-Yun; Chun, Ki-Jung; Son, Hwa-Young; Cho, Sung-Whan

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the biological effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on the testes and eyes in mice using HANARO Nuclear Reactor, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. BNCT relies on the high capacity of 10B in capturing thermal neutrons. Sodium borocaptate (BSH, 75 ppm, iv) and boronophenylalanine (BPA, 750 ppm, ip) have been used as the boron delivery agents. Mice were irradiated with neutron (flux: 1.036739E +09, Fluence 9.600200E+12) by lying flat pose ...

  2. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sodium Azide What sodium azide is Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, ... give people sufficient warning of the danger. Where sodium azide is found and how it is used ...

  3. Contribution of Three Bile-Associated Loci, bsh, pva, and btlB, to Gastrointestinal Persistence and Bile Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, Máire; Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes must resist the deleterious actions of bile in order to infect and subsequently colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. The molecular mechanisms used by the bacterium to resist bile and the influence of bile on pathogenesis are as yet largely unexplored. This study describes the analysis of three genes—bsh, pva, and btlB—previously annotated as bile-associated loci in the sequenced L. monocytogenes EGDe genome (lmo2067, lmo0446, and lmo0754, respectively). Analysis o...

  4. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na210B12H11SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  5. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a 10BSH-containing WOW emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a 10BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (10BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that 10BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC. - Highlights: • We started the pilot clinical study of BNCT to recurrence hepatic cancer. • The tumor size was remained stable during 3 months after BNCT(SD). • No adverse effect as a result of BNCT was observed during follow-up period. • 10B-containing WOW emulsion can be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT for HCC

  6. New approach for the detection of BSH and its metabolites using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Pier Luigi; Basilico, Fabrizio; Pietta, Pier Giorgio; Pasini, Erica; Monti, Diego; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2003-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is a promising binary treatment for cancer. It is based on the nuclear fission that occurs when non-radioactive 10B absorbs thermal neutrons. One of the two boron compounds currently used in clinical trials for this therapy is BSH. To ensure differentiated retention in the tumour versus normal tissue prior to treatment, routine analytical methods to determine pharmacokinetics must be available. For this purpose we have developed a new, easy and time saving approach, in which the separation of boron derivatives is performed by means of capillary electrophoresis (CE). The CE method allows analyses to be performed in short times (less than 18 min), sensitively (LOD 8 pg loaded on the capillary) quantitatively (LOQ 5 microg/ml) and with a high efficiency of separation. Moreover it is simpler than HPLC and more reproducible (intra- and inter-day values were +/-1% and +/-3%, respectively), and does not require a specific column of derivatization. Mass spectrometry analysis of boron derivatives in different samples was also performed to ensure correct attribution of the CE peaks. PMID:12668066

  7. Biodistribution of the compounds BSH and BPA used for BNCT in four different tumor entities in relation to blood and normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) relies on the selective delivery of a boronated compound to tumour cells. The compounds BSH and BPA are in use as experimental drugs in clinical trials, demonstrating some ability to target glioblastoma and melanoma. The aim of this study is to identify other tumor entities apart from melanoma and glioblastoma that may obtain benefit from BNCT using the 2 available drugs. The potential of applying both compounds subsequently to obtain a favourable absolute 10B concentration in the tumour and an optimised 10B-ratio between tumor, blood and healthy tissue was also evaluated. For the investigations different human tumours (glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (MV3), sarcoma (S3) and adenocarcinoma (PC-3) were transplanted subcutaneously at the right chest wall in nu/nu mice. Animals received either BSH (200 mg/kg) or BPA (700 mg/kg) or both compounds subsequently as intraperitoneal injection. The boron concentration in tissues was measured by prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. For all tissues evaluated but especially for tumor samples the measured values showed quite high standard deviations even under the very controlled experimental conditions applied in these experiments. Therefore, a considerable amount of analyses are necessary for a statistically reliable analysis. Preliminary results show significant differences in the accumulation of both compounds in the different tumour entities and in the different organs evaluated. After the application of BSH high boron concentrations have especially been found in the kidneys and liver, after application of BPA high concentrations were also found in the kidneys and the liver but also quite high values in the skin and the lung. The application of both drugs leads to higher absolute values that are however lower as expected assuming an additive increase of uptake

  8. Reporting v spoločnosti BSH domácí spotřebiče s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Cinkaničová, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on reporting process in the sale company BSH domácí spotřebiče s.r.o. In the beginning it explains differences between management, financial and tax accounting. There is the aim to emphasize the importance of management accounting in the broader sense, in the process of strategic, tactic and operative cost controlling. The source of information for cost accounting is controlling. Controller, in retrospect to content of diploma thesis, intermediate the results through...

  9. Comparison of intracerebral delivery of carboplatin and photon irradiation with an optimized regimen for boron neutron capture therapy of the F98 rat glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rolf F., E-mail: rolf.barth@osumc.edu [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yang Weilian; Huo Tianyao [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Riley, Kent J.; Binns, Peter J. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grecula, John C., E-mail: john.grecula@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Gupta, Nilendu, E-mail: nilendu.gupta@osumc.edu [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Rousseau, Julia, E-mail: julia.rousseau@yahoo.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Elleaume, Helene, E-mail: h.elleaume@esrf.fr [INSERM, U836, Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-15

    In this report we have summarized our studies to optimize the delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of F98 glioma bearing rats. These results have been compared to a chemoradiotherapeutic approach using the same tumor model. The best survival data from our BNCT studies were obtained using a combination of BPA and sodium borocaptate BSH administered via the internal carotid artery, in combination with blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D). This treatment resulted in a mean survival time (MST) of 140 d with a 25% cure rate. The other approach combined intracerebral administration of carboplatin by either convection enhanced delivery (CED) or Alzet pump infusion, followed by external beam photon irradiation. This resulted in MSTs of 83 d and 112 d, respectively, with a cure rate of 40% for the latter. However, a significant problem that must be solved for both BNCT and this new chemoradiotherapeutic approach is how to improve drug uptake and microdistribution within the tumor.

  10. Comparison of intracerebral delivery of carboplatin and photon irradiation with an optimized regimen for boron neutron capture therapy of the F98 rat glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we have summarized our studies to optimize the delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of F98 glioma bearing rats. These results have been compared to a chemoradiotherapeutic approach using the same tumor model. The best survival data from our BNCT studies were obtained using a combination of BPA and sodium borocaptate BSH administered via the internal carotid artery, in combination with blood–brain barrier disruption (BBB-D). This treatment resulted in a mean survival time (MST) of 140 d with a 25% cure rate. The other approach combined intracerebral administration of carboplatin by either convection enhanced delivery (CED) or Alzet pump infusion, followed by external beam photon irradiation. This resulted in MSTs of 83 d and 112 d, respectively, with a cure rate of 40% for the latter. However, a significant problem that must be solved for both BNCT and this new chemoradiotherapeutic approach is how to improve drug uptake and microdistribution within the tumor.

  11. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  12. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  14. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium oxybate.Sodium oxybate is not available at retail pharmacies. A special program is in place to ... Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by ...

  15. Biological Efficiency of Californium-252 Source Evaluated by Comet Assay, Classical Cytogenetics and FISH in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated without and with BSH Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effectiveness of californium-252 source was evaluated after irradiations in vitro of normal or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells. DNA and chromosomal damage were studied to compare biological effectiveness of irradiation. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with the isotopic source of 252Cf, at the Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques at the University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in ''infinite'' polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with Na210B12H11SH (BSH) was performed to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Single cell gel electrophoresis also known as the Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetic analysis was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics, rings and a centric fragments). To evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of the whole genome) was performed. Linear (or close to linear) increase with radiation dose were observed for the DNA damage and aberration frequencies in lymphocytes both untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Levels of translocations evaluated for the whole genome were comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. No significant differences were detected due to radiation dose in the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) detected in the second mitosis. No statistically significant differences were observed in various biological end-points between normal or boron pre-treated cells. (author)

  16. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  17. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  18. Fondaparinux sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Susan J; Goa, Karen L

    2002-01-01

    black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, a selective factor Xa inhibitor, is the first in a new class of antithrombotics. It binds selectively with high affinity to antithrombin III and specifically catalyses the inactivation of factor Xa. The elimination half-life of fondaparinux sodium permits once daily treatment. black triangle A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicentre phase IIb study in 933 eligible patients established that a subcutaneous dose of between 1.5 and 3mg of fondaparinux sodium has the optimum efficacy and safety profile for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium, given to more than 3600 patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery who participated in prospective, randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase III clinical trials, significantly reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism, with an overall risk reduction of 55.2% compared with enoxaparin. black triangle Fondaparinux sodium was well tolerated by patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, and at the recommended clinical dose of 2.5mg has a similar tolerability profile, including bleeding events, to standard enoxaparin regimens. Fondaparinux sodium has not been reported to cause antibody-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:12109927

  19. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  1. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  2. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  3. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  4. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  5. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy for advanced and/or recurrent cancers in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study of 5 patients with advanced and/or recurrent cancer in the oral cavity was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The patients received therapy with the 10B-carrier p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with or without borocaptate sodium (BSH) and irradiation thereafter with epithermal neutrons. All underwent 18F-BPA PET studies before receiving BNCT to determine the accumulation ratios of BPA in tumor and normal tissues. The tumor mass was decreased in size and at minimum a transient partial response was achieved in all cases, though rapid tumor re-growth was observed in 2. Although tentative clinical responses and improvements in quality of life were recognized, obliteration of the tumor was not obtained in any of the cases. Additional studies are required to determine the utility and indication of BNCT for oral cancer. (author)

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  9. Low sodium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  10. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  11. Application of drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy. Basic research toward clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10B and thermal neutrons (10B+1n → 7Li+4He (α) +2.31 MeV (93.7%)/2.79 MeV (6.3%)). The resulting lithium ions and αparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5-9 μm) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma etc, recently. Sodium borocaptate (Na210B12H11SH; BSH) and borono-phenylalanine (10BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. To achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, drug delivery system (DDS) becomes an attractive intelligent technology as targeting and controlled release of drugs. We have firstly reported that 10B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes are cytotoxic to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) after thermal neutron irradiation in vitro. The intra-tumoural injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms in tumour cells, causing suppression of tumour growth in vivo following thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared polyethylene-glycol binding liposomes (PEG-liposomes) as an effective 10B carrier to obviate phagocytosis by reticuloendotherial systems. We had prepared 10BSH entrapped Water-in-Oil-in-Water (WOW) emulsion. The 10B concentration in VX-2 tumour after intra-arterial injection of 10BSH entrapped WOW emulsion was superior to the groups of 10BSH entrapped conventional Lipiodol mix emulsion. 10Boron entrapped WOW emulsion is one of the most useful for intra-arterial boron delivery carrier on BNCT to hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  12. 一步法定点突变技术快速构建bsh基因突变启动子%Construction of bsh Promoter Mutants by Rapid One-step Site-directed Mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莹颖; 张强; 周青春; 罗勤; 张晓莉; 秦龙娟

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立一种高效便捷的定点突变方法,为基因表达调控以及蛋白质结构和功能的研究提供技术支撑.方法:以构建单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes)中编码胆碱水解酶(bile salt hydrolase,BSH)的bsh基因突变启动子为例,采用一对完全互补并带有突变位点的引物扩增携带bsh基因启动子的重组质粒DNA全序列,通过Dpn Ⅰ消化PCR产物中剩余的甲基化的模板DNA,酶切后的PCR产物直接转化大肠杆菌,从而获得含有突变启动子的重组质粒.结果:通过一步法定点突变技术成功构建了bsh基因的三种突变启动子.结论:该方法简单高效,只要把握好对引物设计,高保真的DNA聚合酶、模板DNA的浓度以及PCR扩增程序的选择,突变成功率可以达到100%.%Objective: A convenient and rapid site-directed mutagenesis method was established for study regulation of gene expression as well as relationship between protein structure and function.Method:The construction of bsh(encoding bile salt hydrolase in Listeria monocytogenes) promoter mutants was used as a sample in this study.A pair of completely complementary primers with mutation sites in the middle was used to amplify the total recombinant plasmid DNA sequences.After digestion of residual methylated template DNA in the PCR products by DpnⅠ,PCR products without purification were directly transformed into E.coli to contain mutations of the recombinant plasmid.Result: Three bsh promoter mutants were successfully constructed by the one-step site-directed mutagenesis technology.Conclusion: The method used in this study is robust and fast.As long as primer design,high-fidelity DNA polymerase,template DNA concentration,and PCR amplification procedure are optimized,the successful rate of mutation could reach 100%.

  13. Diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  14. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  15. Sodium removal from sodium wetted under sodium ultra sonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sodium wetted USUSS was subjected to sodium cleaning by water vapour–CO2 process. ► Hydrogen released during the process was monitored and regulated in safe limit. ► The temperature of USUSS was maintained below 80 °C to prevent caustic corrosion. ► The experiment revealed intricacies involved in the cleaning operation. ► The operational parameters for safe cleaning were optimised. - Abstract: Sodium is used as a coolant in primary and secondary heat transport systems of Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Under Sodium Ultra Sonic Scanner (USUSS) is used to image the components dipped in sodium and more specifically the gap between Sub Assembly (SA) heads and the control plug. This is essential to confirm that no SA is protruding from its position. USUSS has to be qualified in sodium before its use in the reactor. After sodium testing, sodium adhering to the USUSS needs to be removed to prevent reaction with oxygen and moisture present in air when it is taken out. The sodium removal process is based on the use of moist carbon-di-oxide (CO2) at a temperature of about 353 K. The reaction rate is controlled by varying the ratio of CO2 to moisture. Hydrogen released during the reaction of sodium with moisture is continuously monitored to ensure safe limits of hydrogen concentration. This paper describes the details of the experimental setup used in a cleaning pit for the removal of sodium adhering on USUSS and the technical details of the cleaning process.

  16. Radioactive sodium processing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable safety, continuous and economical disposal for radioactive sodium while preventing radioactive contaminations. Constitution: Reaction gas introduction pipe for introducing oxygen and carbon dioxygen, and steams for accelerating the processing speed, as well as a discharge pipe for sodium carbonate as reaction products are connected to the lower side wall of a radioactive sodium processing container. A screw conveyor is mounted within the radioactive sodium processing container and a torque meter is disposed in the central axis of the conveyor. Signals from the torque meter are sent to an oxygen introduction control device. V-shaped recesses are formed to the screw blades of the conveyor for improving the separating efficiency between sodium carbonate produced through the procession and not-processed radioactive sodium. Since sodium is converted after the process into sodium carbonate, it can be handled and stored within ease. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  18. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  20. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  3. Sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to sodium and potassium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on sodium and potassium distribution in fluorite 892 mono mineral samples of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan were analyzed. The content of sodium and potassium in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined.

  4. SODIUM ENVIRONMENTS IN GLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, G.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium environments have been measured directly in several oxide glasses using EXAFS at the sodium K edge. The existence of local structure around sodium in glass contradicts the conventional Zachariasen model. Analysis of the EXAFS indicates there are significant differences relating to the glass modifier : glass former chemistry - the details of which demonstrate similarities with crystalline silicates and borates.

  5. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John, (Thesis); Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  6. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophysical properties of sodium for reactor safety studies are presented. Subcooled, superheated and saturated properties are given. A summary of the thermophysical properties is given in tabular form

  9. Sodium recovery vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to efficiently separate and recover sodium or reaction product in the secondly coolant circuit of FBR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: an upper element is disposed above a cyclone in a sodium recovery vessel, to which a gas formed by sodium-water reaction is caused to flow. Sodium and gases formed by sodium-water reaction introduced from a gas inlet of pressure open system pipeways descend downwardly as swirling stream in a cylindrical vessel within the circumferential flow channel along the outer wall of the shround surrounding the cyclone and the inner wall of the cylindrical vessel. In this case, liquid sodium is separated from the gas, falls to the bottom of the cylindrical vessel as an accumulated liquid. The gas stream passes between each of the elements in the upper element to enable separation of sodium or reaction product, as well as separated sodium and reaction product are urged to the outer circumferential side since all of the upper element and the buffer plate are arranged with their outer circumferential being lowered. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  11. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  12. Sodium concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data from an extensive series of sodium/concrete reaction tests are presented and mechanisms by which the reactions proceed are analyzed. The results indicate water transport and the resulting sodium/water reaction dominate both the chemical energy release and H2 generation. A mechanism which explains the limited penetration of concrete observed in most of these tests is proposed

  13. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  14. Sodium technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1976 annual report of the subgroup Nuclear Energy of the organisation for Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (TNO) discusses the research program related to the SNR-300 reactor. The program mainly comprises the properties of ferritic and austenitic construction steels, remote methods of repair (e.g. for welding of sodium moistured surfaces), calculational methods in the designing and large-scale testing of components for heat-transfer equipment, the properties of hydrogen in sodium systems (detection of leaks in steam generator pipes), the study of models for mass transport in sodium, wear and mechanical damage of pipes in heat exchangers

  15. Developments in sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium, because of its good heat transfer and nuclear properties, is used as a coolant in fast reactors. It is also used largely as a reducing agent in pharmaceutical, perfumery and general chemical industries. Its affinity to react with air and water is a strong disadvantage. However, this is fully understood and the design of engineering systems takes care of this aspect. With several experimental and test facilities established over the years in this country and abroad, 'sodium technology' has reached a level of maturity. The design of sodium systems considering all the physical and chemical properties and the development work carried out in this country are broadly covered in this article. (author)

  16. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2005-02-01

    Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so ...

  18. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Multiple punctures to locate veins There are no risks with the urine sample. Alternative Names FE sodium; FENa Images Male urinary system References Parikh CR, ...

  19. Chemistry of sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of impurities of nuclear fuel and its fission products and their behaviour in sodium coolant of the primary circuit of fast reactors are considered. The impurities are classified with account of their properties, behaviour in the circuit and significance

  20. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower ...

  1. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  2. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  3. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  4. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τc = δ·g-0.83·10(3570/TNa-3.34), in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and pressure

  5. Io's sodium cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  6. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  7. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  8. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified

  9. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (7000C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 5000C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  10. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  11. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author)

  12. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  13. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  14. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause prob

  15. Reoxygenation in quiescent and total intratumor cells following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound-compared with that after γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Reoxygenation in quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells within solid tumors after thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound was examined, comparing with that following γ-ray irradiation. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection of sodium borocaptate-10B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of dl-p-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with thermal neutrons, or those without 10B-compounds were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone or γ-rays. At various time points after each treatment, a series of test doses of γ-rays were given to tumor-bearing mice while alive or after being killed to obtain hypoxic fractions in the tumors. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. Following incubation of tumor cells with cytokinesis blocker, the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling ( = Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total (P + Q) tumor cells was determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. The MN frequency of BrdU-unlabeled cells was then used to calculate the surviving fraction of the unlabeled cells from the regression line for the relationship between the MN frequency and the surviving fraction of total tumor cells. Results: In both total and Q tumor cells, the hypoxic fractions immediately after each treatment went up suddenly. Reoxygenation after each treatment occurred more rapidly in total cells than in Q cells. In both cell populations, reoxygenation appeared to be rapidly induced in the following order: neutron irradiation without 10B-compounds > neutron irradiation following BSH injection > neutron irradiation following BPA administration > γ-ray irradiation. Conclusion: Based on our

  16. Response of quiescent and total tumor cells in solid tumors to neutrons with various cadmium ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Response of quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells in solid tumors to neutron irradiation with three different cadmium (Cd) ratios was examined. The role of Q cells in tumor control was also discussed. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII tumors received continuous administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 5 days using implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection of sodium borocaptate-10B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of dl-p-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutrons, or those without 10B-compounds were irradiated with gamma rays. This neutron irradiation was performed using neutrons with three different cadmium (Cd) ratios. The tumors were then excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis-blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in total (P + Q) tumor cells was determined from tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. The sensitivity to neutrons was evaluated in terms of the frequency of induced micronuclei in binuclear tumor cells (MN frequency). Results: Without 10B-compounds, the MN frequency in Q cells was lower than that in the total cell population. The sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was reduced by neutron irradiation. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons compared with gamma rays was larger in Q cells than in total cells, and the RBE values for low-Cd-ratio neutrons tended to be larger than those for high-Cd-ratio neutrons. With 10B-compounds, MN frequency for each cell population was increased, especially for total cells. This increase in MN frequency was marked when high-Cd-ratio neutrons were used. BPA increased the MN frequency for total tumor cells more than BSH. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of Q

  17. French sodium waste storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of Superphenix Plant decommissioning, CEA and EDF had to determine the rules to applied for safe sodium waste storage. Even if sodium waste storage has been monitored for some decades (but only during Operational Plant phases), some recent events showed that this item had to be secured before beginning large decommissioning operations. Of course, the best way would be an on-line treatment but operational constraints always imply a delay in this operation. Indeed, a number of sodium wastes will be produced during the period before the end of Superphenix sodium treatment (planned in 2013) and will have to wait for further treatment. The events to be avoided, or at least taken into account, are uncontrolled sodium reaction with air moisture (large hydrogen production, important overheating) and sodium reaction with liquid water (pressure waves, large hydrogen production, important overheating). Careful analysis of all abnormal events in sodium waste storage disposal was performed and led to rule evolution. In 2004, experimental studies were undertaken, in order to know how solid sodium at room temperature reacts with air humidity: the conditions of aqueous sodium hydroxide production (which is the main risk source in sodium waste storage) have been observed. On this basis, new general safe rules for sodium waste storage have been raised: - Waste classifying: pure sodium and soda to be separated, bulk and residues to be separated - Sodium waste containers: tight, dry, easy to refill with gas, protected against overpressure effect, with specific marking and reference - Dedicated rooms: dry, with specific markings, with specific sodium fire extinguishers - Maximum duration: three months before next refill with inert dry gas, in an over-container if more than one year - Dry gas feeling: inert gas except for sodium film residues (dry air) 395 For Superphenix application, packaging and storage conditions of sodium wastes have been defined, in accordance with

  18. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  19. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  20. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  1. CFD Modeling of Sodium Fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium cooled fast reactor is one of the attractive concepts for the 4th generation nuclear reactors. For the safety of a sodium cooled fast reactor, sodium-air and sodium-water reactions must be avoided. A sodium-air reaction typically occurs in two dominant modes, namely the spray fire and the pool fire. To avoid sodium-air accidents and to deal with their consequences, it is essential to understand the physical phenomena. Numerical modeling is one of the methods, which can be used to understand all the physics involved. This paper will present new numerical methods to model sodium pool combustion based on advanced state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. The models have been developed, implemented and validated against available experimental data of Newman and Payne. (author)

  2. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  3. Sodium to phosphate ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate chemistry is widely used in fossil-fired utility boilers and many of these phosphate programs use the sodium to phosphate ratio as the controlling parameter. This paper steps through the fundamental chemical analyses to determine a systems Na/PO4 ratio. A mathematical equation is introduced to simply calculate the ratio using the pH and phosphate concentration. This equation is also used to build graphs to chart the boiler's phosphate chemistry. By looking at the dynamic nature of the chemistry, boiler health can be determined. (orig.)

