WorldWideScience

Sample records for bornholm model set-up

  1. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    , initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized....... In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  2. Setting up measuring campaigns for integrated wastewater modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Schilling, W.; Rauch, W.; Krebs, P.; Aalderink, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The steps of calibration/confirmation of models in a suggested 11-step procedure for analysis, planning and implementation of integrated urban wastewater management systems is focused upon in this paper. Based on ample experience obtained in comprehensive investigations throughout Europe

  3. Setting up measuring campaigns for integrated wastewater modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Schilling, W.; Rauch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    The steps of calibration/confirmation of models in a suggested Ii-step procedure far analysis, planning and implementation of integrated urban wastewater management systems is focused upon in this paper. Based on ample experience obtained in comprehensive investigations throughout Europe recommen...... problems related to suspended solids, specific contaminants, hygienic hazards and total pollutant loss illustrate the recommendations presented. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Mathematical model of the electronuclear set-up on the beam of the JINR synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.; Lobanova, V.A.; Kumar, V.

    2003-01-01

    On the base of the Monte Carlo code CASCADE, developed at JINR, a mathematical model of the deep-subcritical set-up with uranium blanket used in experiments underway at JINR using a 0.6-4 GeV proton beam, is created. The neutron spectra, yields and energies of generated particles are calculated and compared for several modifications of the set-up. The influence of paraffin and graphite moderators on the characteristics of particles escaping lead target is studied. The modelled set-up can be considered as a first step to experiments with the designed at JINR U-Pu ADS SAD with heat power of several tens of kW

  5. Mathematical Model of the Electronuclear Set-Up on the Beam of the JINR Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Kumawat, H; Lobanova, V A

    2004-01-01

    On the base of the Monte Carlo code CASCADE, developed at JINR, a mathematical model of the deep-subcritical set-up with uranium blanket used in experiments underway at JINR using a 0.6-4 GeV proton beam, is created. The neutron spectra, yields and energies of generated particles are calculated and compared for several modifications of the set-up. The influence of paraffin and graphite moderators on the characteristics of particles escaping lead target is studied. The modelled set-up can be considered as a first step to experiments with the designed at JINR U-Pu ADS SAD with heat power of several tens of kW.

  6. Setting up a hydrological model based on global data for the Ayeyarwady basin in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Velden, Corine; Sloff, Kees; Nauta, Tjitte

    2017-04-01

    The use of global datasets in local hydrological modelling can be of great value. It opens up the possibility to include data for areas where local data is not or only sparsely available. In hydrological modelling the existence of both static physical data such as elevation and land use, and dynamic meteorological data such as precipitation and temperature, is essential for setting up a hydrological model, but often such data is difficult to obtain at the local level. For the Ayeyarwady catchment in Myanmar a distributed hydrological model (Wflow: https://github.com/openstreams/wflow) was set up with only global datasets, as part of a water resources study. Myanmar is an emerging economy, which has only recently become more receptive to foreign influences. It has a very limited hydrometeorological measurement network, with large spatial and temporal gaps, and data that are of uncertain quality and difficult to obtain. The hydrological model was thus set up based on resampled versions of the SRTM digital elevation model, the GlobCover land cover dataset and the HWSD soil dataset. Three global meteorological datasets were assessed and compared for use in the hydrological model: TRMM, WFDEI and MSWEP. The meteorological datasets were assessed based on their conformity with several precipitation station measurements, and the overall model performance was assessed by calculating the NSE and RVE based on discharge measurements of several gauging stations. The model was run for the period 1979-2012 on a daily time step, and the results show an acceptable applicability of the used global datasets in the hydrological model. The WFDEI forcing dataset gave the best results, with a NSE of 0.55 at the outlet of the model and a RVE of 8.5%, calculated over the calibration period 2006-2012. As a general trend the modelled discharge at the upstream stations tends to be underestimated, and at the downstream stations slightly overestimated. The quality of the discharge measurements

  7. Consequences of artificial deepwater ventilation in the Bornholm Basin for oxygen conditions, cod reproduction and benthic biomass - a model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigebrandt, A.; Rosenberg, R.; Råman Vinnå, L.; Ödalen, M.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well-oxygenated so-called winter water to the greatest depth, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of deepwater density reduction increases as well as the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We show that pumping 1000 m3 s-1 should increase the rates of water exchange and oxygen supply by 2.5 and 3 times, respectively. The CRV (cod reproduction volume), the volume of water in the isolated basin meeting the requirements for successful cod reproduction (S > 11, O2 > 2 mL L-1), should every year be greater than 54 km3, which is an immense improvement, since it has been much less in certain years. Anoxic bottoms should no longer occur in the basin, and hypoxic events will become rare. This should permit extensive colonization of fauna on the earlier periodically anoxic bottoms. Increased biomass of benthic fauna should also mean increased food supply to economically valuable demersal fish like cod and flatfish. In addition, re-oxygenation of the sediments should lead to increased phosphorus retention by the sediments.

  8. Experimental set-up for advanced aeroelastic tests on sectional models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Radomil; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Náprstek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2016), s. 3-13 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0094; GA AV ČR IAA200710902; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bridge aeroelasticity * wind tunnel * experimental set-up * non- linear response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40799-015-0004-6

  9. A model set-up for an oxygen and nutrient flux model for Aarhus Bay (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossing, H.; Berg, P.; Thamdrup, B.

    . They also produce a number of waste products, such as hydrogen sulphide, that have a great impact on the marine environment. After many years of research, our knowledge of the processes going on in the seabed is substantial. This knowledge forms the basis of a new mathematical model linking the complex...

  10. A fast-response production-inventory model for deteriorating seasonal products with learning in set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Abdul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical production-inventory model assumes that both demand and set-up costs are constant. However, in real manufacturing environment, managers usually embark on continuous improvement programmes that often lead to more effective use of tools and machineries and consequently reduction in set-up costs. In fact, constant emphasis on reduction of set-up costs is usually cited as one of the factors responsible for the efficiency of Japanese manufacturing methods. On the other hand, the demand for seasonal product is often characterized by a mixture of time-dependent patterns over the entire season. This paper investigates the effect of learning-based reduction in set-up costs on the optimal schedules and costs of a production-inventory system for deteriorating seasonal products. The demand pattern is a general three-phase ramp-type demand function that represents the various phases of demand commonly observed in many seasonal products in the market. A two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the model more generalized and realistic. The study further presents two different multi-period production strategies that can ensure a fast-response to customers’ demand and compare them with the usual single period strategy. The Numerical example and sensitivity analysis shows that learning-based reduction in set-up costs leads to higher production frequency and shorter production runs which are vital aspects of the just-in-time (JIT philosophy.

  11. Precision assessment of model-based RSA for a total knee prosthesis in a biplanar set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trozzi, C; Kaptein, B L; Garling, E H; Shelyakova, T; Russo, A; Bragonzoni, L; Martelli, S

    2008-10-01

    Model-based Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA) was recently developed for the measurement of prosthesis micromotion. Its main advantage is that markers do not need to be attached to the implants as traditional marker-based RSA requires. Model-based RSA has only been tested in uniplanar radiographic set-ups. A biplanar set-up would theoretically facilitate the pose estimation algorithm, since radiographic projections would show more different shape features of the implants than in uniplanar images. We tested the precision of model-based RSA and compared it with that of the traditional marker-based method in a biplanar set-up. Micromotions of both tibial and femoral components were measured with both the techniques from double examinations of patients participating in a clinical study. The results showed that in the biplanar set-up model-based RSA presents a homogeneous distribution of precision for all the translation directions, but an inhomogeneous error for rotations, especially internal-external rotation presented higher errors than rotations about the transverse and sagittal axes. Model-based RSA was less precise than the marker-based method, although the differences were not significant for the translations and rotations of the tibial component, with the exception of the internal-external rotations. For both prosthesis components the precisions of model-based RSA were below 0.2 mm for all the translations, and below 0.3 degrees for rotations about transverse and sagittal axes. These values are still acceptable for clinical studies aimed at evaluating total knee prosthesis micromotion. In a biplanar set-up model-based RSA is a valid alternative to traditional marker-based RSA where marking of the prosthesis is an enormous disadvantage.

  12. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    with the baroclinic model forced by wind data for the whole Baltic taken from the Europa-Modell (EM) of the German weather service, Offenbach. Verification of simulations was performed by comparison with field measurements of hydrographic variables and ADCP derived current measurements taken during the surveys...

  13. Setting up and validating a complex model for a simple homogeneous wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveros, I.; Bacher, Peder; Ruiz, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    the regression averages method for estimation of parameters which describe the thermal behaviour of the wall. Solar irradiance and long-wave radiation balance terms are added in the heat balance equation besides modelling of wind speed effect to achieve a complete description of the relevant phenomena which......The present paper describes modelling of the thermal dynamics of a real wall tested in dynamic outdoor weather conditions, to identify all the parameters needed for its characterisation. Specifically, the U value, absorptance and effective heat capacity are estimated for the wall using grey......-box modelling based on statistical methods and known physical dynamic energy balance equations, related to the heat flux density through a simple and homogeneous wall. The experimental test was carried out in a hot-temperature climate for nine months. This study aims at proposing a dynamic method improving...

  14. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  15. Mathematical modeling of vibration processes in reinforced concrete structures for setting up crack initiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. A.; Matveenko, B. P.; Serovaev, G. S.; Shardakov, I. N.; Shestakov, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    The contemporary construction industry is based on the use of reinforced concrete structures, but emergency situations resulting in fracture can arise in their exploitation. In a majority of cases, reinforced concrete fracture is realized as the process of crack formation and development. As a rule, the appearance of the first cracks does not lead to the complete loss of the carrying capacity but is a fracture precursor. One method for ensuring the safe operation of building structures is based on crack initiation monitoring. A vibration method for the monitoring of reinforced concrete structures is justified in this paper. An example of a reinforced concrete beam is used to consider all stages related to the analysis of the behavior of natural frequencies in the development of a crack-shaped defect and the use of the obtained numerical results for the vibration test method. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by the results of modeling of the physical part of the method related to the analysis of the natural frequency evolution as a response to the impact action in the crack development process.

  16. 'When measurements mean action' decision models for portal image review to eliminate systematic set-up errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wratten, C.R.; Denham, J.W.; O; Brien, P.; Hamilton, C.S.; Kron, T.; London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate how the use of decision models in the review of portal images can eliminate systematic set-up errors during conformal therapy. Sixteen patients undergoing four-field irradiation of prostate cancer have had daily portal images obtained during the first two treatment weeks and weekly thereafter. The magnitude of random and systematic variations has been calculated by comparison of the portal image with the reference simulator images using the two-dimensional decision model embodied in the Hotelling's evaluation process (HEP). Random day-to-day set-up variation was small in this group of patients. Systematic errors were, however, common. In 15 of 16 patients, one or more errors of >2 mm were diagnosed at some stage during treatment. Sixteen of the 23 errors were between 2 and 4 mm. Although there were examples of oversensitivity of the HEP in three cases, and one instance of undersensitivity, the HEP proved highly sensitive to the small (2-4 mm) systematic errors that must be eliminated during high precision radiotherapy. The HEP has proven valuable in diagnosing very small ( 4 mm) systematic errors using one-dimensional decision models, HEP can eliminate the majority of systematic errors during the first 2 treatment weeks. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Leadership set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Stenager, Egon; von Plessen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    . Findings: The study found that the leadership set-up did not have any clear influence on interdisciplinary cooperation, as all wards had a high degree of interdisciplinary cooperation independent of which leadership set-up they had. Instead, the authors found a relation between leadership set-up and leader...... could influence legitimacy. Originality/value: The study shows that leadership set-up is not the predominant factor that creates interdisciplinary cooperation; but rather, leader legitimacy also should be considered. Additionally, the study shows that leader legitimacy can be difficult to establish...... and that it cannot be taken for granted. This is something chief executive officers should bear in mind when they plan and implement new leadership structures. Therefore, it would also be useful to look more closely at how to achieve legitimacy in cases where the leader is from a different profession to the staff....

  18. Frequency Control for Island Operation of Bornholm Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2014-01-01

    the primary frequency control and the DG units are used to provide the secondary frequency control. As such, the proposed control scheme can strike a balance of the frequency control speed and the energy used from the BESS for the frequency control support. The real-time model of the Bornholm power system......This paper presents a coordinated control strategy of a battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generation (DG) units for the island operation of the Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from the grid connected operation with the Nordic power system...... to the isolated island operation. In order to ensure the secure island operation, the coordinated control of the BESS and the DG has been proposed to stabilize the frequency of the system after the transition to the island operation. In the proposed coordinate control scheme, the BESS is used to provide...

  19. Sensitivity testing of the model set-up used for calculation of photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCP) under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-02-01

    Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) is a method to rank VOC, relative to other VOC, according to their ability to produce ground level ozone. To obtain POCP values valid under European conditions, a critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed using the IVL photochemical trajectory model. The critical analysis has concentrated on three VOC (ethene, n-butane and o-xylene) and has analysed the effect on their POCP values when different model parameters were varied. The three species were chosen because of their different degradation mechanisms in the atmosphere and thus their different abilities to produce ozone. The model parameters which have been tested include background emissions, initial concentrations, dry deposition velocities, the features of the added point source and meteorological parameters. The critical analysis shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC have a critical impact on the POCP values. The hour of the day for the point source emission also shows a large influence on the POCP values. Other model parameters which have been studied have not shown such large influence on the POCP values. Based on the critical analysis a model set-up for calculation of POCP is defined. The variations in POCP values due to changes in the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC are so large that they can not be disregarded in the calculation of POCP. It is recommended to calculate POCP ranges based on the extremes in POCP values instead of calculating site specific POCP values. Four individual emission scenarios which produced the extremes in POCP values in the analysis have been selected for future calculation of POCP ranges. The scenarios are constructed based on the emissions in Europe and the resulting POCP ranges are thus intended to be applicable within Europe 67 refs, 61 figs, 16 tabs

  20. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann; Rassing, Charlotte

    The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys.......The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys....

  1. Setting up home-based palliative care in countries with limited resources: a model from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B C R; Tang, T S; Corbex, M

    2008-12-01

    The provision of palliative care (PC) and opioids is difficult to ensure in remote areas in low- and middle-income countries. We describe here the set up of a home-care program in Sarawak (the Malaysian part of the Borneo Island), where half the population lives in villages that are difficult to access. The establishment of this program, initiated in 1994 by the Department of Radiotherapy of Sarawak General Hospital, consisted of training, empowering nurses, simplifying referral, facilitating access to medication, and increasing awareness among public and health professionals about PC. The program has been sustainable and cost efficient, serving 936 patients in 2006. The total morphine usage in the program increased from 1400 g in 2006. The results show that pain medication can be provided even in remote areas with effective organization and empowerment of nurses, who were the most important determinants for the set up of this program. Education of family was also a key aspect. The authors believe that the experience gained in Sarawak may help other regions with low or middle resources in the set up of their PC program especially for their remote rural population.

  2. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Moisture Dynamics in Swedish Roads: Model Set up and Parameter Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, H.; Wu, M.; Olofsson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Modelling moisture and heat changes in road layers is very important to understand road hydrology and for better construction and maintenance of roads in a sustainable manner. In cold regions due to the freezing/thawing process in the partially saturated material of roads, the modeling task will become more complicated than simple model of flow through porous media without freezing/thawing pores considerations. This study is presenting a 2-D model simulation for a section of highway with considering freezing/thawing and vapor changes. Partial deferential equations (PDEs) are used in formulation of the model. Parameters are optimized from modelling results based on the measured data from test station on E18 highway near Stockholm. Impacts of phase change considerations in the modelling are assessed by comparing the modeled soil moisture with TDR-measured data. The results show that the model can be used for prediction of water and ice content in different layers of the road and at different seasons. Parameter sensitivities are analyzed by implementing a calibration strategy. In addition, the phase change consideration is evaluated in the modeling process, by comparing the PDE model with another model without considerations of freezing/thawing in roads. The PDE model shows high potential in understanding the moisture dynamics in the road system.

  3. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann; Rassing, Charlotte

    In July 1995 the Research Centre of Bornholm (now: Centre for Regional and Tourism Research) began conducting a survey among visitors to Bornholm. The survey is being conducted in order to assess the nature of tourism demand in peripheral areas, using Bornholm as a case example for the purposes...... of fieldwork. During the first year people arriving and departing by ferry and plane were interviewed. Since July 1996 only people departing by ferry have been interviewed. The overall objective is to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis...... of destination surveys. Because the survey has been conducted for six and a half year (since July 1995) the data can also disclose trends in visitor patterns. The passenger survey carried out by the Centre for Regional and Tourism Research is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind carried out in Denmark....

  4. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    In July 1995 the Research Centre of Bornholm (now: Centre for Regional and Tourism Research) began conducting a survey among visitors to Bornholm. The survey was conducted in order to assess the nature of tourism demand in peripheral areas, using Bornholm as a case example for the purposes...... of fieldwork. During the first year people arriving and departing by ferry and plane were interviewed. From July 1996 only people departing by ferry were interviewed. The overall objective is to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis...... of destination surveys. Because the survey has been conducted for seven and a half year altogether, the data can also disclose trends in visitor patterns. The passenger survey carried out by the Centre for Regional and Tourism Research is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind carried out in Denmark....

  5. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN

  6. Setting up virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun

    2003-01-01

    Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN

  7. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  8. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Yersinia enterocolitica species in model set-ups, meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 8 Yersinia enterocolitica strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ageing fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Yersinia enterocolitica strains studied was, depending on the variant of experiment, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The study also considered water activity (aw) and pH of the products investigated. The results suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups had antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella sp. strains. However, this ability was not observed with respect to of tested lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. This ability was possessed by one of the strains investigated--Lactobacillus helveticus T 78. The temperature and time of the incubation of sausages, but not aw and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria tested.

  9. Physical validation issue of the NEPTUNE two-phase modelling: validation plan to be adopted, experimental programs to be set up and associated instrumentation techniques developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Peturaud; Eric Hervieu

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A long-term joint development program for the next generation of nuclear reactors simulation tools has been launched in 2001 by EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). The NEPTUNE Project constitutes the Thermal-Hydraulics part of this comprehensive program. Along with the underway development of this new two-phase flow software platform, the physical validation of the involved modelling is a crucial issue, whatever the modelling scale is, and the present paper deals with this issue. After a brief recall about the NEPTUNE platform, the general validation strategy to be adopted is first of all clarified by means of three major features: (i) physical validation in close connection with the concerned industrial applications, (ii) involving (as far as possible) a two-step process successively focusing on dominant separate models and assessing the whole modelling capability, (iii) thanks to the use of relevant data with respect to the validation aims. Based on this general validation process, a four-step generic work approach has been defined; it includes: (i) a thorough analysis of the concerned industrial applications to identify the key physical phenomena involved and associated dominant basic models, (ii) an assessment of these models against the available validation pieces of information, to specify the additional validation needs and define dedicated validation plans, (iii) an inventory and assessment of existing validation data (with respect to the requirements specified in the previous task) to identify the actual needs for new validation data, (iv) the specification of the new experimental programs to be set up to provide the needed new data. This work approach has been applied to the NEPTUNE software, focusing on 8 high priority industrial applications, and it has resulted in the definition of (i) the validation plan and experimental programs to be set up for the open medium 3D modelling

  10. Setting up crowd science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Setting up an atmospheric-hydrologic model for seasonal forecasts of water flow into dams in a mountainous semi-arid environment (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Zittis, Georgios; Hadjinicolaou, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited rainfall concentrated in the winter months and long dry summers, storage and management of water resources is of paramount importance in Cyprus. For water storage purposes, the Cyprus Water Development Department is responsible for the operation of 56 large dams total volume of 310 Mm3) and 51 smaller reservoirs (total volume of 17 Mm3) over the island. Climate change is also expected to heavily affect Cyprus water resources with a 1.5%-12% decrease in mean annual rainfall (Camera et al., 2016) projected for the period 2020-2050, relative to 1980-2010. This will make reliable seasonal water inflow forecasts even more important for water managers. The overall aim of this study is to set-up the widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its hydrologic extension (WRF-hydro), for seasonal forecasts of water inflow in dams located in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. The specific objectives of this study are: i) the calibration and evaluation of WRF-Hydro for the simulation of stream flows, in the Troodos Mountains, for past rainfall seasons; ii) a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters; iii) a comparison of the application of the atmospheric-hydrologic modelling chain versus the use of climate observations as forcing. The hydrologic model is run in its off-line version with daily forcing over a 1-km grid, while the overland and channel routing is performed on a 100-m grid with a time-step of 6 seconds. Model outputs are exported on a daily base. First, WRF-Hydro is calibrated and validated over two 1-year periods (October-September), using a 1-km gridded observational precipitation dataset (Camera et al., 2014) as input. For the calibration and validation periods, years with annual rainfall close to the long-term average and with the presence of extreme rainfall and flow events were selected. A sensitivity analysis is performed, for the following parameters: partitioning of rainfall into runoff and infiltration (REFKDT), the

  12. The late provision of medical care to coolies in Indochinese rubber tree plantations: the Michelin model health unit set up in 1925–1939.

    OpenAIRE

    Panthou , Eric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; More than ten years after the British experience in Malaysia, the medical protection of farm workers, in particular the fight against malaria, became in the mid-1920s an economic and social issue in Indochina, in order to protect the future of the huge rubber trees plantations set up shortly before by major industrial and financial groups, where losses due to death, repatriation or escape could amount to over half of the workforce within two years. This situation spark...

  13. Vehicle-to-Grid for islanded power system operation in Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) systems are an emerging concept of utilizing the battery storage of electric vehicles (EVs) for providing power system regulation services. This technology could be used to balance the variable electricity generated from various renewable energy sources. This article considers...... a model of an aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage to support an isolated power system operating with a large wind power penetration in the Danish island of Bornholm. From the simulation results, the EV battery storages represented by the V2G systems are able to integrate more fluctuating...... wind power. The islanded Bornholm power system operates satisfactory for the case of replacing most of the conventional generator reserves with V2G systems, which may represent a future operation scenario....

  14. Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, R.C.R.; Cardarelli, H.R.; Borst, W.; Albrecht, S.; Schols, H.; Gutiérrez, O.P.; Maathuis, A.J.H.; Melo Franco, B.D.G. de; Martinis, E.C.P. de; Zoetendal, E.G.; Venema, K.; Saad, S.M.I.; Smidt, H.

    2013-01-01

    A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with

  15. An experimental set-up to test heatmoisture exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ünal (N.); J.C. Pompe (Jan); W.P. Holland (Wim); I. Gultuna; P.E.M. Huygen; K. Jabaaij (K.); C. Ince (Can); B. Saygin (B.); H.A. Bruining (Hajo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The purpose of this study was to build an experimental set-up to assess continuously the humidification, heating and resistance properties of heat-moisture exchangers (HMEs) under clinical conditions. Design: The experimental set-up consists of a patient model, measurement

  16. Set-up for differential manometers testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratushnyj, M.I.; Galkin, Yu.V.; Nechaj, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Set-up characteristic for controlling and testing metrological characteristics of TPP and NPP differential manometers with extreme pressure drop upto 250 kPa is briefly described. The set-up provides with automatic and manual assignment of values of gauge air pressure with errors of 0.1 and 0.25% correspondingly. The set-up is supplied with standard equipment to measure output signals. Set-up supply is carried out by a one-phase alternating current circuit with 220 V. Air supply is carried out by O.4-0.6 MPa. pressure of a pneumatic system. Application of the set-up increases operating efficiency 5 times while checking and turning differential manometers

  17. How to set up a psychodermatology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Duran, S; Ahmed, A; Taylor, R; Bewley, A

    2014-07-01

    Psychodermatology is a recognized subspecialty, but lack of awareness among dermatologists and limitation of resources make the management of these patients challenging. Clinicians are often unsure about the practicalities of setting up a psychodermatology service. There is confusion about which model is best suited to which service, and about the development of a psychodermatology multidisciplinary team. To identify the necessary steps in setting up a psychodermatology clinic. The study was based on the experience of a UK-based psychodermatology unit and the recently published standards by the UK Psychodermatology Working Party. The type of service provision will depend on the type of patients seen in the unit. The core team will be composed of a psychodermatologist and a psychologist. Access to a psychiatrist is essential if patients present with primary psychiatric conditions or primary cutaneous conditions with suicidal or other psychiatric risks. Adequate training of the healthcare staff is advised. The premises and time allocation should be adequate, and this translates into higher tariffs. Using business care tariffs for people with mental health conditions might be more appropriate, as the consultations are longer and involve more members of staff; however, the overall cost remains lower than if these patients were seen in a general dermatology service or in the community. Psychodermatology services are globally limited, and yet the demand for psychodermatology care is high. There is evidence that dedicated psychodermatology services are cost-effective. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the steps necessary to establish and maintain psychodermatology services. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Galvanic cells: setting up the Daniell cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    With the reagents (0.05M copper nitrate solution, 0.05M zinc nitrate solution) and material (glassware, potentiometer, electric wire) availabe in the laboratory, the user must set up the Daniell cell. Different configurations can be possible if the half cells are filled with either electrolyte solution. The cell connections to the measuring device can also be changed. In all instances, an explanation of the set up cell is obtained as well as of the measured potential difference.

  19. Rat Experimental Model of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: An Ethical Approach to Set up the Analgesic Management of Acute Post-Surgical Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Tolva, Valerio; Casana, Renato; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Vanoli, Emilio; Spazzolini, Carla; Roughan, John; Calvillo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Rationale During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R’s ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. Methods Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal), or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous), or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group). We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. Results Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; pCarprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (pcarprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (pcarprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We obtained our results accordingly with the ethical principle of Reduction. PMID:24756074

  20. Rat experimental model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: an ethical approach to set up the analgesic management of acute post-surgical pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Ciuffreda

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R's ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. METHODS: Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal, or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous, or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group. We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. RESULTS: Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; p<0.05 and the second hour (43±21 vs 74±24; p<0.05 post-surgery. Tramadol alone appeared as effective as multi-modal treatment during the first hour, but signs of pain significantly increased one hour later (from 66±72 to 151±86, p<0.05. Carprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (p<0.05. Stress behaviors during the second hour were observed in only 20% of rats in the multimodal group compared to 75% and 86% in the carprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-modal treatment with carprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after

  1. Seminar on setting up your own business

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    Organised by the French-Swiss Foundation for Research and Technology (FFRST), in partnership with CERN, and open to all CERN personnel: Friday 7 March 2008, from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation Are you interested in setting up your own business? Have you already taken any steps in that direction? Do you wish to develop a business plan based on your own professional expertise? If so, you are cordially invited to take part in this seminar, at which you will have the opportunity to: hear first-hand accounts from former members of the CERN personnel who have become entrepreneurs and talk about their experience and needs in terms of financial support, find out about the possibilities for obtaining support at the national level (in Switzerland and France) through presentations of the CTI Start-up and OSEO programmes, have discussions with the relevant Swiss and French regional authorities responsible for supporting start-ups in innovative technolog...

  2. Seminar on setting up your own business

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    Organised by the French-Swiss Foundation for Research and Technology (FFRST), in partnership with CERN, and open to all CERN personnel: Friday 7 March 2008, from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. in the Globe of Science and Innovation Are you interested in setting up your own business? Have you already taken any steps in that direction? Do you wish to develop a business plan based on your own professional expertise? If so, then you are cordially invited to take part in this seminar at which you will have the opportunity to: hear first-hand accounts from former members of the CERN personnel who have become entrepreneurs and talk about their experience and needs in terms of financial support, find out about the possibilities of obtaining support at national level (in Switzerland and France) through presentations of the CTI Start-up and OSEO programmes, have discussions with the relevant Swiss and French regional authorities responsible for supporting start-ups in innovative technologies...

  3. Set-up of light nuclei multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study mechanisms of reactions produced by heavy ions in the GANIL energy range (15-100 MeV/A), a multidetector capable to detect large multiplicities for particles and light nuclei is necessary. The multidetector set up covers the 3-30 0 angular range and consists of 96 counters (NE102 plastic scintillator sheet, 2mm thick). The apparatus must identify the nuclear charge of the detected particles. Using the apparatus at GANIL leaded to carry out data processing tools in conversationnal mode and to write on experimental area programs performing and monitoring data acquisition. A test carried out with a 44 MeV/A argon beam showed that the apparatus was working properly: the identification in nuclear charge between Z=1 (proton) and Z=7 (nitrogen) is good. Results of the test allow to draw light production curves in the NE102 plastic scintillator for the following ions: 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 14 N, in the 13 to 44 MeV/A energy range [fr

  4. RTDS Implementation of Bornholm Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    This report is a direct result of special Ph.D course(Distribution System Modeling and Analysis) as part of external stay, RTI, Canada to provide implementation procedures, the capability of the RTDS simulator in the area of distribution modeling, and supporting documentation for future research...

  5. Splendidly blended: a machine learning set up for CDU control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzny, Clemens

    2017-06-01

    As the concepts of machine learning and artificial intelligence continue to grow in importance in the context of internet related applications it is still in its infancy when it comes to process control within the semiconductor industry. Especially the branch of mask manufacturing presents a challenge to the concepts of machine learning since the business process intrinsically induces pronounced product variability on the background of small plate numbers. In this paper we present the architectural set up of a machine learning algorithm which successfully deals with the demands and pitfalls of mask manufacturing. A detailed motivation of this basic set up followed by an analysis of its statistical properties is given. The machine learning set up for mask manufacturing involves two learning steps: an initial step which identifies and classifies the basic global CD patterns of a process. These results form the basis for the extraction of an optimized training set via balanced sampling. A second learning step uses this training set to obtain the local as well as global CD relationships induced by the manufacturing process. Using two production motivated examples we show how this approach is flexible and powerful enough to deal with the exacting demands of mask manufacturing. In one example we show how dedicated covariates can be used in conjunction with increased spatial resolution of the CD map model in order to deal with pathological CD effects at the mask boundary. The other example shows how the model set up enables strategies for dealing tool specific CD signature differences. In this case the balanced sampling enables a process control scheme which allows usage of the full tool park within the specified tight tolerance budget. Overall, this paper shows that the current rapid developments off the machine learning algorithms can be successfully used within the context of semiconductor manufacturing.

  6. Windows VPN Set Up | High-Performance Computing | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windows VPN Set Up Windows VPN Set Up To set up Windows for HPC VPN, here are the steps: Download your version of Windows. Note: We only support the the Endian Connect software when connecting to the a VPN connection to the HPC systems. Windows Version Connect App Windows 10

  7. An experimental set-up to test heat-moisture exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, N.; Pompe, J. C.; Holland, W. P.; Gültuna, I.; Huygen, P. E.; Jabaaij, K.; Ince, C.; Saygin, B.; Bruining, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build an experimental set-up to assess continuously the humidification, heating and resistance properties of heat-moisture exchangers (HMEs) under clinical conditions. The experimental set-up consists of a patient model, measurement systems and a ventilator. Surgical

  8. Set-Up and Punchline as Figure and Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki

    the two that cannot be resolved by appeal to either set-up or punchline, but traps thought between them in an ‘epistemological problem’ as comedian Louis CK put it. For comedians, set-ups and punchlines are basic tools, practical and concrete ways to create and organize material. They are also familiar...

  9. French scientists offered time to set up companies

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D

    1999-01-01

    The French minister of national education, research and technology announced that French researchers working for public research institutes and universities are to be offered up to six years sabbatical leave to set up their own companies (11 para)

  10. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM. Methods and materials Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT of the head and neck (n = 31, chest (n = 72, abdomen (n = 15, and pelvis (n = 30 were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV. In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. Results The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. Conclusion In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended.

  11. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Hammoud, Mohamed; Pillay, Yogin; Alaradi, Abdul Aziz; Mohamed, Adel; Altuwaijri, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM). Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) of the head and neck (n = 31), chest (n = 72), abdomen (n = 15), and pelvis (n = 30) were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV). In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended

  12. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tienhoven, G. van; Lanson, J.H.; Crabeels, D.; Heukelom, S.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    To test accuracy and reproducibility of tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In 5 patients multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within 1 fraction about 1mm (1SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and CLD. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. PENURUNAN WAKTU SET-UP UNTUK PENINGKATAN EFEKTIFITAS PADA PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Hendri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. X bergerak dalam industri manufuktur yang memproduksi komponen otomotif yang  salah satu prosesnya adalah pembuatan bearing. Saat ini, persaingan dalam dunia bisnis semakin ketat. Situasi ini membuat organisasi untuk memperbaiki diri dengan penurunan waktu set-up supaya dapat menghilangkan pemborosan sehingga peningkatan efektifitas dapat dicapai. Untuk melakukan penurunan waktu set-up dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED. SMED adalah salah satu metoda improvement dari Lean Manufacturing yang digunakan untuk mempercepat waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan setup pergantian dari memproduksi satu jenis produk ke model produk lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui waktu Set up, serta mengetahui cara memperbaiki dan menurunkan waktu set up. Setelah dilakukan penelitian diketahui total waktu set up atau change over serta dilakukan perbaikan pada tiga titik yakni memindakan enam aktivitas internal menjadi aktivitas eksernal yang aktivitasnya dipersingkat, mengganti cara kerja setting/pengencangan baut dari cara manual ke alat bantu pengencangan dengan bantuan tekanan udara (pneumatic, dan mengganti cara kerja setting/penyetelan manual menjadi penyetelan dengan mengunakan block gauge. Secara keseluruhan terjadi penurunan waktu set up yang signifikan. Dengan demikian terjadi peningkatan efektifitas dengan menghilangkan pemborosan waktu set up sehinga terjadi peningkatan jumlah produksi per jam.

  14. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard PEEM set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, O.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary electron images excited by 3 to 4.3 keV electrons are obtained with a standard photoelectron electron emission microscope (PEEM) set up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 o with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF-reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼ -(V 1 + 5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The lateral resolution is in the range of μm. The material contrast obtained in these difference images are discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer. (author)

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis: a retrospective study of clinical cases in Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl

    2003-01-01

    ,000 inhabitants. At least 5 patients (37.7%) had sequelae in concordance with the postencephalitic syndrome seen after TBE. In conclusion, the risk of being infected and developing TBE is still low among the population of Bornholm, but information about the disease and its sequelae is needed to form a basis...

  16. Structural analysis of superposed fault systems of the Bornholm horst block, Tornquist Zone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The Bornholm horst block is composed of Precambrian crystalline basement overlain by Palaeozoicand Mesozoic cover rocks. The cover intervals are separated by an angular unconformity and a hiatus spanning the Devonian through Middle Triassic interval. Late Palaeozoic faulting of the Early Palaeozo...

  17. Frequency analysis for planned islanding operation in the Danish distribution system - Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    a planned islanding operation test. To evaluate the test and achieve useful experience for future similar operations in Bornholm or even in other similar systems, the frequency data before, during and after this period, were recorded by Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), supplied by Centre for Electric...

  18. Origin of brackish groundwater in a sandstone aquifer on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A multi-isotope approach in combination with hydrochemical data and borehole logging is applied to identify the source of brackish groundwater in a borehole in the well field of Neksø Municipal Waterworks in Bornholm, Denmark. The aquifer lithology consists of fractured Lower Cambrian sandstones...

  19. Geochemistry and petrology of mafic Proterozoic and Permian dykes on Bornholm, Denmark:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Pedersen, Lise E.; Højsteeen, Birte

    2010-01-01

    More than 250 dykes cut the mid Proterozoic basement gneisses and granites of Bornholm. Most trend between NNW and NNE, whereas a few trend NE and NW. Field, geochemical and petrological evidence suggest that the dyke intrusions occurred as four distinct events at around 1326 Ma (Kelseaa dyke...

  20. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  1. SET UP OF THE NEW AUTOMATIC HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL NETWORK IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NAGy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ and General Directorate of Water Management (OVF in Hungary run conventional precipitation measurement networks consisting of at least 1000 stations. OMSZ automated its synoptic and climatological network in 90’s and now more than 100 automatic stations give data every 1-10 minutes via GPRS channel. In 2007 the experts from both institutions determined the requirements of a common network. The predecessor in title of OVF is general Directorate for Water and Environment gave a project proposal in 2008 for establishment of a new hydrometeorological network based on common aims for meteorology and hydrology. The new hydrometeorological network was set up in 2012 financed by KEOP project. This network has got 141 weighing precipitation gauges, 118 temperature - humidity sensors and 25 soil moisture and soil temperature instruments. Near by Tisza-Lake two wind sensors have been installed. The network is operated by OMSZ and OVF together. OVF and its institutions maintain the stations itself and support the electricity. OMSZ operates data collection and transmission, maintaines and calibrates the sensors. Using precipitation data of enhanced network the radar precipitation field quality may be more precise, which are input of run-off model. Thereby the time allowance may be increased in flood-control events. Based on soil moisture and temperature water balance in soil may be modelled and forecast can be produced in different conditions. It is very important task in drought and inland water conditions. Considering OMSZ investment project in which new Doppler dual polarisation radar and 14 disdrometers will be installed, the precipitation estimation may be improved since 2015.

  2. Challenges in setting up quality control in diagnostic radiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 24, No 4 (2015) >. Log in or ... Quality control (QC) on diagnostic radiology equipment form part of the fundamental requirements for the ... Inadequate cooperation by facilities management, lack of QC equipment and insufficient staff form the major challenges in setting up QC in the facilities under study.

  3. View of the WA10 set-up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The WA10 experiment by the Geneva-Lausanne Collaboration was set-up in the H5 beam (unseparated, up to 50 GeV/c) to study K+-p --> K0pi+-p and other reactions of similar topology, and the energy dependence of resonance production.

  4. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  5. Automotive RF immunity test set-up analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, M.J.; Pues, H.; Bousquet, T.; Gillon, R.; Gielen, G.; Baric, A.

    2011-01-01

    Though the automotive RF emission and RF immunity requirements are highly justifiable, the application of those requirements in an non-intended manner leads to false conclusions and unnecessary redesigns for the electronics involved. When the test results become too dependent upon the test set-up

  6. Market and Impact Study Setting Up MMX Discount Store

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Irimie; Andreea Ionică; Virginia Băleanu; Cristina Osvath

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on the following elements of the impact study’s content: social and economic features of the area and the social, economic and commercial impact. Currently we witness the materialisation of the research’s results by setting up such a store MMX DISCOUNT in the town of Vulcan from the Jiu Valley

  7. Radiotherapy for breast cancer: respiratory and set-up uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliou, M.G.; Giraud, P.; Simon, L.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Fourquet, A.; Dendale, R.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Adjuvant Radiotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce locoregional recurrence but this advantage is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidities. All uncertainties inherent to conformal radiation therapy must be identified in order to increase the precision of treatment; misestimation of these uncertainties increases the potential risk of geometrical misses with, as a consequence, under-dosage of the tumor and/or overdosage of healthy tissues. Geometric uncertainties due to respiratory movements or set-up errors are well known. Two strategies have been proposed to limit their effect: quantification of these uncertainties, which are then taken into account in the final calculation of safety margins and/or reduction of respiratory and set-up uncertainties by an efficient immobilization or gating systems. Measured on portal films with two tangential fields. CLD (central lung distance), defined as the distance between the deep field edge and the interior chest wall at the central axis, seems to be the best predictor of set-up uncertainties. Using CLD, estimated mean set-up errors from the literature are 3.8 and 3.2 mm for the systematic and random errors respectively. These depend partly on the type of immobilization device and could be reduced by the use of portal imaging systems. Furthermore, breast is mobile during respiration with motion amplitude as high as 0.8 to 10 mm in the anteroposterior direction. Respiratory gating techniques, currently on evaluation, have the potential to reduce effect of these movements. Each radiotherapy department should perform its own assessments and determine the geometric uncertainties with respect of the equipment used and its particular treatment practices. This paper is a review of the main geometric uncertainties in breast treatment, due to respiration and set-up, and solutions proposed to limit their impact. (author)

  8. Seasonal evolution of soil and plant parameters on the agricultural Gebesee test site: a database for the set-up and validation of EO-LDAS and satellite-aided retrieval models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Truckenbrodt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground reference data are a prerequisite for the calibration, update, and validation of retrieval models facilitating the monitoring of land parameters based on Earth Observation data. Here, we describe the acquisition of a comprehensive ground reference database which was created to test and validate the recently developed Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS and products derived from remote sensing observations in the visible and infrared range. In situ data were collected for seven crop types (winter barley, winter wheat, spring wheat, durum, winter rape, potato, and sugar beet cultivated on the agricultural Gebesee test site, central Germany, in 2013 and 2014. The database contains information on hyperspectral surface reflectance factors, the evolution of biophysical and biochemical plant parameters, phenology, surface conditions, atmospheric states, and a set of ground control points. Ground reference data were gathered at an approximately weekly resolution and on different spatial scales to investigate variations within and between acreages. In situ data collected less than 1 day apart from satellite acquisitions (RapidEye, SPOT 5, Landsat-7 and -8 with a cloud coverage  ≤  25 % are available for 10 and 15 days in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The measurements show that the investigated growing seasons were characterized by distinct meteorological conditions causing interannual variations in the parameter evolution. Here, the experimental design of the field campaigns, and methods employed in the determination of all parameters, are described in detail. Insights into the database are provided and potential fields of application are discussed. The data will contribute to a further development of crop monitoring methods based on remote sensing techniques. The database is freely available at PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874251.

  9. Seasonal evolution of soil and plant parameters on the agricultural Gebesee test site: a database for the set-up and validation of EO-LDAS and satellite-aided retrieval models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenbrodt, Sina C.; Schmullius, Christiane C.

    2018-03-01

    Ground reference data are a prerequisite for the calibration, update, and validation of retrieval models facilitating the monitoring of land parameters based on Earth Observation data. Here, we describe the acquisition of a comprehensive ground reference database which was created to test and validate the recently developed Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) and products derived from remote sensing observations in the visible and infrared range. In situ data were collected for seven crop types (winter barley, winter wheat, spring wheat, durum, winter rape, potato, and sugar beet) cultivated on the agricultural Gebesee test site, central Germany, in 2013 and 2014. The database contains information on hyperspectral surface reflectance factors, the evolution of biophysical and biochemical plant parameters, phenology, surface conditions, atmospheric states, and a set of ground control points. Ground reference data were gathered at an approximately weekly resolution and on different spatial scales to investigate variations within and between acreages. In situ data collected less than 1 day apart from satellite acquisitions (RapidEye, SPOT 5, Landsat-7 and -8) with a cloud coverage ≤ 25 % are available for 10 and 15 days in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The measurements show that the investigated growing seasons were characterized by distinct meteorological conditions causing interannual variations in the parameter evolution. Here, the experimental design of the field campaigns, and methods employed in the determination of all parameters, are described in detail. Insights into the database are provided and potential fields of application are discussed. The data will contribute to a further development of crop monitoring methods based on remote sensing techniques. The database is freely available at PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.874251).

  10. Essential Requirements to Setting up an Aesthetic Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Mukta; Britto, Gillian R

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic dermatology is becoming a vital and popular branch of medicine. This article aims to guide dermatologists to set up a professional and ethical aesthetic practice. Dermatologists should have an integrated practice of clinical dermatology, dermatosurgery and cosmetic dermatology. Ethical practice is the gold standard for any medical field, especially with dermatologists, who should avoid doing unnecessary procedures. Proper patient counselling and addressing the patients′ concerns is ...

  11. Setting up and managing a remote maintenance operation for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haist, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Trying to set up and manage a remote maintenance operation for a thermonuclear fusion reactor is a complex undertaking. There are many problems and challenges which need addressing. This paper tries to guide the reader through this process by composing a list of generic problems and by analysing possible solutions. The first challenge before setting up a remote maintenance operation for a fusion reactor is the systematic analysis of all the remote handling requirements. Based upon this the remote handling concept, including facility layout and equipment, can be defined. The following aspects have to be considered and incorporated into the remote handling concept: - Remote handling task development. - Remote handling task logistics and resource management. - Command, control and human-machine interface system. - Viewing and camera systems. - Virtual reality and Augmented Reality software. - Automatic path planning and collision avoidance. - Remote transfer of heavy loads. - Maintainability of RH equipment. - Reliability, redundant systems and safety. - Rationalisation and modularity in both hardware and software. - Recovery from failure modes. - Condition monitoring and fault detection/prediction. - Ability to deal with unforeseen problems. Oxford Technologies Ltd. has a proven track record in setting up and running the Remote Handling group at the JET Joint Undertaking in Culham, UK. Based on the unique experience gained at JET, Oxford Technologies Ltd. also developed the current design and remote handling concept of the ITER Hot Cell during a study in 2004. Examples of both the JET remote handling experience and the ITER Hot Cell design and layout are given throughout this paper

  12. Setting up and managing a remote maintenance operation for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haist, B.

    2007-01-01

    Trying to set up and manage a remote maintenance operation for a thermonuclear fusion reactor is a complex undertaking. There are many problems and challenges which need addressing. This paper tries to guide the reader through this process by composing a list of generic problems and by analysing possible solutions. The first challenge before setting up a remote maintenance operation for a fusion reactor is the systematic analysis of all the remote handling requirements. Based upon this the remote handling concept, including facility layout and equipment, can be defined. The following aspects have to be considered and incorporated into the remote handling concept: - Remote handling task development - Remote handling task logistics and resource management - Command, control and human-machine interface system - Viewing and camera systems - Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality software - Automatic path planning and collision avoidance - Remote transfer of heavy loads - Maintainability of RH Equipment - Reliability, redundant systems and safety - Rationalisation and modularity in both hardware and software - Recovery from failure modes - Condition monitoring and fault detection/prediction - Ability to deal with unforeseen problems Oxford Technologies Ltd has a proven track record in setting up and running the Remote Handling group at the JET Joint Undertaking in Culham, UK. Based on the unique experience gained at JET, Oxford Technologies Ltd also developed the current design and remote handling concept of the ITER Hot Cell during a study in 2004. Examples of both the JET Remote Handling experience and the ITER Hot Cell design and layout are given throughout this paper. (orig.)

  13. Setting up and managing a remote maintenance operation for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, Bernhard [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Bernhard.Haist@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk

    2008-12-15

    Trying to set up and manage a remote maintenance operation for a thermonuclear fusion reactor is a complex undertaking. There are many problems and challenges which need addressing. This paper tries to guide the reader through this process by composing a list of generic problems and by analysing possible solutions. The first challenge before setting up a remote maintenance operation for a fusion reactor is the systematic analysis of all the remote handling requirements. Based upon this the remote handling concept, including facility layout and equipment, can be defined. The following aspects have to be considered and incorporated into the remote handling concept: - Remote handling task development. - Remote handling task logistics and resource management. - Command, control and human-machine interface system. - Viewing and camera systems. - Virtual reality and Augmented Reality software. - Automatic path planning and collision avoidance. - Remote transfer of heavy loads. - Maintainability of RH equipment. - Reliability, redundant systems and safety. - Rationalisation and modularity in both hardware and software. - Recovery from failure modes. - Condition monitoring and fault detection/prediction. - Ability to deal with unforeseen problems. Oxford Technologies Ltd. has a proven track record in setting up and running the Remote Handling group at the JET Joint Undertaking in Culham, UK. Based on the unique experience gained at JET, Oxford Technologies Ltd. also developed the current design and remote handling concept of the ITER Hot Cell during a study in 2004. Examples of both the JET remote handling experience and the ITER Hot Cell design and layout are given throughout this paper.