  4. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.;

    2011-01-01

    isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......3] ratio, revealing that sodium is more mobile when it acts as a charge compensator to stabilize network formers than when it acts as a creator of non-bridging oxygens on tetrahedrally-coordinated silicon and trigonal boron. The impacts of both the addition of iron and its redox state on the sodium...... be attributed to the fact that for sodium inward diffusion, the charge compensation for electron holes is a rather slow process that limits the rate of diffusion. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Alteration of sensitivity of intratumor quiescent and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Changes in the sensitivity of intratumor quiescent (Q) and total cells to γ-rays following thermal neutron irradiation with or without 10B-compound were examined. Methods and Materials: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected to SCC VII tumor-bearing mice intraperitoneally 10 times to label all the proliferating (P) tumor cells. As priming irradiation, thermal neutrons alone or thermal neutrons with 10B-labeled sodium borocaptate (BSH) or dl-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered. The tumor-bearing mice then received a series of γ-ray radiation doses, 0 through 24 h after the priming irradiation. During this period, no BrdU was administered. Immediately after the second irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. Following incubation of tumor cells with cytokinesis blocker, the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (= Q cells at the time of priming irradiation) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total (P + Q) tumor cells was determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU before the priming irradiation. To determine the BrdU-labeled cell ratios in the tumors at the time of the second irradiation, each group also included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted subcutaneously 5 days before the priming irradiation. Results: In total cells, during the interval between the two irradiations, the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays relative to that immediately after priming irradiation decreased with the priming irradiation ranking in the following order: thermal neutrons only > thermal neutrons with BSH > thermal neutrons with BPA. In contrast, in Q cells, during that time the sensitivity increased in the following order: thermal neutrons only 10B-compound, especially BPA, in thermal neutron irradiation causes the recruitment from the Q to P population

  6. Sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump: the roles of ATP and ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, J D; Glynn, I M

    1979-12-01

    1. We have developed a procedure for preparing resealed red cell ghosts that contain ADP but very little ATP. 2. The procedure involves (i) lysis of the cells in a very large volume of lysing solution, (ii) resuspension of the ghosts in a small volume, (iii) the incorporation into the ghosts, before they are resealed, of the adenylate kinase inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5'-)pentaphosphate (AP5A) and of hexokinase, and (iv) the removal of traces of ATP, formed by residual adenylate kinase activity, by the addition of glucose. 3. Measurements of sodium efflux from ghosts prepared in this way show that sodium-sodium exchange through the sodium pump does not occur in the absence of ATP even if ADP is present. 4. The beta:gamma imido analogue of ATP (AMP.PNP), which is incapable of phosphorylating sodium, potassium-ATPase, cannot replace ATP in supporting sodium-sodium exchange. 5. These findings support the hypothesis that the outward movement of sodium ions through the sodium pump is associated with the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to the enzyme, and that the inward movement of sodium ions through the pump is associated with the return of a phosphoryl group from the phosphoenzyme to ADP. PMID:536926

  7. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs134 and Cs137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  8. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  9. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  10. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author)

  11. HEDL sodium vapor deposit experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium vapor deposits can affect reactor component operation and maintenance. Recorded cases include plugged cover gas lines and cementation of rotating components or sliding surfaces. Deposits found on plant scale components after testing in sodium were measured. Laboratory tests show the effect of Na pool temperature and condenser geometry on deposit accumulation rates and viewport fogging

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at European research reactors - Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade. there has been a significant revival in the development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as a treatment modality for curing cancerous tumours, especially glioblastoma multiforme and subcutaneous malignant melanoma. In 1987 a European Collaboration on BNCT was formed, with the prime task to identify suitable research reactors in Europe where BNCT could be applied. Due to reasons discussed in this paper, the HFR Petten was chosen as the test-bed for demonstrating BNCT. Currently, the European Collaboration is approaching the start of clinical trials, using epithermal neutrons and borocaptate sodium (BSH) as the 10B delivery agent. The treatment is planned to start in the first half of 1996. The paper here presents an overview on the principle of BNCT, the requirements imposed on a research reactor in order to be considered for BNCT, and the perspectives for other European materials testing reactors. A brief summary on the current status of the work at Petten is given, including: the design, construction and characterisation of the epithermal neutron beam: performance and results of the healthy tissue tolerance study; the development of a treatment planning programme based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP; the design of an irradiation room; and on the clinical trials themselves. (author)

  13. Histopathological changes of testes and eyes by neutron irradiation with boron compounds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Joo; Yoon, Won-Ki; Ryu, Si-Yun; Chun, Ki-Jung; Son, Hwa-Young; Cho, Sung-Whan

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the biological effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on the testes and eyes in mice using HANARO Nuclear Reactor, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. BNCT relies on the high capacity of 10B in capturing thermal neutrons. Sodium borocaptate (BSH, 75 ppm, iv) and boronophenylalanine (BPA, 750 ppm, ip) have been used as the boron delivery agents. Mice were irradiated with neutron (flux: 1.036739E +09, Fluence 9.600200E+12) by lying flat pose for 30 (10 Gy) or 100 min (33 Gy) with or without boron carrier treatment. In 45 days of irradiation, histopathological changes of the testes and eyes were examined. Thirty-three Gy neutron irradiation for 100 min induced testicular atrophy in which some of seminiferous tubules showed complete depletion of spermatogenic germ cells. Lens epithelial cells and lens fiber were swollen and showed granular changes in an exposure time dependent manner. However, boron carrier treatment had no significant effect on the lesions. These results suggest that the examination of histopathological changes of lens and testis can be used as "biological dosimeters" for gauging radiation responses and the HANARO Nuclear Reactor has sufficient capacities for the BNCT. PMID:16434844

  14. Intratumor heterogeneous distribution of neutron capture compounds suggested by the radiobiological findings concerning sensitivity, repair, reoxygenation and recruitment following neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-10-01

    There are many quiescent cells (Q cells) in human solid tumor in comparison with an experimental animal tumor. The control of the Q cells by irradiation is more difficult than the control of proliferous cells (P cells). Recurrence of solid tumor after irradiation therapy is considered as that the uncontrolled Q cells by irradiation proliferate again. One of the most important issues in tumor therapy is to develop a method which destroys effectively the Q cells in solid tumors. Subcutaneous injection of BrdU into mice transplanted SCCV II tumor is carried out in order to mark all of the proliferous cells during 5 days. Neutron capture compound, sodium borocaptate{sup -10}B (BSH) 125 mg/kg, or dl-p-boronophenylalanine-{sup 10}B(BPA) 1500 mg/kg is dosed to the mice. For a series of tests which include sensitivity, potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR), reoxygenation and recruitment of the tumor cells, the mice are irradiated by thermal neutron and gamma-ray with various absorbed doses. The results show that the neutron capture compound concentration in the Q cells, particularly BPA is lower than the concentration in total intratumor cells (P+Q cells). The sensitivity of the Q cells is lower than the P+Q cells, and the PLDR capacity of the Q cells is larger than the P+Q cells. (Suetake, M.)

  15. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr203-protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  16. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  18. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  19. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  20. Radioactive metal sodium processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To burn metal sodium in airs into powdery sodium carbonate without containing unreacted sodium and with no generation of hydrogen. Constitution: Metal sodium to be treated in heated to fluidize by a heater at the outer periphery of a supply tank and contained by way of a pipe into a metal vessel. Metal sodium is burnt in the oxidizing reaction tank within the vessel while supplying airs. Then, the burning products are transferred to a geseous carbon dioxide reaction tank in the identical metal vessel. Gaseous carbon dioxide is blown to the combustion product to form sodium carbonate. The sodium carbonate is caused to fall by a scraper into a receiver vessel. Smokes resulted through the combustion is released externally through a filter by way of a blower. Since no water is used, hydrogen is not produced to eliminate the explosive danger and the protection countermeasure can be simplified. In addition, since the product is powdery, the amount of wastes is reduced. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book first explains the choice of sodium-cooled reactors by outlining the reasons of the choice of fast neutron reactors (fast neutrons instead of thermal neutrons, recycling opportunity for plutonium, full use of natural uranium, nuclear waste optimization, flexibility of fast neutron reactors in nuclear material management, fast neutron reactors as complements of water-cooled reactors), and by outlining the reasons for the choice of sodium as heat-transfer material. Physical, chemical, and neutron properties of sodium are presented. The second part of the book first presents the main design principles for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors and their core. The third part proposes an historical overview and an assessment of previously operated sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (French reactors from Rapsodie to Superphenix, other reactors in the world), and an assessment of the main incidents which occurred in these reactors. It also reports the experience and lessons learned from the dismantling of various sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the world. The next chapter addresses safety issues (technical and safety aspects related to the use of sodium) and environmental issues (dosimetry, gaseous and liquid releases, solid wastes, and cooling water). Then, various technological aspects of these reactors are addressed: the energy conversion system, main components, sodium chemistry, sodium-related technology, advances in in-service inspection, materials used in reactors and their behaviour, and fuel system. The next chapter addresses the fuel cycle in these reactors: its integrated specific character, report of the French experience in fast neutron reactor fuel processing, description of the transmutation of minor actinides in these reactors. The last chapter proposes an overview of reactors currently projected or under construction in the world, presents the Astrid project, and gives an assessment of the economy of these reactors. A glossary and an index

  2. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  3. Migration behavior of sodium ions in compacted sodium-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparent self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions in compacted sodium montmorillonite were determined so as to obtain basic data for safety assessments of geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions obtained were in the range from 1.2x10-11 to 1.2x10-10 m2s-1 under various conditions at temperatures from 278K to 323K for compacted montmorillonite of dry density from 1.0 to 1.8x103 kg m-3. Retardation factors and partition coefficients (S/L ratio) were calculated from the diffusion coefficients obtained at 303K. The retardation factors and the partition coefficients were in the range from 1.5 to 2.8 and from 1.1x10-3 to 1.0x10-4 m3kg-1, respectively. The partition coefficients decreased with increasing dry density of montmorillonite. The dry density dependence of sodium ions was almost the same as strontium ions, but different from cesium ions. An activation energy of from 14.1 to 24.7 kJ mol-1 was obtained from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients of sodium ions. It was found that the activation energy increases with increasing dry density of montmorillonite. This can be attributed to an alteration in the kind of diffusion path for sodium ions in the compacted montmorillonite caused by the change in the dry density. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandran; R Nithya; K Sankaran; A Gopalan; V Ganesan

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, thermal decomposition behaviour, etc of their end products are essential. In order to generate such data, high purity sodium alkoxides, viz. sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide, were prepared by reacting sodium metal with respective alcohol. These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide are reported for the first time. The IR spectrum of sodium -propoxide is also reported for the first time.

  5. Sodium concrete reaction: structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structural-chemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  6. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  7. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O2] into the environment. A continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures was devised in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. Physicochemical characterization of these aerosols revealed that fuel aerosols were enriched in uranium and oxygen relative to the fuel. Chemical studies to explore mechanisms for the enhanced solubility of the fuel-sodium aerosols revealed that uranium was rapidly converted to a soluble uranyl carbonate complex-ion species in the presence of air and moisture. Inhalation studies in rats and dogs indicated that initial pulmonary deposition was greater for fuel aerosols, but that the rate of pulmonary clearance of sodium-fuel aerosols was higher. The appearance of larger fractions of the initial lung burden in blood, liver, and skeleton suggested an enhanced in vivo solubility of the mixed aerosols

  8. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft3 (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in2 (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  12. Technical Guidelines for Sodium Storage and Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H.

    2010-09-15

    This document presents as a technical guideline for education and training of beginners who engage in the sodium facility operation and R and D activities for the first time. This guideline covers the following technical areas. - General properties of sodium - Sodium handling technology - Sodium fire and fire fighting - Material safety data sheet(MSDS)

  13. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  14. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  15. Self-diffusion of sodium ions in compacted sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion of sodium ions through compacted sodium montmorillonite in a water-saturated state was studied to obtain fundamental information for performance assessments of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Basal spacings obtained from X-ray diffraction measurements indicated a decrease in the interlamellar spacing with increasing dry density of the montmorillonite; the three-water-layer hydrate was observed at low dry density, and the two-water-layer hydrate was observed at high dry density, whereas both were observed at dry densities between 1.4 and 1.5 Mg/m3. Activation energies from 14.1 to 24.7 kJ/mol were obtained from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium ions. Activation energies lower than that for the diffusion of sodium ions in free water were found for montmorillonite specimens with dry densities of ≤ 1.2 Mg/m3, while higher activation energies were observed at dry densities ≥ 1.4 Mg/m3. The pore water diffusion model, the general model used for migration of nuclides, is based on geometric parameters; however, findings cannot be explained by only the changes in the geometric parameters. Possible explanations for the dry density dependence of the activation energy are changes in the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficients of sodium ions on the montmorillonite, changes in the diffusion process with an increase in dry density, or both

  16. Impact of the p53 status of the tumor cells on the effect of reactor neutron beam irradiation, with emphasis on the response of intratumor quiescent cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Toru; Kinashi, Yuko [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Inst., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan); Takagaki, Masao [Aino Junior Coll., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Hospital

    2002-12-01

    Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells transfected with mutant p53 (SAS/mp53) or with neo vector as a control (SAS/neo) were inoculated subcutaneously into both the hind legs of Balb/cA nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all proliferating (P) cells in the tumors. After administration of sodium borocaptate-{sup 10}B (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine-{sup 10}B(BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutron beams. The tumors not treated with {sup 10}B-compound were irradiated with neutron beams or {gamma}-rays. The tumors were then excised, minced and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with a cytokinesis blocker, and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=quiescent (Q) cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 h after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were used for determining the frequency of apoptosis in Q cells. The MN and apoptosis frequencies in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Without {sup 10}B-carriers, in both tumors, the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons was greater in Q cells than in total cells, and larger for low than high cadmium ratio neutrons. With {sup 10}B-carriers, the sensitivity was increased for each cell population, especially for total cells. BPA increased both frequencies for total cells more than BSH. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. These sensitization patterns in combination with {sup 10}B-carriers were clearer in SAS/neo than in SAS/mp53 tumors. The p53 status of the tumor cells had the potential to affect the response to reactor neutron beam irradiation following {sup 10}B-carrier administration. (author)

  17. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  18. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  19. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  20. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  1. The removal of sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concentrated on the removal of sodium combustion aerosol. The experimental results are presented in it. Besides, the output of the aerosol, the igniting point and combustion rate of sodium are also obtained. An experimental device for removing of the aerosol consists of a blower, sodium combustion container, water-spraying column, water storage tank and nitrogen bottle. In order to compare the concentrations at the outlet of the column before and after the water-spraying, the concentration distribution was measured in the process of sodium burning. It was found that similar concentration could be obtained from sixth to eighth minute after ignition of sodium in the container. During the interval the water-spraying was performed, the measurement of the aerosol concentrations at different water-spray height was proceeded. The removing efficiency of the aerosol at different water-spraying heights is different. The efficiency at the height of 1220 mm is near to maximum. The results show that further increasing water-spray height could not greatly reduce the concentration of the aerosol at the outlet. (author)

  2. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  3. The sodium-sulphur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I. W.

    1981-09-01

    The sodium-sulphur battery is considered as a candidate for electric vehicle and bulk storage applications markets estimated to exceed one billion pounds sterling globally by the turn of the century. The sodium-sulphur device offers five times the energy density of conventional batteries, potential cost reductions due to the use of cheap and readily available construction materials, and operates at the relatively low temperatures of 300-400 C. The cells have a solid electrolyte, made by sintering alumina containing 10% sodium oxide, while the electrodes are liquid at operating temperatures. Ceramic element lives in excess of 1000 cycles have been achieved. Attention is given such design details as the thermal and physical properties of glass/ceramic seals and current collector materials and structure.

  4. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke a...

  5. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K.; Brown, R C; SPURLOCK, G.; Southgate, K.; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  6. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  7. Galactic Sodium from AGB Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Izzard, Robert G.; Gibson, Brad K.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Galactic chemical evolution models which include sodium from type II supernovae alone underestimate the abundance of sodium in the interstellar medium by a factor of two to three over about 3 dex in metallicity and predict a flat behaviour in the evolution of [Na/Fe] at super-solar metallicities. Conversely, recent observations of stars with [Fe/H]~+0.4 suggest that [Na/Fe] increases at high metallicity. We have combined stellar evolution models of asymptotic giant branch and Wolf-Rayet stars...

  8. Galactic Sodium from AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, R G; Stancliffe, R J; Izzard, Robert G.; Gibson, Brad K.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Galactic chemical evolution models which include sodium from type II supernovae alone underestimate the abundance of sodium in the interstellar medium by a factor of two to three over about 3 dex in metallicity and predict a flat behaviour in the evolution of [Na/Fe] at super-solar metallicities. Conversely, recent observations of stars with [Fe/H]~+0.4 suggest that [Na/Fe] increases at high metallicity. We have combined stellar evolution models of asymptotic giant branch and Wolf-Rayet stars with the latest supernova yields in an attempt to resolve these problems ... and have created many more.

  9. Tremor due to sodium valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, N M; Dennis, P D; Sinclair, K G

    1979-08-01

    Four patients developed postural tremor after ingestion of sodium valproate. The tremor was recorded by a variable-capacitance transducer and was of the "benign essential" type. The dosages of sodium valproate varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg daily and serum levels were between 34.9 microgram per milliliter and 154.3 microgram per milliliter. Tremor was ameliorated in two cases when the dosage was reduced. In only one case was the serum level in the toxic range for our laboratory. The pharmacology of essential tremor is unknown; production of a similar tremor by a drug could serve as a biochemical model. PMID:379690

  10. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  11. Agranulocytosis after Metamizole Sodium Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cagan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole sodium (Novalgine is commonly used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and spasmolytic agent in some parts of the world and our country; however, it is banned in developed countries because of severe side effects. Here we present a case of a three-years- four- months-old girl who developed life-threatening agranulocytosis in his bone marrow after metamizole sodium use for fever, which resolved with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 580-583

  12. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  13. SODIUM ALUMINATE IN CASTING PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative researches showed that sodium aluminate can be successfully used as a modifying addition into the foundry paints on the basis disthen-sillimanite and lignosulfonate, as well as the binder for the chill mould paints based on graphite.