  14. Cyclotron produced radionuclides: Guidelines for setting up a facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Establishment of a cyclotron based radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical production facility is a major undertaking regardless of the scope and size of the facility. Regulatory demands of radiation protection and pharmaceutical manufacturing only add to the need for meticulous attention to a large number of factors in overall planning and successful implementation. Also, a significant commitment of resources, not just during the onset of the project, but also for sustained continuity further adds to the already difficult decision making process. In this publication, all these issues have been addressed and discussed conceptually for the benefit of planners and stakeholders of a new facility. The need for a clear vision and realistic scope of the programme has been repeatedly emphasized throughout this book as this aspect of project planning is absolutely vital for defining and achieving the mission and objectives of the facility. The most critical aspects in conceptualization, planning and subsequent implementation have been discussed in detail and are highlighted below as necessary actions: - Performing a feasibility study which balances wishful thinking with project viability; - Forming a task force composed of the stakeholders to evaluate strategically the various aspects of project planning to ultimately recommend the scope and objectives of the facility, and also to formulate the project plan; - Assessing the financial aspects of the project, including the set-up and operating costs of the facility through the development of business models and cost-benefit analyses; - Designing a facility and layout that encompasses the scope of the project and also takes into consideration the regulatory requirements; - Ensuring the availability of appropriately qualified and trained staff, critical for efficient and high quality operation of the facility; - Applying GMP regulations for the production of radiopharmaceutical products which are consistently safe for human use

  15. Epidemiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in Bornholm County, Denmark, 1970-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, A K; Wang, A R

    1994-01-01

    In a retrospective study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, potential cases were traced, studied, and diagnosed according to ICD-10. Forty-two cases were found in Bornholm County, comprising the island of Bornholm in Denmark, in a population of 47,000 from 1970 to 1989. Less than half...... the number of cases in the population year by year, also increased during the late part of the study period. In 1989 the incidence rate of the high-risk group of females 10 to 24 years of age was 136 per 100,000 for anorexia nervosa and 45 per 100,000 for bulimia nervosa, and the prevalence rate was 222 per...... 100,000 for anorexia nervosa and 89 per 100,000 for bulimia nervosa....

  16. PMU Frequency Data Processing for A Planned Islanding Operation in Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (PMU) system in Bornholm during the planned islanding operation first, as it has high time resolution and it is synchronized to Global Position System (GPS). However, there were some problems with the PMU system during the islanding period, which made the data not as complete as expected. This paper...... describes the problems and provides proposals for a data processing procedure to ensure that the improved frequency data are acceptable for statistics analysis. The proposed data processing procedure is described and evaluated. Furthermore, this paper provides a reference for future PMU data acquisition...... and processing. Individually, section I in the paper generally describes the background for islanding operation and the Bornholm system. Section II introduces the installed PMU measurement system, followed by section III, which describes the PMU original frequency data, the problems during the acquisition...

  17. Set-up for pulse radiolysis of agressive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska-Milner, E.; Broszkiewicz, R.; Stanikowski, J.

    1975-01-01

    A set-up for the pulse radiolysis of aggressive substances with a relatively low consumption of the liquid, tested for anhydrous HNO 3 , has been described. The samples have been irradiated with single pulses of 10 MeV electrons at the linear accelerator type LAE 13-9. The absorption spectra of the irradiated samples (within a range of 300-800 nm) were provided by a xenon lamp. The variations of the voltage from the photomultiplier, coupled with an oscilloscope, were registered with the aid of a Polaroid camera. (T.G.)

  18. Setting up and performance of a laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.; Razvi, M.A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A laser enhanced ionisation (LEI) spectrometer has been successfuly set up around an excimer laser pumped dye laser. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested by analysing sodium in water solutions. A straight line working curve has been obtained in the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/ml of Na. The effect of parameters like laser power, ion collector electrode voltage and the load resistance on LEI signals has been investigated. The spectrometer is useful not only for analytical purposes but also for laser spectroscopic studies of species formed in flames, study of phenomenon of combustion etc. (author). 1 tab ., 10 figs., 5 refs

  19. ALBERTA - HEC test beam set-up in June 1999

    CERN Multimedia

    Vinter, M.

    1999-01-01

    Photo1 - HEC 2 (rear) being set up in the "clean" room. Photo2 - HEC 2 (rear) being craned onto rotating C. Photo3 - HEC 2 (rear) being rotated. Photo4 - A now well rotated HEC 2 (rear) is being craned off the C. Photo5 - HEC 2 (rear) installed in the cryostat. Photo6 - Part of the basic frame (the frame that sits in the very bottom of the cryostat). Photo7 - Part of the basic frame (one of the two frames which the 3 calorimeter modules sit on). Photo8 - The marriage frame.

  20. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, C.; Ercoli, C.; Jaaskelainen, S.; Lecoeur, G.; Leutz, H.; Loos, R.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a hybrid photomultiplier tube specially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the lead tungstate crystals that will be applied in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS-detector at the LHC at CERN. (author)

  1. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, C.; Ercoli, C.; Jaaskelainen, S.; Lecoeur, G.; Leutz, H.; Loos, R.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R

    1999-09-21

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a hybrid photomultiplier tube specially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the lead tungstate crystals that will be applied in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS-detector at the LHC at CERN. (author)

  2. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, S; Zavgorodni, S; Popescu, I A; Beckham, W A

    2005-01-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot

  3. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, S.; Zavgorodni, S.; Popescu, I. A.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-02-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot.

  4. Report on the set-up of a holographic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.

    1977-10-01

    Holographic interferometry is well suited for visualizing temperature, density, pressure and concentration fields in transparent fluids. The holographic real-time interferometer allows a continuous observation of stationary and instationary flow processes. After the explanation of the measuring technique, the problems arising during the interferometer set-up as well as the necessary adjusting operations are described. For heat transfer problems new possibilities for the application of holographic interferometry are revealed. Convection in boxes, temperature fields around heated or cooled bodies, concentration and diffusion processes in two phase-flows, mixtures and solutions as well as melting and freezing processes may be investigated. On the basis of particular examples some applications are presented. (orig.) [de

  5. The new cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baechler, S; Cauwels, P; Dierick, M; Jolie, J; Materna, T; Mondelaers, W

    2002-01-01

    A new cold neutron tomography set-up is operational at the neutron spallation source SINQ of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The detection system is based on a sup 6 LiF/ZnS:Ag conversion screen and a CCD camera. Several tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the tomography system, such as homogeneity, reproducibility, L/D-ratio and spatial resolution. The high flux and the good efficiency of the detector lead to very short exposure times. Thus, a typical set of tomography scans can be performed in only 20 min. Then, 3D computed tomography objects were calculated using the filtered back-projection reconstruction method. Initial results of various samples show that cold neutron tomography can be a useful tool for industry, geology and dentistry. Furthermore, suitable applications can be found in the field of archaeology.

  6. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  7. Standard guidelines for setting up a dermatosurgery theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction, definition, rationale and scope: Dermatologists in India are now increasingly performing surgical and cosmetic procedures in their practice. This calls for minimum standards at the national level with the main focus of patient safety and hence the guidelines for setting up a dermatosurgical theatre. Facility: The dermatosurgery theatre can be created in either physician′s clinic, or a hospital depending on the procedure to be performed. The dermatosurgery theatre requires careful planning with regards to - location, dimension, shell design, lighting, electrical requirements, operation table, chair, trolley, surgical instruments, sterilization of devices, asepsis and advanced life support. Apart from physical considerations, other considerations including theatre etiquettes, consent for surgery, safety of dermatosurgeon, theatre staff and lastly biomedical waste management should be looked into. These issues are discussed in detail in the recommendations.

  8. Analysis method set up to check against adulterated export honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, North America has experienced occasional problems with the adulteration of honey, mainly by additions of other, cheaper sugar to increase bulk and lower production costs. The main addition was usually high fructose corn syrup, which had a similar chemical composition to that of honey. As a consequence of this type of adulteration, a method for its detection was developed using isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS). This was later refined to be more sensitive and is now specified as an Official Test. The Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences has now set up the analysis method to the international criteria at the Rafter Stable Isotope Laboratory in Lower Hutt. 2 refs

  9. An unconventional set-up for fluxless brazing of aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to successfully braze aluminium alloy assemblies without the use of oxide-removing fluxes, an evironment with very low contaminant level is mandatory. This is mostly achieved by using a vacuum furnace. Brazing under inert gas of sufficient purity is also possible. The method reported upon here makes use of a stainless steel bag which can enter a traditional air furnace. The bag is evacuated, giving a well distributed mechanical pressure on the parts to join. The intrinsic handicap of poor vacuum is compensated by regular inert gas flushing, even at high temperatures. The set-up works rather well, and the idea is believed to yield a valuable strategic and economic option, for the realization of special equipment as well as for prototyping work. We intend to use the principle for the CMS Preshower cooling screens.

  10. Setting up of a PIXE facility at FOTIA at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Saxena, A.

    2005-01-01

    PIXE-(Proton Induced X-ray Emission) -an ideal technique for material characterization has been set up at the Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC, Trombay. A separate beam line at 45 deg port in which a dedicated PIXE chamber has been installed is being used for PIXE studies. PIXE studies on gold standards were carried out using protons of energy 3.3 MeV. Caritage values of gold standards were obtained which agree well with the certified values. Single element standard solutions (100 μg/ml) for low-Z elements such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn were analyzed by PIXE. Well resolved α and β components of the x-rays were seen with detection limits in the range of 0.8-4 μg/g. (author)

  11. Localization of Manufacturing Capabilities in Setting Up Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear renaissance is now imminent and is inevitable in view of rapidly increasing global warming concerns. A steep shift towards environmentally benign sources of energy remains an unavoidable choice as continents are warming up pushing seas into human habitation and disturbing global ecology. Accordingly, Indian government in its integrated energy policy document has planned for raising nuclear power capacity to generate 63 GWe by 2030. This envisages estimated investments of US$22 billion in the next 15 to 20 years. Setting up of nuclear energy generation capacity, however, remains a painstakingly slow process primarily due to complex, multidisciplinary efforts required to crank up a reactor. A robust supply chain remains key to expediting this process. In the light of this, it is critically important to ensure supply-chain for materials and components and putting in place cost effective project management to complete the projects on time and within the budgets. In this context, the participation of industries and their preparedness to meet the challenges are necessary. This would also require investments towards up gradation of manufacturing technology, training of manpower and mobilization of resources at the construction site. The industry would also need to enhance detailing and design engineering capabilities for the plants. It is only when such capabilities have been brought up that the possibilities of time-bound setting up of nuclear plants can be realized. In this paper, various issues with regard to project cost, regulatory and licensing, technology and gestation period etc for new build plants relevant to manufacturing industry are discussed. The plans for enhancing manufacturing capabilities for the critical path items of the project schedule with viable business, ensuring returns to stakeholders and financing and investment cycle are brought out. The various steps and initiatives being taken by Bharat Forge Ltd, the flagship company of Kalyani

  12. Magnetic spectrometer of the DEUTERON-2 set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazyan, R.V.; Alanakyan, K.V.; Amaryan, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A magnetic spectrometer of the two-arm DEUTERON-2 set-up of the Erevan Physical Institute is described. It is shown that the rejection factor for electrons and pions is 10 -2 - 10 -3 . The positively charged particles in the momentum range up to 1.5 GeV/c are identified by momentum and time-of-flight measurements. The main characteristics of the spectrometer are: momentum and angular acceptance δp/p = 46%, Δθ = 4 deg, solid angle ΔΩ = 2.75 msr, momentum resolution δp/p = 1.5%, angular resolutions δθ = 0.6 deg, δφ = 2 deg. The intervals of measured momentum and the polar scattering anlge are 0.5-3 GeV/c and 10-30 deg, 68-90 deg respectively. 7 refs.; 11 figs

  13. A method for patient set-up guidance in radiotherapy using augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.; Meyer, J.; Watts, R.; Grasset, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A system for patient set-up in external beam radiotherapy was developed using Augmented Reality (AR). Live images of the linac treatment couch and patient were obtained with video cameras and displayed on a nearby monitor. A 3D model of the patient's external contour was obtained from planning CT data, and AR tracking software was used to superimpose the model onto the video images in the correct position for treatment. Throughout set-up and treatment, the user can view the monitor and visually confirm that the patient is positioned correctly. To ensure that the virtual contour was displayed in the correct position, a process was devised to register the coordinates of the linac with the camera images. A cube with AR tracking markers attached to its faces was constructed for alignment with the isocentre using room lasers or cone-beam CT. The performance of the system was investigated in a clinical environment by using it to position an anthropomorphic phantom without the aid of additional set-up methods. The positioning errors were determined by means of CBCT and image registration. The translational set-up errors were found to be less than 2.4 mm and the rotational errors less than 0.3 0 . This proof-of-principle study has demonstrated the feasibility of using AR for patient position and pose guidance.

  14. Trends in the incidence of malignant melanoma in Denmark 1978-2007. Incidence on the island of Bornholm compared with the whole country incidence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Klit, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, malignant melanoma is among the most rapidly increasing cancer types. Malignant melanoma accounts for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Sunshine is the main cause of the increase seen in melanoma incidence. Within Denmark, Bornholm is the area that receives most sunshine....... It is therefore relevant to compare incidence data between Denmark and Bornholm....

  15. Setting-up a small observatory from concept to construction

    CERN Document Server

    Arditti, David

    2008-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer who is considering a purpose-built observatory will find this book absolutely invaluable during both the planning and the construction stages. Drawing on David Arditti’s practical experience and that of many other amateur astronomers, it gives invaluable help in making all the important decisions. To begin with, Setting up a Small Observatory addresses what you really need from an observatory, whether to build or buy, what designs you should consider, and where you should site it. Uniquely, it also considers the aesthetics of an amateur observatory: how to make it fit in with your home, garden, and yard, even disguising it as a more common garden building if necessary. There’s also a wealth of practical details for constructing and equipping your small observatory – everything from satisfying local planning laws and building codes through to making sure that your completed observatory is well-equipped, convenient, and comfortable to use. Whether you are considering a simple low-...

  16. Set up for simultaneous water desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.W.; Mookhi, M.B.; Sadiq, M.A.; Hasan, Z.; Zaidi, S.I.; Shah, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of following the conventional fuel oriented power generation methods and dissipating its heat into environment, we evaporate saline water into steam and use its energy to generate power. Using this scheme would make sea water usable in power generation which at the moment is only being used for cooling purposes in the power plants. The steam used for generating electricity is eventually collected, condensed and used for potable purposes. The proposed scheme may be seen as Steam Power Generation with additional feature of desalination. We set up an experimental test bed in order to calculate the electric power available using this scheme. To ensure safety for human consumption, we also perform chemical tests on the desalinated water to see whether it is fit to be used for drinking and agricultural purposes. Our conclusions are based on actual experiments and laboratory tests; procedures outlined here may be used at larger scale for more in-depth analyses. We also highlight future extensions and modifications in this work. (author)

  17. IAEA Sets Up Team to Drive Nuclear Safety Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency is setting up a Nuclear Safety Action Team to oversee prompt implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety and ensure proper coordination among all stakeholders. The 12-point Action Plan, drawn up in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 13 September and endorsed by all 151 Member States at its General Conference last week. The team will work within the Agency's Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, headed by Deputy Director General Denis Flory, and will coordinate closely with the Director General's Office for Policy. ''The Action Plan requires immediate follow-up,'' Director General Yukiya Amano said. ''This compact, dedicated team will assist Deputy Director General Flory in implementing the measures agreed in the Action Plan.'' Gustavo Caruso, Head of the Regulatory Activities Section in the IAEA's Division of Installation Safety, has been designated as the team's Special Coordinator for the implementation of the Action Plan. The IAEA has already started implementing its responsibilities under the Action Plan, including development of an IAEA methodology for stress tests for nuclear power plants. The methodology will be ready in October. (IAEA)

  18. New theropod, thyreophoran, and small sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Three new dinosaur tracks are described from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation of Bornholm, Denmark. The tracks are all preserved as natural casts on the underside of fluvial sandstone blocks originating from the old Hasle Klinkefabrik’s clay pit, now called Pyritsøen. The new tracks are from...... a medium-sized theropod, a thyreophoran, and a small sauropod. Together with a hyreophoran track and large sauropod tracks described in 2005, the Middle Jurassic dinosaur fauna of Bornholm now comprises theropods, two sizes of sauropods and at least one type of thyreophoran dinosaur. This is important...

  19. New discoveries, new directions: Rock art research on Bornholm 2013 – 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, James Andrew; Dueñas García, Manuel de J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new dis- coveries and insights offered by recent rock art research carried out by staff and volun- teers from Bornholms Museum during 2013 and 2014. Investigations have been carried out at numerous locations across the island using a variety of strategies...... and techniques. Searches for new rock art panels have been undertaken at a variety of locations. Soil has been removed from the area around certain known panels in order to nd new carvings and investigate the archaeological context surrounding the rocks. New gures have been discovered on surfaces already...

  20. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  1. Stereo particle image velocimetry set up for measurements in the wake of scaled wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanardi, Gabriele; Grassi, Donato; Zanotti, Alex; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Campagnolo, Filippo; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2017-08-01

    Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements were carried out in the boundary layer test section of Politecnico di Milano large wind tunnel to survey the wake of a scaled wind turbine model designed and developed by Technische Universität München. The stereo PIV instrumentation was set up to survey the three velocity components on cross-flow planes at different longitudinal locations. The area of investigation covered the entire extent of the wind turbines wake that was scanned by the use of two separate traversing systems for both the laser and the cameras. Such instrumentation set up enabled to gain rapidly high quality results suitable to characterise the behaviour of the flow field in the wake of the scaled wind turbine. This would be very useful for the evaluation of the performance of wind farm control methodologies based on wake redirection and for the validation of CFD tools.

  2. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Åke; Waight, Tod Earle; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U–Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous...

  3. Glauconitic deposits at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm, Denmark dated to the Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Bromley, Richard Granville; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbated, glauconitic siltstones and sandstones are overlain by presumed Upper Triassic deposits at coastal exposures at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm. These glauconitic deposits have not previously been dated. A 40Ar-39Ar dating of the glaucony gives an age of 493 ± 2 Ma suggesting ...... of Rusophycus Hall, 1852, probably trilobite trace fossils, are also represented....

  4. Coprolites with prey remains and traces from coprophagous organisms from the Lower Cretaceous (Late Berriasian) Jydegaard Formation of Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Bonde, Niels Christensøn

    2012-01-01

    Two fragmentary coprolites from the Lower Cretaceous Jydegaard Formation of Bornholm, Denmark, represent the first record of coprolites from continental Mesozoic deposits in Denmark. Both specimens contain fish scale bone fragments of unknown affinity. Based on morphology, inclusions and the pote...

  5. Developing marketing strategies for tourism destinations in peripheral areas of Europe: the case of Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    by viewing them as cooperative customers. Thus the DMO needs to apply the principles of marketing to the development process of the strategy itself, and therefore to view the strategic plan as a product of the DMO, which needs to be marketed. The theoretical analysis shows that DMOs cannot control all......This thesis concentrates on the subject of destination marketing with a specific focus on the process of developing strategies through a Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) for a peripheral area, illustrated by a case study from the Danish island of Bornholm. It investigates the theoretical...... foundations for destination marketing, concluding that there should be a shift in focus from general marketing theory to a broader application of organisational theories and associated fields, enabling the DMO to improve performance. The specific conditions for and structures of peripheral areas indicate...

  6. An enigmatic, diminutive theropod footprint in the shallow marine Pliensbachian Hasle Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    A well-preserved three-toed footprint, measuring 34 mm in length from a very small predatory dinosaur with an estimated hip height of 153 mm and a total body length around 50 cm including tail, is reported from the type section of the marine Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian), Hasle Formation...... on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. The morphology of the footprint is similar to the ichnogenus Stenonyx Lull 1904 from the contemporaneous Pliensbachian Szydlowek site in Poland. Apart from the Polish material, footprints from diminutive dinosaurs are rare and reported from few other...... localities around the world. The occurrence of a diminutive dinosaur footprint in a shallow marine sandstone is enigmatic. The well-defined morphology of the footprint, together with the very small size of the trackmaker, excludes the possibility that the track was emplaced by a swimming or wading animal...

  7. Set-up for steam generator tube bundle washing after explosion expanding the tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.I.; Kal'nin, A.Ya.; Mazanenko, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Set-up for steam generator tube bundle washing after the explosion expanding of tubes is described. Washing is accomplished by distillate. Steam is added to distillate for heating, and compersed air for preventing hydraulic shock. The set-up is equiped by control equipment. Set-up performances are presented. Time for one steam generator washing constitutes 8-12 h. High economic efficiency is realized due to the set-up introduction

  8. Setting up recovery clinics and promoting service user involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Thomas

    2017-06-22

    Service user involvement in mental health has gained considerable momentum. Evidence from the literature suggests that it remains largely theoretical rather than being put into practice. The current nature of acute inpatient mental health units creates various challenges for nurses to put this concept into practice. Recovery clinics were introduced to bridge this gap and to promote service user involvement practice within the current care delivery model at Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust. It has shaped new ways of working for nurses with a person-centred approach as its philosophy. Service users and nurses were involved in implementing a needs-led and bottom-up initiative using Kotter's change model. Initial results suggest that it has been successful in meeting its objectives evidenced through increased meaningful interactions and involvement in care by service users and carers. The clinics have gained wide recognition and have highlighted a need for further research into care delivery models to promote service user involvement in these units.

  9. Installing and Setting Up Git Software Tool on Windows | High-Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computing | NREL Git Software Tool on Windows Installing and Setting Up Git Software Tool on Windows Learn how to set up the Git software tool on Windows for use with the Peregrine system. Git is this doc, we'll show you how to get git installed on Windows 7, and how to get things set up on NREL's

  10. Setting up and Running a Sharing Service: an Organisational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naemi Luckner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enabled by web and mobile technologies, there has been an explosion of interest in the sharing economy and peer-to-peer exchange, with much high profile attention given to monetised exchanges such as in AirBnB and Uber. However there are also many other sharing initiatives, such as time banking, that focus on smaller, more local communities and do not involve monetisation of exchanges. While there is a growing body of literature elaborating participation and motivation in sharing services as well as analysing organisers’ roles, little is discussed about the work involved in the day-to-day organisation and management of such services. In this paper we report on an interview study with ten participants discussing five different sharing systems from three different countries. A qualitative thematic analysis of the data points to significant on-going effort reported by all to establish, maintain and grow a service, not only focussing on its practical aspects but also on growing a community and building trust. How they engaged in this practical work though was not so much shaped by the service model (time banking, LETS and so on but on a complex relationship between their funding model, the service goal and whether it was a top-down or bottom-up initiative. These findings have implications for the design of technical platforms to support services, not just in elaborating a range of possible tasks to be supported but also in where and how it needs to be tailorable to certain needs, how adaptive it is to different service models and how it facilitates monitoring and reporting duties for organisers.

  11. Multi Agent Systems to Set Up Virtual Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Lupu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a model of organizing moreenterprises into a virtual or a web enterprise. To constitutevirtual enterprises multiagent systems are utilized.In this sense the following are to be considered:elaborating a model to constitute the virtual enterprise, theimplementation of a multiagent system based on this modeland the testing and evaluation of the system performances,comparing them with more classic types of realization.In this paper, we describe how the multi-agentarchitecture can be used to support Virtual Enterprises(VE. We have focused on understanding how aVE is formedand, in particular, how the partners of a VE are selected. Wetryto analyse this scenario in the form of an AgentInteraction Protocol (AIP and then discuss how the multiagentarchitecrure can be used to support this process.Our working definition of a VE is: a team of partners thatcollaborate to achieve a specific goal. The partners may behuman beings, organisations or software agents. We believethat software agents, hereafter referred to as agents, are asuitable means of representing the partners of a VE. Oneimportant reason is that by representing the partners of aVE as agents and by delegating agents to look for the nextVE and conduct the negotiation on behalf of the partners, thepartners would then have the time to do the actual workrequired in the current VE.At the end of the paper we will present an experimentalsystem for the architecture of a virtual enterprise.

  12. Patient set-up verification by infrared optical localization and body surface sensing in breast radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco; Orecchia, Roberto; Pedotti, Antonio; Tagaste, Barbara; Garibaldi, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical application of a technique for patient set-up verification in breast cancer radiotherapy, based on the 3D localization of a hybrid configuration of surface control points. Materials and methods: An infrared optical tracker provided the 3D position of two passive markers and 10 laser spots placed around and within the irradiation field on nine patients. A fast iterative constrained minimization procedure was applied to detect and compensate patient set-up errors, through the control points registration with reference data coming from treatment plan (markers reference position, CT-based surface model). Results: The application of the corrective spatial transformation estimated by the registration procedure led to significant improvement of patient set-up. Median value of 3D errors affecting three additional verification markers within the irradiation field decreased from 5.7 to 3.5 mm. Errors variability (25-75%) decreased from 3.2 to 2.1 mm. Laser spots registration on the reference surface model was documented to contribute substantially to set-up errors compensation. Conclusions: Patient set-up verification through a hybrid set of control points and constrained surface minimization algorithm was confirmed to be feasible in clinical practice and to provide valuable information for the improvement of the quality of patient set-up, with minimal requirement of operator-dependant procedures. The technique combines conveniently the advantages of passive markers based methods and surface registration techniques, by featuring immediate and robust estimation of the set-up accuracy from a redundant dataset

  13. [Setting up a donor milk bank within a neonatal unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, S Vázquez; Díaz, C Alonso; López, C Medina; Lozano, G Bustos; Hidalgo, M V Martínez; Alonso, C R Pallás

    2009-10-01

    Breast milk is the best choice to feed premature and ill babies, but when there is not enough mother milk available donor breast milk is the best alternative. Nowadays, Milk Banks are present worldwide. In December 2007 the second Spanish Milk Bank opened within the Department of Neonatology of the Hospital 12 Octubre, Madrid (BLHDO). There are no international recommendations for processing breast milk, therefore other Milk Banks guidelines are the only standards to follow. BLHDO uses the Brazilian model as they focus on milk quality, in addition to safety issues. Lack of legislation for human milk processing in Spain has led to BLHDO complying with Spanish Law on blood and tissues donation with its strict regulations on safety issues and record keeping. This article summarises the first year of operating the BLHDO and its future projects and developments.

  14. The Fudan nuclear microprobe set-up and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Zhuang, W.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Wu, Y.; Liu, B.; Yang, M.; Cheng, H.

    2007-01-01

    A new scanning nuclear microprobe has been constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics in Fudan University, to replace the old microbeam system which had been running for more than ten years. The key parts were purchased from Oxford Microbeams Ltd., including triplet quadrupole lens (model OM-150), collimator slits, scanning system, target chamber, and data acquisition system. Ion beams are provided from a NEC 9SDH-2 Tandem accelerator. Three CCD cameras and multiple monitors were installed to assist beam adjust. The design of beam line and beam monitors is described. Beam optics calculations were carried out based on the specific Fudan microprobe system geometry, and the results regarding beam line performance and limitations of the spacial resolution are presented and discussed here. A comparison with experimental results is given as well. About 1.5 μm beam spot size could be achieved with a 3 MeV proton beam at a current of around 10 pA. Recently, the new microprobe is applied to obtain information of fly ash particle, algae cell and otoliths

  15. MCNPX proton transport simulations for a therapy set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, J.; Iborra, N.; Chauvel, P.; Serrano, B.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with ocular melanoma have been treated since June 1991 at the medical cyclotron of the Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL). Positions and sizes of the ocular nozzle elements were initially defined based on experimental work, taking as a pattern functional existing facilities. Nowadays Monte Carlo (MC) calculation offers a tool to refine this geometry by adjusting size and place of beam modelling devices. Moreover, the MC tool is a useful way to calculate the dose and to evaluate the impact of secondary particles in the field of radiotherapy or radiation protection. Both LINAC and cyclotron producing X-rays, electrons, protons and neutrons are available in CAL, which suggests choosing MCNPX for its particle versatility. As a first step, the existing installation was input in MCNPX to check its aptitude to reproduce experimentally measured depth-dose profile, lateral profile. Relative comparisons of percentage depth-dose and lateral profiles, performed between measured data and simulations, show an agreement of the order of 2% in dose and 0.1 mm in range accuracy. These comparisons carried out with and without beam-modifying device, yield results compatible to the required precision in ocular melanoma treatments, as long as adequate choices are made on MCNPX input decks for physics card. (authors)

  16. Set-up and Test Procedure for Suction Installation and Uninstallation of Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna

    This technical report describes the set-up and the test procedures for installation and uninstallation of medium-scale model of bucket foundation that can be performed in the geotechnical part of laboratory in Aalborg University. The installation of bucket foundation can be tested with the use of......) and loading frame used for those tests have been already used for axially static and cyclic loading of piles (Thomassen, 2015a) and for axially static and cyclic loading of bucket foundation (Vaitkunaite et al., 2015).......This technical report describes the set-up and the test procedures for installation and uninstallation of medium-scale model of bucket foundation that can be performed in the geotechnical part of laboratory in Aalborg University. The installation of bucket foundation can be tested with the use...... of suction under the bucket lid or by applying additional force through the hydraulic piston, forcing the bucket to penetrate into the soil. Tests for uninstallation are performed also with the use of water pressure, as a reverse process to the suction installation. Both installation and uninstallation tests...

  17. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  18. Research of vibration resistance of non-rigid shafts turning with various technological set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevykh Sergey L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the definition of the stability range of a dynamic system for turning non-rigid shafts with different technological set-ups: standard and developed ones; they are improved as a result of this research. The topicality of the study is due to the fact that processing such parts is associated with significant difficulties caused by deformation of the workpiece under the cutting force as well as occurrence of vibration of the part during processing, they are so intense and in practice they force to significantly reduce the cutting regime, recur to multiple-pass operation, lead to premature deterioration of the cutter, as a result, reduce the productivity of machining shafts on metal-cutting machines. In this connection, the purpose of the present research is to determine the boundaries of the stability regions with intensive turning of non-rigid shafts. In the article the basic theoretical principles of construction of a mathematical system focused on the process of non-free cutting of a dynamic machine are justified. By means of the developed mathematical model interrelations are established and legitimacies of influence of various technological set-ups on stability of the dynamic system of the machine-tool-device-tool-blank are revealed. The conducted researches allow to more objectively represent difficult processes that occur in a closed dynamic system of a machine.

  19. Order of 24 April 1970 on the setting up of ionizing radiation electric generators for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Order prescribes that the setting up of electric generators emitting ionizing radiations with an energy higher than 500 KeV used for medical purposes are subject to licensing and provides a model applications form to this effect. (NEA) [fr

  20. FTIR free-jet set-up for the high resolution spectroscopic investigation of condensable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, R.; Bonnamy, A.; Benidar, A.; Decroi, M.; Boissoles, J.

    2002-05-01

    An existing experimental set-up combining Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and free-jet cooling has been modified significantly to allow high resolution studies of the spectrum of monomer species which are liquid under standard conditions. Evaporation of the liquid samples is controlled by a condenser apparatus which is described. A supersonic planar expansion issuing from a narrow aperture is preferred for its very high cooling rate. Such an expansion, probed with a pitot tube, has a zone of limited temperature gradient close to the nozzle exit. The continuum isentropic model appears well suited to describing the thermodynamic properties of the flow up to a high number of nozzle diameters downstream. High resolution spectra of benzene and methanol have been recorded in the 3 µm wavelength range, and their analysis demonstrates a well defined rotational temperature in the 20-25 K range.

  1. Setting Up Simulations of Failure Scenarios for a Crab Cavity in the Nominal LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, B

    2010-01-01

    The crab cavity (CC) represents a possible solution for the problem of the reduction of the luminosity due to a crossing angle. The CC apply a transversal kick on the beam particles that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch in order to produce an effective head-head collision and to increase the geometry luminosity. For that reason the BE-ABP group at CERN has been performing studies for the implementation of the CC in the LHC. Because machine protection is a critical element of LHC operation, it is essential to study the failure scenarios of the superconducting crab cavity and the possible resulting damage impact and well as to find possible mitigation measures. For this purpose we set up simulation tools to model CC failures in the nominal LHC.

  2. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  3. Setting up and Running a School Library. Information Collection and Exchange Publication No. ED204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This book explains how teachers can set up and run a successful school library. In it you will find advice and information on how to: (1) set up a small library and build bookshelves; (2) select books for your library; (3) make a written record of your school's books, pamphlets and other library stock such as newspapers, magazines, audio tapes and…

  4. Realization of an automatic set up to measure electrical characteristic of solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Crosetto, D.; Gabutti, A.; Gervino, G.; Varesio, R.

    1986-01-01

    An automatic set-up is described to study electrical properties of silicon detectors for nuclear research. Particularly, I-V characteristics from silicon junction prototype detectors and amorphous samples to test the data acquisition system, are presented. This set-up joins a low cost to good versatility that makes it very useful in wide application ranges in silicon detector electrical characterization

  5. VITEX 2016 : Evaluation of learning objectives and exercise set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, R. van; Stubbé-Alberts, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    To strengthen awareness of the need for cooperation, between public and private partners, and between countries, a new exercise set-up was developed. The VITEX exercise set-up is a table top exercise that aims to bring relevant networks together, and supports cooperation and collaboration between

  6. Setting up a new CZO in the Ganga basin: instrumentation, stakeholder engagement and preliminary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Tripathi, S.; Sinha, R.; Karumanchi, S. H.; Paul, D.; Tripathi, S. N.; Sen, I. S.; Dash, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganga plains represent the abode of more than 400 million people and a region of severe anthropogenic disturbance to natural processes. Changing agricultural practices, inefficient use of water, contamination of groundwater systems, and decrease in soil fertility are some of the issues that have affected the long-term resilience of hydrological processes. The quantification of these processes demands a network of hydro-meteorological instrumentation, low-cost sensors, continuous engagement of stakeholders and real time data transmission at a fine interval. We have therefore set up a Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) in a small watershed (35km2) that forms an intensively managed rural landscape consisting of 92% of agricultural land in the Pandu River Basin (a small tributary of the Ganga River). Apart from setting up a hydro-meteorological observatory, the major science questions we want to address relate to development of water balance model, understanding the soil-water interaction and estimation of nutrient fluxes in the watershed. This observatory currently has various types of sensors that are divided into three categories: (a) spatially not dense but temporally fine data, (b) spatially dense but temporally not fine data and(c) spatially dense and temporally fine data. The first category represent high-cost sensors namely automatic weather stations that are deployed at two locations and provide data at 15-minute interval. The second category includes portable soil moisture, discharge and groundwater level at weekly/ biweekly interval. The third category comprises low-cost sensors including automatic surface and groundwater level sensors installed on open wells to monitor the continuous fluctuation of water level at every 15 minutes. In addition to involving the local communities in data collection (e.g. manual rainfall measurement, water and soil sampling), this CZO also aims to provide relevant information to them for improving their sustainability. The

  7. Evaluation of rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyang; Fu Xiaolong; Xia Bing; Fan Min; Yang Huanjun; Ren Jun; Xu Zhiyong; Jiang Guoliang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms. Methods: 224 kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (KVCBCT) scans from 20 thoracic tumor patients were evaluated retrospectively. All these patients were involved in the research of 'Evaluation of the residual set-up error for online kilovoltage cone-beam CT guided thoracic tumor radiation'. Rotational set-up errors, including pitch, roll and yaw, were calculated by 'aligning the KVCBCT with the planning CT, using the semi-automatic alignment method. Results: The average rotational set-up errors were -0.28 degree ±1.52 degree, 0.21 degree ± 0.91 degree and 0.27 degree ± 0.78 degree in the left-fight, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axis, respectively. The maximal rotational errors of pitch, roll and yaw were 3.5 degree, 2.7 degree and 2.2 degree, respectively. After correction for translational set-up errors, no statistically significant changes in rotational error were observed. Conclusions: The rotational set-up errors in patients with thoracic neoplasms were all small in magnitude. Rotational errors may not change after the correction for translational set-up errors alone, which should be evaluated in a larger sample future. (authors)

  8. Influence of Daily Set-Up Errors on Dose Distribution During Pelvis Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasabasic, M.; Ivkovic, A.; Faj, D.; Rajevac, V.; Sobat, H.; Jurkovic, S.

    2011-01-01

    An external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using megavoltage beam of linear accelerator is usually the treatment of choice for the cancer patients. The goal of EBRT is to deliver the prescribed dose to the target volume, with as low as possible dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. A large number of procedures and different professions involved in radiotherapy process, uncertainty of equipment and daily patient set-up errors can cause a difference between the planned and delivered dose. We investigated a part of this difference caused by daily patient set-up errors. Daily set-up errors for 35 patients were measured. These set-up errors were simulated on 5 patients, using 3D treatment planning software XiO (CMS Inc., St. Louis, MO). The differences in dose distributions between the planned and shifted ''geometry'' were investigated. Additionally, an influence of the error on treatment plan selection was checked by analyzing the change in dose volume histograms, planning target volume conformity index (CI P TV) and homogeneity index (HI). Simulations showed that patient daily set-up errors can cause significant differences between the planned and actual dose distributions. Moreover, for some patients those errors could influence the choice of treatment plan since CI P TV fell under 97 %. Surprisingly, HI was not as sensitive as CI P TV on set-up errors. The results showed the need for minimizing daily set-up errors by quality assurance programme. (author)

  9. Electronic portal image assisted reduction of systematic set-up errors in head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Hans C.J. de; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Visser, Andries G.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify systematic and random patient set-up errors in head and neck irradiation and to investigate the impact of an off-line correction protocol on the systematic errors. Material and methods: Electronic portal images were obtained for 31 patients treated for primary supra-glottic larynx carcinoma who were immobilised using a polyvinyl chloride cast. The observed patient set-up errors were input to the shrinking action level (SAL) off-line decision protocol and appropriate set-up corrections were applied. To assess the impact of the protocol, the positioning accuracy without application of set-up corrections was reconstructed. Results: The set-up errors obtained without set-up corrections (1 standard deviation (SD)=1.5-2 mm for random and systematic errors) were comparable to those reported in other studies on similar fixation devices. On an average, six fractions per patient were imaged and the set-up of half the patients was changed due to the decision protocol. Most changes were detected during weekly check measurements, not during the first days of treatment. The application of the SAL protocol reduced the width of the distribution of systematic errors to 1 mm (1 SD), as expected from simulations. A retrospective analysis showed that this accuracy should be attainable with only two measurements per patient using a different off-line correction protocol, which does not apply action levels. Conclusions: Off-line verification protocols can be particularly effective in head and neck patients due to the smallness of the random set-up errors. The excellent set-up reproducibility that can be achieved with such protocols enables accurate dose delivery in conformal treatments

  10. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of indoor climate in low energy buildings: Computational set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risberg Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper CFD was used for simulation of the indoor climate in a part of a low energy building. The focus of the work was on investigating the computational set up, such as grid size and boundary conditions in order to solve the indoor climate problems in an accurate way. Future work is to model a complete building, with reasonable calculation time and accuracy. A limited number of grid elements and knowledge of boundary settings are therefore essential. An accurate grid edge size of around 0.1 m was enough to predict the climate according to a grid independency study. Different turbulence models were compared with only small differences in the indoor air velocities and temperatures. The models show that radiation between building surfaces has a large impact on the temperature field inside the building, with the largest differences at the floor level. Simplifying the simulations by modelling the radiator as a surface in the outer wall of the room is appropriate for the calculations. The overall indoor climate is finally compared between three different cases for the outdoor air temperature. The results show a good indoor climate for a low energy building all around the year.

  11. An experimental set-up to measure Light Yield of Scintillating Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, C; Joram, C; Kenzie, M W

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the LHCb SciFi Tracker project, an experimental set up was designed and built to provide reliable and reproducible measurements of the light yield of scintillating fibres. This document describes the principle and technical realisation of the set-up. A few examples illustrate the operation and data analysis. In the first implementation of the set-up a photomultiplier tube with bialkali photocathode was used for the reading of the light from the fibres under test. In order to measure also green emitting fibres, the photomultiplier was replaced in January 2016 by a SiPM with higher sensitivity and larger spectral coverage1.

  12. Population Structure, Life Strategies and Systematics of Phosphatocope Ostracods from the Middle Cambrian of Bornholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hinz-Schallreuter

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available She Middle Cambrian Borregård Member of Bornholm which is the stratigraphical equivalent to the Baltoscandian Exsulans Limestone yielded a rich and comparatively diverse ostracod fauna in its upper part. It comprises eight species out of four genera. They belong to three known subfamilies that are redefined on the basis of special characters of the contact margin. An ontogenetic character unknown from typical ostracods is documented in several species: during early ontogeny the gestalt (l:h ratio develops constantly in becoming increasingly longer until the so-called ontogenetical turning point (OTP from which the direction of growth focusses on carapace height. This phenomenon may be explained by changes in body morphology. The Borregård association represents an ecologic community type differing from other yet recorded Middle Cambrian communities in the Baltoscandic region. Apart from Vestrogothia longispinosa which is a common faunal element in Baltoscandian ostracod faunas, the yet recorded species of Bidimorpha are unknown from other Baltoscandian occurrences. Vice versa, the known species of Bidimorpha described from Swedish occurrences have not been recognized in the rich Borregård community. Similarly, Falites insula and Hesslandona abdominalis may be of local significance, too, but the respective records from contemporaneous Swedish localities are insufficient in this respect, yet. Due to specific morphological adaptations, the four genera are assumed to represent different benthic life strategies. New taxa are: Bidimorpha arator n. sp., Bidimorpha labiator n. sp., Bidimorpha sexspinosa n. sp., Falites insula n. sp., Hesslandona abdominalis n. sp., Vestrogothia herrigi n. sp. and Vestrogothia minilaterospinata n. sp. Aus dem mittelkambrischen Borregård Member von Bornholm, einem zeitlichen Äquivalent des baltoskandischen Exsulanskalkes, wurde eine reiche und vergleichsweise diverse Ostrakodenfauna gewonnen. Sie umfaßt 8 Arten aus

  13. Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Suitable Sites for Setting up Wind Farms: A Case Study of Nyanga District. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... sources and continuous power shortages make wind energy a very attractive alternative to ...

  14. An evaluation system of the setting up of predictive maintenance programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnero, MaCarmen

    2006-01-01

    Predictive Maintenance can provide an increase in safety, quality and availability in industrial plants. However, the setting up of a Predictive Maintenance Programme is a strategic decision that until now has lacked analysis of questions related to its setting up, management and control. In this paper, an evaluation system is proposed that carries out the decision making in relation to the feasibility of the setting up. The evaluation system uses a combination of tools belonging to operational research such as: Analytic Hierarchy Process, decision rules and Bayesian tools. This system is a help tool available to the managers of Predictive Maintenance Programmes which can both increase the number of Predictive Maintenance Programmes set up and avoid the failure of these programmes. The Evaluation System has been tested in a petrochemical plant and in a food industry

  15. Feasibility of geometrical verification of patient set-up using body contours and computed tomography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, Lennert S.; Betgen, Anja; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Herk, Marcel van

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Body contours can potentially be used for patient set-up verification in external-beam radiotherapy and might enable more accurate set-up of patients prior to irradiation. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of patient set-up verification using a body contour scanner. Material and methods: Body contour scans of 33 lung cancer and 21 head-and-neck cancer patients were acquired on a simulator. We assume that this dataset is representative for the patient set-up on an accelerator. Shortly before acquisition of the body contour scan, a pair of orthogonal simulator images was taken as a reference. Both the body contour scan and the simulator images were matched in 3D to the planning computed tomography scan. Movement of skin with respect to bone was quantified based on an analysis of variance method. Results: Set-up errors determined with body-contours agreed reasonably well with those determined with simulator images. For the lung cancer patients, the average set-up errors (mm)±1 standard deviation (SD) for the left-right, cranio-caudal and anterior-posterior directions were 1.2±2.9, -0.8±5.0 and -2.3±3.1 using body contours, compared to -0.8±3.2, -1.0±4.1 and -1.2±2.4 using simulator images. For the head-and-neck cancer patients, the set-up errors were 0.5±1.8, 0.5±2.7 and -2.2±1.8 using body contours compared to -0.4±1.2, 0.1±2.1, -0.1±1.8 using simulator images. The SD of the set-up errors obtained from analysis of the body contours were not significantly different from those obtained from analysis of the simulator images. Movement of the skin with respect to bone (1 SD) was estimated at 2.3 mm for lung cancer patients and 1.7 mm for head-and-neck cancer patients. Conclusion: Measurement of patient set-up using a body-contouring device is possible. The accuracy, however, is limited by the movement of the skin with respect to the bone. In situations where the error in the patient set-up is relatively large, it is

  16. Application of video imaging for improvement of patient set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, Lennert S.; Frenay, Michel; Betgen, Anja; Bois, Josien A. de; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Herk, Marcel van

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: For radiotherapy of prostate cancer, the patient is usually positioned in the left-right (LR) direction by aligning a single marker on the skin with the projection of a room laser. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a room-mounted video camera in combination with previously acquired CT data to improve patient set-up along the LR axis. Material and methods: The camera was mounted in the treatment room at the caudal side of the patient. For 22 patients with prostate cancer 127 video and portal images were acquired. The set-up error determined by video imaging was found by matching video images with rendered CT images using various techniques. This set-up error was retrospectively compared with the set-up error derived from portal images. It was investigated whether the number of corrections based on portal imaging would decrease if the information obtained from the video images had been used prior to irradiation. Movement of the skin with respect to bone was quantified using an analysis of variance method. Results: The measurement of the set-up error was most accurate for a technique where outlines and groins on the left and right side of the patient were delineated and aligned individually to the corresponding features extracted from the rendered CT image. The standard deviations (SD) of the systematic and random components of the set-up errors derived from the portal images in the LR direction were 1.5 and 2.1 mm, respectively. When the set-up of the patients was retrospectively adjusted based on the video images, the SD of the systematic and random errors decreased to 1.1 and 1.3 mm, respectively. From retrospective analysis, a reduction of the number of set-up corrections (from nine to six corrections) is expected when the set-up would have been adjusted using the video images. The SD of the magnitude of motion of the skin of the patient with respect to the bony anatomy was estimated to be 1.1 mm. Conclusion: Video

  17. Research on mechanical and sensoric set-up for high strain rate testing of high performance fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, R.; Schegner, P.; Nocke, A.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Within this research project, the tensile behavior of high performance fibers, such as carbon fibers, is investigated under high velocity loads. This contribution (paper) focuses on the clamp set-up of two testing machines. Based on a kinematic model, weight optimized clamps are designed and evaluated. By analyzing the complex dynamic behavior of conventional high velocity testing machines, it has been shown that the impact typically exhibits an elastic characteristic. This leads to barely predictable breaking speeds and will not work at higher speeds when acceleration force exceeds material specifications. Therefore, a plastic impact behavior has to be achieved, even at lower testing speeds. This type of impact behavior at lower speeds can be realized by means of some minor test set-up adaptions.

  18. New large solar photocatalytic plant: set-up and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, S; Blanco, J; Vidal, A; Fernández, P; Cáceres, J; Trincado, P; Oliveira, J C; Vincent, M

    2002-04-01

    A European industrial consortium called SOLARDETOX has been created as the result of an EC-DGXII BRITE-EURAM-III-financed project on solar photocatalytic detoxification of water. The project objective was to develop a simple, efficient and commercially competitive water-treatment technology, based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) solar collectors and TiO2 photocatalysis, to make possible easy design and installation. The design, set-up and preliminary results of the main project deliverable, the first European industrial solar detoxification treatment plant, is presented. This plant has been designed for the batch treatment of 2 m3 of water with a 100 m2 collector-aperture area and aqueous aerated suspensions of polycrystalline TiO2 irradiated by sunlight. Fully automatic control reduces operation and maintenance manpower. Plant behaviour has been compared (using dichloroacetic acid and cyanide at 50 mg l(-1) initial concentration as model compounds) with the small CPC pilot plants installed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería several years ago. The first results with high-content cyanide (1 g l(-1)) waste water are presented and plant treatment capacity is calculated.

  19. Secondary electron images obtained with a standard photoelectron emission microscope set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, Oswald; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The first results of secondary electron images excited by 3-4.3 keV electrons are presented. The images are obtained with a standard FOCUS-PEEM set-up equipped with an imaging energy filter (IEF). The electron gun was mounted on a standard PEEM entrance flange at an angle of 25 deg. with respect to the sample surface. A low extraction voltage of 500 V was used to minimize the deflection of the electron beam by the PEEM extraction electrode. The secondary electron images are compared to photoelectron images excited by a standard 4.9 eV UV lamp. In the case of a Cu pattern on a Si substrate it is found that the lateral resolution without the IEF is about the same for electron and photon excitation but that the relative electron emission intensities are very different. The use of the IEF reduces the lateral resolution. Images for secondary electron energies between eV 1 and eV 2 were obtained by setting the IEF to -V 1 and -V 2 ∼-(V 1 +5V) potentials and taking the difference of both images. Images up to 100 eV electron energies were recorded. The material contrast obtained in these difference images is discussed in terms of a secondary electron and photoelectron emission model and secondary electron energy spectra measured with a LEED-Auger spectrometer

  20. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: The 2004 Test Beam Calorimetry set-up in H8

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Di Girolamo, B; Ferrari, C; Giugni, D; Santoni, C; Wingerter, I

    A new table has been designed, built and finally mounted to position the LAr cryostat in front of the Tilecal modules. The new table has been connected to the existing Tilecal table to be able to move the full set-up along eta values between 0 and 1.2. The table has been conceived by D. Giugni (INFN Milano and now CERN PH) and modeled by G. Braga (INFN Milano) in spring-summer 2003. The realization of the table has been done by an Italian firm (MatecImpianti, Fenegrò, Como) under the supervision of S. Coelli (INFN Milano) starting August 2003. Figure 1 shows the table assembled at the firm (left). Figure 1: The Tilecal-LAr table: in Fenegro (left) and at CERN (right). In November 2003 the table has been delivered to CERN and put in temporary storage to be assembled after the preparation of the Tilecal zone. In February 2004 two technicians from the firm and the team of technician coordinated by C. Ferrari (CERN AB/ATB), assembled, tested and commissioned the table under the supervision of S. Coelli...