  14. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  15. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Where's the sodium? There's too much in many common foods. Recommend ... Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing Types of foods ...

  17. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  18. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  19. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C;

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  20. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all principal sodium carbonate sources. The kinetics of the recrystallization as well as of the superimposed chemical reaction, the decomposition of the bicarbonate ion, have been measured, a thermodynam...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  5. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  6. Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Low-sodium diet (Beyond the Basics) Authors Norman M Kaplan, ... This topic last updated: Sep 08, 2015. LOW-SODIUM DIET OVERVIEW — Sodium is an element that is ...

  7. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  8. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity in a peanut-oil...

  9. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations...

  10. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na2O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na2O2, NaOH, and Na2CO3, ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  11. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all pr

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  13. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  14. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable... products containing sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate that are labeled for the treatment of...

  15. Gelled ionic liquid sodium ion conductors for sodium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: Owing to the unique properties of certain Ionic liquids (ILs) as safe and green solvents, as well as the potential of sodium as an alternative to lithium as charge carriers, we investigate gel sodium electrolytes as safe, low cost and high performance materials with sufficient mechanical properties for application in sodium battery technologies. We investigate the effect of formation of two types of gel electrolytes on the properties of IL electrolytes known to support Na/Na+ electrochemistry. The ionic conductivity is only slightly decreased by 0.0005 and 0.0002 S cm−1 in the case of 0.3 and 0.5 M NaNTf2 systems respectively as the physical properties transition from liquid to gel. We observed facile plating and stripping of Na metal around 0 V vs. Na/Na+ through the cyclic voltammetry. A wide-temperature range of the gelled IL state, of more than 100 K around room temperature, is achieved in the case of 0.3 and 0.5 M NaNTf2. We conclude that the formation of a gel does not significantly affect the liquid-like ion dynamics in these materials, as further evidenced by DSC and FTIR analysis

  16. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. PMID:22633991

  17. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A0-mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  18. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 8000C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH)

  19. CFD modeling of sodium spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium cooled fast reactor is one of the attractive concept for the IVth generation advanced reactor designs. For the safety of a sodium cooled fast reactor, sodium-air and sodium-water reactions must be avoided. A sodium-air reaction typically occurs in two dominant modes, namely the spray fire and pool fire. The focus of the paper will be on spray fires. To avoid sodium-air accidents and to mitigate the consequences if a sodium fire occurs, it is essential to understand all the physical phenomena involved in sodium spray combustion. Numerical modeling is one of the methods, which can be used to understand all the physics involved. The goal of the work presented in this paper is to propose a numerical method to simulate sodium spray combustion and to validate this method against experiments. Free falling single droplet sodium spray combustion experiments are used as a validation case for the proposed numerical method. The trend obtained using our numerical simulations matches well with the experimental data. Further validation needs to be performed, before the presented modeling can be used for sodium fast reactor safety analyses. (author)

  20. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  1. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  2. Balancing wobbles in the body sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Jens; Rakova, Natalia; Kopp, Christoph; Dahlmann, Anke; Jantsch, Jonathan; Luft, Friedrich C

    2016-07-01

    Sodium balance is achieved within a matter of days and everything that enters should come out; sodium stores are of questionable relevance and sodium accumulation is accompanied by weight gain. Careful balance studies oftentimes conflicted with this view, and long-term studies suggested that total body sodium (TBNa) fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly related to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake, but instead exhibited far longer (greater than or equal to monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight or blood pressure. To discern the mechanisms further, we delved into sodium magnetic resonance imaging (Na-MRI) to identify sodium storage clinically. We found that sodium stores are greater in men than in women, increase with age and are higher in hypertensive than normotensive persons. We have suggestive evidence that these sodium stores can be mobilized, also in dialysis patients. The observations are in accordance with our findings that immune cells regulate a hypertonic interface in the skin interstitium that could serve as a protective barrier. Returning to our balance studies, we found that due to biological variability in 24-h sodium excretion, collecting urine for a day could not separate 12, 9 or 6 g/day sodium intakes with the precision of tossing a coin. Every other daily urine sampling correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake less than half the time, making the gold standard 24-h urine collection of little value in predicting salt intake. We suggest that wobbles in expected outcomes can lead to novel clinical insights even with respect to banal salt questions. PMID:26410883

  3. The crystallization behaviour of sodium oxide and sodium hydride from liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are described in which electrochemical meters are used to follow crystallization and dissolution of sodium oxide and sodium hydride in a plugging meter. The technique enables precipitates to be identified unambiguously and allows the rates of precipitation to be related to solute supersaturation. Alternative theoretical models for crystal nucleation and growth are compared by fitting the kinetic data to published equations. The crystal growth of Na2O and NaH can be adequately described by a diffusion limited mechanism, though the growth of NaH may equally be limited by surface nucleation. Expressions are derived which enable the composition of co-precipitated deposits to be predicted. Calculations based on published heat and mass transfer equations suggest that in the cooled region of a cold trap, crystallization within the bulk flow is possible if there is no mesh to reduce concentration gradients. (author)

  4. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual...... sodium: 115-165 mmol; high usual sodium: 166-215 mmol), and high sodium (>215 mmol). METHODS: The relationship between individual measures of dietary sodium intake vs. outcome in cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) measured as hazard ratios (HRs) were integrated in meta......-analyses. RESULTS: No RCTs in healthy population samples were identified. Data from 23 cohort studies and 2 follow-up studies of RCTs (n = 274,683) showed that the risks of ACM and CVDEs were decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (ACM: HR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.99; CVDEs: HR = 0...

  5. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  6. Planar high density sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, John P.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.

    2016-03-01

    A method of making a molten sodium battery is disclosed. A first metallic interconnect frame having a first interconnect vent hole is provided. A second metallic interconnect frame having a second interconnect vent hole is also provided. An electrolyte plate having a cathode vent hole and an anode vent hole is interposed between the metallic interconnect frames. The metallic interconnect frames and the electrolyte plate are sealed thereby forming gaseous communication between an anode chamber through the anode vent hole and gaseous communication between a cathode chamber through the cathode vent hole.

  7. Radiative properties of sodium mist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral variations of the extinction coefficient, the albedo and the asymmetry factor of sodium mist-required for calculations on the radiative heat transfer taking place in the cover gas space of an LMFBR - have been obtained analytically on the basis of Mie's theory. It is found that in the near-infrared region, the extinction coefficient remains almost independent of wavelength, at a level that rises with lowering temperature of the mist; in the same region, the albedo similarly shows little dependence, not only on wavelength but also on temperature. Moreover, with increasing wavelength, the scattering pattern is found to change from forward to backward. (author)

  8. Behaviour of Fission Products in Liquid Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out-of-pile experiments were performed to study the behaviour of fission products released in sodium during the melting of a specimen of irradiated uranium. With the experimental rig employed it was possible to heat 250 litres of sodium to a temperature of 550°C and to melt a fuel sample in it containing about 200 mCi of fresh fission products. Samples were taken from the crucible, the sodium and the cover argon to determine the various diffusion coefficients for the fuel in the sodium and the sodium in the argon. The behaviour and the efficiency of various filters were measured with an argon sampling circuit fitted with a coarse filter for the sodium vapour, a magnetic filter, various iodine traps and a rare-gas trap. With this experimental rig it is possible to determine the wall contamination rate and to check the efficiency of various decontamination methods. (author)

  9. KALIMER program and sodium technology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first liquid metal reactor program in Korea, KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor, 150 MWe), was started in 1992 in accordance with a national long-term research and development (R and D) program for the utilization of uranium resources and transuranics reduction. The main feature of the KALIMER concept, based on enhancing the inherent safety and economy of a liquid metal reactor, was established. A comparative study for the concept was carried out by evaluating various design alternatives. Several sodium loops and test facilities in small scales were and are being constructed for the R and D of sodium reactor technology, and these will be used to support the design of KALIMER. To develop sodium treatment technology for a liquid metal reactor, studies on sodium-water reactions, sodium purification, and sodium-fire were carried out with regards to KALIMER safety. The above R and D activities will be mentioned. (author)

  10. Fast response stainless steel sodium thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo electro motive force and transient response characteristics of well-type stainless steel sodium thermocouples have been studied. The experiments were performed with a specially constructed test rig allowing the placement of several couples at various depths of immersion in liquid sodium and at different spacings. The time response was studied by inducing temperature transients in a hot sodium injection and gas injection, and photographing the oscilloscope trace of the output. The possibility of using these thermocouples in transit time flowmeters in sodium circuit was ascertained by observing the response from two thermocouples in flowing sodium, and evaluating the cross-correlation between the response. The application of such thermocouples for fast reactors and sodium circuits is also discussed. (author)

  11. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C, formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate respectively. Statistical significance through methods like analysis of variance (ANOVA of some parameters on various concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was investigated. The effect of the varying compositions of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was also determined by using a gray scale (GS test, and also subjecting surfaces heavily stained with crude oil to determine and characterize the cleansing action of the degreaser. It was found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the cleansing ability also increases, whereas the increase in concentration of sodium carbonate had no effect on the cleansing ability. The work would enable production of effective, useful and property controlled degreasers at moderate cost.

  12. Sodium expansion and creep of cathode carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Hop, Jørund Gimmestad

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to measure compressive creep in carbon materials has been developed. Using the final experimental set-up five material properties could be measured in each electrolysis experiment. Creep, sodium expansion, compressive strength and E-modulus were measured for 3 commercial cathode materials at 25 and 980 °C with and without electrolysis. The sodium diffusion coefficient (D) was calculated from the sodium expansion results.Filler materials for cathode blocks, i.e., certain anthracit...

  13. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake of these...... neurotransmitters by a family of proteins called neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), which are driven using the large concentration difference of sodium (orange dots) between the outside and the inside of the cell...

  14. Corrosion of austenitic steel in sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of predicting corrosion effects for austenitic steel exposed to liquid sodium with an analytical diffusion model is presented. The analytically predicated corrosion effects are compared with experimental measurements of corrosion effects achieved in an accurately controlled sodium loop. The diffusion model is described with figures showing disc sample weight loss and sodium flow guidance tube chromium and nickel profiles. Finally, the concentration profile in the fuel rod wall (diffusion model) is presented for iron, chromium and nickel

  15. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  16. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  17. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  18. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  19. The behaviour of sodium fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the behaviour of aerosols released in nuclear accidents is of great importance for nuclear reactor safety and environmental protection. In sodium cooled fast breeder reactor accidents may occur by leaking pipes resulting in considerable spill of sodium. Major amounts of airborne sodium fire aerosols will be formed due to the evaporation and reaction of hot sodium with oxygen. For estimating the environmental impact of these aerosols it is necessary to know their chemical and physical behaviour in containments and in the free atmosphere

  20. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  1. Measurement of carbon thermodynamic activity in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the brief outline on system of carbon activity detecting system in sodium (SCD), operating on the carbon-permeable membrane, of the methods and the results of testing it under the experimental circulating loop conditions. The results of carbon activity sensor calibration with the use of equilibrium samples of XI8H9, Fe -8Ni, Fe -12Mn materials are listed. The behaviour of carbon activity sensor signals in sodium under various transitional conditions and hydrodynamic perturbation in the circulating loop, containing carbon bearing impurities in the sodium flow and their deposits on the surfaces flushed by sodium, are described. (author)

  2. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  3. Sodium aerosol release rate and nonvolatile fission product retention factor during a sodium-concrete reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a series of tests conducted to study the mechanical release behavior of sodium aerosols containing nonvolatile fission products during a sodium-concrete reaction in which release behavior due to hydrodynamic breakup of the hydrogen bubble is predominant at the sodium pool surface. In the tests, nonradioactive materials, namely, strontium oxide, europium oxide, and ruthenium particles, whose sizes range from a few microns to several tens of microns, are used as nonvolatile fission product stimulants. The following results are obtained: The sodium aerosol release rate during the sodium-concrete reaction is larger than that of natural evaporation. The difference, however, becomes smaller with increasing sodium temperature: nearly ten times smaller at 400 degrees C and three times at 700 degrees C. The retention factors for the nonvolatile materials in the sodium pool increase to the range of 0.5 to 104 with an increase in the sodium temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C

  4. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  5. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National H...

  6. 1.2. Substitution of sodium on sodium sulfate in alumina and cryolite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems of wastes processing of aluminum production is utilization of sodium sulphate, obtained by crystallization of circulating solutions of gas purification and mixed salt Na2SO4·NaF obtaining at evaporation of these solutions. Therefore, the dry alkaline method of alumina production where instead of sodium used sodium sulfate was studied.

  7. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, ∼23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-μm sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 μm) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m2 burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglomerates fell out as they moved downwind, depositing 1 kg/m2 at 1 m downwind from the edge of the pan. Chemical analysis of the samples indicated that the sodium fires produced mainly Na2O, and that the conversion of NaOH was slow. Comparison were made with COMRADEX-IV code models, which are appropriate for calculating deposition and concentrations for downwind distances between 102 and 104 m. (author)

  8. Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

    Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

  9. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  12. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  13. Sodium channels, inherited epilepsy, and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterall, William A

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons, mutations in sodium channels cause inherited forms of epilepsy, and sodium channel blockers-along with other classes of drugs-are used in therapy of epilepsy. A mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel is a complex containing a large, pore-forming α subunit and one or two smaller β subunits. Extensive structure-function studies have revealed many aspects of the molecular basis for sodium channel structure, and X-ray crystallography of ancestral bacterial sodium channels has given insight into their three-dimensional structure. Mutations in sodium channel α and β subunits are responsible for genetic epilepsy syndromes with a wide range of severity, including generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), Dravet syndrome, and benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures. These seizure syndromes are treated with antiepileptic drugs that offer differing degrees of success. The recent advances in understanding of disease mechanisms and sodium channel structure promise to yield improved therapeutic approaches. PMID:24392695

  14. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a)...

  15. The effects of vanadate on the fluxes of sodium and potassium ions through the sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugé, L A; Cavieres, J J; Glynn; Grantham, J J

    1980-04-01

    1. The effects of sodium orthovanadate on the fluxes of sodium and potassium (or rubidium) ions through the sodium pump have been investigated in intact human red cells and in resealed ghosts prepared from them. Sodium-potassium exchange, potassium-potassium exchange, pump reversal, sodium-sodium exchange and uncoupled sodium efflux have each been studied.2. When intact human red cells were incubated in high-sodium media containing vanadate in low concentrations, inhibition of potassium or rubidium influx was marked only if the potassium or rubidium concentration in the medium was sufficiently high to cause nearly maximal influx in the absence of vanadate. The absence of inhibition at lower potassium or rubidium concentrations cannot be explained by supposing that the onset of inhibition by vanadate is slower in these conditions.3. Lowering the extracellular sodium concentration, or raising the vanadate concentration, decreased the minimum concentration of extracellular potassium or rubidium at which inhibition by vanadate was detected.4. Experiments on potassium influx into intact red cells treated with the ionophore A23187 showed that magnesium ions act at intracellular sites to promote inhibition by vanadate.5. Measurements of potassium efflux from intact red cells incubated in high-sodium media, with or without potassium, showed that potassium-potassium exchange was inhibited by vanadate at low concentrations whereas reversal of the pump was not.6. Measurements of sodium efflux from intact red cells or resealed ghosts incubated in high-sodium media, with or without potassium, showed that vanadate had little or no effect on sodium-sodium exchange at concentrations at which sodium-potassium exchange was markedly reduced. Much higher concentrations of vanadate did cause partial inhibition of sodium-sodium exchange.7. Experiments to determine whether vanadate in low concentrations inhibited uncoupled sodium efflux were inconclusive, but suggested that the flux was

  16. Vanadium oxide dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkashin, V.I.; Doroshenko, V.P.; Goncharov, I.A.; Denisova, G.V. (Zaporozhskij Industrial' nyj Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-01-01

    Kinetics of dissolution process of powdered vanadium (5) oxide in sodium carbonate is studied. Activation energy of chemical dissolution of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at sodium carbonate concentration up to 0.6 mol/dm/sup 3/ constitutes 35.2 kJ/mol. With sodium carbonate concentration increase the dissolution activation energy decreases to 32.5 kJ/mol. Absolute values of activation energy of the dissolution process, dependence of the reaction order on the temperature in the range of low sodium carbonate concentration, testify to the presence of kinetic difficulties in the process studied. Thus, the process of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ dissolution in sodium carbonate solutions proceeds in the mixed region and obeys regularities of the mixed kinetics.

  17. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131I and 137Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  18. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  19. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  20. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na2O(l), and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH(g). The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH(g), NaOH(l) and H2(g). Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  1. C-scope under-sodium viewer for sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-scope under-sodium viewer has been developed for monitoring the interior of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. Consisting of a transducer that emits and receives ultrasonic waves under liquid sodium, a mechanism that drives the transducer under liquid sodium and an image displaying section, it inspects the fuel assembly through its image in optically opaque high-temperature (3000C) liquid sodium. The results of its evaluation test are: (1) The transducer could continue satisfactory operation under 3500C (at the highest) sodium for more than a month. (2) The driving mechanism, though it was the first of the kind appearing in Japan, has been proved that it could continue operation for a week under 3000C sodium. (3) The image displaying section, in spite of the low speed of the transducer (below 20 rpm), could display stable and clear images. (4) The image in 3000C was as clear as that in room-temperature water. (auth.)

  2. Sodium carbonate facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Carbonate Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was designed and built as an addition to the existing Sodium Processing Facility. The Sodium Process and Sodium Carbonate Facilities will convert radioactive sodium into a product that is acceptable for land disposal in Idaho. The first part of the process occurs in the Sodium Process Facility where radioactive sodium is converted into sodium hydroxide (caustic). The second part of the process occurs in the Sodium Carbonate Facility where the caustic solution produced in the Sodium Process Facility is converted into a dry sodium carbonate waste suitable for land disposal. Due to the radioactivity in the sodium, shielding, containment, and HEPA filtered off-gas systems are required throughout both processes

  3. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  4. Clarification of sodium-water chemical reaction using laser diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), liquid sodium is used as a heat transfer fluid because of its excellent heat transport capability. One of the design basis accidents of the SFR is the water leakage into the liquid sodium flow by a breach of heat transfer tubes in a steam generator. Therefore the study on sodium-water chemical reactions is of paramount importance for safety reasons. This study aims to clarify the sodium-water reaction mechanisms using laser diagnostics. The sodium-water, sodium-oxygen and sodium-hydrogen counter-flow reactions were measured using laser diagnostics such as Raman, absorption and photo-fragmentation spectroscopies. The measurement results show that the main product of the sodium-water reaction is NaOH. The sodium-water reaction rate is slower than that of the sodium-oxygen reaction and hydrogen does not react noticeably with sodium. (author)

  5. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  6. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  7. Design and Commissioning Test of WKN Sodium Thermodynamic Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the research of fast reactor a sodium thermodynamic test loop was designed and commissioned. Its highest operating temperature is 700℃, after the sodium is passed the cooler, the temperature of the sodium can be reduced to 300 ℃; the sodium flow is 0.2 m3/h. The loop consists of sodium electromagnetic pump, sodium flow meter, two groups of heater, two groups of cooler, surge tank, sodium vapor trap, diffusion cold trap, sodium transportation tank, electric control panel and microprocessor. It has two experimental bypass loops for research of heat transfer

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy of EGFR or EGFRvIII positive gliomas using either boronated monoclonal antibodies or epidermal growth factor as molecular targeting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Barth, R.F. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: rolf.barth@osumc.edu; Wu, G. [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, 165 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tjarks, W. [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Binns, P.; Riley, K. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02215 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    In the present report we have summarized studies carried out over the past five years on molecular targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its mutant isoform, EFGRvIII, for BNCT of genetically engineered F98 rat gliomas, expressing either wildtype (F98{sub EGFR}) or mutant receptors (F98{sub npEGFRvIII}). EGF or the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), cetuximab (IMC-C225) and L8A4, which recognize wildtype EGFR and EGFRvIII, respectively, were heavily boronated using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (BD) linked to the targeting vehicles by means of heterobifunctional reagents. Boronated EGF or mAbs, alone or in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA), were administered intracerebrally (i.c.) by either intratumoral (i.t.) injection or convection enhanced delivery (CED) to rats bearing F98 gliomas following which BNCT was initiated. The best survival data were obtained in rats bearing F98{sub npEGFRvIII} gliomas that had received CED of BD-L8A4 either alone or in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA). Studies carried out in rats bearing composite tumors (F98{sub EGFR}/F98{sub npEGFRvIII}) demonstrated that it was essential to target both tumor cell populations in order to obtain an optimal therapeutic effect. Based on these observations, we have concluded that EGFR targeting vehicles are useful, but not stand-alone boron delivery agents due to the heterogeneity of receptor expression in brain tumors. They could, however, be quite useful in combination with the two drugs that currently are being used clinically, BPA and sodium borocaptate (BSH) for BNCT of either brain tumors or head and neck cancers.

  9. Computer simulation for sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), direct contacts between sodium and concrete is unavoidable. Due to sodium's high chemical reactivity, sodium would react with concrete violently. Lots of hydrogen gas and heat would be released then. This would harm the ignorantly of the containment. This paper developed a program to simualte sodium-conrete reactions across-the-board. It could give the reaction zone temperature, pool temperature, penetration depth, penetration rate, hydrogen flux and reaction heat and so on. Concrete was considered to be composed of silica and water only in this paper. The variable, the quitient of sodium hydroxide, was introduced in the continuity equation to simulate the chemical reactions more realistically. The product of the net gas flux and boundary depth was ably transformed to that of penetration rate and boundary depth. The complex chemical kinetics equations was simplified under some hypothesises. All the technique applied above simplified the computer simulation consumedly. In other words, they made the computer simulation feasible. Theoretics models that applied in the program and the calculation procedure were expatiated in detail. Good agreements of an overall transient behavior were obtained in the series of sodium-concrete reaction experiment analysis. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed the program presented in this paper was creditable and reasonable for simulating the sodium-concrete reactions. This program could be used for nuclear safety judgement. (authors)

  10. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  11. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  12. Experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the Phenix reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards: speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

  13. CEA experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the PHENIX reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks...). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards : speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

  14. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  16. Review of the sodium fire experiments including sodium-concrete-reactions and summary of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technical and design concept of containment systems of sodium cooled breeder reactors it has to be considered, that leakages in sodium pipes lead to sodium fires. The temperature and pressure rise caused by sodium fires makes it indispensable to analyse these accidents to be able to assess the safety of the whole system. Generally sodium leakages may lead to three different types of fires with different consequences. The main influences are the geometry of the leakage, shape, size, location, and the sodium conditions, such as temperature, flow rate and velocity. It must be also considered the reaction of sodium with surfaces like concrete. The paper gives an overview over all the sodium fire experiments performed in the FAUNA-facility (220 m3) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the years 1979 to 1993. The experimental program started with the investigation of pool fires on burning areas between 2 and 12 m2 with up to 500 kg of Sodium. The experiments had been continued with 3 combined fires and 40 experiments on spray fires. 7 experiments on sodium-concrete reactions completed the program. (author)

  17. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  18. Development of sodium facilities for NSRR fast breeder reactor fuel tests. 2. Sodium capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to commercialize fast reactors, which are expected to be long-term transmutes of plutonium and long half life radioactive wastes (such as americium) from light water reactors, safety research under accident conditions and establishment of the safety guidelines are essential. Sodium facilities, such as, (1) Purification/charging loop and test loop, and (2) Proto-type Sodium capsule, were developed and fabricated in order to pulse irradiate fast breeder reactor fuels in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of JAERI for investigation on fuel behavior under transient over-power conditions. This report presents the purpose, outlines, specifications, capabilities and operation results of the proto-type sodium capsule. Two kinds of capsule, i.e., the stagnant sodium capsule and the sodium loop, were designed to pulse irradiate Fast Reactor (FR) fuels in the NSRR under sodium cooling conditions with and without flow, respectively. Because the capsules have to safely contain chemically active sodium at high temperature and stand the pressure pulses by the sodium hummer which might be generated at fuel failure, the development of the capsule is essential for realizing the research. Thus, proto-type sodium loop, which consisted of doubly sealed container, sodium pump and flow meter, was developed. In addition, two type of flange structure for the stagnant capsule and loop was leak tested at high pressures, in order to confirm its sealing capability at room and high temperature conditions. (author)

  19. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  20. SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiada M Almousilly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin sodium was formulated in a solid dosage form using different bases; o/w emulsion base, water soluble base, oleaginous base, and vanishing cream base. Bases were prepared in two different concentrations, 5% and 10% w/w. The diffusion of the drug from each of the above bases was investigated. Results indicated that the effect of the type of ointment base on the release rate of phenytoin sodium is significant. The rate and extent of phenytoin sodium release and diffusion through mouse skin was higher from the water soluble base (10% w/w compared to other ointment bases, the difference was highly significant (P< 0.05.

  1. SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Maiada M Almousilly; Loay K. Abdulrahman; Sadiq H. Alshmesawy; Fatima A. Tawfiq

    2012-01-01

    Phenytoin sodium was formulated in a solid dosage form using different bases; o/w emulsion base, water soluble base, oleaginous base, and vanishing cream base. Bases were prepared in two different concentrations, 5% and 10% w/w. The diffusion of the drug from each of the above bases was investigated. Results indicated that the effect of the type of ointment base on the release rate of phenytoin sodium is significant. The rate and extent of phenytoin sodium release and diffusion through mouse ...

  2. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols of either LMFBR fuel or PuO2 are essentially insoluble in water or biological fluids. If either of these aerosols is exposed to sodium metal vapor, the resulting aerosol is much more soluble in aqueous solutions. Preferential dissolution of uranium from mixed sodium-fuel aerosols makes the plutonium more readily soluble than for sodium-PuO2 aerosol. Ultrafiltration of the dissolution test solvent revealed the plutonium to be associated with particles between 2 nm and 10 nm in diameter, in both cases

  3. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 10000F (427 and 5380C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  4. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  5. Mipomersen sodium: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Philip; Cameron, Fiona; McKeage, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro™) (henceforth mipomersen) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100, which is the main structural component of atherogenic lipid particles. Mipomersen is administered via subcutaneous injection and is indicated as adjunctive treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH). The drug was developed by Isis Pharmaceuticals, which now collaborates with Genzyme Corporation for on-going development and product marketing. Multinational phase III trials of mipomersen as adjunctive therapy were completed in patients with HoFH, severe FH, heterozygous FH (HeFH) with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in those with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk of CAD. Mipomersen 200 mg once weekly has been approved in the USA as an adjunct to lipid-lowering medications and diet in HoFH patients and is undergoing regulatory review in the EU for the same indication. Genzyme is also conducting a multinational phase III, open-label extension study to evaluate long-term treatment in HoFH and HeFH patients, as well as a multinational trial to evaluate a three-times-per-week mipomersen regimen in patients with severe FH. This article summarises the milestones in the development of once-weekly, subcutaneous mipomersen leading to this first approval. PMID:23564617

  6. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie;

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the...... utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and...... European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for...

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment method for sodium fire of sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium fire is a typical and distinctive hazard in sodium cooled fast reactor, which is probably one of the main contributors to the total reactor risks. In this paper, the methodology of fast reactor sodium fire risk assessment was studied, following the introduction of the sodium fire. The application of this technology in China Experimental Fast Reactor was explored, and the results show that the core damage frequency induced by the sodium fire in reactor hall is 1.19 × 10-8(reactor · year). After that, several key problems which need to be further researched in the future during the process of sodium fire probabilistic safety assessment were discussed. (authors)

  8. ELEKTRONSKO ARHIVIRANJE RAČUNOV V PODJETJU BSH, NAZARJE

    OpenAIRE

    Dobovičnik, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Elektronsko poslovanje je pomembna sestavina gospodarskega razvoja in vse več podjetij prihaja do spoznanja, da je poslovni proces v papirni obliki manj učinkovit in predrag in neprimeren za sodelovanje med poslovnimi partnerji. Pojav elektronskega poslovanja sega desetletje nazaj, ko je bila prvič uporabljena računalniška tehnologija in se je začelo z računalniško izmenjavo podatkov med podjetji. Ta način poslovanja se je dosegel z razvojem računalniških omrežij-predvsem interneta, ki predst...

  9. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density

  10. [Sodium and diseases in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; del Corso Daniela Moruzzo, L; Romanelli, A M

    The authors describe serum sodium levels in elderly patients at hospitalization and evaluate the role attributable to drugs, diseases, nutrition and fluid balance. Among 167 patients (average age 75.29 +/- 7.14), 132 (79.04%) had normal sodium balance, 34 (20.36%) were hyponatremic and only 1 (0.60%) was hypernatremic. Patients who had serum sodium levels above 129 mEq/l were asymptomatic. In five cases hyponatremia was acute and severe (less than or equal to 127 mEq/l). Seven patients who had serum sodium levels less than 127 mEq/l presented psychiatric and neurological manifestations, which subsided completely after prompt correction of the electrolyte disorder. The authors suggest that the pathogenesis of hyponatremia in pathological states in the elderly is complex, although iatrogenic causes play a fundamental role. PMID:1836167

  11. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, valves for sodium pipes smaller than 125 mm in diameter are called ''small sodium valves''. However, this limit should rather be considered as the lower limit o ''large sodium valves''. In fact, both the largest sizes of small valves and the smallest of large valves can be found in the range of 125-300 mm in diameter. Thus what is said about small valves also applies, for a few valve types, above the 125 mm limit. Sodium valves are described here in a general manner, with no manufacturing details except when necessary for understanding valve behavior. Operating experience is pointed out wherever possible. Finally, some information is given about ongoing or proposed development plans. (U.S.)

  12. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  13. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  14. Behaviour of hydrogen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the behaviour of hydrogen in liquid sodium with the aid of the hydrogen sensor of nickel membrane. The study was carried out in a natural circulation sodium loop which consisted of a hot zone and a cold zone. It was observed that at constant cold zone temperature, the partial pressure of hydrogen in liquid sodium at hot zone decreases slightly with increasing temperature. On the other hand, at constant temperature of hot zone, a logarithmic plot of hydrogen partial pressure versus the reciprocal temperature of cold zone yielded a straight line. This study also showed that the diffusion of hydrogen in liquid sodium through the membrane is the rate controlling step for the process, rather than a surface reaction. (author)

  15. Analysis of CREVONA sodium loop material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H. U.

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel specimens equivalent to AISI type 304 taken from the CREVONA sodium loop (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany), which was operated for more than 80 000 h, were analysed for microstructures and changes in chemical composition of depleted layers using SEM/EDAX. SEM micrographs were obtained in the cross-section of the specimens to reveal the thickness of the corroded layer. EDX analysis confirms depletion of Ni and Cr in the corroded layer. The leaching rates of chromium and nickel are obtained from the depleted layer width. These results are compared with the degraded layer and corrosion resistant node formation in sodium-exposed AISI type 316 SS specimens. The corroded layer widths of the specimens taken from the CREVONA loop determined using known models for life prediction like those proposed by Thorley and Tyzack are found to be much less than the actual layer widths observed experimentally after sodium exposure. The materials were exposed to flowing sodium for about 10 years.

  16. Sodium vapour aerosol formation and sodium deposition current work within the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance to reactor operation of sodium transport through the cover gas of a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its subsequent deposition on cooled reactor surfaces is fully appreciated in the UK. A programme of work is therefore underway designed to understand the mechanism of sodium transport under these conditions. This paper described the work which has so far been completed, discussed the work presently in progress, and outlines future plans. (author)

  17. Overview of cleaning method for sodium wetted equipment from sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium must be removed from equipment contaminated by sodium during operation and decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactors. Six cleaning methods, such as water steam process, water spray process, alcohol process and so on are adopted. This paper summarizes cleaning principles, characteristics, applied ranges and disadvantages of these cleaning methods, and provides reference value for choosing cleaning method of different structural equipment under different circumstances. (authors)

  18. Temperature Field Analysis for Sodium Gate Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; LI-na; QI; Min; ZHANG; Tian-yi

    2012-01-01

    <正>In this paper, the sodium gate valve China Experimental Fast Reactor circuit main channel analysis, the use of the FLUENT numerical calculation software, combined with the radiation model and turbulence model.Analysis in the thermal conditions of 220 ℃ under sodium gate valve the frozen seal structure of the temperature field, the results obtained are compared with the measured value of the site,

  19. Behaviour of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the vacuum distillation method has been used for the determination of oxygen concentration in liquid sodium. During this investigation, more than 800 analyses have been made and a fluctuation of between 15 and 20$ has been noted in the results. The performance of a cold trap to remove oxygen from sodium has been studied and the corresponding mass transfer coefficient evaluated. The value of this coefficient was in good agreement with those achieved by other workers. (Authors) 69 refs

  20. Anaphylaxis due to thiopental sodium anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, J; Evans, S.; Rosenbloom, D; Goodacre, R; Rafajac, F O

    1980-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to an anesthetic is one type of cardiovascular emergency that can occur during general anesthesia. Anaphylactic reactions to muscle relaxants have been documented. Barbiturates, used as sedatives, are well known to produce cutaneous reactions, but anaphylaxis after their ingestion seems to be rare. Generalized allergic reactions to thiopental sodium during anesthesia are mentioned in the product monograph for Penthothal sodium, and rare case reports of anaphylactic reactions t...

  1. The Structure and Dynamics of Sodium Disilicate

    OpenAIRE

    Horbach, Jurgen; Kob, Walter

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of sodium disilicate by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation. We show that the structure is described by a partially destroyed tetrahedral SiO_4 network and a spherical super structure formed by the silicon and sodium atoms. The static structure factor of our simulation is in very good agreement with one from a neutron scattering experiment. For 1008 particles we find strong finite size effects in the dynamics which are due to the missing o...

  2. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  3. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  4. Dismantling and sodium removal of the large sodium equipment for FBR. Dismantling and sodium removal of the intermediate heat exchanger of the 50 MW steam generator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast breeder reactors use metallic sodium as a coolant, therefore, sodium removal is necessary in the dismantling. An intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) exchanges heat between primary and secondary sodium. The dismantling and sodium removal of IHX is difficult because of the future of IHX such as residing of sodium on both primary and secondary surface, existing of the cover gas region, large amount of bulk residual sodium. In the dismantling and sodium removal of the 50 MWt IHX, the effective and safe procedure of dismantling and sodium removal was carefully examined to prevent of sodium ignition and large sodium water reaction and to store safely during the dismantling. Sodium carbonation had been carried out by introducing carbon dioxide in the IHX at the 50 MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF) to prevent sodium ignition. After separation to inner shroud and outer shell, each part was transported to the sodium processing facility where each part was dismantled and sodium was removed by steam cleaning device in the atmosphere. (J.P.N.)

  5. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  6. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author)

  7. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  8. 21 CFR 182.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GRAS Food Substances § 182.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxy-methylcellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carboxymethylcellu-lose. 182.1745...

  9. Plants and sodium ions: keeping company with the enemy

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, José M.; Quintero, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    Plants face a dilemma about sodium metabolism. Uptake of ubiquitous sodium ions is desirable as a way to build osmotic potential, absorb water and sustain turgor, but excess sodium ions may be toxic. Information from a number of plant species about the proteins involved in sodium-ion uptake helps to explain how plants manage to take in just the right amount.

  10. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium, low salt diet that might reduce the risk of hypertension or high blood pressure. ... sodium reduction, include those with family histories of high blood pressure, the elderly, males because... distinguished from sodium chloride, or salt, which is 39 percent sodium by weight. (2) The scientific...

  11. Development of sodium leak detectors for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sodium leak detection system developed for PFBR using diverse principle. ► Miniature, remotely locatable diverse leak detector developed for Main Vessel. ► Mutual inductance type leak detectors designed and adapted for different locations. ► Sodium Ionisation detectors used for area monitoring. ► Crosswire type leak detector designed, developed and tested. - Abstract: The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam near Chennai in India. The wide and high operating temperature, highly chemically active nature of sodium and its reaction with air make the sodium instrumentation complex over the conventional instrumentation. Over the years, traditional instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors were developed and used in different sodium systems. The redundant and diverse leak detection method calls for development of special instrumentation for sodium systems which include sodium ionization (leak) detector for detecting minute sodium leak in addition to those systems based on mutual inductance principle. For detection of sodium leak from reactor Main Vessel (MV), diverse methods are used such as miniature, remotely locatable, Mutual Inductance type Leak Detector(MILD) and specially modified spark plug type leak detector. The design of MILD is suitably modified for detecting leak in double wall pipes and Diverse Safety Rod drive Mechanism (DSRDM). Steam/water leak in steam generator produces hydrogen and leads to high pressure and temperature in the system. Rupture disc is used as a safety device which punctures itself due to sudden pressure rise. To detect the discharge of sodium and its reaction products at the downstream of the rupture disc due to bursting of the rupture disc, cross wire type leak detector has been designed, developed and tested. The selection of the leak detection system depends on the location where leak has to be detected. This paper

  12. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A;

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension, and to a...... the sodium-potassium pump seems activated....

  13. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  14. Determination of sodium in cryolite (Preprint No. RA-24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gravimetric method was standardised for the determination of sodium content in cryolite sample based on the precipitation of sodium as sodium zinc uranyl acetate. The conditions were established for the quantitative recovery of sodium and the effects of aluminium and fluoride were studied using 24Na tracer std. NaCl solutions. Sodium was determined in two commercial cryolite samples with a precision of about 1 per cent. (author)

  15. Sodium Purification Device for Production of Tantalum Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the process of tantalum powder production it requires pure sodium to reduce potassium fluotantalate, thus the design of a sodium purification device is improved, later it is built and commissioned. The device includes sodium transportation tank, storage tank, filter, cold trap, final storage tank, metering tank, regulating valve, argon purification system, electric control panel and instrument. Industrial purity sodium is purified, the impurities in the sodium were reduced to very

  16. Persistent Sodium Current and Its Role in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Stafstrom, Carl E

    2007-01-01

    Sodium currents are essential for the initiation and propagation of neuronal firing. Alterations of sodium currents can lead to abnormal neuronal activity, such as occurs in epilepsy. The transient voltage-gated sodium current mediates the upstroke of the action potential. A small fraction of sodium current, termed the persistent sodium current (INaP), fails to inactivate significantly, even with prolonged depolarization. INaP is activated in the subthreshold voltage range and is capable of a...

  17. Determination of oxygen in sodium by the vacuum distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail the vacuum distillation method for determination of oxygen in sodium metal. Sodium oxide is separated from sodium by vacuum distillation of the latter under high vacuum in a glass distillation vessel with induction heating. The sodium content of the residue after distillation is estimated by titration or by flame emission spectrometry and equivalent oxygen content calculated. The method is applicable to estimation of as low as 1 ppm oxygen in sodium, potassium and Nak. (author)

  18. Energy release from sodium spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy release associated with sodium spray combustion was determined and a computer code was developed to analyze combustion of sodium particles in the atmosphere depleted of oxygen. Liquid sodium heated at 300∼500 deg. C was injected as much as 400 gr into a closed vessel of 2 m3. Atmosphere in the vessel was controlled by mixing nitrogen gas with dry air and wet air 0∼21% in oxygen concentration and 0∼75 in humidity. Temperatures and pressure of the atmosphere were recorded to observe their rises and drops with time during and after sodium injection. Peak pressure rose with increases in oxygen concentration and temperature of injected sodium being more sensitive to the concentration than the temperature. The peak pressure did not reach a level which was obtained from theoretical energy release from sodium spray combustion because of incomplete combustion and heat transfer to the vessel wall. It was assumed in the computer code that heat and mass transfer was controlled respectively by heat conduction and mass diffusion inside a reaction zone and the transfer was governed by convection outside the reaction zone. Calculation results revealed that combustion rate per unit area on the sodium particle was in proportion to oxygen concentration in the ambient gas but in reverse to the particle sizes, and that decreasing rate of square of particle sizes was about 7x10-4 cm2/s, being smaller in one order of the value of fuel oils. Change in the pressure obtained from the calculation was on the whole in agreement with that observed in the experiment. (author)

  19. Implications of salt and sodium reduction on microbial food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality. PMID:20301012

  20. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO2 inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO2 boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO2 inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO2 boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO2 was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO2 injection in 5 mm sodium channels

  1. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  2. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  3. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hye Huh; Kyong Joo Lee; Jung Soo Lim; Mi Young Lee; Hong Jun Park; Moon Young Kim; Jae Woo Kim; Choon Hee Chung; Jang Yel Shin; Hyun-Soo Kim; Sang Ok Kwon; Soon Koo Baik

    2015-01-01

    Background Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). The total amount of sodium excretion i...