  1. A Model for Energy Consumption and Energy-Related Emissions from the Danish Production Sector - INDUS/EMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon contributions to a Scandinavian conference on Transport, Agriculture and the Environment in a Regional and National Development Perspective : Quantitative and Modelling Approaches organised by AKF, the Institute of Local Government Studies, Denmark, held on Bornholm, December 1993....

  2. An optimised set-up for total reflection particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Vis, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    MeV proton beams at small angles of incidence (0-35 mrad) are used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers or quartz substrates. In these experiments, the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) signal is used in a new optimized set-up. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Use of these large detector solid angles, combined with the reduction of bremsstrahlung background, affords limits of detection (LOD) of the order of 10 10 at cm -2 using total reflection particle induced X-ray emission (TPIXE). The LODs from earlier TPIXE measurements in a non-optimized set-up are used to estimate LODs in the new TPIXE set-up. Si wafers with low surface concentrations of V, Ni, Cu and Ag are used as standards to calibrate the LODs found with this set-up. The metal concentrations are determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The TPIXE measurements are compared with TXRF measurements on the same wafers. (Author)

  3. Trace element analysis in an optimized set-up for total reflection PIXE (TPIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kan, J.A.; Vis, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    A newly constructed chamber for measuring with MeV proton beams at small incidence angles (0 to 35 mrad) is used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers, quartz substrates and perspex. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Using these large solid angles in combination with the reduction of bremsstrahlungs background, lower limits of detection (LOD) using TPIXE can be obtained as compared with PIXE in the conventional geometry. Standard solutions are used to determine the LODs obtainable with TPIXE in the optimized set-up. These solutions contain traces of As and Sr with concentrations down to 20 ppb in an insulin solution. The limits of detection found are compared with earlier ones obtained with TPIXE in a non optimized set-up and with TXRF results. (author)

  4. Characterization of n-heptane as a single component Diesel surrogate fuel. EHPC test set-up implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, M.

    2010-06-15

    The availability of accurately measured fuel properties, during an injection event under engine relevant conditions is critical within the surrogate fuel approach. There is a need to perform in-house measurements in order to validate developed and new models. A well defined and accurately measured data-set will facilitate on-going work for sophisticated engine related in-cylinder combustion modeling. In this work pure n-heptane fuel is used as a single component surrogate fuel and is studied in a high-pressure constant volume optical test set-up. N-heptane is often used as a single component surrogate diesel fuel since it has a comparable Cetane number as European diesel. Detailed chemical-kinetic mechanisms for low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature n-heptane oxidation are available and several models exist that have sufficiently reduced dimensionality (number of species and reactions) to enable their use in CFD (Computational Fluid Mechanics) simulations. This report discusses the route and implementation to perform such an accurate and relevant n-heptane measurement series. The aim is to combine the efforts of earlier presented EHPC (Eindhoven High Pressure Cell) related work and new approaches, into the proposed surrogate fuel measurement series. The following aspects, related to the applied constant volume combustion chamber set-up, are studied and implemented: Extending the operating ranges towards relevant engine conditions; Study the accuracy and sensitivities of the different measurement steps; Implementing different optical diagnostic principles; and Implement a standardized and robust post processing routine. The different optical diagnostic principles used in this work are: high-speed Schlieren, Mie scattering and beginnings are made to implement a simultaneous LII LIF (Laser Induced Incandescence - Laser Induced Fluorescence) set-up using a new ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device) camera with dual imaging feature. Combining the different

  5. Investigations in quantum games using EPR-type set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2006-04-01

    Research in quantum games has flourished during recent years. However, it seems that opinion remains divided about their true quantum character and content. For example, one argument says that quantum games are nothing but 'disguised' classical games and that to quantize a game is equivalent to replacing the original game by a different classical game. The present thesis contributes towards the ongoing debate about quantum nature of quantum games by developing two approaches addressing the related issues. Both approaches take Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type experiments as the underlying physical set-ups to play two-player quantum games. In the first approach, the players' strategies are unit vectors in their respective planes, with the knowledge of coordinate axes being shared between them. Players perform measurements in an EPR-type setting and their payoffs are defined as functions of the correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bimatrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, as for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. The second approach uses the result that when the predictions of a Local Hidden Variable (LHV) model are made to violate the Bell inequalities the result is that some probability measures assume negative values. With the requirement that classical games result when the predictions of a LHV model do not violate the Bell inequalities, our analysis looks at the impact which the emergence of negative probabilities has on the solutions of two-player games which are physically implemented using the EPR-type experiments.

  6. Special set-up and treatment techniques for the radiotherapy of pediatric malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Donaldson, S.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The prevention of serious and long term complications of treatment have become as important a consideration in the therapy of children with malignant disease as the goal of tumor control. This balance requires meticulous treatment planning and attention to the treatment preparation and immobilization techniques when radiotherapy is administered to children. Accurate localization of tumor volume and daily reproducibility is essential for delivering precise irradiation. Four special set-up and treatment techniques which have a specific usefulness in radiotherapy for pediatric malignancies are defined and illustrated with the aid of clinical cases. They include the three point set-up, the split beam technique, the isocentric technique, and the strinking field technique

  7. Concept and set-up of an IR-gas sensor construction kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Perner, Gernot; Gengenbach, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an approach to a cost-efficient modularly built non-dispersive optical IR-gas sensor (NDIR) based on a construction kit. The modularity of the approach offers several advantages: First of all it allows for an adaptation of the performance of the gas sensor to individual specifications by choosing the suitable modular components. The sensitivity of the sensor e.g. can be altered by selecting a source which emits a favorable wavelength spectrum with respect to the absorption spectrum of the gas to be measured or by tuning the measuring distance (ray path inside the medium to be measured). Furthermore the developed approach is very well suited to be used in teaching. Together with students a construction kit on basis of an optical free space system was developed and partly implemented to be further used as a teaching and training aid for bachelor and master students at our institute. The components of the construction kit are interchangeable and freely fixable on a base plate. The components are classified into five groups: sources, reflectors, detectors, gas feed, and analysis cell. Source, detector, and the positions of the components are fundamental to experiment and test different configurations and beam paths. The reflectors are implemented by an aluminum coated adhesive foil, mounted onto a support structure fabricated by additive manufacturing. This approach allows derivation of the reflecting surface geometry from the optical design tool and generating the 3D-printing files by applying related design rules. The rapid fabrication process and the adjustment of the modules on the base plate allow rapid, almost LEGO®-like, experimental assessment of design ideas. Subject of this paper is modeling, design, and optimization of the reflective optical components, as well as of the optical subsystem. The realization of a sample set-up used as a teaching aid and the optical measurement of the beam path in comparison to the simulation results are

  8. Improving beam set-up using an online beam optics tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.; Barth, W.; Franczak, B.; Scheeler, U.; Wilms, D.

    2004-01-01

    The GSI accelerator facility [1] consists of the Universal Linear Accelerator (Unilac), the heavy ion synchrotron SIS, and the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR). Two Unilac injectors with three ion source terminals provide ion species from the lightest such as hydrogen up to uranium. The High Current Injector (HSI) for low charge state ion beams provides mostly high intense but short pulses, whereas the High Charge State Injector (HLI) supplies long pulses with a high duty factor of up to 27%. Before entering the Alvarez section of the Unilac the ion beam from the HSI is stripped in a supersonic gas jet. Up to three different ion species can be accelerated for up to five experiments in a time-sharing mode. Frequent changes of beam energy and intensity during a single beam time period may result in time consuming set-up and tuning especially of the beam transport lines. To shorten these changeover times an online optics tool (MIRKO EXPERT) had been developed. Based on online emittance measurements at well-defined locations the beam envelopes are calculated using the actual magnet settings. With this input improved calculated magnet settings can be directly sent to the magnet power supplies. The program reads profile grid measurements, such that an atomized beam alignment is established and that steering times are minimized. Experiences on this tool will be reported. At the Unilac a special focus is put on high current operation with short but intense beam pulses. Limitations like missing non-destructive beam diagnostics, insufficient longitudinal beam diagnostics, insufficient longitudinal beam matching, and influence of the hard edged model for magnetic fields will be discussed. Special attention will be put on the limits due to high current effects with bunched beams. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic impact by microcellular base stations: analysis and guidelines for a correct setting up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Reggiani, M.; Silvi, A.M.; Zari, A.; Ricci, A.

    2002-01-01

    During the last few years the development of mobile communications has required ever increasing number of base stations for both existing mobile operators and new ones. More and more users ask for a higher quality services so new technological solutions have been studied and applied to assure effective coverage for given geographical areas, as in squares or narrow streets, characterized by a very high traffic demand or where coverage by usual macro cells is very difficult. On the other side, modern societies of developed countries ask for a better and better quality of life and appropriate government policies. Several studies of national and international scientific organizations have been performed and are still in progress to establish any possible adverse effects on human health of non-ionizing radiation exposure. So, many governments, forced by public opinion pressure, have produced specific standards in agreement with scientific organization guidelines and prudent avoidance politics too. Nowadays, designing their networks, mobile operators have to respect requirements contained in these standards. So a hierarchical cellular system have been recently proposed to comply more easily with both coverage requirements and lower exposure limits. This new coverage strategy of geographical areas requires the presence of microcells beside the usual macro cells. In this paper the study of the distribution of the electromagnetic field levels produced by microcellular base stations characterized by different features and configurations is presented, in order to define a few guidelines for the correct setting up of antennas in compliance with current standard requirements. This is obtained comparing results of theoretical modeling, based on the radio electrical characteristics of each sources, and measurements data. Results achieved by measurements performed on a preliminary sample of microcells have been presented in this work

  10. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 1. Omraede Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholms Regionskommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  11. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here, an experimental set-up developed for the first time in India for the ... The internal reproducibility (precision) for the δ13C ... interaction of CO2 and water, and reproduce iso- ..... enhanced emission of anthropogenic CO2, varia-.

  12. Setting up Schizosaccharomyces pombe crosses/matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide methods for setting up standard crosses with Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains. All strain genotypes and pedigrees should be recorded in a laboratory strain book. Matings between two haploid strains of interest are induced on solid medium poor in nitrogen. Usually, sporulation agar...

  13. The possibility to use 'energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron field was measured in different places of this set- up using different .... to see that the proton integral was around 1013 protons for all experiments. The shape of the .... The lines are drawn to guide the eyes, only statistical errors are ...

  14. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  15. Controlling Mechatronic Set-up Using Real-time Linux and CTC ++

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.; Stramigioli, S.

    2002-01-01

    The development of control software for mechatronic systems is presented by means of a case study: a 2 DOF mechanical rotational set-up usable as a camera-positioning device. The control software is generated using the code generation facility of 20-SIM, thus guaranteeing the generated code being

  16. 12 November 1991-Ministerial Order setting up a Commission for assessing information in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Commission sets up by this Order must ensure that the public is kept informed on the technical, health, ecological, economic and financial aspects of nuclear energy, and advises the Secretary of State for Energy on the conditions for informing the public and proposes methods for disseminating such information. (NEA)

  17. The Use of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk in Setting up a Physical Education Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourbanos, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide guidelines to physical educators for setting up a self-talk program during their lesson. The article briefly presents definitions of self-talk and research findings in sport and physical education to highlight the important benefits of positive self-talk in enhancing task performance. It also provides…

  18. Automotive RF immunity test set-up analysis : why test results can't compare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Mart; Pues, H.; Bousquet, T.

    2011-01-01

    Though the automotive RF emission and RF immunity requirements are highly justifiable, the application of those requirements in an non-intended manner leads to false conclusions and unnecessary redesigns for the electronics involved. When the test results become too dependent upon the test set-up

  19. The pattern of trauma in private general medical practice set-up Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Private general medical practice establishments appear to be treating a significant number of trauma cases including more serious ones. Aim: To find out the extent of such treatment of trauma and what has made this possible. METHODS: All trauma cases treated in a private general medical practice set up ...

  20. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  1. Setting up a randomized clinical trial in the UK: approvals and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Louise Eleanor; Bearn, David R

    2013-06-01

    Randomized clinical trials are considered the 'gold standard' in primary research for healthcare interventions. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to set up and require many approvals to be in place before they can begin. This paper outlines how to determine what approvals are required for a trial, the background of each approval and the process for obtaining them.

  2. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  3. Setting up a child eye care centre: the Mercy Eye Hospital, Abak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To document and share our experience in setting up a Child Eye Care Centre within a rural mission eye hospital and document subsequent development of services. Method: The location of the project was Mercy Eye Hospital (MEH) Abak, Akwa Ibom State in the South South zone of Nigeria). Consent to commence ...

  4. Order of 27 February 1985 setting up a Nuclear Engineering Terminology Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Commission set up by this Order will draw up an inventory of the gaps in French nuclear engineering vocabulary, taking into account users' needs; it will also propose and revise the necessary terms in the light of present knowledge and contribute to collection and harmonisation of terminological and neological data. (NEA) [fr

  5. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  6. Rank the Voltage across Light Bulbs … Then Set up the Live Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Greg C.

    2018-01-01

    The Tasks Inspired by Physics Education Research (TIPERS) workbooks pose questions in styles quite different from the end-of-chapter problems that those of us of a certain age were assigned back in the days before Netscape. My own spin on TIPERS is not just to do them on paper, but to have students set up the situations in the laboratory to…

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  8. First results with the experimental set-up at a Bugey reactor: neutrino oscillations, search of axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoummada, A.

    1982-07-01

    This work presents an experimental set-up at the Bugey PWR reactor to put into evidence neutrino oscillations. The first part describes a neutrino detector specially designed for the investigation of neutrino oscillations at two distances (13.50 m and 19 m) under the core of the reactor. Preliminary analysis are presented. The second part reports a search for axions, using the neutrino detector well-shielded volume. Created in competition with electro magnetic transitions, axion should be produced in abondance in the reactor core. This experiment excludes the existence of the axion of the standard model [fr

  9. A simple and convenient set-up for high-temperature Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerette, Michael; Huang Liping

    2012-01-01

    An emulated platelet geometry (or reflection-induced platelet geometry) is employed to collect photons scattered from both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves travelling within a bulk transparent sample sitting on a reflective Pt plate. Temperature of the sample was controlled with a Linkam TS1500 optical furnace (maximum temperature of 1500 °C). This simple and convenient set-up allows a full determination of elastic constants of transparent materials in situ as a function of temperature from Brillouin light scattering. Structural information can be gained at the same time by guiding the scattered light into a Raman spectrometer using a flipping mirror or a beam splitter. We will demonstrate the applications of this set-up in transparent inorganic glasses, but it can be easily extended to any other transparent materials, either crystalline or amorphous in nature. (paper)

  10. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C. G.; Larsen, B. H.; Andresen, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding...... demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding...... and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding...

  11. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, C G; Larsen, B H; Andresen, E L; de Zee, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding performance.

  12. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Ashish; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathi, Manjul; Dhingra, Renu; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  13. Act No. 15 of 22 April 1980 setting up the Nuclear Safety Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spanish authorities are in the process or reorganising the public nuclear sector in order to separate the promotional and research aspects of the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes from the regulation and control of such activities. To this effect this Act sets up a Nuclear Safety Council which takes over part of the duties and the personnel of the Junta de Energia Nuclear provided for by the Act of 29th April 1964 on Nuclear Energy. The new Nuclear Safety Council is a body which is independent of the State central administration and has legal personality as well as its own financial resources required to carry out its duties. The latter comprise, inter alia, proposing to the Government the regulations required in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection; this includes the setting-up of standards and criteria for the selection of nuclear installation sites, in consultation with the local competent bodies. (NEA) [fr

  14. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan; Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M.A.; Mittal, Vijay Kumar; Mittal, Raj

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found ∼(1-100) ppm for K and L excitations and ∼(200-700) ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken.

  15. Setting up of a cerebral visual impairment clinic for children: Challenges and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Swetha Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the setting up of a cerebral visual impairment (CVI) clinic in a tertiary care hospital in South India and to describe the spectrum of cases seen. The CVI clinic, set up in February 2011, receives interdisciplinary input from a core team involving a pediatrician, neurologist, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, pediatric ophthalmologist, and an optometrist. All children, children (45%) had moderate CP. Forty percent of CVI was due to birth asphyxia, but about 20% did not have any known cause for CVI. Seventy percent of patients, who came back for follow-up, were carrying out the habilitation strategies suggested. Average attendance of over 300 new patients a year suggests a definite need for CVI clinics in the country. These children need specialized care to handle their complex needs. Although difficult to coordinate, an interdisciplinary team including the support groups and voluntary organizations is needed to facilitate the successful implementation of such specialized service.

  16. The urban boundary-layer field campaign in marseille (ubl/clu-escompte): set-up and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, P.G.; Durand, P.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Coppalle, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dousset, B.; Drobinski, P.; Druilhet, A.; Frejafon, E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Groleau, D.; Irvine, M.; Kergomard, C.; Kermadi, S.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Long, N.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.; Noilhan, J.; Offerle, B.; Oke, T.R.; Pigeon, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Roberts, S.; Rosant, J.-M.; Sanid, F.; Salmond, J.; Talbaut, M.; Voogt, J.

    The UBL/CLU (urban boundary layer/couche limite urbaine) observation and modelling campaign is a side-project of the regional photochemistry campaign ESCOMPTE. UBL/CLU focuses on the dynamics and thermodynamics of the urban boundary layer of Marseille, on the Mediterranean coast of France. The objective of UBL/CLU is to document the four-dimensional structure of the urban boundary layer and its relation to the heat and moisture exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere during periods of low wind conditions, from June 4 to July 16, 2001. The project took advantage of the comprehensive observational set-up of the ESCOMPTE campaign over the Berre-Marseille area, especially the ground-based remote sensing, airborne measurements, and the intensive documentation of the regional meteorology. Additional instrumentation was installed as part of UBL/CLU. Analysis objectives focus on (i) validation of several energy balance computational schemes such as LUMPS, TEB and SM2-U, (ii) ground truth and urban canopy signatures suitable for the estimation of urban albedos and aerodynamic surface temperatures from satellite data, (iii) high resolution mapping of urban land cover, land-use and aerodynamic parameters used in UBL models, and (iv) testing the ability of high resolution atmospheric models to simulate the structure of the UBL during land and sea breezes, and the related transport and diffusion of pollutants over different districts of the city. This paper presents initial results from such analyses and details of the overall experimental set-up.

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A BREEDING PROGRAMME FOR SETTING UP TWO HIGH PERFORMANCES BEE LINES

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU, A.; RADOI, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate costs, incomes and financial results related to the creation of two Apis Mellifica Carpatica lines, based on a specific Breeding Programme within a closed population. The two beelines have been carefully selected for the bee populations living in two areas of Romania: North Moldavia and South Muntenia. A new selection technology is set up in order to produce high performance queen bees, well adapted to the environmental conditions mainly to picking. Genetic gain w...

  18. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  19. Set up of a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters on integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, P.

    1996-01-01

    Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.)

  20. Extracranial stereotactic radiation therapy: set-up accuracy of patients treated for liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfarth, K.K.; Debus, J.; Lohr, F.; Bahner, M.L.; Fritz, P.; Hoess, A.; Schlegel, W. Ph.D.; Wannenmacher, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with liver metastases might benefit from high-dose conformal radiation therapy. A high accuracy of repositioning and a reduction of target movement are necessary for such an approach. The set-up accuracy of patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic single dose radiation was evaluated. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with liver metastases were treated with single dose radiation therapy on 26 occasions using a self-developed stereotactic frame. Liver movement was reduced by abdominal pressure. The effectiveness was evaluated under fluoroscopy. CT scans were performed on the planning day and directly before treatment. Representative reference marks were chosen and the coordinates were calculated. In addition, the target displacement was quantitatively evaluated after treatment. Results: Diaphragmal movement was reduced to median 7 mm (range: 3-13 mm). The final set-up accuracy of the body was limited to all of median 1.8 mm in latero-lateral direction (range: 0.3-5.0 mm) and 2.0 mm in anterior-posterior direction (0.8-3.8 mm). Deviations of the body in cranio-caudal direction were always less than the thickness of one CT slice (<5 mm). However, a repositioning was necessary in 16 occasions. The final target shift was median 1.6 mm (0.2-7.0 mm) in latero-lateral and 2.3 mm in anterior-posterior direction (0.0-6.3 mm). The median shift in cranio-caudal direction was 4.4 mm (0.0-10.0 mm). Conclusions: In patients with liver metastases, a high set-up accuracy of the body and the target can be achieved. This allows a high-dose focal radiotherapy of these lesions. However, a control CT scan should be performed directly before therapy to confirm set-up accuracy and possibly prompt necessary corrections

  1. Coincidence set-up with a high duty-cycle, high energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Important studies are now undertaken to develop continuous wave electron accelerators with energy ranging from 1 to 4 Gev. So very important effort must be now put on the development of the experimental set-up matching the performances expected from the electron beam. Major steps in the understanding of the nuclear systems will come from more and more exclusive experiments where well defined mechanisms will be selected

  2. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  3. Over-relaxation phenomena during the set-up of RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, P.; Mazur, S.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments on the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch have shown that the formation of the RFP configuration is quite sensitive to the relative programming of the toroidal field and ohmic heating circuits. In this paper, new measurements of the evolution of the current density profile and of the spectral structure of the fluctuations during the set-up phase of RFP plasmas in the T1 experiment are presented. These measurements improve the understanding of the role of different spectral components in the dynamics of RFP formation. Under unfavourable (slow) set-up conditions, comparatively high energy is accumulated in m = 1 internal kinks prior to reversal of the edge toroidal fields. At reversal, nonlinearly driven m = 0 modes trigger a rapid broadening of the m = 1 spectrum. This behaviour is associated with a violent suppression of the current density in the core leading to an over-relaxation of the discharge involving a hollowing of the parallel current density profile. The over-relaxation phenomenon increases the volt-second consumption and plasma/wall interaction during RFP set-up, and degrades the flat-top discharge performance. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  4. Over-relaxation phenomena during the set-up of RFP plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, P.; Mazur, S.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments on the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch have shown that the formation of the RFP configuration is quite sensitive to the relative programming of the toroidal field and ohmic heating circuits. In this paper, new measurements of the evolution of the current density profile and of the spectral structure of the fluctuations during the set-up phase of RFP plasmas in the T1 experiment are presented. These measurements improve the understanding of the role of different spectral components in the dynamics of RFP formation. Under unfavourable (slow) set-up conditions, comparatively high energy is accumulated in m = 1 internal kinks prior to reversal of the edge toroidal fields. At reversal, nonlinearly driven m = 0 modes trigger a rapid broadening of the m = 1 spectrum. This behaviour is associated with a violent suppression of the current density in the core leading to an over-relaxation of the discharge involving a hollowing of the parallel current density profile. The over-relaxation phenomenon increases the volt-second consumption and plasma/wall interaction during RFP set-up, and degrades the flat-top discharge performance. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  5. Single ion hit detection set-up for the Zagreb ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. W.; Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-04-01

    Irradiation of materials by heavy ions accelerated in MV tandem accelerators may lead to the production of latent ion tracks in many insulators and semiconductors. If irradiation is performed in a high resolution microprobe facility, ion tracks can be ordered by submicrometer positioning precision. However, full control of the ion track positioning can only be achieved by a reliable ion hit detection system that should provide a trigger signal irrespectively of the type and thickness of the material being irradiated. The most useful process that can be utilised for this purpose is emission of secondary electrons from the sample surface that follows the ion impact. The status report of the set-up presented here is based on the use of a channel electron multiplier (CEM) detector mounted on an interchangable sample holder that is inserted into the chamber in a close geometry along with the sample to be irradiated. The set-up has been tested at the Zagreb ion microprobe for different ions and energies, as well as different geometrical arrangements. For energies of heavy ions below 1 MeV/amu, results show that efficient (100%) control of ion impact can be achieved only for ions heavier than silicon. The successful use of the set-up is demonstrated by production of ordered single ion tracks in a polycarbonate film and by monitoring fluence during ion microbeam patterning of Foturan glass.