  4. UKAEA mechanical test work in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the UKAEA work is to perform mechanical tests in high quality sodium, and on the basis of relatively long term tests to establish whether factors need to be applied to the air data for the design and assessment of components which will have to operate in sodium for up to 30 years. Most of the tests will be performed in sodium containing 5-10 ppm O2 and ∼ 1 ppm C with a flow rate over the specimen surface of 3m/sec. Some work is also planned to establish the effect of changes in oxygen level up to 30 ppm on the properties and carburization studies will also be performed. Thin work has been in progress on a limited scale for 2-3 years but is now increasing in magnitude to meet the programme requirements. The materials under test include Type 316 steel and 9% Cr steel with most emphasis being placed on the austenitic steel. From the very limited fatigue and stress rupture tests so far performed on Type 316 steel there is no evidence to suggest that high purity sodium may be detrimental. Longer term tests are necessary however to confirm this finding which is based on results from relatively short term tests. Tests are also necessary in less pure sodium

  5. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  6. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order

  7. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  8. Design and analysis of sodium loop pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the sodium loop technology and investigate thermo-hydraulic behaviors of upper plenum of the FBR core through experiment, construction of a small scale sodium loop is necessary. In this study, the design and analysis of sodium loop piping were performed. The loop piping was analyzed according to RCC-MR code RC 3600 that is design and construction rule of fast breeder reactor. The integrity of the piping system under high thermal loads and design pressure was evaluated through analysis. The results of stress and fatigue analyses were within the allowable limit. Therefore the suggested piping design will preserve its integrity. An analysis procedure of the high temperature piping was established. (Author)

  9. Sodium technology for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium, because of its good heat transfer and nuclear properties, is used as a coolant in fast reactors. It is also used largely as a reducing agent in pharmaceutical, perfumery and general chemical industries. Its affinity to react with air and water is a strong disadvantage. However, this is fully understood and the design of engineering systems take care of this aspect. With several experimental and test facilities established over the years in this country as well as abroad, the 'sodium technology' has reached a level of maturity. The design of sodium systems considering all the physical and chemical properties and the developmental work carried out at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research are broadly covered in this report. (author)

  10. An Induction Heater for a Sodium Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heating of sodium in high-temperature experimental rigs presents problems of reliability of the heater and in the maintenance of a high degree of sodium containment. The problems are particularly severe when the loop is large and non-isothermal, and high heat inputs are required. The Fuel Element Thermal Test Loop at the Reactor Engineering Laboratory of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, which was designed for fuel element evaluation in sodium at 650°C, makes use of proven pumps of the electromagnetic linear induction type which are limited to a sodium temperature of 375°C. The sodium test section flow of 350 gal/min is raised to 650°C by a 10-MW heat recuperator and a 400-kW electrical heater which replaces the circuit losses. Experience showed that the use of sheathed mineral-insulated heaters was unsatisfactory for this heater, and an alternative method using mains frequency (50 counts/s) induction was adopted. The heater is in the form of a power transformer, the secondary winding of which is a single short-circuited turn formed by a stainless-steel pipe loop containing the sodium. With suitable lagging and cooling arrangements the iron core and primary windings are maintained at temperatures low enough for normal electrical insulating materials to be used. Conventional methods for the fabrication of the pipe loop circuits are also possible. The design, construction and operation of the induction heater is described. The design balance between the differing requirements of electrical efficiency, hydraulic pressure drop, and the geometry imposed by the space available in the rig is discussed. Suggestions for improving these factors at the expense of others are given. The performance of the heater is given and compared with the predicted performance. (author)

  11. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  12. High Temperature Sodium Thermal Convection Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A project for the evaluation of compatibility characteristic of structural materials used in China experimental fast reactor(CEFR) has been in operation. The conditions which these structural materials contact with liquid sodium in reactor can be simulated by the tests in high temperature sodium thermal convection test loop. The main aims of designing and constructing the thermal convection test loop is for the corrosion test of CEFR materials, and the objective is to obtain the corrosion data of domestic materials.The main features of the test loop are shown in Fig.1. The primary components of the loop

  13. Analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analyses used by SCK/CEN at Mol Belgium, in the carbon mass transfer studies include on-line activity measurements, and off-line carbon determinations on sodium samples and on alloys equilibrated with the carbon activity in the loop sodium. For carbon activity measurements efforts were directed to the development of EMF and diffusion type carbon meters. The Monitor tab technique was used for calibration. Chemical off-line analyses were developed for identification and measurement of total carbon and for carbon chemical states in the ppb range. Analysed chemical states are carbides, Carbonates, Carbonyl and Cyanide. (author)

  14. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  15. Atmospheric fallout of sodium combustion aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five sodium combustion product release tests were conducted in the open atmosphere at INEL, Idaho. About 100 kg of sodium was burned in 5 min at 30 m elevation in two of the tests. Fallout distribution and combustion product species determinations were made. The principal fallout occurred near the release point and decreased exponentially as the plume moved downwind. The tests indicated that little fallout of combustion product aerosols occurred beyond a few hundred meters from the source under the given meteorological conditions. 2 refs

  16. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  17. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-01-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal-oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium-oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium-oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2·2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2·2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium-oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium-oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability. PMID:26892931

  18. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. PMID:27424306

  19. Sodium titanate cuboid as advanced anode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Hongshuai; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Jing, Mingjun; Wu, Zhibin; Jia, Xinnan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium titanate (Na2Ti6O13) cuboid is successfully prepared and employed for anode electrode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Their sodium storage properties are presented by undertaking polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as different binders. At a current density of 0.1 C, the sodium titanate cuboid with CMC and PVDF exhibits discharge capacity of 269.5 mAh g-1 and 251.0 mAh g-1, respectively. At the 200th charge/discharge cycle, the reserved discharge capacity for Sodium titanate cuboid electrode with CMC binder is 173.6 mAh g-1, amounting to a capacity retention of 94.4%, much higher than that employing PVDF as binder (the discharge capacity of 69.3 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention of 54.1%). The rate capability test and the Coulombic efficiency data also manifest that the Sodium titanate cuboid utilizing CMC as binder is superior to the ones with PVDF. These enhanced electrochemical performance mainly derive from the strong cohesive strength of CMC binder and the swellability of PVDF binder, verifying the importance of a binder to the optimization of sodium storage behavior.

  20. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-02-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal-oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium-oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium-oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2.2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2.2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium-oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium-oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability.

  1. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  2. Degradation behaviour of limestone concrete exposed to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the event of sodium leakage accident in fast breeder reactors, hot liquid sodium can accumulate on concrete floor leading to sodium concrete interaction. Experiments have been conducted with limestone concrete in simulated accident conditions to study its degradation behaviour under the thermal and chemical attack of hot liquid sodium. The main degradation phenomena manifested in the tests under inert atmosphere and open air are dehydration, cracking, sodium penetration, disintegration, distortion, scaling, reduction in ultrasonic pulse velocity and discoloration. Understanding nature and mechanism of degradation can lead to development of sodium-resistant concrete for the use in prototype fast breeder reactor

  3. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to....... Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide...

  4. Thermal decomposition kinetics of sodium alkoxides - model independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium alkoxides namely sodium methoxide and sodium ethoxide were synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. Thermal decomposition of these compounds was studied under constant heating rate using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with mass spectrometer (TGA-MS). On decomposition, these sodium alkoxides form gaseous products of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and leave sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and free carbon as residue. Kinetic parameters namely activation energy and pre-exponential factor were deduced from the dynamic TGA data by physical model independent (iso-conversion) method. (author)

  5. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  6. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component

  7. Sodium fire research programs for SNR safety in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fire research is performed in the FRG at two places: At the Nuclear Research Center in Karlsruhe (Kf K) and at the INTERATOM GmbH at Bensberg. The major experimental programs have been performed at Kf K. Project engineering and management of SNR 300 and sodium fire code development were performed at INTERATOM. The KfK-program on sodium fire research has been carried out since 1972. For the KfK program on the sodium fire research four facilities were used. Major goals of the program were: understanding of the general behaviour of pool fires., spray fires and combined pool/spray fires; measurement of important empirical parameters (i.e. burning rates sodium chemistry, transformation into other compounds, influence of composition of the atmosphere, sodium fire residues etc.); measurement of sodium release rates, sodium aerosol behaviour in the atmosphere and chemical aerosol properties; application of codes describing sodium fire behaviour and sodium aerosol behaviour; development and testing of filters and scrubbing devices for the removal of sodium aerosols. The major sodium fire related activities at Interatom are: safety concept of SNR 300; sodium leakage and fire protection; SNR 2/EFR project; NABRAND Code development

  8. High precision sodium pressure sensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high precision sodium pressure sensor with a dynamometric ring has been studied. The sensor constitution, the dynamometric ring calculation, the gauges setting, the measuring circuit and the gauging device are presented. The correction method of in-line temperature effect is given. The calibration error is analyzed

  9. Thermal decomposition of bioactive sodium titanate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, Matthieu; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan; Meynen, Vera; Vinck, Evi; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

    2009-09-01

    Alkali-treated orthopaedic titanium surfaces have earlier shown to induce apatite deposition. A subsequent heat treatment under air improved the adhesion of the sodium titanate layer but decreased the rate of apatite deposition. Furthermore, insufficient attention was paid to the sensitivity of titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. The microstructure and composition of their surfaces were characterized to clarify what mechanism is responsible for inhibiting in vitro calcium phosphate deposition after heat treatment. All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate. Depending on the atmosphere, several forms of Ti yO z were formed and Na 2O was sublimated. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This pointed to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

  10. Positron Impact Mransitions of Atomic Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yong-Jun; ZHOU YarJun

    2011-01-01

    @@ We present a new investigation of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering by using the coupled-channel optical method(CCO)at an incident energy region of 2-100eV.The ionization continuum and positronium formation channels have been included via a complex equivalent-local optical potential.The present calculations are compared with available theoretical data and our investigation indicates that the inclusion of ionization and Ps-formation channels in the present calculations has a significant effect on the cross sections of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering at lower energies.%We present a new investigation of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering by using the coupled-channel optical method (CCO) at an incident energy region of 2-100eV. The ionization continuum and positronium formation channels have been included via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The present calculations are compared with available theoretical data and our investigation indicates that the inclusion of ionization and Ps-formation channels in the present calculations has a significant effect on the cross sections of elastic and inelastic positron-sodium scattering at lower energies.

  11. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  12. Structure and properties of small sodium clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2002-01-01

    and the results of other theoretical work. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral and singly charged sodium clusters having up to 20 atoms, their multipole moments (dipole and quadrupole), static polarizabilities, binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, and...

  13. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and...

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  15. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  16. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  17. Solubility of xenon in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of xenon in liquid sodium was measured as a function of pressure (2-8 atm) and temperature (350-6000C). Henry's law was obeyed with the value of the Henry's law constant, K/sub H/ = N/sub Xe//P, ranging from 1.38 x 10-10 atm-1 at 350C, to 1.59 x 10-8 atm-1 at 6000C where N/sub Xe/ and P are the atom fraction and the partial pressure of xenon, respectively. The temperature dependence of solubility may be represented by log10 lambda = (0.663 +- 0.01) - (4500 +- 73) T-1, where lambda is the Ostwald coefficient (the volume of xenon dissolved per unit volume of sodium at the temperature of the experiment). The heat of solution of xenon in sodium was 20.6 +- 0.7 kcal/mole, where the standard state of xenon is defined as that of 1 mole of an ideal gas, confined to a volume equal to the molar volume of sodium

  18. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 299, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), pp. 283-284, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), p. 278, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. Prediction of sodium leakage and combustion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of sodium leakage and combustion phenomena is important for the safety of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. In particular, small leakage is sensitive to obstacles and air flows. Falling liquid sodium is strongly deformed by separation and dispersion as well as various phenomena, such as combustion and accumulation, are combined. Since the existing finite difference methods need computational grids, it is so difficult to calculate separation and dispersion that small leakage of liquid sodium cannot be analyzed. MPS (Moving Particle Semi-implicit) method is a new numerical method, which is being developed in Univ of Tokyo. In the MPS method fluids are represented by macroscopic particles and governing equations are converted to equivalent particle interactions. Since computational grids are not necessary, separation and dispersion of fluids are easily calculated. Addition of combustion and accumulation will be easy as well because the fluid motion is just simulated by the particle motion. Thus, the objective of the present study is development of a numerical method to predict small size sodium leakage and combustion phenomena. In this paper, a model experiment using water and numerical calculations for this experiment are presented. (J.P.N.)

  2. Potential drop sensors for sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential drop sensors to detect the presence or the absence of sodium in pipe lines are described. These are very handy during loop charging and dumping operations. Their suitability to detect level surges and to monitor continuous level of liquid metals in certain applications is discussed. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount...

  4. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with...

  5. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madelin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on s...

  6. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the properties, methods and potential clinical application of sodium ((23)Na) MRI in human heart. Because the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in heart is about ~40 µmol/g wet weight, and the (23)Na gyromagnetic ratio and sensitivity are respectively about one-quarter and one-11th of that of hydrogen ((1)H), the signal-to-noise ratio of (23)Na MRI in the heart is about one-6000th of that of conventional cardiac (1)H MRI. In addition, as a quadrupolar nucleus, (23)Na exhibits ultra-short and multi-component relaxation behavior (T1 ~ 30 ms; T2 ~ 0.5-4 ms and 12-20 ms), which requires fast, specialized, ultra-short echo-time MRI sequences, especially for quantifying TSC. Cardiac (23)Na MRI studies from 1.5 to 7 T measure a volume-weighted sum of intra- and extra-cellular components present at cytosolic concentrations of 10-15 mM and 135-150 mM in healthy tissue, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 0.1-1 ml in 10 min or so. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved without the use of potentially toxic shift reagents. Nevertheless, increases in TSC attributable to an influx of intra-cellular sodium and/or increased extra-cellular volume have been demonstrated in human myocardial infarction consistent with prior animal studies, and arguably might also be seen in future studies of ischemia and cardiomyopathies--especially those involving defects in sodium transport. While technical implementation remains a hurdle, a central question for clinical use is whether cardiac (23)Na MRI can deliver useful information unobtainable by other more convenient methods, including (1)H MRI. PMID:25683054

  7. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  8. Cementing properties of steel slag activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ni; En Wang; Jianping Li; Han Sun

    2005-01-01

    Steel slag which is mainly composed of γ-CasSiO4 and other silicates or alumino-silicates is activated by sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide. The powders of such steel slag are usually inert to hydrate and subsequently have very low ability of cementing. But when sodium silicates and sodium hydroxide are used as activators the steel slag shows very good properties of cementing. When activated with NaOH solution the hardened slurry of the steel slag has a compressive strength of 11.13 MPa after being cured for 28 days. When activated with Na2SiO3 solution the samples after being cured for 28 days have an average compressive strength of 40.23 MPa. While the steel slag slurry which is only mixed with water has a compressive of 0.88 MPa after being cured for 28 days.

  9. Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian-zu; JIANG Ming-xi; LAI Qiong-lin; CHEN Jin-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were investigated.In order to decrease the consumption of sodium sulfide and increase the concentration of antimony in the leaching solution, two-stage leaching of jamesonite concentrate and combination leaching of high-grade stibnite concentrate and jamesonite concentrate were used. The experimental results showthat the consumptions of sodium sulfide for the two-stage leaching process and the combination leaching process are decreased by 20% and 60% compared to those of one-stage leaching process respectively. The final concentrations of antimony in the leaching solutions of both processes are above 100 g/L.

  10. The French Sodium School: Teaching sodium technology for the present and future generations of SFR users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper provides a description of the French Sodium School located in France (at the CEA Cadarache Research Centre) and of the Fast Reactor Operation and Safety School (FROSS) created in 2005 on the Phenix plant. It presents their recent developments and the current collaborations throughout the world with some other nuclear organizations and industrial companies. The very recent courses implemented to answer to the future need of Generation IV SFR concept and design, are also presented. The initial objective of the sodium school was to form engineers and operators able to work on sodium fast reactors or on supporting R and D activities. The sodium school history can be resumed in several key dates. 1975 : Creation of the Sodium School at Cadarache (Training of Phenix plant teams) 1980: Accreditation by EdF (Electricite de France - French national electricity supplier) : Training of Superphenix plant teams 1984 : School opened to foreign companies or utilities (Training for SNR300 team - Germany) 1995 : Partnership with the INSTN (French Nuclear Teaching Institute) 1998 : With the decision to stop the SUPERPHENIX reactor, the sodium school has defined a new set of modules more orientated towards decommissioning (theory and practice). 2002 : Cooperation with JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency - Japan) to provide 37 lectures at Monju reactor (program scheduled on 1 week per year during 5 years) 2005: Collaboration with FROSS 2006 : With INSTN, a new course is under preparation based on SFR design and main options. 2008: The Sodium Fast Reactor Design and Component module is now operational for French people and organized jointly by the INSTN and the Sodium School (maximum 2 session of 2 weeks per year). Complementary to the Na school held in Cadarache, FROSS training objectives are to answer to the training needs of other international partners involved in the development of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR. The training objectives of Phenix-based FROSS

  11. Experimental sodium loops at brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal circuits and sodium installations proceeding from Italy to be assembled at brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) are presented. Also some information are provided on the sodium experimental facilities presently existent. (L.C.J.A.)

  12. Analysis of the sodium concrete interactions with the NABE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies have been performed in France to investigate sodium-concrete interactions: thermal decomposition of concrete, specific chemical reactions, experimentation in liquid and vapour phase, sodium-concrete interaction without liner protection. Simultaneously computer codes have been developed in order to study the response of the containment building of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor to sodium pool fire worsened by a sodium-concrete interaction: the NABE code. This code takes into account: sodium combustion, thermal decomposition of concrete with associated chemical reactions: (liquid sodium-vapour water reaction, liquid sodium-carbon dioxide reaction, liquid sodium-solid compounds of concrete, hydrogen combustion), chemical reactions in vapour phase, decay heat, gaz aerosol inlets/outlets, aerosol behaviour (sedimentation, diffusion, leak), thermal exchanges. An example of situation, typical of assessment of beyond design basis situations in LMFBR is given

  13. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after cramophatyrgioma stagery.Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op-erative days. Hypematremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/l, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 nmml/L.Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients,simple hypematremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodium disorder was 11 patients. Condusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com-plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna-tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  14. Measurement and Analysis of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE) is one of the important parameters in the design and safety analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactors. In some serious accident conditions, for example the total instantaneous blockage (TIB) accident,

  15. Qualification of tribological materials and coatings for use in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the essential performance measures used to qualify materials for tribological applications in liquid sodium environments and summarizes relative properties of some of the newer tribological materials now qualified for use in sodium systems

  16. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  17. Auto-control facility for sodium removal by chemical clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the technological process of sodium removal and micro-computer control system on sodium cleaning facility. Micro-computer auto-monitoring and controlling are realized in the cleaning process. The controlled results are satisfactory

  18. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  19. Development of safety related instruments for sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid sodium is used as a coolant in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Because of the highly reactive nature of sodium with air and water, special instruments are required for early detection of breach of integrity of the system and safety action. Early detection of sodium-water reaction is essential for the safety of the plant. Over the years, instruments such as wire type leak detectors, spark plug type leak detectors, mutual-inductance type detectors, sodium ionization type leak detector etc were developed and used in different sodium systems. To detect the sodium-water reaction at the earliest, In-Sodium and Cover Gas Hydrogen Meters are used in reactor systems and in engineering systems. In-Sodium Hydrogen Meter tested earlier in one of the loops performed satisfactorily in Fast Breeder Test Reactor. Similar systems will be used in PFBR. However, improvement in the system, cost reduction and miniaturization are planned on these instruments. (author)

  20. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10-6 to 10-4 1b H2O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 106 to 1.5 x 106 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10-5 1b H2O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. A preliminary assessment

  1. BN-350 Reactor Sodium and Sodium-Potassium Removal and Passivation. Appendix II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of the physical and chemical hazard represented by the liquid metal coolant of a fast reactor is a key element of the initial decommissioning of this type of nuclear power plant. At BN-350, work has been in progress to achieve this objective since the final shutdown of the reactor in 1999. The overall aim of the BN-350 Liquid Metal Coolant decommissioning project is to process or passivate all the major inventories of sodium (Na) or sodiumpotassium alloy (NaK) to allow the plant to be put into a “Safe Store” condition—a long period of storage with surveillance to allow radioactive decay before final dismantling. The strategy of reducing activity levels by removing caesium from the primary sodium and for maximising the amount of bulk sodium able to be drained from the reactor simplifies the processing of bulk and residual sodium. Much of the reactor’s low activity secondary circuit sodium was re-used in other industrial processes, thereby minimizing the amounts of solid radioactive waste which will be produced. The Sodium Processing Facility is now operational and can be used in trial mode until the planned Geocement Stone Facility becomes available to allow processing of primary sodium to begin in earnest. Residual sodium in the main coolant circuits was passivated and studies are in hand to develop plans for the remaining Naor NaK-contaminated plant items. International collaboration has been a major feature of BN-350’s liquid metal coolant decommissioning activities. This initially brought in experience from the US EBR-II project, together with substantial US funding assistance for caesium removal, sodium draining, sodium processing and residual sodium process development. Latterly, it has been supplemented with United Kingdom experience from decommissioning of the Dounreay reactors, as well as funding assistance from the British Government. The combination of knowledge from abroad with the expertise of nuclear specialists in Kazakhstan has been

  2. Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, May D.