  6. Using a Robust Design Approach to Optimize Chair Set-up in Wheelchair Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Haydon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of wheelchairs for court sports is currently a difficult and time-consuming process due to the broad range of impairments across athletes, difficulties in monitoring on-court performance, and the trade-off set-up that parameters have on key performance variables. A robust design approach to this problem can potentially reduce the amount of testing required, and therefore allow for individual on-court assessments. This study used orthogonal design with four set-up factors (seat height, depth, and angle, as well as tyre pressure at three levels (current, decreased, and increased for three elite wheelchair rugby players. Each player performed two maximal effort sprints from a stationary position in nine different set-ups, with this allowing for detailed analysis of each factor and level. Whilst statistical significance is difficult to obtain due to the small sample size, meaningful difference results aligning with previous research findings were identified and provide support for the use of this approach.

  7. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-01-01

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength λ=8.5 μm suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length Nλ. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users' experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 μm have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up

  8. Development of high pressure rinsing set up for 650 MHz, 5- cell superconducting RF cavity cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Bose, A.; Kokil, S.V.; Rajput, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Md Hussain; Sahu, A.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is an ultra-cleanliness process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting RF cavities. Any dust particle or chemical residue on the interior of cavity causes field emission. Jets of high pressure (80-100 bar) ultra pure water dislodge surface contaminants that normally resist removal with conventional rinsing procedures, leading to substantial reduction in field emission and better cavity performance. For cleaning of 650 MHz, 5-cell SRF cavities, a high pressure rinsing set up has been developed at RRCAT. The HPR tool has a rotating wand coaxial with the vertically mounted SRF cavity that is moving up and down. Fan style spray nozzles are attached to the end of the rotating wand and the water jets emerging from spray nozzles scan the entire internal surface of the cavity. The set-up was installed in a specially built clean area meeting cleanliness class 100 standards. The ultrapure water with resistivity 2 ≥ 18 MΩ-cm required for rinsing is obtained from a dedicated water purification system installed for this purpose. The paper describes the salient design and constructional details of the high pressure rinsing set up. Characterization of water jet parameters based on the momentum transfer between the water jet and a load cell is also presented. (author)

  9. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mara L.; Brites, Cláudia; Paulo, Manuel; Carbas, Bruna; Belo, Maria; Mendes-Moreira, Pedro M. R.; Brites, Carla; Bronze, Maria do Rosário; Gunjača, Jerko; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber), flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds). These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds) could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers' maize populations

  10. Setting Up Decision-Making Tools toward a Quality-Oriented Participatory Maize Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara L. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported promising differences in the quality of kernels from farmers' maize populations collected in a Portuguese region known to produce maize-based bread. However, several limitations have been identified in the previous characterizations of those populations, such as a limited set of quality traits accessed and a missing accurate agronomic performance evaluation. The objectives of this study were to perform a more detailed quality characterization of Portuguese farmers' maize populations; to estimate their agronomic performance in a broader range of environments; and to integrate quality, agronomic, and molecular data in the setting up of decision-making tools for the establishment of a quality-oriented participatory maize breeding program. Sixteen farmers' maize populations, together with 10 other maize populations chosen for comparison purposes, were multiplied in a common-garden experiment for quality evaluation. Flour obtained from each population was used to study kernel composition (protein, fat, fiber, flour's pasting behavior, and bioactive compound levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds. These maize populations were evaluated for grain yield and ear weight in nine locations across Portugal; the populations' adaptability and stability were evaluated using additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI model analysis. The phenotypic characterization of each population was complemented with a molecular characterization, in which 30 individuals per population were genotyped with 20 microsatellites. Almost all farmers' populations were clustered into the same quality-group characterized by high levels of protein and fiber, low levels of carotenoids, volatile aldehydes, α- and δ-tocopherols, and breakdown viscosity. Within this quality-group, variability on particular quality traits (color and some bioactive compounds could still be found. Regarding the agronomic performance, farmers

  11. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallon, G K; Diemoz, P C; Vittoria, F A; Basta, D; Endrizzi, M; Olivo, A

    2017-01-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF. (paper)

  12. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  13. Setting-up a cost recovery system for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønholdt, J; Elberg Jørgensen, P; O'Hearn, D

    2005-01-01

    A tariff system has been set up for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia, the Samut Prakarn Wastewater Treatment Plant south of Bangkok, which is currently under completion. Fully functional the plant will have a design capacity for 500,000 m3 per day and will service a combined residential and industrial area with approximately 600,000 residents and 2,300 factories. The tariff system, which includes a tariff model, is based on water consumption and BOD load. As background for setting the tariffs a comprehensive monitoring system including an industrial permitting system has been developed. The paper presents the background and rationale for setting up the system as well as the objective, scope and content of the tariff system and the industrial permit system. Further, the feasibility of introducing cost recovery systems, which is widely accepted in developing economies on the conceptual level and to some extent implemented at the legal and regulatory level, but has yet to be implemented at large, is discussed.

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A BREEDING PROGRAMME FOR SETTING UP TWO HIGH PERFORMANCES BEE LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate costs, incomes and financial results related to the creation of two Apis Mellifica Carpatica lines, based on a specific Breeding Programme within a closed population. The two beelines have been carefully selected for the bee populations living in two areas of Romania: North Moldavia and South Muntenia. A new selection technology is set up in order to produce high performance queen bees, well adapted to the environmental conditions mainly to picking. Genetic gain will be get by selling the mated selected queens belonging to the two lines to various beekeepers interested to obtain more and high quality bee products.

  15. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  16. Initial verification of an induction heating set-up for injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Molding of thin and long parts by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of embedded induction heating for the improvement of the filling of thin long parts. The object...... selected for the investigation is a thin spiral. For the complete molding of the component, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this propose a new injection molding set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The temperature was measured...

  17. Royal Order of 12 December 1975 setting up a National Energy Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The National Energy Committee was set up by Royal Order of 12 December 1975. Its duties are to advise on the general objectives of energy policy and its implementation. It supervises execution of the policy and makes recommendations on matters within its competence. The Committee is chaired by the Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy and is composed of representatives of the Government, trade unions, undertakings, consumers, gas and electricity committees, oil and coal industries and a delegate of the Planning Department. This Order repeals the Order of 17 July 1957 creating an Energy Advisory Council. (NEA) [fr

  18. 29 July 1991-Royal Order setting up a Higher Institute for Emergency Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Institute was set up in accordance with national legislation on protection against major industrial risks and Directive 89/618 Euratom on informing the general public about health protection measures to be applied and steps to be taken in the event of a radiological emergency. The Institute's duties include: organizing training for emergency planning and assistance; promoting the exchange of ideas on emergency planning between the authorities and operators of installations which could generate major risks, including nuclear installations; and disseminating adequate and regularly updated information to persons involved in emergency assistance on the risks they incur and the protection measures to be taken. (NEA)

  19. Application of activation methods on the Dubna experimental transmutation set-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoulos, S; Fragopoulou, M; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Westmeier, W; Krivopustov, M; Sosnin, A; Papastefanou, C; Zamani, M; Manolopoulou, M

    2003-02-01

    High spallation neutron fluxes were produced by irradiating massive heavy targets with proton beams in the GeV range. The experiments were performed at the Dubna High Energy Laboratory using the nuclotron accelerator. Two different experimental set-ups were used to produce neutron spectra convenient for transmutation of radioactive waste by (n,x) reactions. By a theoretical analysis neutron spectra can be reproduced from activation measurements. Thermal-epithermal and fast-super-fast neutron fluxes were estimated using the 197Au, 238U (n,gamma) and (n,2n) reactions, respectively. Depleted uranium transmutation rates were also studied in both experiments.

  20. Setting-up of a direct reading emission spectrometer and its adaptation for plutonium handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Porwal, N.K.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Sastry, M.D.; Srinivasan, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    A Jarrell-Ash 750 AtomComp 1100 series direct reading emission spectrometer was set up and its performance features were checked with regard to analysis of uranium-based samples using d.c. arc/inductively coupled argon plasma excitation techniques. The instrument has been subsequently modified to enable handling of plutonium-based samples. The modifications include building up of a specially designed glove-box around the excitation sources and consequent changes in the electro-mechanical controls associated with them. The modified system was extensively used for the trace metal assay of FBTR fuel sample. (author)

  1. Setting up Information Literacy Workshops in School Libraries: Imperatives, Principles and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mokhtarpour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While many professional literature have talked at length about the importance of dealing with information literacy in school libraries in ICT dominated era, but few have dealt with the nature and mode of implementation nor offered a road map. The strategy emphasized in this paper is to hold information literacy sessions through effective workshops. While explaining the reasons behind such workshops being essential in enhancing information literacy skills, the most important principles and stages for setting up of such workshops are offered in a step-by-step manner.

  2. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stc Hamilton, Karen E; Sullivan, Frank M; Donnan, Peter T; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and 'bed down'. Its primary "modus operand" was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not statistically significant. There was no difference

  3. Feasibility for the setting up of a multipurpose food irradiation facility in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Y.; Marchioni, E.; Hasswlmann, C.; Ba, D.; Kuntz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The setting up of a cobalt-60 (activity 500 kCi) irradiation facility in the highest populated region of Senegal (Dakar district) to treat a wide range of foodstuffs for local consumption (millet/sorghum, rice, maize, cowpeas, potatoes, onions, mangoes, citrus fruits and dried fishes) is considered as profitable for a private investor or a Senegalese food producer (or trader), provided the tonnage of foodstuffs treated is adequate, more than 22,000 t·kGy, i.e. a total tonnage above 77,000 t, taking into account the irradiation doses used for the various foodstuffs. (author)

  4. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  5. Test set up description and performances for HAWAII-2RG detector characterization at ESTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; ter Haar, J.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Butler, B.; Smit, H.; van der Luijt, C.; Martin, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame work of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision program, the Euclid mission has the objective to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies will be observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths by an imaging and spectroscopic channel. For the Near Infrared Spectrometer instrument (NISP), the state-of-the-art HAWAII-2RG detectors will be used, associated with the SIDECAR ASIC readout electronic which will perform the image frame acquisitions. To characterize and validate the performance of these detectors, a test bench has been designed, tested and validated. This publication describes the pre-tests performed to build the set up dedicated to dark current measurements and tests requiring reasonably uniform light levels (such as for conversion gain measurements). Successful cryogenic and vacuum tests on commercial LEDs and photodiodes are shown. An optimized feed through in stainless steel with a V-groove to pot the flex cable connecting the SIDECAR ASIC to the room temperature board (JADE2) has been designed and tested. The test set up for quantum efficiency measurements consisting of a lamp, a monochromator, an integrating sphere and set of cold filters, and which is currently under construction will ensure a uniform illumination across the detector with variations lower than 2%. A dedicated spot projector for intra-pixel measurements has been designed and built to reach a spot diameter of 5 μm at 920nm with 2nm of bandwidth [1].

  6. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.

    2017-08-01

    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  7. Contribution to the development of the multidetector AMPHORA. Design of the electronic set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassi, P.

    1989-01-01

    The multidetector AMPHORA has been designed and built to be used to detect and identify all the particles produced in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions. This installation consist of 140 detectors built with CsI(TI) + NE102A and CsI(TI) + NE213 scintillators, covering nearly 81% of the solid angle around the target. These detectors can identify light charged particles, intermediate mass fragments and neutrons. The electronic set up associated is compact and requires little manual adjustment. It is built with special CAMAC modules which have the folowing functions: A 4 channel constant fraction discriminator and gate generator, a 16 channel charge to digital converter (12 bits), a 8 channel time to digital converter (12 bits), a 16 channel pile-up detector and a fast decision module. This thesis contains a detailed explanation of the principle and operation of the set up. It also contains a part which describes the way to connect all the modules of the electronic configuration for AMPHORA [fr

  8. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D' Onofrio, A. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V. [Vector Group, Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  9. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  10. CHALLENGES IN SETTING UP QUALITY CONTROL IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY FACILITIES IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, S O; Egbe, N O; Ekpo, E

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA) was established to regulate and control the use of radioactive and radiation emitting sources in Nigeria. Quality control (QC) on diagnostic radiology equipment form part of the fundamental requirements for the authorization of diagnostic radiology facilities in the Country. Some quality control tests (output, exposure linearity and reproducibility) were measured on the x-ray machines in the facilities that took part in the study. Questionnaire was developed to evaluate the frequencies at which QC tests were conducted in the facilities and the challenges in setting up QC. Results show great variation in the values of the QC parameters measured. Inadequate cooperation by facilities management, lack of QC equipment and insufficient staff form the major challenges in setting up QC in the facilities under study. The responses on the frequencies at which QC tests should be conducted did not correspond to the recommended standards; indicating that personnel were not familiar with QC implementation and may require further training on QC.

  11. Ebola 2014: Setting up a port health screening programme at an international train station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vivien; Wynne-Evans, Edward; Freed, James; Fleet, Katie; Thorn, Simone; Turbitt, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization in August 2014. In October, the UK government tasked Public Health England (PHE) to set up EVD screening at key ports. The key aim of port-of-entry screening was to identify passengers coming from areas with high risk of EVD, and give them advice to raise their awareness of symptoms and what actions to take. Direct flights from Sierra Leone, Guinea or Liberia had all been cancelled, so intelligence on passenger numbers and routes was used to identify the most commonly used routes from the affected countries into the UK. One of these was St Pancras International train station. Screening had never previously been implemented at a UK train station so had to be set up from scratch. Key to the success of this was excellent multi-agency working between PHE, the UK Border Force, Eurostar, Network Rail and the Cabinet Office. This paper gives an overview of the activation of EVD screening at St Pancras International and the subsequent decommissioning.

  12. Diagnosis and outcome of birth asphyxia in resource constrained health care set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, S.; Shah, S.A.; Mehmood, S.; Shahzad, S.; Munir, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine morbidity and mortality of neonates with low APGAR score in a resource constrained health care set up. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in combined military hospital Attock, from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: All term neonates with 37 completed weeks of gestation and APGAR score less than 7 were included in the study. APGAR score was calculated by an attending pediatrician, gynecologist or trained female nurse at 0 and 5 minutes. In Neonatal Intensive Care Unit [NICU] the babies were daily examined by pediatrician. Outcome was documented in term of morbidity i.e. fits and mortality i.e. death of babies. Results: Total number of neonates included in the study were 85 of which 55 (65%) were males and 30 (35%) were females. Of the total neonates 65 (76%) were discharged in satisfactory conditions and 20 (24%) expired during stay in the hospital. The mean APGAR score of newborns was 4.98 +- 0.98 at 5 minutes. During stay in hospital 46 (54%) were diagnosed to have hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy 2 (HIE2), those diagnosed with HIE3 were 5 (6%) and the rest 14 (16%) with HIE1. Conclusion: Low APGAR score is an important cause of admission to NICU. Low APGAR score was found associated with increased risk of fits in neonates and one of the most important cause of mortality in our set up. (author)

  13. Calculation errors of Set-up in patients with tumor location of prostate. Exploratory study; Calculo de errores de Set-up en pacientes con localizacion tumoral de prostata. Estudio exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis Gil, S.; Robayna Duque, B. E.; Jimenez Sosa, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Gonzalez Martin, A. E.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    The calculation of SM is done from errors in positioning (set-up). These errors are calculated from movements in 3D of the patient. This paper is an exploratory study of 20 patients with tumor location of prostate in which errors of set-up for two protocols of work are evaluated. (Author)

  14. PENERAPAN METODE TUTOR SEBAYA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILANPREPARE DANTABLE SET UP DALAM MATA KULIAH TATA HIDANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuningsih Wahyuningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This learning teching research was intended to improve the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the subject of prepare and table set up, the main subject of Tata Hidang I (Servicing Arragements I. The subject for this research consisted of 18 S1 students of the learning group number 02 for the study Program for PKK, concentrating on Tata Boga, Departement of Service & Production Technology, the Technical Faculty of Semarang State University for the academic period of 2009-2010. This research was conducted in the gasal semester of the academic year of 2009-2010. The needed data were collected by means of tests and obsevation on the learning outcomes of the students practicing in the sub-subject of Prepare and Table Set up. The data collection used grading sheets for practices in Tata Hidang as its instrument. The data were then analized using the method of descriptive presentation. This was a classroom-action research planned in three cycles. The second and third cycles were implemented based on reflections on the first cycle and on improvements that should be reached. Every cycle consisted of two face to face encounters and of 4 activities: (1planning, (2 implementations, (3 observations, (4 reflections. The results of this research showed that the use of peeer tutorials for the learning-teching pocesses had positive effects both on the students and the lecturers that it might improve the quality of lecturing for the Tata Hidang I. The grades obtained by the students from practicing in the sub-subject of prepare and table set up increased from the lowest grade C (46.7% BC and B (60% and AB (26.6 %, and AB (26.6%.. Trough the three cycles, the number of BC grade decreased from 66% to only 20%. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that peer tutorial for the subject of Tata Hidang I and Servicing in Food & Beverage should be continued in order that the educational serveices provided to the practicing students might be

  15. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Hamilton

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods: This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results: Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were

  16. Setting up of Nuclide GRAF-3S spark source mass spectrometer for the analysis of high purity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Murugaiyan, P.; Soni, K.S.; Venkateswarlu, Ch.

    1975-01-01

    A spark source mass spectrometer model GRAF-35 manufactured by the Nuclide Corporation, U.S.A., was set up for analysis of nuclear-grade and high purity materials. The main difficulty with its successful operation was to achieve and maintain the required level of vacuum i.e. less than 2X10 -8 torr in the magnetic analyser region. With 100 1/s ion pump, the required vacuum could be achieved, but the spectrometer required periodical baking which minimises the life of the instrument. The pumping system was replaced by Ultek Boostivac pump - a combination of ion pump (150 1/s) and a titanium sublimation pump (1000 1/sec speed for condensable vapours) which eliminated baking as the necessary level of vacuum could be easily achieved whenever required. Results of the analysis of zone-refined indium and uranium for trace impurities are given. (M.G.B.)

  17. Setting up decommissioning funds for nuclear facilities - a competence problem for EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danwitz, Th. von

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear package presented by the European Commission in the autumn of 2002 has added considerable practical significance to the problem of the vertical limits of competence between the Community and its member states within the framework of the Euratom Treaty. The question most important to Germany is the authority of the European Atomic Energy Community to oblige its member states to set up funds for financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As the Euratom Treaty contains no explicit competences of Euratom for regulations of this type, the article examines the content and range of Art. 30 ff. of the Euratom Treaty, the unwritten authority resulting from factual connections and the nature of the problems involved, looks at the importance of international agreements as far as legal competences are implied, and deals with a possible competence based on the right to amend the Treaty under Art. 203, Euratom Treaty. (orig.) [de

  18. A new X-ray absorption experimental set-up dedicated to DeNOx catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, R.; Bazin, D.; Seigneurin, A.; Barthe, P.; Dubuisson, J.M.; Decamps, T.; Sonneville, H.; Poher, J.J.; Maire, F.; Lefrancois, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete in situ X-ray absorption reaction cell that simulates DeNO x experimental conditions. In this device, the sample is placed at high temperature under the flow of a complex mixture of reactive gases (NO, C 3 H 6 , O 2 , N 2 ). Particular attention has been paid to the material and design of the sample holders in order to avoid preferential gas circulation and thus ensure a true diffusion of the reactive gases on the catalyst. Moreover, precise control of the gas flow is maintained by means of mass flow controllers, and the safety of the set-up is assured by CO, CO 2 and NO detectors directly relayed to an electronic device, which is itself linked to the various mass flow controllers. Finally, the possibilities of this device are illustrated through the in situ XANES study of a Cu-ZSM-5 catalytic system

  19. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  20. Setting up your own business. Facing the future as an entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, N J

    1990-01-01

    Other areas of setting up and running a business also are important to explore, especially if the business plans to use employees. You will become an employer, and you must be familiar with rules and regulations that include areas such as the employee's right to a safe workplace, worker's compensation laws, unemployment compensation laws and tax liabilities, antidiscrimination laws, and wage and tax laws. If independent contractors are going to be used, you must recognize that well-developed contracts are a necessity. If you are going to market a new product, consult with an attorney whose practice concentrates in trademark and patent law before the product is shared with others. Being well informed about the proposed business venture, not only before its establishment but as it develops and grows, can help you be in the best position to have a successful business.

  1. Setting up and running an advanced light microscopy and imaging facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Ma Ángeles; Villalba, Maite; Labrador, Verónica; Díez-Guerra, F Javier

    2011-07-01

    During the last twenty years, interest in light microscopy and imaging techniques has grown in various fields, such as molecular and cellular biology, developmental biology, and neurobiology. In addition, the number of scientific articles and journals using these techniques is rapidly increasing. Nowadays, most research institutions require sophisticated microscopy systems to cover their investigation demands. In general, such instruments are too expensive and complex to be purchased and managed by a single laboratory or research group, so they have to be shared with other groups and supervised by specialized personnel. This is the reason why microscopy and imaging facilities are becoming so important at research institutions nowadays. In this unit, we have gathered and presented a number of issues and considerations from our own experience that we hope will be helpful when planning or setting up a new facility.

  2. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi 2 Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert

  3. Friction degradation and set-up effects in hard clays offshore Congo and Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliat, J.L.; Vergobbi, P.; Puech, A.

    1993-01-01

    Piles driven into stiff to hard clays encountered offshore Congo and Angola clearly show both clay-type effects which are (1) friction degradation, with very low driving resistances during continuous driving, and (2) set-up after driving interruptions. Both phenomena were studied by back-analysis of driving records, including results of pile driving monitoring. It allowed one to deduce the friction distribution along the piles during driving; show how the shaft friction at any depth reduces as the pile is driven further into the ground; and show that the shaft friction after driving delays can be close to the estimated static friction capacity of the piles. The SRD calculation method proposed by the authors takes the friction degradation effect into account, leading to improved pile drivability predictions. Four case histories are presented to illustrate the results obtained

  4. Neutron polarizing set-up of the Sofia IRT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezhov, K.; Mikhajlova, V.; Okorokov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron polarizing set-up of one of the horizontal beam tubes of the IRT-200 research reactor of the Bulgarian Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is presented. Neutron mirrors are extensively used in an effort to compensate the moderate reactor beam intensity by the high reflected intensity and wide-band transmittance of the mirror neutron guides. Time-to-flight technique using a slotted neutron absorbing chopper with a horizontal rotation axis has been applied to obtain the exit neutron spectra. Beam polarization and flipping ratios have been determined. Cadmium ratio in the polarized beam has been found almost 10 4 and the average polarization has been measured to be higher than 96%. 3 figs, 3 refs

  5. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J. A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); Herrera, E.; Buendía, A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Bajas Temperaturas y Altos Campos Magnéticos, UAM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M. [Unidad Asociada de Bajas Temperaturas y Altos Campos Magnéticos, UAM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  6. Development of Data Acquisition Set-up for Steady-state Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Gupta, Arnab D.; Sunil, S.; Khan, Ziauddin

    2017-04-01

    For short duration experiments, generally digitized data is transferred for processing and storage after the experiment whereas in case of steady-state experiment the data is acquired, processed, displayed and stored continuously in pipelined manner. This requires acquiring data through special techniques for storage and on-the-go viewing data to display the current data trends for various physical parameters. A small data acquisition set-up is developed for continuously acquiring signals from various physical parameters at different sampling rate for long duration experiment. This includes the hardware set-up for signal digitization, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based timing system for clock synchronization and event/trigger distribution, time slicing of data streams for storage of data chunks to enable viewing of data during acquisition and channel profile display through down sampling etc. In order to store a long data stream of indefinite/long time duration, the data stream is divided into data slices/chunks of user defined time duration. Data chunks avoid the problem of non-access of server data until the channel data file is closed at the end of the long duration experiment. A graphical user interface has been developed in Lab VIEW application development environment for configuring the data acquisition hardware and storing data chunks on local machine as well as at remote data server through Python for further data access. The data plotting and analysis utilities have been developed with Python software, which provides tools for further data processing. This paper describes the development and implementation of data acquisition for steady-state experiment.

  7. Anaesthesia in Congenital Facial Anomalies in a Rural Set up of a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India has an estimated backlog of 1000000 cleft patients. A total of 35000 new cleft patients are born each year. With the capacity to operate on approximately 50000 patients each year only 15000 patients from the national backlog can be operated upon each year if capability is not augmented. Objectives: To reach the population at large we meticulously planned an out-reach programme and operated on patients even in rural set ups with lack of modern facilities. We operated on patients at sub divisional centres, where apparatus for providing sevoflurane was not available. Institutional Ethical clearance was taken before conduction of the study. Patients who required prolonged surgery were taken to the tertiary centre. Working ventilators were also not available at peripheral centres. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was carried in a time span of four years on nineteen hundred and nine patients, after taking approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Patients were screened and some were operated at rural centers and others at a tertiary care centre. Patients who could not afford to come to the tertiary care centre were operated at different rural centers. Informed consent was taken. Results: There were 1909 patients with Congenital Facial Anomalies (CFA over four years period out of which 918 patients were of either unilateral or bilateral cleft lip. They were successfully operated at rural health centers with limited facilities. This could reduce the total load of surgeries for CFA at tertiary care hospital ensuring safe surgeries for all with CFA for all age groups and both genders.No mortality was recorded and post operative complications consisted of nausea and vomiting, three had delayed recovery and one had laryngospasm. Conclusion: Outreach programmes can increase the efficacy of Smile Train Project and effective screening of patients before surgery can result in fruitful outcomes even in a rural set up

  8. Developing and setting up of a nuclear medicine information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghel, N.S.; Asopa, R.; Nayak, U.N.; Rajan, M.G.R.; Subhalakshmi, P.V.; Shailaja, A.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Karunanidhi, Y.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: With the advent and progress of information technology in the present decade, high-performance networks are being installed in hospitals to implement an effective and reliable Hospital Information Management Systems (HIMS). The Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC), is one of the earliest and largest nuclear medicine centres in India and several thousand patients undergo diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures with different radiopharmaceuticals. The evolution towards a fully digital department of nuclear medicine is driven by expectations of not only improved patient management but also a well-defined workflow along with prompt and quality patient services. The aim was to develop and set up a practical and utility based Nuclear Medicine Information Management System (NMIMS) for various functional procedures at RMC. A customised NMIMS is developed with M/s ECIL using ASP.NET and SQL server technology facilitated by an IBM x3650 M3 Server, 18 thin-clients/desktop PCs and Windows 2008 server operating system and MS-SQL 2005 server software. The various modules have been developed to meet the requirements of different activities pertaining to patient appointment and scheduling, clinical assessment, radiopharmacy procedures, imaging and non-imaging studies and protocols, in-vitro laboratory tests, in-patient and out-patient treatment procedures, radiation protection and regulatory aspects and other routine operational procedures associated with patient management at RMC. The menus are developed as per scheduled workflow (SWF) in the department. The various aspects of SWF have been designed to ensure smooth, easy and trouble free patient management. Presently, the NMIMS has been developed excluding imaging data and we are in the process of setting up Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) integrated to the existing database system, which will archive and facilitate imaging data in DICOM format in order to make a paperless department. The developed NMIMS

  9. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Service Company Case Study. Manufacturing Firm Case Study. Retail Store Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallek, Max

    This collection of case studies is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The first, a case study of the process of setting up a service company, covers analyzing the pros and cons of starting one's own business, assessing the competition and local market, and selecting a site for and financing the business. The principal…

  10. Scratch to state-of-the-art: setting up a new robotic facility in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, G S; Mavuduru, R S; Devana, S K; Singh, S K; Mandal, A K

    2018-03-01

    The potential challenges encountered for setting up a robotic assisted surgical facility in developing country like India are many. We describe the initial hurdles and troubleshooting in establishing a facility of such kind. This experience might help to decrease initial hiccups in setting up such an innovative technology at other institutes.

  11. SETTING UP OF A HOMECARE SYSTEM FOR HIGH COST NEBULISERS IN A PAEDIATRIC CYSTIC FIBROSIS CENTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorro-Mari, Veronica; Christiansen, Nanna

    2016-09-01

    Due to national changes to the commissioning process of high cost nebulisers (HCN) for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, CF centres have to repatriate the prescribing of the HCN to the tertiary care centres.1 The following nebulisers will no longer be prescribed by primary care: Cayston® (Aztreonam); Colomycin®, Pomixin®, Clobreathe® (Colistimethate); Pulmozyme® (Dornase alfa); Tobi®, Tobi Podhaler ®, Bramitob® (Tobramycin).This abstract explains how the Royal London Hospital (RLH) Paediatric Pharmacy recruited over 100 paediatric (CF) patients smoothly within a period of 4 months and set up a homecare system to avoid patients and families having to travel large distances to obtain their medication. A number of homecare companies were evaluated initially. Parameters looked at were reports of customer satisfaction, delivery cost, turn-around time once the prescription was received and availability of same day delivery service.In order to capture existing patients we met with CF Specialist Nurses to establish the total number of patients on HCN, what nebulised treatment they were on and their respective doses. We prioritised patients that had known problems with GP prescribing and anybody newly starting on HCN.To communicate the change to parents, a letter was sent to all parents explaining the changeover to homecare delivery and tertiary prescribing. In addition a section in the parent bulletin was dedicated to the topic as well. Following this we contacted parents via phone and in clinic to request consent and explain the process.Up to 10 patients were contacted weekly (average of 7); the consent form and registration form were then faxed to the Homecare company for patient registration. In parallel to this prescriptions were requested for the patients that had been set up in the previous week, ensuring that prescribing was spread out over time to avoid having peak times for repeat prescriptions.In addition to the letter to parents GP surgeries were also

  12. Set up and application of an underwater Α-ray spectrometer for radioactivity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. TSABARIS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The set up and control of an underwater measuring instrument for radioactivity pollution in the marine environment is described. The detection system is based on a NaI scintillator (RADAM III with modifications for use in the marine environment with on-line measurements. The system is simple, has low power consumption and is stable for long-term monitoring (10 months. Before its deployment, the sensor was calibrated in the laboratory in a tank full of water to reproduce the marine environment. The calibrations were performed, by detecting the 661keV and 1461 keV gamma rays of known activity liquid sources 137 Cs and 40 K, respectively. The measured spectra in the laboratory were compared with spectra from a similar detector as acquired in the field. The analysis of the parallel measurement gave satisfactory agreement for the concentration of the potassium (40 K, as calculated from the salinity in the seawater, thus enabling the system for quantitative measurement of the seawater radioactivity.

  13. Setting up a parathyroid multidisciplinary team meeting: one year's experience, outcomes and learning points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, S H; Sinnott, J D; Kirkland, P; Lipscomb, D; Owens, E; Howlett, D C

    2018-03-01

    A parathyroid multidisciplinary team meeting was set up at East Sussex Healthcare Trust, from November 2014 to November 2015, in order to improve and streamline services for patients with parathyroid pathology. Data were collected on all new referrals for hyperparathyroidism, and on the outcomes for each patient discussed at the meeting, including the number of operations and management outcomes. A survey was sent out to the members of the multidisciplinary team meeting to determine their perception of its effectiveness. Seventy-nine new referrals were discussed throughout the year; 43 per cent were recommended for surgery, 41 per cent had a trial of conservative or medical management before re-discussion, and 16 per cent required further imaging. Ninety-two per cent of patients underwent an ultrasound, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography or nuclear medicine (sestamibi) scan prior to the meeting. All ultrasound scans were performed by a consultant radiologist. The multidisciplinary team meeting has been successful, with perceived benefits for patients, improved imaging evaluation and efficiency of referral pathways, leading to more appropriate patient management.

  14. The new dedicated PIXE set-up at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Ka ring re; Waahlin, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen was in the beginning of the 70'es one of the early places for PIXE. Contributions were made to the theoretical interpretation of the PIXE spectra as well as the practical application. The home-made 4 MV van de Graaff accelerator at the Niels Bohr Institute was an excellent tool for PIXE. The accelerator, which was used for many years, has now found its place on a museum after more than 40 years of active service. A dedicated PIXE set-up has now been established at the National Environmental Research Institute using a new 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron (5SDH) from NEC. The main application is elemental analysis of outdoor aerosols. The main work is unsophisticated macro analyses, which do not push the equipment to its limits. This enables automated analysis of about 10,000 samples per year using very limited manpower resources. The research focuses on the contribution from various source types to the atmosphere over Europe, the North Atlantic and Greenland. Source compositions and their temporal variations are studied

  15. Special problems of setting up nuclear medicine in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    There are some special problems in setting up nuclear medicine in a developing country. They can be briefly described in the form of the following general rules. 1) Impossible triangle. For the practice of nuclear medicine, three things are needed: Instrument, Radiopharmaceutical and a Patient. In a developing country, these three become three sides of an impossible triangle. When the radiopharmaceutical is available, the instrument may not be working; when the instrument is functioning, the radiopharmaceutical may not have been obtained from the foreign supplier; and when both are there, the patient might no longer be in the hospital. Three sides of this triangle never join to become a congruent whole. 2) Reverse square law. Further away one is from the source of supply of instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, the problems multiply by the square of this distance. 3) Future of nuclear medicine is tied to the electrical supply available in a developing country. These problems related to power supply are described in the Chapter on maintenance of instruments

  16. HUG sets up an emergency operations centre on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Discussions between CERN and the Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève (HUG), under the aegis of the Swiss authorities, have resulted in the setting-up of an emergency operations centre on the CERN site. This will be the operations base for an emergency doctor, a medical emergency vehicle and a driver. Located on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site, close to Building 57, it will be inaugurated on 20 May.   SMUR team based at CERN. CERN’s medical staff and fire-fighters dispense first aid but in medical emergencies they are obliged to call on outside services to treat and transfer patients to hospital. In the Canton of Geneva, this service is provided by HUG via the 144 emergency line. But HUG is based on the eastern side of Geneva, a long way from CERN, and response times can be substantial. In order to improve the safety of the growing number of people on the site, CERN asked Switzerland, as one of its Host States, to help it reduce the medical emergency response t...

  17. Special problems of setting up nuclear medicine in a developing country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    There are some special problems in setting up nuclear medicine in a developing country. They can be briefly described in the form of the following general rules. 1) Impossible triangle. For the practice of nuclear medicine, three things are needed: Instrument, Radiopharmaceutical and a Patient. In a developing country, these three become three sides of an impossible triangle. When the radiopharmaceutical is available, the instrument may not be working; when the instrument is functioning, the radiopharmaceutical may not have been obtained from the foreign supplier; and when both are there, the patient might no longer be in the hospital. Three sides of this triangle never join to become a congruent whole. 2) Reverse square law. Further away one is from the source of supply of instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, the problems multiply by the square of this distance. 3) Future of nuclear medicine is tied to the electrical supply available in a developing country. These problems related to power supply are described in the Chapter on maintenance of instruments

  18. Set-up and methods for SiPM Photo-Detection Efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappalà, G.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a compact set-up and three different methods to measure the Photo-Detection Efficiency (PDE) of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are presented. The methods, based on either continuous or pulsed light illumination, are discussed in detail and compared in terms of measurement precision and time. For the SiPM, these methods have the feature of minimizing the effect of both the primary and correlated noise on the PDE estimation. The PDE of SiPMs (produced at FBK, Trento, Italy) was measured in a range from UV to NIR, obtaining similar results with all the methods. Furthermore, the advantages of measuring, when possible, the PDE of SPADs (of the same technology and with the same layout of a single SiPM cell) instead of larger devices are also discussed and a direct comparison between measurement results is shown. Using a SPAD, it is possible to reduce the measurement complexity and uncertainty since the correlated noise sources are reduced with respect to the SiPM case.

  19. A new instrumental set-up for polarized neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Ohl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is a powerful tool to determine magnetic structures and excitations. A common setup is to mount the sample at the center of a Helmholtz-type coil which can provide a magnetic field of any direction at the sample position and also a guide field along the neutron flight paths around the sample. Recent experiments showed quite a high demand for measurements at low momentum transfers. For the corresponding low scattering angles air scattering gives rise to a very large background. For this reason we have extended the standard setup to a combination of a large vacuum tank surrounded by electrical coils. The vacuum tank eliminates the air scattering and we can use the polarization analysis down to the lowest accessible momentum transfers. The coils themselves also show some new features: In contrary to the classic (symmetric) coil distribution we use an asymmetric setup which gives the advantage of a larger scattering window. Due to a more sophisticated current distribution this modified coil arrangement needs not to be rotated for different scattering conditions. The whole set-up will soon be available at IN12, a cold neutrons three-axis spectrometer operated by FZ Juelich in collaboration with CEA Grenoble as a CRG-B instrument at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble

  20. Decree No. 89-85 of 8 February 1989 setting up a Council on Technological Risk Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Council set up by this Decree contributes to the assessment of collective risks arising from industrial activities, in particular nuclear activities, through its opinions, recommendations, studies, and proposes the relevant preventive actions to the Government. (NEA) [fr

  1. Set up of analytical methods for evaluation of specifications of recombinant Hepatitis-B vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daram M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Hepatitis B vaccination has been included in routine immunization of all individuals according to WHO recommendations since 1991. Despite successful coverage, 3-5% of recipients fail to mount a desirable protection level of Ab. Vaccine failure results from: emergence of mutation, immune failure of individuals, decrease in vaccine potency, and etc. The quality of Hepatitis B vaccine should be evaluated by a reliable method. "n"nMethods: The amount of vaccine antigen was measured through the in vitro assay of Hepatitis B vaccines which consists of multiple dilutions of the reference material and samples. The preparations were evaluated by Elisa to determine the amount of HBsAg. The data were analyzed by parallel-line analysis software. The in vivo assay was performed by inoculating multiple doses of the reference and sample preparations in Balb/c mice. A control group was also inoculated with vaccine matrix. Four weeks later, the mice sera were evaluated to determine the presence of antibodies against Hepatitis B by Elisa method. The data were analyzed by Probit analysis software. "n"nResults: Both methods were set up in our laboratory by which different batches of Hepatitis B vaccine were evaluated. It was observed that In vivo and In vitro methods provide comparable results. Therefore we can use the in vitro method for routine testing of HB vaccine quality control. "n"nConclusion: In vitro method can be used in place of In vivo method because of its time and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, since no animals are used in in vitro method, it complies well with the 3R concept (Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement of animal testing and the current tendency to use alternative method.

  2. The importance of site selection for setting up a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, A.; Gowda, G.; Pandian, A. [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Ramanan, G. [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. Building a wind turbine is far more than simply a matter of finding a field or mountaintop where the wind is blowing and plopping one down. A great deal of attention should be given to finding the proper site for a wind turbine. The main factor one should consider is the average speed of the wind over an extended time. Estimation of the wind power potential for a site is the most important requirement for selecting a site for the installation of a wind turbine. Also wind turbines should be sited well above trees, buildings, and other obstacles else, the result will be poor energy production and increased wear and tear on the turbine. One way to get rid of this is to place the wind turbine on a tall tower. When selecting a place for setting up a wind turbine, engineers consider factors such as wind hazards, characteristics of the land that affect wind speed, and the effects of one turbine on nearby turbines in wind farms. The other factors that are important for selecting a site for installation of wind turbines are Hill effect, Roughness, or the amount of friction that Earth's surface exerts on wind, Tunnel effect, Turbulence, Variations in wind speed, Wind obstacles and Wind shear. This paper will emphasis on the necessary inspections which are to be done on the site before installing a Wind Turbine. (Author)

  3. The second Dutch national survey on radon in dwellings. Set-up of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, Y.; Stoop, P.; Lembrechts, J.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) commissioned RIVM to carry out a national survey on radon in dwellings, the set-up of which is described in this report. The goals of the survey were: (a) to determine the average and the range of the radon (222Rn) concentration in Dutch dwellings built since the previous survey in 1984, and (b) to quantify the relative contribution of radon from the building materials and from the soil to the indoor radon level in dwellings built in the course of the last decade. These data will be used for the selection of possible countermeasures and as a reference for evaluating the effectiveness of final regulations on radon. Two separate random samples from the Dutch housing stock were taken to answer these questions. A sample of about 1000 dwellings built between 1985 and 1993 in 52 municipalities was taken to answer the first question. The composition of the sample differs from the Dutch housing stock for a number of characteristics, the most obvious of which is the over-representation of single-family and private homes. A sample of about 450 single-family dwellings built in 14 municipalities on different soil types was taken to answer the second question. Two groups of municipalities were distinguished because of geographic differences in building practices: those where town houses predominate and those with mainly detached and semi-detached houses. Information on radon and its sources was collected through placement of alpha track detectors, installation of so-called PFT sources and passive samplers for air infiltration measurement, collection of soil samples and completion of a questionnaire on building and ventilation characteristics. The results of the study are dealt with in RIVM report no. 610058006. 8 figs., 9 tabs., 31 refs. 4 appendices

  4. Chart review of electroconvulsive therapy practice from a tertiary care geriatric mental health set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is frequently used treatment procedure, and is utilized more often for severe, treatment-resistant, or refractory psychiatric disorders. However, published data on the use of ECT is limited, more so for special population like older adults. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the clinical, demographic, and diagnostic profiles of older adults, and the parameters of ECT treatment, in a tertiary care Geriatric Mental Health set up. Materials and Methods: Approval to review the case notes was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The individuals were aged 60 years and above and had received ECT between January 2014 and May 2017. The relevant details pertaining to the aims of the study were recorded in a spreadsheet. Results: Twenty-five courses (absolute number = 191 of ECT were given to 21 patients (mean age = 67.44 ± 9.8 years with mean of 7.64 ± 3.6 ECT per patient. Majority of the patients belonged to age group 60–69 years, and were male (81%. Depression was the most common diagnosis for giving ECT (43% in these individuals, and poor response to pharmacological treatment (81% was the most common indication. The mean duration of the seizure elicited was 28.8 ± 13.2 s, and a therapeutic response was seen in 86% of cases. No major complications were noted during ECT treatment. Conclusion: When used judiciously and with trained staff, ECT is an effective and relatively safe mode of treatment even in older adults.

  5. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  6. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  7. A Generic Danish Distribution Grid Model for Smart Grid Technology Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a generic Danish distribution grid model for smart grid technology testing based on the Bornholm power system. The frequency dependent network equivalent (FDNE) method has been used in order to accurately preserve the desired properties and characteristics...... as a generic Smart Grid benchmark model for testing purposes....... by comparing the transient response of the original Bornholm power system model and the developed generic model under significant fault conditions. The results clearly show that the equivalent generic distribution grid model retains the dynamic characteristics of the original system, and can be used...

  8. Extreme alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich fluid inclusions in granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul; Schmidt, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Our study of fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and feldspar from granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark revealed extremely alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich inclusions. The solid phases (daughter crystals) are mainly nahcolite [NaHCO3], zabuyelite [Li2CO3], and in rare cases potash [K2CO3] in addition to the volatile phases CO2 and aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solution. Rare melt inclusions contain nahcolite, dawsonite [NaAl(CO3)(OH)2], and muscovite. In addition to fluid and melt inclusions, there are primary CO2-rich vapor inclusions, which mostly contain small nahcolite crystals. The identification of potash as a naturally occurring mineral would appear to be the first recorded instance. From the appearance of high concentrations of these carbonates and bicarbonates, we suggest that the mineral-forming media were water- and alkali carbonate-rich silicate melts or highly concentrated fluids. The coexistence of silicate melt inclusions with carbonate-rich fluid and nahcolite-rich vapor inclusions indicates a melt-melt-vapor equilibrium during the crystallization of the pegmatite. These results are supported by the results of hydrothermal diamond anvil cell experiments in the pseudoternary system H2O-NaHCO3-SiO2. Additionally, we show that boundary layer effects were insignificant in the Bornholm pegmatites and are not required for the origin of primary textures in compositionally simple pegmatites at least.

  9. The geographic distribution of Sr isotopes from surface waters and soil extracts over the island of Bornholm (Denmark) – A base for provenance studies in archaeology and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Frei, Karin Margarita

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report the Sr isotope signatures, and Sr, Al and Na concentrations of 30 surface waters (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) and 19 soil sample extracts from the island of Bornholm (Denmark) and present a categorized 87Sr/86Sr value distribution map that may serve as a base...... for provenance studies, including archaeological migration and authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097–0.7281 (average 0.7175 ± 0.0049; 1σ), whereas 0.1 M HNO3, 0.05 M HNO3, and 0.01 M CaCl2 soil extracts range from 87Sr/86Sr...... Sr isotope composition vs. Sr, Na and Al concentration relationships of soil extracts imply that lowering of the isotopic composition of leachable Sr on Bornholm results as a consequence of significant admixture to this fraction of Sr deposited as marine salts (aerosols), and that rainwater only has...

  10. Evaluating Speed Enforcement Field Set-Ups Used by Regional Police in Belgium: An Analysis of Speed Outcome Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Wilmots

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results from a field experiment (conducted in 2012 are presented, in which 3 regional police units in the Flemish region of Belgium each tested a particular combination of a speed control (with mobile radar in an anonymous car with communicative signage. The goal of this paper was to scientifically evaluate frequently used field set-ups. The following set-ups were tested in one week: (1 police unit 1: speed control with and without a static feedback sign placed after the control; (2 police unit 2: speed control with and without a digital feedback sign placed after the control; (3 police unit 3: speed display followed by a second speed display further along the road section. During certain time frames, speed control took place in between both signs. All tested field set-ups generated significant reductions in the speed level. Studying the effect of the different variations for each set-up reveals that the effect of the speed control is generally larger in combination with the signage alongside the road. After the period during which the police activities took place, speed levels again reached their initial level. Based on the before–after analysis, only in police area 2 was a small ‘time halo-effect’ found. To generalize results from this pilot study, repetition of tested set-ups in the field is recommended as well as testing on a larger scale.

  11. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta; Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola; Ceroti, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [de

  12. Practical performance for CT simulator set up and commissioning for 3d radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Rinks, A.; Zealey, W.

    2004-01-01

    horizontal directions with the slice thickness less than the diameter of ball-bearing size, and the orientation and distance are measured over the slice images and DRR images. Electron Density Calibration 1. Tube Voltage kV- the electron density depends on the voltage setting (kV). Calibrations are carried out for different kV settings and separate electron density tables are generated. 2. Tube Current mA - experimental results show that change of HU's is not significant, but low mA scans produce higher Standard Deviation and noise. 3. Scan speed- made no noticeable differences if scan setup is unchanged (e.g. kV or collimation) 4. Collimation - experimental results show that the same slice thickness with different collimation, e.g. 1x5 or 5x1 in the reconstructed image, will cause electron density values to vary. It is suggested that the slice thickness in different collimation settings should be calibrated separately. 5. Sample Area - the readings taken from close to the phantom surface can be different compared with the readings taken from a deeper position in the phantom due to different scanning scatter effects. Calibration tables for the body and head-neck were performed separately. For a new CT installation the scanning isocentre is determined first before setting up the couch and external lasers. This routine assists the engineer during installation and commissioning to ensure the CT scanner meets specifications required for a therapy scanner. The electron density should be calibrated for each kV used. Collimation also affects electron density values. Separate tables for different volumes such as body and head and neck may be warranted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  14. A Full-size High Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A full-size stationary experimental set-up, which is a pole pair segment of a 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generator, has been built and tested under the HTS-GEN project in Denmark. The performance of the HTS coil is crucial to the set-up, and further to the development...... is tested in LN2 first, and then tested in the set-up so that the magnetic environment in a real generator is reflected. The experimental results are reported, followed by a finite element simulation and a discussion on the deviation of the results. The tested and estimated Ic in LN2 are 148 A and 143 A...