    2016-02-02

    A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.

  3. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    OpenAIRE

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water...

  4. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  5. Specialists meeting on sodium removal and decontamination. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers experiences on sodium removal techniques developed or gained in a number of countries running sodium cooled reactors. This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Cleaning of sodium wetted components or fuel assemblies was achieved by applying different techniques including vacuum distillation, using different alcohols or evaporation processes

  6. Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell Hjelmström, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Injury to the peripheral nervous system can cause neuropathic pain. Abnormal sodium channel activity has been implicated as a source of ectopic firing and changes in nociceptive threshold following nerve injury. Primary sensory neurons exhibit at least two types of sodium currents: rapidly inactivating tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and slowly inactivating TTX-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents. Two TTX-R sodium channels that are expressed in primary sensory neurons have been...

  7. Sorption of cesium 137 by steel from sodium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium-137 radionuclide by Kh18N10T steel from sodium melt at different temperatures (150-450 deg C) has been studied. Equilibrium coefficients of cesium distribution between sodium and steel are determined, which depend on the conditions of sorption realization, such as cesium concentration in sodium melt, the content of oxygen admixture in sodium and the state of sorbing surface

  8. USING OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FOR TREATMENT OF SMALL PETS

    OpenAIRE

    Zholobova I. S.; Starkov V. I.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we show the results of treatment of surgical diseases of the small domestic animals sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. We used it in a topical treatment for dogs and cats with allergic, infected wounds and in the post operative period. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is produced by activation of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by electrochemical method using electrometers and "Key", produced by the NGO Pyr...

  9. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate – an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environmen...

  10. Sodium cleaning and disposal methods in experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, major sodium facilities are designed and operated at Engineering Development Group as a part of development programme towards experimental and Prototype Fast Reactor. After the test programme many equipment and components were removed from the sodium facilities and sodium removal and disposal was carried out. The experience gained in different cleaning methods and waste sodium disposal are discussed. (author)

  11. Determination of boron in nuclear grade sodium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of boron in nuclear grade sodium metal as rosocyanin and rubrocurcumin complexes is described. Separation of sodium matrix was attempted by vacuum distillation of sodium, methyl borate distillation and ion exchange methods. The ion exchange method was found to be most suitable. Optimum conditions were standardised for the estimation of boron in nuclear grade sodium. In the 200 ppb range an RSD of 5 per cent was obtained. (author). 12 refs

  12. Modeling and performance research on sodium cooled fast reactor superconductive sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to overcome the shortcoming of sodium cooled fast reactor mechanical sodium pump including mechanical wear, large noise, sodium leakage and the shortcoming of electromagnetic pump including small flow rate and small pump head, the large flow rate sodium pump design based on saddle superconductive magnet was put forward. The structure of sodium pump was researched and the mathematic model was established. The performance including pump head, flow rate and efficiency were researched at different currents, magnetic flux densities and temperatures using the computer code programmed with Matlab. The result shows that the pump head will reduce with the channel width increasing, current reducing and magnetic flux density reducing, and the efficiency will reduce with the current reducing and magnetic flux density reducing. If the temperature overtops 400 ℃, the efficiency will be high because of contact resistance disappearing. The flow rate of the saddle type superconductive sodium pump can be controlled by current and magnetic flux density, and the current is more suitable. This research can provide foundation for concreting design. (authors)

  13. French position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives an up-to-date account of studies carried out in France in the fields of sodium fires, extinction, filtration and prefiltration of aerosols originating from a sodium fire, and of sodium concrete reactions. It also indicates how the CEA, in collaboration with the CNEN, intends to deal with scale effects. (author)

  14. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  18. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. Thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signs of thermal stratification of sodium in the BN 600 reactor upper plenum revealed by the analysis of standard temperature sensors' readings are defined. The initial conditions for existence of different temperature sodium layers are given. Two approaches for realizing on a computer of equations describing sodium motion in the upper plenum of the reactor are presented. (author)

  1. Specialists' meeting on carbon in sodium. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of views on: the chemistry and thermodynamics of carbon in sodium; the analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium; the behaviour of carbon in sodium circuits; and the implications of the above in LMFBRs. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions

  2. 40 CFR 141.41 - Special monitoring for sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monitoring for sodium. 141.41... and Prohibition on Lead Use § 141.41 Special monitoring for sodium. (a) Suppliers of water for... distribution system for the determination of sodium concentration levels; samples must be collected...

  3. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Remme; C.R. Bezzina

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation an

  4. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin sodium. 522.90c Section 522.90c Food... Ampicillin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution constituted from ampicillin sodium.... (including S. equi), Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis, and skin and soft tissue infections...

  5. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  6. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate equivalent to 50, 100, 200, or 500 milligrams of dicloxacillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  9. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as...

  10. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of

  11. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  12. 76 FR 63305 - Approaches To Reducing Sodium Consumption; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... as current and emerging approaches designed to promote sodium reduction. The purpose of the public... review the FDA's Sodium Reduction Web page located at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging... to identify opportunities for sodium reduction. II. Purpose and Format of the Meeting If you wish...

  13. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the...

  15. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA

  16. Functional Expression of an Arachnid Sodium Channel Reveals Residues Responsible for Tetrodotoxin Resistance in Invertebrate Sodium Channels*

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Liu, Zhiqi; Huang, Zachary Y.; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels, but not all sodium channels are equally sensitive to inhibition by TTX. The molecular basis of differential TTX sensitivity of mammalian sodium channels has been largely elucidated. In contrast, our knowledge about the sensitivity of invertebrate sodium channels to TTX remains poor, in part because of limited success in functional expression of these channels. In this study, we report the functional characterization in X...

  17. Effect Of Heparin Sodium In Protection Of The Lens Against Cataract Induced With Intravitreal Injection Of Sodium Selenite- In Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaa A. Abdul-Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the possible protective role of heparin sodium eye drops against sodium selenite induced cataract in rabbits.Materials and Methods A group of 18 adult rabbits Oryctologus cuniculus were divided into 3 groups each one of 6 rabbits normal group without treatment and induction control group received DW pre and post induction of cataract and heparin sodium group received heparin sodium eye drops pre and post induction of cataract. The cataract had been induced by i...

  18. Analysis of Design of Sodium Reception and Secondary Loop Sodium Plugging and Removal System for Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparison of sodium reception and secondary loop sodium plugging and removal system on CEFR with BN-800, the main difference of the two designs is as follows: 1) System division is different. BN-800 can be divided into sodium reception system,

  19. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A...

  20. Corrosion and mass transport in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests on carbon and low alloy ferritic steels in thermal convection and pumped sodium loops have provided data on general corrosion and carbon transfer behaviour of the materials tested. It was found that carbon steel decarburised according to theoretical predictions and that 1Cr1/2Mo and 2 1/4Cr1Mo steels decarburised to a lesser exten if unstabilised. Additions of niobium were ineffective in preventing decarburisation but under the same conditions titanium added either alone or with niobium caused the same steels to become carburised. Corrosion rates for 9Cr1Mo and TP316 steels in niobium caused the same steels to become carburised. Corrosion rates for 9Cr1Mo and TP316 steels in pumped sodium were found to be of the same order but significantly lower than published elsewhere. (author)

  1. Experiments on determining carbon in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on chemical determination of carbon in liquid sodium and for construction of a probe sensitive to carbon activity are described. A distillation chamber joint with an inert gas box, a combustion tube and a gas analyzer has been constructed for determining carbonate and non-carbonate carbon separately. A galvanic cell with a carbide-containing chloride melt proved to be unsuited for carbon activity determination due to irreversible transport processes going on in the melt. When a galvanic cell with an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte was used in media having unit carbon activity, cell potentials to be expected from thermodynamic data were obtained. However, the recent status of testing this cell does not allow to derive final conclusions with regard to its applicability in sodium loops. (author)

  2. Organoclays obtaining starting up of clays sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays have several applications in many areas of fields of technology, however, modification of these materials using organic compounds can be performed to obtain further hydrophobic materials, for applications in the adsorption of organic pollutants. This study aimed to analyze the effects of modifying two clays using sodium quaternary ammonium surfactants through ion exchange reaction process, in obtaining organoclays. The samples with sodium and organoclays were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy in the region (IV), Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA / TG) and organic adsorption tests. The results show that the process of obtaining organoclay is efficient, and materials have the potential for future applications in removing organic contaminants. (author)

  3. Advanced sodium fast reactor unit concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents status of development for 1200 MW power unit with sodium fast reactor for commercial construction in the Russian Federation. General characteristics of the reactor plant (RP) and power unit as well as goals that shall be achieved because of design development are described. The power unit design is based on technical decisions, which have been partially proven during sodium reactor operation in Russia and partially have been validated by R and D work for BN-800 RP. At the same time, new technical decisions are applied that improve safety and technical-and-economic indices. To validate them, the corresponding R and D work shall be performed. It is planned to construct the pilot power unit in 2020 and to put into operation the next commercial power units of this type using plutonium generated in the thermal reactors. (author)

  4. Design challenges for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of vital importance for commercialized fast reactor to achieve component design with excellent integrity and economics. In the phase II of feasibility study till 2005, a system design for commercialized fast reactor for sodium cooling was achieved. For economical improvement, the system design was undertaken along the guideline including innovative technology for system simplification and new material development. In this paper, the results from the design for shortening of cooling pipings, new components and three dimensional seismic isolation are described, which are design challenges for the sodium cooled fast reactor. Furthermore, in-service inspection and repair is mentioned. Finally, economics for the simplification and the mass reduction employing above technologies are examined

  5. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  6. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires and prevention. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the specialists' meeting was to summarize the IWGFR member countries' knowledge of sodium combustion and extinguishment technology, including prevention and detection of sodium fires and protective clothes and to review and discuss critical features of sodium fires contaminated with fission products and fuel, evolution and filtration of aerosols and to determine the critical gaps in our knowledge and what should be done to develop knowledge in this area. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into three major sections, as follows: sodium fires; prevention and extinguishing of sodium fires, and aerosols

  7. Under sodium viewing technique for liquid metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han

    2003-08-01

    LMR reactor core and internal structures submerged in sodium could not be visually examined due to the opaque liquid metal sodium. The under sodium viewing technique using ultrasonic wave should be developed and applied for the identification of fuel assembly location, the detection of core deformation due to fast neutron irradiation and the in-service inspection of reactor internals. The under sodium viewing technique has a limitation for the application of LMR due to the high temperature and irradiation environment. In this report, the status of development of under sodium viewing technique and high temperature ultrasonic sensor has been investigated and summarized.

  8. Qualification of indigenously developed sodium compatible ultrasonic transducers for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFBR core is immersed in a pool of optically opaque liquid sodium at high temperature. Ultrasonic technique is utilized to view the components immersed in sodium. An under sodium ultrasonic scanner (USUSS) with indigenously developed sodium compatible transducers are used to scan the core plenum before every fuel handling operation, when the temperature of sodium is around 180℃. There are two different types of transducers, one for the measurement of bowing and the other is used for the protrusion measurement of any fuel sub assembly (FSA). (author)

  9. Sodium columnar fire test and code development at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sodium fire studies at PNC, main effort has been made for this ten years on sodium columnar fire, which is considered, compared with spray fire, to be more realistic form of sodium leak from a pipe covered with insulation. Attention is also focused to the development of a new computer code SOLFAS with the aim of providing more detailed multi-dimensional evaluation of sodium fire accident consequences. This report describes the current status of experimental study on sodium columnar fire and the development of related computer codes SOFIRE-M3 and SOLFAS. (author)

  10. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  11. Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Shidhaye, Supriya S.; Thakkar, Pritesh V.; Neha M Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter...

  12. Study of aqueous solutions of sodium linoleate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, G.J. (Phosphate Development Corporation, Phalaborwa); Van Berge, P.C. (Rand Afrikaans Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1983-12-01

    During the development of a technique for measuring fatty acid absorption on finely divided minerals using a radiochemical method, absorption isotherms were obtained which displayed maxima. It was found that these results were due to the presence of stable micelles in the solutions. This has been established by measuring the surface tension, surface film pressure, and specific conductance of dilute aqueous solutions of sodium linoleate.

  13. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  14. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program (LMFBR) includes an extensive program devoted to the development of small sodium valves. This program is now focused on the development and production of valves for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) now under construction near Richland, Washington. Other AEC support facilities, such as various test loops located at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC), Los Angeles, California, and at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, also have significant requirements for small sodium valves, and valves similar in design to the FFTF valves are being supplied to these AEC laboratories for use in their critical test installations. A principal motivation for these valve programs, beyond the immediate need to provide high-reliability valves for FFTF and the support facilities, is the necessity to develop small valve technology for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). FFTF small sodium valve design and development experience will be directly applied to the CRBRP program. Various test programs have been, and are being, conducted to verify the performance and integrity of the FFTF valves, and to uncover any potential problems so that they can be corrected before the valves are placed in service in FFTF. The principal small sodium valve designs being utilized in current U.S. programs, the test and operational experience obtained to date on them, problems uncovered, and future development and testing efforts being planned are reviewed. The standards and requirements to which the valves are being designed and fabricated, the valve designs in current use, valve operators, test and operating experience, and future valve development plans are summarized. (U.S.)

  15. Sputtering of sodium on the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that ion sputtering cannot account for the observed neutral sodium vapor column density on Mercury, but that it is an important loss mechanism for Na. Photons are likely to be the dominant stimulus, both directly through photodesorption and indirectly through thermal desorption of absorbed Na. It is concluded that the atmosphere produced is characterized by the planet's surface temperature, with the ion-sputtered Na contributing to a lesser, but more extended, component of the atmosphere.

  16. Sodium selenite as a new rodenticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Jokić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are the most destructive group of small mammalian pests considering the overall damage that they cause by feeding and other activities, or as vectors of many disease agents. In practice, chemical rodenticides have been the most widespread and most effective method of control of commensal (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus and most harmful field rodent pests (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. agrarius and Microtus arvalis. After anticoagulant and vitamin D3 rodenticides, which were introduced worldwide in the 1980s, no other chemical compound has had a comparable role as a rodenticide in practice. In the past decade, commercial baits containing 0.1% sodium selenite have also been registered in Serbia in various formulations both for controlling rodents indoors and in the field. Data on sodium selenite as a rodenticide have been scarce. The present paper surveys research data reported so far, analyzing and drawing conclusions regarding the validity and feasibility of sodium selenite as a method of rodent control with reference to the available ecotoxicological data.

  17. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  18. Sodium-water reaction product flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide the subject equipments wherein thermal insulating layers which neither exfoliate nor react by the impact due to high temperature sodium and hydrogen gas and are used for mitigating the thermal impact are provided on the inner surfaces of the emission system equipments, thereby preventing the destruction of the emission system equipments. Constitution: Thermal insulating layers are formed on the inner surfaces of sodium-water reaction product emission system equipments, that is, the inner surface of the emission system pipeline, that of the accommodation vessel and the surface of the cyclone separator, by film treatment, coating or heat resisting coating, and these surfaces are covered with the layers. Each of the layers is made of a material which does not cause a rapid reaction with high temperature sodium or hydrogen gas nor exfoliates and is withstandable for several seconds in which the thermal impact of at least the emission system comes into question, and its thickness is more than one capable of securing the necessary thermal resistance computed by the thermal impact analysis of the emission system. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 20 MPa and 475 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. Correlations based on temperature and density were selected to describe the solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using these correlations, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium chloride solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle this salt may deposit. (orig.)

  20. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  1. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam. PMID:27227418

  2. An experimental study on sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium-concrete reaction facility with a test chamber of 0.226 m3 (φ 0.6 m X H0.8 m) was constructed to carry out experiments of sodium-concrete reaction which might take place in sodium metal fast-breeder reactor. Utilizing this facility, several experiments were conducted to closely examine the characteristics of sodium-concrete reactions under different conditions: Sodium mass =3D 100, 250 g ; sodium temperature =3D 450, 550, 650 deg C ; concrete age =3D 30, 45, 50, 90 days. Our experiments show that the amount of the H2 generated by sodium concrete reaction has increased up to its flammable range as the amount of spilled sodium and its temperature have increased. The maximum hydrogen concentration was 31 mol percent at the concrete age of 30 days, sodium temperature =3D 550 deg C, and sodium mass =3D 250 g. The major components of sodium-concrete reaction products were also determined as Na2SiO3 and NaAlO2. (author)

  3. [Determination of potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C; Wen, X; Jia, Y; Sun, S

    2001-06-01

    Sodium is used as a coolant in China experiment fast reactor (CEFR). Potassium in sodium has an influence on heat property of reactor. A analytical method has been developed to determinate potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy. Sodium sample is dissolved by ultrasonic humidifier. The working conditions of the instrument and inTerferences from matrix sodium, acid effect and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with potassium chloride. The percentage recoveries are 94.7%-109.8%. The relative standard deviation is 4.2%. The analytical range accords with sodium quality control standard of CFFR. The precision corresponds to the international analytical method in sodium coolant reactor. PMID:12947670

  4. The experimental research on the sodium spray fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents the design process on the test of the sodium spray fire, and how to make the liquid sodium into spraying flow, and described the construction of the trial control system and the data collecting system at the same time. During the whole test, by comparing with the temperature and pressure curve obtained by the test and computing by way of FEUMIX process, the conclusion is as follows: In the process of the experiment, the spray sodium burned mainly by way of columned sodium fire. During the sodium spray, the temperature of gas in the spray fire burning zone increased rapidly, and the higher initial peak gas temperature was observed. At the time of 200 s after sodium spray, the temperature of the gas up 1500 mm aria away from the burning zone approached to the temperature computed by FEUMIX process assuming sodium atomized at 10%, but the curve of pressure is very different. (authors)

  5. LMFRs R and D knowledge preservation: Sodium coolant (viewgraphs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the principles of the study it was demanded to select the major documents to keep the knowledge on sodium for the next thirty years. In order to do so, it was necessary ro have a small presentation text, and a limited number of references. This study must be performed in a limited time. Experts for different item were selected among CEA, EDF and Framatome staff. The main item treated were: general knowledge on sodium, primary sodium, secondary sodium Experimental feedback from Phenix and Superphenix, Argon cover gas, future coolants compared to sodium, books and general conferences on sodium. The selection on sodium coolant is ready for the future: the knowledge preservation is on the way, but it is considered as very convenient for the present as well

  6. TREATMENT OF SODIUM DISORDERS AFTER SURGERY OF CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文宇; 石祥恩

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the treatment of the patients with blood sodium disorder after craniopharyngioma surgery. Method. The blood sodium in 44 patients with craniopharyngiomas was daily examined from operative to post-op erative days. Hypernatremia is defined as [Na] > 145 mmol/1, and hyponatremia as [Na] < 135 mmol/L. Results. Of the 44 patients, 36 developed sodium disorder. Among them, simple hyponatremia was 16 patients, simple hypernatremia was 9 patients, and alternative sodiu m disorder was 11 patients. Conclusion. The blood sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery appears to present com plicated changes. Three types of blood sodium disorder could be determined as simple hyponatremia, simple hyperna tremia, and alternative sodium disorder. Treatment of the sodium disorder in patients with craniopharyngiomas after surgery could be carried in accordance with the above three types.

  7. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Ppump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide-sensitive sodium transport in cirrhosis. PMID:26016736

  8. Properties of sodium-based ionic liquid electrolytes for sodium secondary battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enormous demands on available global lithium resources have raised concerns about the sustainability of the supply of lithium. Sodium secondary batteries have emerged as promising alternatives to lithium batteries. We describe here sodium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide (NaNTf2) electrolyte systems based on 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide (C4mpyrNTf2) ionic liquids. The electrochemical stability of the system was examined; a pair of facile cathodic and anodic processes around 0 V vs. Na/Na+ were observed in cyclic voltammetry measurements and interpreted as deposition and dissolution of sodium metal. Density, viscosity and conductivity of the electrolytes were studied. It was found that the ionic conductivity of electrolytes reached as high as 8 mS/cm, decreasing slowly as the salt content increased due to increasing of viscosity and density of the electrolyte. Therefore, sodium electrolytes based on C4mpyrNTf2 appear to be promising for secondary sodium battery applications

  9. Sodium-calcium exchanger and multiple sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal nerve terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nociception requires transduction and impulse electrogenesis in nerve fibers which innervate the body surface, including the skin. However, the molecular substrates for transduction and action potential initiation in nociceptors are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and distribution of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX and voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms in intra-epidermal free nerve terminals. Results Small diameter DRG neurons exhibited robust NCX2, but not NCX1 or NCX3 immunolabeling, and virtually all PGP 9.5-positive intra-epidermal free nerve terminals displayed NCX2 immunoreactivity. Sodium channel NaV1.1 was not detectable in free nerve endings. In contrast, the majority of nerve terminals displayed detectable levels of expression of NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. Sodium channel immunoreactivity in the free nerve endings extended from the dermal boundary to the terminal tip. A similar pattern of NCX and sodium channel immunolabeling was observed in DRG neurons in vitro. Conclusions NCX2, as well as NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9, are present in most intra-epidermal free nerve endings. The presence of NCX2, together with multiple sodium channel isoforms, in free nerve endings may have important functional implications.

  10. The French Sodium School: Teaching Sodium Technology for the present and future generations of SFR users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a description of the French Sodium and liquid Metal School (ESML) created in 1975 and located in France (at the CEA Cadarache Research Centre) and of the Fast Reactor Operation and Safety School (FROSS) created in 2005 at the Phenix plant. It presents their recent developments and the current collaborations throughout the world with some other nuclear organizations and industrial companies. The very recent courses implemented within the frame of INSTN, (French Nuclear Teaching Institute), in collaboration with the Sodium and liquid Metal School (ESML) to answer to the future needs of Generation IV SFR concept and design are also presented. The sum of courses provided by CEA through its Sodium school and FROSS organizations is an unique valuable amount of knowledge on Sodium Fast reactor design, technology, safety and operation experience, decommissioning aspects and practical exercises. It is provided for the national demand and, since the last ten years, extensively opened to foreign countries. Over more than 30 years, this organisation has demonstrated its flexibility in adapting its courses to the changing demand in the Sodium Fast reactor field, and in association with the PHENIX and SUPERPHENIX plants, can adapt its teaching techniques using specific theoretical and practical courses and lectures. This paper is an up-to-date of the paper presented in 2007 in CONTE conference. (author)

  11. Effects of sodium fires on structures and materials. Practical experience with sodium leakage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few sodium leakage, incidents happened in SNR 300 nuclear power plant during pre-nuclear operation which were of minor importance with respect to sodium fires. The most important sodium fire accident in the past happened in the Almeria Solar platform in Spain during the attempt to repair a valve while leaving accidentally the circuit under 4 bar overpressure. Considerable damage to pipes, valves, its insulation and its support structures was observed in the influence zone of the fire. Post accident analysis gave a leaked mass of about 14 m3, at a sodium temperature of 225 deg. C, the leakage lasting approximately half an hour, and burning under convective heat exchange with the external air in a section of 40 m2 up to a height of 6 m down to the catch pans. Some local temperatures were determined by metallurgical means, integral support temperatures estimated from mechanical deformation observed. From these temperatures it was concluded that a massive spray type fire must have happened. The results fall in the interpretation range of sodium-spray fire test results. (author)

  12. Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of the redistribution of ions near the vacuum-melt interface to the presence of sodium ions. It is found that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition near a surface favors the enrichment of non-bridging oxygen ions that is closely associated with enrichment of the sodium ions

  13. Numerical modeling of sodium fire—Part I: Spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium spray combustion. • A pre-ignition model is proposed which is based on combustion mass transfer and reaction kinetics approach. • The proposed method is validated against single droplet experiments of Miyahara and Ara. • The predictions obtained using the proposed method is in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: A sodium cooled fast reactor is one of the fourth generation advanced reactor designs. Liquid sodium is used as a coolant in such a reactor as it has excellent thermophysical properties. However liquid sodium can react violently when exposed to air or water. A sodium-air reaction typically occurs in two dominant modes: spray and pool. Typically, the spray mode of burning is considered as more severe than the pool model of burning. The focus of this paper is on sodium spray combustion. For the safety of a sodium cooled fast reactor, sodium-air reactions should be avoided. To avoid and to mitigate the consequences if a sodium fire occurs, it is essential to understand various physical phenomena involved in a sodium-air reaction. Computational fluid dynamics based numerical methods can be used for this purpose as they are known to resolve all spatial and temporal scales and simulate various physical processes governing sodium-air reaction. The goal of the work presented within this paper is to propose a numerical method to simulate sodium spray combustion and validate this method against experiments. A single sodium droplet combustion experiments is used for the validation. The model predictions of falling velocity and burned mass are in good agreement with experimental data. Additionally, parametric studies were performed to investigate the effects of initial droplet diameter, temperature and oxygen concentration on burning rate and on ignition time delay. Once sufficiently validated, the present method can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  14. Evaluation of apoptosis and micronucleation induced by reactor neutron beams with two different cadmium ratios in total and quiescent cell populations within solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Response of quiescent (Q) and total tumor cells in solid tumors to reactor neutron beam irradiation with two different cadmium (Cd) ratios was examined in terms of micronucleus (MN) frequency and apoptosis frequency, using four different tumor cell lines. Methods and Materials: C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors, C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, and Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. Thirty min after i.p. injection of sodium borocaptate-10B (BSH), or 3 h after oral administration of p-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA), the tumors were irradiated with neutron beams. The tumors without 10B-compound administration were irradiated with neutron beams or γ-rays. This neutron beam irradiation was performed using neutrons with two different Cd ratios. The tumors were then excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the MN frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, for apoptosis assay, 6 h after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequencies in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: Without 10B-compounds, the sensitivity difference between total and Q cells was reduced by neutron beam irradiation. Under our particular neutron beam irradiation condition, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was larger in Q cells than in total cells, and the RBE values were larger for low Cd-ratio than high Cd-ratio neutrons. With 10B-compounds, both frequencies were increased for each cell population, especially for total cells. BPA

  15. Computational studies of nonstoichiometric sodium auride clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Chan; Sundholm, Dage

    2012-05-31

    The molecular structures of low-lying isomers of anionic and neutral sodium auride clusters have been studied computationally at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level using quadruple-ζ basis sets augmented with a double set of polarization functions. The first vertical detachment energies were calculated at the Møller-Plesset level as the energy difference between the cluster anion and the corresponding neutral cluster. The photodetachment energies of higher-lying ionization channels were calculated by adding electronic excitation energies of the neutral clusters to the first vertical detachment energy. The excitation energies were calculated at the linear response approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles level using the anionic cluster structures. The obtained ionization energies for NaAu(-), NaAu(2)(-), NaAu(3)(-), NaAu(4)(-), Na(2)Au(2)(-), Na(2)Au(3)(-), Na(3)Au(3)(-), and Na(2)Au(4)(-) were compared to values deduced from experimental photoelectron spectra. Comparison of the calculated photoelectron spectra for a few energetically low-lying isomers shows that the energetically lowest cluster structures obtained in the calculations do not always correspond to the clusters produced experimentally. Spin-component-scaled second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations shift the order of the isomers such that the observed clusters more often correspond to the energetically lowest structure, whereas the spin-component-scaled approach does not improve the photodetachment energies of the sodium aurides. The potential energy surface of the sodium aurides is very soft, with several low-lying isomers requiring an accurate electron correlation treatment. The calculations show that merely the energetic criterion is not a reliable means to identify the structures of the observed sodium auride clusters; other experimental information is needed to ensure a correct assignment of the cluster structures. The cluster structures of

  16. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  17. Uptake of sodium in quince, sugar beet, and wheat protoplasts determined by the fluorescent sodium-binding dye benzofuran isophthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Claudio; Kader, Abdul; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    The uptake of sodium into protoplasts of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill, clone BA29), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monohill), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kadett) was determined by use of the acetoxy methyl ester of the fluorescent sodium-binding benzofuran isopthalate (SBFI-AM). In the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, little sodium was taken up in the cytosol of quince mesophyll cells compared to cytosols of sugar beet and wheat. Upon addition of 40 mM NaCl, approximately the same amount of sodium was taken up in leaf and root protoplasts of wheat, but no sodium was taken up in quince. However, in calcium-free medium, obtained by addition of ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid (EGTA), quince protoplasts transiently took up sodium in the cytosol when 200-400 mM NaCl was added to the protoplast medium. Moreover, after cultivation of quince in the presence of 200 mM sodium for 4 weeks, the cytosol of isolated protoplasts did not take up any sodium at all from a calcium-free medium. The results show that protoplasts from salt tolerant quince only temporarily take up sodium in the cytosol and that they have a mechanism for fast extrusion of sodium from that compartment. These mechanisms are probably important for the high salt tolerance of quince. Calcium blocks the sodium uptake into the cytosol of both quince and wheat protoplasts. PMID:15900884

  18. Sodium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease: further evidence supporting the American Heart Association sodium reduction recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K; Appel, Lawrence J; Sacco, Ralph L; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Antman, Elliott M; Campbell, Norman; Dunbar, Sandra B; Frohlich, Edward D; Hall, John E; Jessup, Mariell; Labarthe, Darwin R; MacGregor, Graham A; Sacks, Frank M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Van Horn, Linda V

    2012-12-11

    Recent reports of selected observational studies and a meta-analysis have stirred controversy and have become the impetus for calls to abandon recommendations for reduced sodium intake by the US general population. A detailed review of these studies documents substantial methodological concerns that limit the usefulness of these studies in setting, much less reversing, dietary recommendations. Indeed, the evidence base supporting recommendations for reduced sodium intake in the general population remains robust and persuasive. The American Heart Association is committed to improving the health of all Americans through implementation of national goals for health promotion and disease prevention, including its recommendation to reduce dietary sodium intake to <1500 mg/d. PMID:23124030

  19. Commissioning of the cleaning loop of sodium contaminated equipment in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water vapor-nitrogen test loop was constructed to study the cleaning technology of sodium contaminated equipment in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main components of the loop include a liquid nitrogen storage tank, an electric heating steam generator, a cleaning tank, an effluent storage tank, a condenser, a vacuum pump and a hydrogen meter. After a series of commissioning tests, some problems were found and the corresponding improvement measures were taken. The experiment procedure of the loop which was confirmed by the commissioning tests provided a guarantee for the following studies on the cleaning technology of sodium contaminated equipment. A number of experiences gained from the commissioning tests could be used in the equipment cleaning system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR). (authors)

  20. Study on the Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Carbon Steel by Sodium Phosphate and Sodium Nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium nitrite is widely used as one of the popular corrosion inhibitors for the protection of ferrous metal in closed cooling water system, such as a diesel engine and a chiller. The optimum treatment conditions are studied through laboratory tests using linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. Corrosion rate of the carbon steel electrode could be maintained less than 2.5x10-3 mmpy in the test condition of 500 ppm as NO2-, 200 ppm as CT, 70 .deg. C and pH 6.8. The pH control is confirmed not to be an important factor in the protection of carbon steel by sodium nitrite inhibitor. The addition of tolyltriazole was needed for the protection of the copper alloy in the sodium nitrite treatment system

  1. Sodium leak at Monju (II): Sodium leak, burning and aerosol behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of leaked sodium was estimated as approximately 640 kg during the 220 minute leak. The ventilation duct and the walkway grating under the leak site were severely damaged by Na-Fe-O reaction, but the floor liner and the concrete wall were not. A total 100 kg of sodium aerosol was deposited in the reactor auxiliary building and 230 kg was released to the atmosphere. The sodium concentration at the site boundary was calculated as 0.05 mg/m3, NaOH equivalent, which was low in comparison with the permitted level of 2 mg/m3. The tritium quantity released was estimated as 4.4 x 107 Bq, which was about 0.03% of the average released value per month for a LWR. (author)

  2. Sodium vanadium oxide: a new material for high-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Nair, Vivek Sahadevan; Ling, Cheah Yan; Wang, Yuxi; Hoster, Harry E; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2014-07-21

    Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries have the potential to become the technology of choice for large-scale electrochemical energy storage because of the high sodium abundance and low costs. However, not many materials meet the performance requirements for practical applications. Here, we report a novel sodium-ion battery electrode material, Na(2.55)V(6)O(16)⋅0.6 H(2)O, that shows significant capacities and stabilities at high current rates up to 800 mA g(-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are carried out to better understand the underlying reactions. Moreover, due to the different oxidation states of vanadium, this material can also be employed in a symmetric full cell, which would decrease production costs even further. For these full cells, capacity and stability tests are conducted using various cathode:anode mass ratios. PMID:25044526

  3. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Han; Lim, Sa-Hoe

    2008-01-15

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A{sub 0} Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm.

  4. Feasibility Study on Ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Visualization of Sodium Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The examination of the internal structures is possible by using ultrasonics to penetrate the sodium. The under-sodium viewing technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensors and waveguide sensors have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor can operate in a hostile environment, such as liquid metal at a high temperature in the presence of high radiation. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. A new plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed to overcome the limitations of previous waveguide sensors. And a novel ultrasonic technique has been suggested. The technique is capable of steering a radiation beam of a waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the waveguide sensor. The control of the radiation beam angle can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A0 Lamb wave. A waveguide sensor assembly has been designed for the actual application of undersodium visual inspection in sodium-cooled fast reactor. The main purpose of this study is achievement of feasibility of ultrasonic waveguide sensor technology to the application of undersodium viewing. Under-water C-scan imaging test was carried out by using 10 m long waveguide sensor assembly. It was confirmed that the test target could be clearly visualized and the resolution of C-scan image could be less than 2 mm

  5. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the

  6. The corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable research has been performed by AEA Technology on the corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts containing sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. This research has principally been in support of understanding the effects of sodium-water reactions on the internals of fast reactor steam generators. The results however have relevance to sodium fires. It has been determined that the rate of corrosion of steels by melts of pure NaOH can be significantly increased by the addition of Na2O. In the case of a sodium-water reaction jet created by a leak of steam into sodium, the composition of the jet varies from 100% sodium through to 100% steam, with a full range of concentrations of NaOH and Na2O, depending on axial and radial position. The temperature in the jet also varies with position, ranging from bulk sodium temperature on one boundary to expanded steam temperature on the other boundary, with internal temperatures ranging up to 1300 deg. C, depending on the local pre-reaction mole ratio of steam to sodium. In the case of sodium-water reaction jets, it has been possible to develop a model which predicts the composition of the reaction jet and then, using the data generated on the corrosivity of sodium melts, predict the rate of corrosion of a steel target in the path of the jet. In the case of a spray sodium fire, the sodium will initially contain a concentration of NaOH and the combustion process will generate Na2O. If there is sufficient humidity, conversion of some of the Na2O to NaOH will also occur. There is therefore the potential for aggressive mixtures of NaOH and Na2O to exist on the surface of the sodium droplets. It is therefore possible that the rate of corrosion of steels in the path of the spray may be higher than expected on the basis of assuming that only Na and Na2O were present. In the case of a pool sodium fire, potentially corrosive mixtures of NaOH and Na2O may be formed at some locations on the surface. This could lead to significant

  7. Bis(indolyl)methanes synthesis through sodium iodate and sodium hydrogen sulfite in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective and eco-friendly method for the bis(indolyl)methanes synthesis has been developed. A successive methodology involving sodium iodate/sodium hydrogen sulfite catalyzed reaction of indole with many aldehydes gave the resultant bis-indol in good yield. This method offers synthetically inexpensive alternate to the previously developed procedures for the bis-indol synthesis. The use of a low-cost and straightforwardly accessible catalyst, improved yields and a simple reaction process are the salient features of the current method. (author)

  8. Dietary sodium reduction among students: feasibility and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschi, J C; Ellison, R C; Doane, D D; Vorkink, G L; Slack, W V; Stare, F J

    1985-07-01

    Modifications in the preparation of food served in a boarding high school during a 5-week period were successful in decreasing the sodium content of a variety of food products by an average of 51%. Such food was, in general, well accepted. The ratings of specific reduced-sodium food products equaled those of similar products containing "usual" amounts of sodium. Food diaries kept by students gave estimates of total sodium intake comparable with those measured by laboratory analysis of 24-hour food collections. Food diaries collected from an average of 70 volunteers per week indicated that during the reduced-sodium period, the total sodium intake of students, including that from dining hall food, snack food, and food consumed outside the school, decreased from 136 mEq (3 gm sodium, 8 gm salt) to 88 mEq (2 gm sodium, 5 gm salt), a reduction of 35% (p less than .0001). The impact of salt added at the table was very small; the choice and the quantity of foods consumed were the main determinants of sodium intake. The results indicate that foods can be prepared with appreciably less sodium and still be highly acceptable to young people. PMID:4008832

  9. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To test the following three hypotheses:(1)plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm;(2)the circadian rhythm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet;(3)high NaCl diet elevates lpasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arterial pressure(MAP)of SHR.Methods:After having been instrumented with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age,all rats(Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat,SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat,WKY) experienced two experimental protocols,the mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples also been analysed for sodium contents.Results:On basal NaCl diet,plasma sodium concentrations in SHR were significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured and the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phases;on high NaCl diet,the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposite in WKY,In SHR,the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhythm.Conclusion:Plasma sodium displays a significant ciradian rhythm in rats.The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  10. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the following three hypotheses: ①plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm; ②the circadian rhyt hm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet; ③high NaCl diet elevates plasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arteria l pressure (MAP) of SHR. Methods After having been instrumen ted with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age, all rats (Spontaneously Hypertensi ve Rat, SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat, WKY) experienced two experimental protocols, th e mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples als o been analysed for sodium contents. Results On basal NaCl diet, plasma sodium concentrations in SHR w ere significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured a nd the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phase s; on high NaCl diet, the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposit e in WKY. In SHR, the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhyt hm. Conclusion Plasma sodium displays a significant circadian rhythm in rats. The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  11. Sodium movements in perfused squid giant axons. Passive fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Canessa-Fischer, M

    1968-08-01

    Sodium movements in internally perfused giant axons from the squid Dosidicus gigas were studied with varying internal sodium concentrations and with fluoride as the internal anion. It was found that as the internal concentration of sodium was increased from 2 to 200 mM the resting sodium efflux increased from 0.09 to 34.0 pmoles/cm(2)sec and the average resting sodium influx increased from 42.9 to 64.5 pmoles/cm(2)sec but this last change was not statistically significant. When perfusing with a mixture of 500 mM K glutamate and 100 mM Na glutamate the resting efflux was 10 +/- 3 pmoles/cm(2)sec and 41 +/- 10 pmoles/cm(2)sec for sodium influx. Increasing the internal sodium concentration also increased both the extra influx and the extra efflux of sodium due to impulse propagation. At any given internal sodium concentration the net extra influx was about 5 pmoles/cm(2)impulse. This finding supports the notion that the inward current generated in a propagated action potential can be completely accounted for by movements of sodium. PMID:5672003

  12. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  13. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  14. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  15. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  16. Determination of oxygen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour is analysed of a device for 'in-line' sampling and vacuum distillation. With this procedure 95 results were obtained for the solubility of oxygen in liquid sodium at temperatures between 1250 and 3000C. The correlation between the concentration of oxygen in a saturation state and the corresponding temperature is represented by: 1g C = 6,17 - 2398/T, where C expressed ppm of oxygen by weight and T is the saturation temperature in 0K. Reference is also made to the first results obtained with the electrochemical oxygen meter and the system for taking and recording data. (author)

  17. Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Baldé, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in the nanometer size range deposited on carbon materials, will be linked to the hydrogen storage characteristics. Moreover, role and structure of the effect of adding a Ti-based-catalyst to the nano-NaAlH4 will be described. The structural changes that lead to a catalyst deactivation will be described for TiCl3 and Ti(OB...

  18. Startup of the FFTF sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is a 3 Loop 400 MW(t) sodium cooled fast reactor with a primary mission to test fuels and materials for development of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Bringing FFTF to a condition to accomplish this mission is the goal of the Acceptance Test Program (ATP). This program was the mechanism for achieving startup of the FFTF. Highlights of the ATP involving the system inerting, liquid metal and inerted cell testing and initial ascent to full power are discussed

  19. Acicular crystals of sodium tungsten bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, C.E. (Chemistry Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Kopp, O.C. (Chemistry Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Dept. of Geological Sciences, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The synthesis of sodium tungsten bronzes, Na[sub x]WO[sub 3], with emphasis on crystals with acicular morphology, has been examined experimentally. The acicular morphology is obtained for a range of compositions in which 0.15 [<=] x [<=] 0.28, and generally more than one crystal structure is present. At x [approx] 0.28 the tetragonal II phase predominates, whereas at x [approx] 0.15 an unknown structure is the major phase. Surprisingly, all the bronzes tested exhibited large solubilities in hot aqueous solutions of NH[sub 4]OH. (orig.)

  20. Desiliconization of commercial solutions of sodium tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A part of anolyte prepared in the process of soda regeneration from solutions of pressure soda leaching by the method of electrodialysis is proposed to be used for desiliconization of commercial solution of sodium tungstate. The purification technique consists in the anolyte adding in portions to a arbitrary volume of hot pressurized solution during two hour constant mixing up to pH value magnitude from 9 up to 8.5, the following two hour setting at 90 deg C, and filtration. The above purification technique does not introduce additional impurities to a solution used for WO3 separation

  1. Material effects in LMFBR sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating conditions of commercial LMFBR's can result in material performance problems. Corrosion, radiation damage, temperature requirements, plastic deformation, and the superposition of these effects have been defined as important limiting factors for the design of components. A detailed knowledge of the various parameters which can influence the behavior of materials under LMFBR conditions is therefore necessary. The objective of the paper is to identify the influence of the sodium environment on the most important properties of materials which are used for the construction of heat transfer components. The paper considers the fuel cladding, the IHX, and the steam generator to be the major heat exchange units to be evaluated

  2. Instrument for monitoring activity in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzer of oxygen in liquid sodium uses the principle of measuring the difference in potential of a solid state electrolyte galvanic cell. Thorium oxide doped with yttrium oxide was chosen as an electrolyte, an Sn+SnO2 system is used as a reference electrode. The procedure is described in detail for the manufacture of the analyzer. The galvanic cell is capable of long-term operation with an error not exceeding 15%. The recommended operating temperature exceeds 450 degC. (M.S.)

  3. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.L.

    1977-08-01

    A flow microcalorimeter system was assembled and is being used in a thermodynamic study of surfactant systems as part of the ERDA enhanced oil recovery program. Enthalpies of dilution and demicellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate were measured over a temperature range of 20 to 35/sup 0/C. This surfactant was also studied with cosurfactant and salt backgrounds. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined and are in excellent agreement with those in the literature. Studies below the cmc suggest the possible formation of a dimer. 17 tables, 9 figures.

  4. Inorganic magnetic support for sodium cation scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different magnetic iron oxide-silica matrices with polyoxaalkyl units have been obtained in a multi-step synthesis. The structures of the matrices were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while their surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The scavenging ability was studied by ultraviolet-visible measurements. The results demonstrate very good scavenging efficiency of compounds studied against sodium cations (Na+). The complexing abilities of the magnetic iron oxide-silica surfaces were compared with those of the previously studied analogously modified non-magnetic silica surfaces.

  5. Lifetimes for some excited states of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetimes of some s,p and d levels of sodium have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, using a single-photon counting technique. The results are compared with the calculated values of the present work, and with other results. The lifetimes of the ns, np, and levels up to n10; of the nf levels up to n-9;and of the ng, nh,n1 and nk levels up to n-8, have been calculated and the transition probabilities of lines with origin in these levels are given. (Author) 38 refs

  6. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Structure of sodium alkyl sulphate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micellar aggregation numbers of aggregated sodium octyl, decyl, dodecyl and tetradecyl sulphate molecules obtained from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are reported. The surfactant concentration and solution temperature were varied systematically. A survey of the physical models and evaluation algorithms applied for SANS are presented. By utilizing a new least square fitting algorithm, the formation and annihilation parameters of orthopositronium in the micellar pseudophase and in the aqueous solvent is deduced by evaluating positron lifetime spectra measured by conventional technqiues. (R.P.) 157 refs.; 10 figs

  8. Reduction of sodium cyclotriphosphate by metallic molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products of interaction between sodium cyclotriphosphate and powdered metallic molybdenum under heating up to 1000 deg C in vacuum were studied by the method of X-ray phase analysis and 31P NMR. It was ascertained that above 650-700 deg C molybdenum phosphide, MoP and amorphous phase containing mono-, di- and cyclotetraphosphates, are formed in the system. The amorphous phase also contains a portion of molybdenum in oxidation state 5+. At the ratio of regents, providing the maximum yield of cyclotetraphosphate, isolation of a small amount of elementary phosphorus was observed

  9. Two dimensional shielding benchmark analysis for sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of a shielding benchmark experiment on 'fast reactor source' neutron transport through 1.8 metres of sodium is presented in this paper. The two dimensional discrete ordinates code DOT and DLC 37 coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross sections were used in the analyses. These calculations are compared with measurements on: (i) neutron spectral distribution given by activation detector response, and (ii) gamma ray doses. The agreement is found to be within ± 30 per cent in the fast spectrum region, and within a factor 3.5 in thermal region. For gammas these calculations overpredict the dose rate by a factor of four. (author)

  10. The condensation of sodium vapour bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a preliminary analytic study of the violent collapse of a vapour bubble by condensation in cold liquid. A calculation method is described and is applied to the condensation of sodium vapour bubbles such as might be formed in an overheating accident in a fast reactor. The method is not satisfactory, and a more thorough study of the problem is needed, but these preliminary results suggest that while the violent collapse is unlikely to do much mechanical damage, it produces a considerable amount of acoustic energy. (author)

  11. Effects of low-sodium diet vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride (Cochrane Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids.......The question of whether reduced sodium intake is effective as a health prophylaxis initiative is unsolved. The purpose was to estimate the effects of low-sodium vs. high-sodium intake on blood pressure (BP), renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, and lipids....

  12. Difference of Sodium Currents between Pediatric and Adult Human Atrial Myocytes: Evidence for Developmental Changes of Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai, Xiaoqin Mu, Dongmei Gong, Shulin Jiang, Jianping Li, Qingxin Meng, Yunlong Bai, Yanju Liu, Xinyue Wang, Xueying Tan, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium currents and potassium currents were shown to undergo developmental changes in postnatal human and animal cardiomocytes. However, so far, there is no evidence whether sodium currents also presented the developmental changes in postnatal human atrial cells. The aim of this study was to observe age-related changes of sodium currents between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes. Human atrial myocytes were acutely isolated and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record sodium currents isolated from pediatric and adult atrial cardiomocytes. The peak amplitude of sodium currents recorded in adult atrial cells was significantly larger than that in pediatric atrial myocytes. However, there was no significant difference of the activation voltage for peak sodium currents between two kinds of atrial myocytes. The time constants for the activation and inactivation of sodium currents were smaller in adult atria than pediatric atria. The further study revealed that the voltage-dependent inactivation of sodium currents were more slow in adult atrial cardiomyocytes than pediatric atrial cells. A significant difference was also observed in the recovery process of sodium channel from inactivation. In summary, a few significant differences were demonstrated in sodium currents characteristics between pediatric and adult atrial myocytes, which indicates that sodium currents in human atria also undergo developmental changes.

  13. Temperature controlled icy dust reservoir of sodium: A possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shican; Tang, Yihuan; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-06-01

    Using seven years, from 2006 to 2013, sodium lidar observations over Hefei, China (31.80°N, 117.3°E), we attempt to propose a possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers (SSLs or NaS). We analyze the relationship between low temperature (cold mesopause region where the temperature falls below 150 K and it will absorb sodium atoms to form a solid sodium metal film as a sodium reservoir. The icy dust will then sublimate rapidly when meeting with warm air (e.g., 150 K 190 K and sometimes even >230 K) and form a sporadic sodium layer. Although not conclusive and highly uncertain, the icy dust reservoir model not only provides a good explanation for the observed characteristics of SSLs; it is also in good agreement with many other observations, such as the simultaneous sporadic sodium and iron layers, the behavior of SSLs on small time scale, the deviation of the sodium density profile of SSLs from the normal one, and the sharply decreased scale height above the peak of the sodium layer. These results further suggest that the icy dust might be a viable option of sodium reservoir for the formation of SSLs.

  14. Formulas for fixing serum sodium: curb your enthusiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, Richard H

    2016-08-01

    A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes. Nephrologists should curb their enthusiasm for predictive formulas and rely instead on frequent measurements of the serum sodium when correcting hyponatremia and hypernatremia. PMID:27478590

  15. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved

  16. Development of bellows for sodium valves in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium valves for FBR are required to isolate sodium side from the atmosphere completely throughout its lifetime because of preventing sodium leakage with or without radioactivity. A great number of sodium valves have been used in FBR test facilities at O-arai Engineering Center of PNC and many troubles have occurred through their operational experience. Most of the cause of the troubles are the bellows failure followed by sodium leakage. A research and development program on bellows was started to clarify many uncertain factors of its performance and to establish the feasibility of bellows used in sodium. In this program Small Bellows Test Loop was built to perform low cycle fatigue tests on bellows under high temperature conditions. In this report some examples of the investigation of failed bellows occurred at O-arai Engineering Center of PNC are described. The research and development program on bellows is also explained with the summary of recent test results. (author)

  17. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  18. Acoustics of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility P2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the highly instrumented P2 experiment to simulate an unprotected loss of flow in an LMBFR core, two high-temperature sodium-immersed microphones were used to obtain the acoustic scenario of the 9-second flow coastdown, boiling sodium coolant, fuel failure, and re-establishment of flow after reactor scram. Acoustic data from this and previous experiments indicate that singular larger voids are formed in the sodium boiling process. These singular larger voids were observed to collapse upon contacting the subcooled sodium or structures, at repetition rates comparable to formation rates of sodium vapor bubbles. The acoustic observations were made in the presence of sodium exposed to argon cover gas at LMFBR operating conditions, and in the presence of fission gas from fuel pin failure. 6 refs

  19. An investigation of kinetic reaction and decomposition of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the management of severe accidents of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, the coolability of the fuel debris bed on a core support plate is a key concern during the post-accident heat removal phase. In an air ingress scenario, the reactions between the fuel and highly oxidized sodium are likely to form sodium uranoplutonate. This would negatively influence the coolability of the fuel debris bed due to a lowering of the thermal conductivity and density. This study has focused on the formation kinetics of sodium uranate from UO2 and liquid sodium including oxygen at a high concentration. In this paper, the experiments on reaction initiation temperatures, reaction rates, and the decomposition of sodium uranate are reported. (author)

  20. Development and testing of instrumentation sensors for sodium coolant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents recent results of sodium instrumentation sensor test programs which are being conducted at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC). These test programs include: comparative testing of several sodium-to-gas leak detection concepts; long-term testing of second-generation inductive sodium level sensors and buoyancy-type level sensors; calibration of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) inductive sodium level sensors; testing of fast-response sodium pressure sensors, including the type which will be used in the FFTF Plant Protective System (PPS); calibration of a 16-in. pipe size permanent magnet (PM) flowmeter using a water-calibrated venturi as the calibration standard; and testing of the ability of a weldable, integral-lead strain gage to withstand direct immersion in sodium at high temperatures

  1. French research on a general approach to sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives a general idea of how one may deal with the safety of an installation in case of a sodium leak generating either a sodium pool fire, or a sodium spray fire, or a combined sodium fire, and in case of a sodium leak either with or without fire and/or any aggravating phenomenon such as aerosols or sodium-concrete reactions, for example. This paper describes the means used to reduce fire consequences. These means are either design codes used for dimensioning premises with their ventilation system or for defining a course of action to be taken in case of fire, or equipment and components (fire fighting equipment, detection devices, etc.) used to prevent or to fight fires, or finally, to repair the installation after a fire, the latter operation including the processing of the residues. (author)

  2. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H;

    1999-01-01

    extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour......The hypothesis that hypertonic saline infusion induces a greater natriuresis than infusion of the same amount of sodium as isotonic saline was tested in 8 supine subjects on fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol NaCl day(-1). Sodium loads equivalent to the amount of sodium contained in 10% of measured....... Plasma sodium concentrations only increased following hypertonic saline infusion (by 2.7 +/- 0.3 mmol L(-1)). Oncotic pressure decreased significantly more with isotonic saline (4.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg) than with hypertonic saline (3.2 +/- 0.2 mmHg), indicating that isotonic saline induced a stronger volumetric...

  3. Contributions of foods to sodium in the Australian food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, H; Smith, A M; Maples, J; Wills, R B

    1984-06-01

    The sodium contributions of various foods in the Australian supply have been calculated by applying recent local food composition data to food availability data and to typical notional Australian diets. Sodium available for consumption from the food supply was 3.00 g per capita per day. Of foods which are salted during processing, the three heaviest contributors of sodium were bread (23 per cent of total available sodium), processed meat and fish (14 per cent), and margarine (8 per cent). Other important contributors were breakfast cereals, biscuits, cheese, butter, potato crisps, dried soups and cakes (including pastries, pies and puddings). Foods identified by health authorities as 'highly salted' and thus prime targets for reduced consumption, provided 33 per cent of total available sodium, less than the 50 per cent contributed by other foods salted during processing. Take-away foods per se did not contribute more sodium than processed foods generally. PMID:6480405

  4. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

  6. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFUROXIME SODIUM AND SULBACTAM SODIUM IN INJECTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Patel et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cefuroxime is a 2nd-generation cephalosporin and Sulbactam is a β-Lactamase inhibitor. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection. Two new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Cefuroxime Sodium (CEF and Sulbactam Sodium (SUL in their combined dosage forms. First method is based on simultaneous estimation of Cefuroxime at 279nm and Sulbactam at 259 nm, while other Q‐absorption Ratio method using two wavelengths, 259nm (λmax of SUL and 272nm (Isoabsorptive point. 0.01 N NaOH was the solvent used in all methods. Cefuroxime Sodium showed linearity in the range of 8-32μg/mL and Sulbactam sodium showed linearity in the range of 4-16μg/mL in all the methods. All methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. All methods were found to be accurate, precise and reproducible. These methods were applied to the assay of the drugs in marketed formulation, which were found in the range of 98.0% to 100.0% of the labelled value for both Cefuroxime and Sulbactam. Hence, the methods herein described can be successfully applied in quality control of combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  7. Photodissociation of sodium iodide and resonant ionization of sodium atom produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Bing-hai; Z.T.Salim; A.H.Bakery

    2004-01-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonant ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) are employed to detect the photodissociation product of sodium iodide molecules in a molecular beam in an intense laser field in the absence of the buffer gases. Time of flight mass spectra is recorded. In particular, the appearances of multiphoton ionization are discussed.

  8. Formation and trapping of aerosols from burning sodium in nonactive sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the results of informative laboratory tests of incineration, experiments were conducted on an experimental aerosol separator with an output of 500 m3/h of filtered air. The wet aerosol separator consists of an incineration furnace with a 0.5 m2 pan, a Venturi washer which is directly connected to the incinerator furnace, and a foam column. During the incineration of piece sodium the incineration rate reached was 10.36 to 51.20 kg/m2.h. In case of liquid sodium the incineration rate reached was 10.87 to 77.98 kg/m2.h. The aerosol concentration was relatively high and converted to sodium, reached 17 g/m3. The attained effectiveness of sodium aerosol trapping without the use of the end filter was 98.46 to 99.75%. The measured concentration of NaOH aerosols at the outlet was lower than is the value permitted by the hygiene inspectorate. (E.S.)

  9. Water leak detection in sodium heated steam generators through measurement of hydrogen concentration in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes a description of apparatus for measuring hydrogen concentration in the secondary sodium system of the PHENIX reactor. The calibration method and results obtained since the commissioning of the reactor are also described. Mention is made of improvements to be built into SUPER PHENIX

  10. Beam steering technique of ultrasonic waveguide sensor for under-sodium inspection of sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor core and internal structures of a sodium fast reactor can not be visually examined due to the opaque sodium. The under sodium inspection technique using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the in-service inspection of the reactor internals. Immersion sensor and waveguide sensor have been utilized for the under-sodium viewing application. The immersion sensor has a precise imaging capability, but may have high temperature restrictions and an uncertain life. The waveguide sensor has the advantages of simplicity and reliability, but limits in its movement. In this study, new ultrasonic techniques are being developed to overcome the scanning limitation of a waveguide sensor. A new technique is presented which is capable of steering an ultrasonic beam of an waveguide sensor without a mechanical movement of the sensor assembly. The steering function of the ultrasonic radiation beam can be achieved by a frequency tuning method of the excitation pulse in the dispersive low frequency range of the A0 Lamb wave. (authors)

  11. Conceptual design report, Sodium Storage Facility, Fast Flux Test Facility, Project F-031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Storage Facility Conceptual Design Report provides conceptual design for construction of a new facility for storage of the 260,000 gallons of sodium presently in the FFTF plant. The facility will accept the molten sodium transferred from the FFTF sodium systems, and store the sodium in a solid state under an inert cover gas until such time as a Sodium Reaction Facility is available for final disposal of the sodium

  12. Changes in potassium and sodium concentrations in stored blood

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku-Okrah, Clement; Acquah, Benjamin Kojo Safo; Dogbe, Elliot Eli

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is the principal intracellular cation with sodium being the principal extracellular cation. Maintenance of the distribution of potassium and sodium between the intracellular and the extracellular compartments relies on several homeostatic mechanisms. This study analysed the effect of blood storage on the concentrations of potassium and sodium in stored blood and also determine any variations that may exist in their concentrations. 50mls of blood was sampled each from 28 units of eve...

  13. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excreti...

  14. Experimental study o the sodium-concrete reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects and aspects of security are verified during a sodium leakage in high temperatures on liners of contention cells and directly on the concrete. As this kinetic process involves reactions between materials in solid state (such as oxides and carbonates) vapors and gases (such as water and CO2)) with liquid sodium, effects of each phase of the heterogeneous mixture are separately analysed. Are still analysed produced products and briefly discussed the kinetic of the sodium-concrete reaction. (Author)

  15. Food Choice and Sodium Intake in the American Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption has significant impact on sodium intake, with which overconsumption will result in negative healthy impact on individuals. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 and regression analyses, we examined the effect of consumption of various food groups on the sodium intake of American adults (19 years of age or older) and changes in the impacts of various food consumption on sodium intake over the study period. The impact of respondents’ demograp...

  16. Hydration and properties of sodium sulfate activated slag

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Rashad; Bai, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Basheer, P. A. M.; Milestone, N.B.; Collier, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in alkali-activated slag as a construction material is increasing, primarily due to its environmentally friendly nature. Although strong alkaline activators, such as sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution, are preferred for high strength, none of them exists naturally and their manufacturing process is quite energy intensive. Whilst sodium sulfate (NaSO ) can be obtained from natural resources, the early strength of NaSO activated slag is usually low. In this paper, the effect...

  17. Determination of solubility of uranium in liquid sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tongzai; XING Pifeng; YE Shiyou; LONG Kaiming; FU Zhonghua; HE Yuhui; JIANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    An experimental technique has been developed which overcomes the two major problems common to liquid metal solubility measurements, namely, maintaining the integrity of the samples during transfer of the liquid sodium from container to whatever device is used for analysis and detecting solute at very low concentration in liquid sodium. The solubility of uranium in liquid sodium has been measured over the temperature range 150~400℃, by equilibration and sampling technique, the solubility of uranium is approximately 0.00001%.

  18. Inhibition of lymphocyte activation by gold sodium thiomalate.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, S J; Jayson, M I; Zeil, P.

    1983-01-01

    Activation of lymphoid cells by both T and B cell mitogens was inhibited by gold sodium thiomalate (GST). The action of GST did not appear to be exerted at early stages of lymphocyte activation. Inhibition by GST was sustained throughout 4 days of culture. The inhibitory effect of GST was reduced at low serum concentrations. Sodium thiomalate and sodium chloroaurate were also able to inhibit lymphocyte activation.

  19. Multiple Sodium Channel Variants in the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the target sites of both DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. The importance of alternative splicing as a key mechanism governing the structural and functional diversity of sodium channels and the resulting development of insecticide and acaricide resistance is widely recognized, as shown by the extensive research on characterizing alternative splicing and variants of sodium channels in medically and agriculturally important insect species. Here we present the fi...

  20. Sodium valproate induced increased frequency of micturition and enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh D Gosavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiepileptic drug (AED for control of a broad range of seizures. Adverse drug reactions (ADR due to sodium valproate range from sedation to nausea, vomiting, weight gain, idiosyncratic adverse effects like hepatotoxicity and life threatening conditions like pancreatitis. We present a case of sodium valproate induced enuresis in child. This ADR of valproate is an underreported ADR and requires special attention of pediatricians as it can interfere with the further treatment of the disease.