  15. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: the sensitivity of plan objectives and constraints to set-up uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploquin, Nicolas; Song, William; Lau, Harold; Dunscombe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of set-up uncertainty on compliance with the objectives and constraints of an intensity modulated radiation therapy protocol for early stage cancer of the oropharynx. As the convolution approach to the quantitative study of set-up uncertainties cannot accommodate either surface contours or internal inhomogeneities, both of which are highly relevant to sites in the head and neck, we have employed the more resource intensive direct simulation method. The impact of both systematic (variable from 0 to 6 mm) and random (fixed at 2 mm) set-up uncertainties on compliance with the criteria of the RTOG H-0022 protocol has been examined for eight geometrically complex structures: CTV66 (gross tumour volume and palpable lymph nodes suspicious for metastases), CTV54 (lymph node groups or surgical neck levels at risk of subclinical metastases), glottic larynx, spinal cord, brainstem, mandible and left and right parotids. In a probability-based approach, both dose-volume histograms and equivalent uniform doses were used to describe the dose distributions achieved by plans for two patients, in the presence of set-up uncertainty. The equivalent uniform dose is defined to be that dose which, when delivered uniformly to the organ of interest, will lead to the same response as the non-uniform dose under consideration. For systematic set-up uncertainties greater than 2 mm and 5 mm respectively, coverage of the CTV66 and CTV54 could be significantly compromised. Directional sensitivity was observed in both cases. Most organs at risk (except the glottic larynx which did not comply under static conditions) continued to meet the dose constraints up to 4 mm systematic uncertainty for both plans. The exception was the contra lateral parotid gland, which this protocol is specifically designed to protect. Sensitivity to systematic set-up uncertainty of 2 mm was observed for this organ at risk in both clinical plans

  16. The Influence of Natural Frequency of the Experimental Set-up on the Friction Coefficient of Stainless Steel-304

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Chowdhury; Md. M. Helali

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigates experimentally the effect of natural frequency of the experimental set-up on friction property of stainless steel-304. To do so, a pin-on-disc apparatus having facility of vibrating the test samples at different directions, amplitudes and frequencies was designed and fabricated. The natural frequency of the set-up was varied by adding dead loads of the setup from 0 kg to 50 kg. At each added load the friction coefficient has been measured. Results show that both...

  17. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting power cables may be cooled by a forced flow of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. One way to do this is to circulate the liquid nitrogen (LN2) by means of a mechanical pump through the core of the cable and through a sub-cooler.Besides the cooling station, the cryogenics...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  18. Evaluation of errors set-up and setting margins calculation in treatments 3-D conformal radiotherapy; Evaluacion de errores de set-up y calculo de margenes de configuracion en tratamientos de radioterapia CONFORMADA 3-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis, S.; Robayna, B.; Gonzalez, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of IGRT techniques provide knowledge of the mistakes made in the positioning of a patient, to population studies and estimate the margins for each population.In this paper we evaluate the errors of set-up in 3 different locations and from these margins are calculated configuration (SM).

  19. Minimum standard guidelines of care on requirements for setting up a laser room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhepe Niteen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction, definition, rationale and scope: Lasers are now becoming an integral part of dermatological practice in India, with more and more dermatologists starting laser dermatology practice. Lasers, when are used with care, by properly trained operators, in carefully designed environment, can deliver a range of useful aesthetic and dermatologic treatments. Facility: Laser treatment is an office procedure, hence it does not require hospital set-up. The laser room facility requires careful planning keeping in mind safety of both patient and operator, convenience of operating, and optimum handling of costly equipments. The facility should be designed to handle procedures under local anesthesia and sedation. Facilities, staff and equipment to handle any emergencies should be available. Location: A room in existing dermatology clinic can be adequately converted to a laser room. Dimensions of laser room, its door and patient′s table should be such that it should facilitate easy movement of patient, machine trolley, operator and assistant in case of routine procedures and in emergency. Physician Qualification: Any dermatologist with MD or diploma in dermatology can do laser procedures, provided he/ she has acquired necessary skills by virtue of training, observing a competent dermatologist. Such training may be obtained during post graduation or later in specified workshops or courses under a competent dermatologist or at centre which routinely performs such procedures. Electricity and uninterrupted power supply: Laser equipments should be connected to stabilizer or UPS circuits only. Preferably an on line UPS as recommended by the laser company should be installed. Earthing of the equipment is essential to avoid damage to the equipment and electrical shocks to the operator. Sufficient power back up to complete the procedure if power is off midway, is essential. Air-conditioning: Laser machines should be operated in low ambient temperature, with

  20. Amendment of the Order of 2 November 1976 setting up an Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (29 October 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety was set up within the Atomic Energy Commission by an Order of 2 November 1976 now amended by this new Order, which specifies that, in connection with nuclear safety, the Institute provides direct technical support to the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. (NEA) [fr

  1. Recent developments in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC X GC) I. Introduction and instrumental set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Beens, J.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    We review the literature on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), emphasizing developments in the period 2003-2005. The review opens with a general introduction, the principles of the technique and the set-up of GC × GC systems. It also discusses theoretical aspects, trends in

  2. Fast evaluation of patient set-up during radiotherapy by aligning features in portal and simulator images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijhold, J.; Herk, M. van; Vijlbrief, R.; Lebesque, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    A new fast method is presented for the quantification of patient set-up errors during radiotherapy with external photon beams. The set-up errors are described as deviations in relative position and orientation of specified anatomical structures relative to specified field shaping devices. These deviations are determined from parameters of the image transformations that make their features in a portal image align with the corresponding features in a simulator image. Knowledge of some set-up parameters during treatment simulation is required. The method does not require accurate knowledge about the position of the portal imaging device as long as the positions of some of the field shaping devices are verified independently during treatment. By applying this method, deviations in a pelvic phantom set-up can be measured with a precision of 2 mm within 1 minute. Theoretical considerations and experiments have shown that the method is not applicable when there are out-of-plane rotations larger than 2 degrees or translations larger than 1 cm. Inter-observer variability proved to be a source of large systematic errors, which could be reduced by offering a precise protocol for the feature alignment. (author)

  3. From simple vegetation surveys to management of biodiversity data. Problems in setting up a database for alpine flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPIEGELBERGER, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the establishment of the FlorEM database for alpine flora which intends to become a reference on plant diversity. The difficulties in setting up the database, its advantages and limitations are all presented here.

  4. Set up for Success: An Examination of the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program's Mentoring Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyre, Dwuena Cene

    2011-01-01

    Often, individuals are set up to fail. However, effective mentoring can set individuals up to succeed. This nonexperimental cross-sectional, predictive study examines the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program's mentoring component. Specific focus is placed on faculty mentor competency and its impact on McNair student intent to…

  5. Setting up a French national flash flood warning system for ungauged catchments based on the AIGA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javelle Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurring at small temporal and spatial scales, flash floods (FF can cause severe economic damages and human losses. To better anticipate such events and mitigate their impacts, the French Ministry in charge of Ecology has decided to set up a national FF warning system over the French territory. This automated system will be run by the SCHAPI, the French national service in charge of flood forecasting, providing warnings for fast-responding ungauged catchments (area ranging from ~10 to ~1000 km2. It will therefore be complementary to the SCHAPI’s national “vigilance” system which concerns only gauged catchments. The FF warning system to be implemented in 2017 will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014. This method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr. It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km2 resolution to reference flood quantiles of different (e.g., 2-, 10- and 50-year return periods. Therefore the system characterizes in real time the severity of ongoing events by the range of the return period estimated by AIGA at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France and takes into account the baseflow and the initial soil humidity conditions to better estimate the basin response to rainfall inputs. To meet the requirements of the future FF warning system, the AIGA method has been extended to the whole French territory (except Corsica and overseas French territories. The calibration, regionalization and validation procedures of the hydrologic model were carried out using data for ~700 hydrometric stations from the 2002-2015 period. Performance of the warning system was evaluated with various contingency criteria (e.g., probability of detection and success rate. Furthermore, specific

  6. Micro-foundations for macroeconomics: New set-up based on statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Modern macroeconomics is built on "micro foundations." Namely, optimization of micro agent such as consumer and firm is explicitly analyzed in model. Toward this goal, standard model presumes "the representative" consumer/firm, and analyzes its behavior in detail. However, the macroeconomy consists of 107 consumers and 106 firms. For the purpose of analyzing such macro system, it is meaningless to pursue the micro behavior in detail. In this respect, there is no essential difference between economics and physics. The method of statistical physics can be usefully applied to the macroeconomy, and provides Keynesian economics with correct micro-foundations.

  7. "Setting up for the Next Big Thing": Undergraduate Women Engineering Students' Postbaccalaureate Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen N.; Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2017-01-01

    Using social cognitive career theory and the cognitive information processing model as frameworks, in this constructivist case study we examined the career-related experiences and decisions of 10 women engineering undergraduate seniors who accepted full-time positions. From the data analysis 3 major themes emerged: critical undergraduate…

  8. Setting up an index for the appropriatness of energy sources for rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, S K

    1979-07-01

    In India, widespread poverty is noticed specially in the rural section, the poverty being attributed to a variety of reasons. Rural development comprises the development of basic necessities like water, power, etc. Availability of energy is therefore a major pre-requisite for rural development. The author discusses a model with which various alternate sources can be evaluated with the rural context in picture.

  9. "Set Up to Fail": Institutional Racism and the Sabotage of School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Clark, Menthia P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from two previous studies are reanalyzed using the lens of institutional racism to examine district decisions that undermined, or sabotaged, improvement efforts at schools attended by students of color. Opportunities to rectify the sabotage were available but not pursued. A model portrays the interaction between decision-maker intent,…

  10. Setting up a mobile dental practice within your present office structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, James P; Dimitry, Susan; Morreale, Mark; Fattore, Isabella

    2005-02-01

    Different service models have emerged in Canada and the United States to address the issue of senior citizens' lack of access to comprehensive dental care. Over the past decade, one such model, the use of mobile dental service units, has emerged as a practical strategy. This article describes a mobile unit, operated as an adjunct to the general practitioner's office and relying mainly on existing office resources, both human and capital, to deliver services at long-term care institutions. The essential components of a profitable geriatric mobile unit are described, including education, equipment, marketing research and development, and human resource management. Issues related to patient consent and operating expenditures are also discussed. Data from one practitioner's mobile dental unit, in Hamilton, Ontario, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of this approach.

  11. Assisting Eastern European countries in the setting up of a national response to nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, W.; Daures, P.; Mayer, K.; Cromboom, O.; Schubert, A.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper will report the experience gained in the implementation of the national assistance projects, including the detailed assessment of the national situation compared to the ITWG Model Action Plan, the upgrading of the technical skills, the training of national experts and the joint analysis of nuclear material at ITU. The status of the work with the 13 future Member States to the European Union will also be reported on during the conference

  12. Energy and direction distribution of neutrons in workplace fields: Implication of the results from the EVIDOS project for the set-up of simulated workplace fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Lacoste, V.; Reginatto, M.; Zimbal, A.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace neutron spectra from nuclear facilities obtained within the European project EVIDOS are compared with those of the simulated workplace fields CANEL and SIGMA and fields set-up with radionuclide sources at the PTB. Contributions of neutrons to ambient dose equivalent and personal dose equivalent are given in three energy intervals (for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons) together with the corresponding direction distribution, characterised by three different types of distributions (isotropic, weakly directed and directed). The comparison shows that none of the simulated workplace fields investigated here can model all the characteristics of the fields observed at power reactors. (authors)

  13. Setting up processes and standardization of the equipment in order to optimize analyses of the wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Trong Phuc; Luu Anh Tuyen; La Ly Nguyen; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hue; Pham Thi Hue; Do Duy Khiem

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of operating and optimizing the analyses of the equipment: wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF)- model S8 TIGER from Enhancing Equipment Project (TCTTB) 2011-2012, we set up sampling and analytical process for different sample kinds; we constructed multi-elemental calibration curve for clay sample; we analysed elemental concentrations of 5 clay samples by XRF method and compared the results with the results given by NAA method. Equipment sensitivity was tested by analysing elemental concentrations of 2 Kaolin standard samples. The results show that S8-Tiger equipment is within good condition and is able to analyze powder clay sample exactly. (author)

  14. Assessment of three-dimensional set-up errors in conventional head and neck radiotherapy using electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Chopra, Supriya; Kadam, Avinash; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Devi, P Reena; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Dinshaw, Ketayun Ardeshir

    2007-01-01

    Set-up errors are an inherent part of radiation treatment process. Coverage of target volume is a direct function of set-up margins, which should be optimized to prevent inadvertent irradiation of adjacent normal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) set-up errors and propose optimum margins for target volume coverage in head and neck radiotherapy. The dataset consisted of 93 pairs of orthogonal simulator and corresponding portal images on which 558 point positions were measured to calculate translational displacement in 25 patients undergoing conventional head and neck radiotherapy with antero-lateral wedge pair technique. Mean displacements, population systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors and 3D vector of displacement was calculated. Set-up margins were calculated using published margin recipes. The mean displacement in antero-posterior (AP), medio-lateral (ML) and supero-inferior (SI) direction was -0.25 mm (-6.50 to +7.70 mm), -0.48 mm (-5.50 to +7.80 mm) and +0.45 mm (-7.30 to +7.40 mm) respectively. Ninety three percent of the displacements were within 5 mm in all three cardinal directions. Population systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) were 0.96, 0.98 and 1.20 mm and 1.94, 1.97 and 2.48 mm in AP, ML and SI direction respectively. The mean 3D vector of displacement was 3.84 cm. Using van Herk's formula, the clinical target volume to planning target volume margins were 3.76, 3.83 and 4.74 mm in AP, ML and SI direction respectively. The present study report compares well with published set-up error data relevant to head and neck radiotherapy practice. The set-up margins were <5 mm in all directions. Caution is warranted against adopting generic margin recipes as different margin generating recipes lead to a different probability of target volume coverage

  15. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  16. Digital dental surface registration with laser scanner for orthodontics set-up planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Albalat, Salvador E.; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos A.

    1997-05-01

    We present an optical measuring system based on laser structured light suitable for its diary use in orthodontics clinics that fit four main requirements: (1) to avoid use of stone models, (2) to automatically discriminate geometric points belonging to teeth and gum, (3) to automatically calculate diagnostic parameters used by orthodontists, (4) to make use of low cost and easy to use technology for future commercial use. Proposed technique is based in the use of hydrocolloids mould used by orthodontists for stone model obtention. These mould of the inside of patient's mouth are composed of very fluent materials like alginate or hydrocolloids that reveal fine details of dental anatomy. Alginate mould are both very easy to obtain and very low costly. Once captured, alginate moulds are digitized by mean of a newly developed and patented 3D dental scanner. Developed scanner is based in the optical triangulation method based in the projection of a laser line on the alginate mould surface. Line deformation gives uncalibrated shape information. Relative linear movements of the mould with respect to the sensor head gives more sections thus obtaining a full 3D uncalibrated dentition model. Developed device makes use of redundant CCD in the sensor head and servocontrolled linear axis for mould movement. Last step is calibration to get a real and precise X, Y, Z image. All the process is done automatically. The scanner has been specially adapted for 3D dental anatomy capturing in order to fulfill specific requirements such as: scanning time, accuracy, security and correct acquisition of 'hidden points' in alginate mould. Measurement realized on phantoms with known geometry quite similar to dental anatomy present errors less than 0,1 mm. Scanning of global dental anatomy is 2 minutes, and generation of 3D graphics of dental cast takes approximately 30 seconds in a Pentium-based PC.

  17. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax? Comment on "Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline

    2013-09-01

    Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax) taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  18. Compact torus equilibria set up in the rotamak by rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    In the Rotamak, a rotating magnetic field is used to drive a steady toroidal current in a compact torus device. High power, short duration (approx.=80 μs) and low power, long duration experiments (approx.=3 ms) have been studied. In both of these experiments a steady phase exists which is well described by the assumption that the plasma is in an averaged magnetohydrodynamic pressure balance situation. Using a model based on this assumption, self-consistency imposes conditions relating the temperature and density of the plasma to the steady components of the internal magnetic fields. In the high power experiment, this steady phase evolves into a second steady phase, with lower toroidal current, which has a #betta#=1, mirror-like configuration which also appears to satisfy local pressure balance but with the magnetic axis (minimum of the poloidal flux) at the centre of the spherical vessel. (orig.)

  19. Accounting for PMD Temporal Correlation During Lightpath Set Up in Transparent Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, Nicola; Secondini, Marco; Andriolli, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    stochastic characteristics. Moreover, PMD depends on time-variant factors, such as the temperature and the fiber stress. When implementing a dynamic GMPLS-controlled transparent optical network, the GMPLS protocol suite must take into account physical impairment information in order to establish lightpaths......In transparent optical networks, the signal transmission is degraded by optical layer physical impairments. Therefore, lightpaths may be blocked due to unacceptable quality of transmission (QoT). Among physical impairments, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is a detrimental effect which has...... that PTC scheme significantly reduces the lightpath blocking probability with respect to the classical scheme. Moreover, PTC demonstrates that, by considering PMD temporal correlation, the transparency domain size can be increased, since paths that would be rejected by a classical model can be actually...

  20. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  1. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  2. Experimental Set-up and Full-scale measurements in the ‘Cube'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The Cube' is an outdoor test facility located at the main campus of Aalborg University. It has been built in the fall of 2005 with the purpose of detailed investigations of the DSF performance, development of the empirical test cases for validation and further improvements of various building...... of any power supplied to the experimental zone in order to maintain the necessary thermal conditions. An accuracy of these measurements is justified by the quality of the facility construction: ‘the Cube' is very well insulated and tight....... simulation software for the modelling of buildings with double skin facades in the frame of IEA ECBCS ANNEX 43/SHC Task 34, Subtask EDouble Skin Facade. The test facility is designed to be flexible for a choice of the DSF operational modes, natural or mechanical flow conditions, different types of shading...

  3. The application of a low-cost 3D depth camera for patient set-up and respiratory motion management in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavori, Fatemeh

    Respiratory motion induces uncertainty in External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT), which can result in sub-optimal dose delivery to the target tissue and unwanted dose to normal tissue. The conventional approach to managing patient respiratory motion for EBRT within the area of abdominal-thoracic cancer is through the use of internal radiological imaging methods (e.g. Megavoltage imaging or Cone-Beam Computed Tomography) or via surrogate estimates of tumour position using external markers placed on the patient chest. This latter method uses tracking with video-based techniques, and relies on an assumed correlation or mathematical model, between the external surrogate signal and the internal target position. The marker's trajectory can be used in both respiratory gating techniques and real-time tracking methods. Internal radiological imaging methods bring with them limited temporal resolution, and additional radiation burden, which can be addressed by external marker-based methods that carry no such issues. Moreover, by including multiple external markers and placing them closer to the internal target organs, the effciency of correlation algorithms can be increased. However, the quality of such external monitoring methods is underpinned by the performance of the associated correlation model. Therefore, several new approaches to correlation modelling have been developed as part of this thesis and compared using publicly-available datasets. Highly competitive results have been obtained when compared against state-of-the-art methods. Marker-based methods also have the disadvantages of requiring manual set-up time for marker placement and patient positioning and potential issues with reproducibility of marker placement. This motivates the investigation of non-contact marker-free methods for use in EBRT, which is the main topic of this thesis. The Microsoft Kinect is used as an example of a low-cost consumer grade 3D depth camera for capturing and analysing external

  4. The Influence of Natural Frequency of the Experimental Set-up on the Friction Coefficient of Stainless Steel-304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chowdhury

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates experimentally the effect of natural frequency of the experimental set-up on friction property of stainless steel-304. To do so, a pin-on-disc apparatus having facility of vibrating the test samples at different directions, amplitudes and frequencies was designed and fabricated. The natural frequency of the set-up was varied by adding dead loads of the setup from 0 kg to 50 kg. At each added load the friction coefficient has been measured. Results show that both the natural frequency and friction coefficient decrease with the increase of added loads. It has been also observed that the coefficient of friction increases with the increase of natural frequency of the experimental setup. The experimental results are also compared with those available in literature and simple physical explanations are provided.

  5. Setting Up Shop: The Formation and Function of the Viral Factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Schoelz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to cells, viruses often compartmentalize specific functions such as genome replication or particle assembly. Viral compartments may contain host organelle membranes or they may be mainly composed of viral proteins. These compartments are often termed: inclusion bodies (IBs, viroplasms or viral factories. The same virus may form more than one type of IB, each with different functions, as illustrated by the plant pararetrovirus, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. CaMV forms two distinct types of IBs in infected plant cells, those composed mainly of the viral proteins P2 (which are responsible for transmission of CaMV by insect vectors and P6 (required for viral intra-and inter-cellular infection, respectively. P6 IBs are the major focus of this review. Much of our understanding of the formation and function of P6 IBs comes from the analyses of their major protein component, P6. Over time, the interactions and functions of P6 have been gradually elucidated. Coupled with new technologies, such as fluorescence microscopy with fluorophore-tagged viral proteins, these data complement earlier work and provide a clearer picture of P6 IB formation. As the activities and interactions of the viral proteins have gradually been determined, the functions of P6 IBs have become clearer. This review integrates the current state of knowledge on the formation and function of P6 IBs to produce a coherent model for the activities mediated by these sophisticated virus-manufacturing machines.

  6. Setting up a control and certification system for organic farming in developing countries: the case of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANE, Mrs Djamila

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to define the steps and the procedures to set up an effective control and certification system for Algeria, that is compatible with local peculiarities and realities and which complies with the International Regulations. The aim of this initiative is to offer a cost-efficient and credible inspection and certification for organic products to farmers, processors and traders. Doing so, the access to export and domestic markets should be facilitated. Furthermore...

  7. The method to set up file-6 in neutron data library of light nuclei below 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang; Han Yinlu

    2001-01-01

    So far there is no file-6 (double differential cross section data, DDX) of the light nuclei in the main evaluated neutron nuclear data libraries in the world. Therefore, locating a proper description on the double differential cross section of all kinds of outgoing particles from neutron induced light nucleus reaction below 20 MeV is necessary. The motivation for this work is to introduce a way to set up file-6 in the neutron data library

  8. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Bontempi, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio; Bragonzoni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics.

  9. Setting up the photoluminescence laboratory at ISOLDE & Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy for BIO physics experiments using radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Savva, Giannis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed project I was assigned was to set up the photoluminescence (PL) laboratory at ISOLDE, under the supervision of Karl Johnston. My first week at CERN coincided with the run of a BIO physics experiment using radioactive Hg(II) ions in which I also participated under the supervision of Stavroula Pallada. This gave me the opportunity to work in two projects during my stay at CERN and in the present report I describe briefly my contribution to them.

  10. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergy TM linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central 'target zone' and a partially attenuated beam for an outer 'set-up zone'. Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error

  11. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7-14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose-volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (Σ) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Σ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥ 5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. (author)

  12. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm"2 and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure

  13. Time-dependent observables in heavy ion collisions. Part I. Setting up the formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2018-03-01

    We adapt the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism to study heavy-ion collisions in perturbative QCD. Employing the formalism, we calculate the two-point gluon correlation function G 22 aμ, bν due to the lowest-order classical gluon fields in the McLerran-Venugopalan model of heavy ion collisions and observe an interesting transition from the classical fields to the quasi-particle picture at later times. Motivated by this observation, we push the formalism to higher orders in the coupling and calculate the contribution to G 22 aμ, bν coming from the diagrams representing a single rescattering between two of the produced gluons. We assume that the two gluons go on mass shell both before and after the rescattering. The result of our calculation depends on which region of integration over the proper time of the rescattering τ Z gives the correct correlation function at late proper time τ when the gluon distribution is measured. For (i) τ Z ≫ 1 /Q s and τ - τ Z ≫ 1 /Q s (with Q s the saturation scale) we obtain the same results as from the Boltzmann equation. For (ii) τ - τ Z ≫ τ Z ≫ 1 /Q s we end up with a result very different from kinetic theory and consistent with a picture of "free-streaming" particles. Due to the approximations made, our calculation is too coarse to indicate whether the region (i) or (ii) is the correct one: to resolve this controversy, we shall present a detailed diagrammatic calculation of the rescattering correction in the φ 4 theory in the second paper of this duplex.

  14. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm{sup 2} and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure.

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  17. Residual rotational set-up errors after daily cone-beam CT image guided radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, Louise Vagner; Elstrøm, Ulrik Vindelev; Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig P.; Petersen, Jørgen Baltzer; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Grau, Cai; Tanderup, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the often quite extended treatment fields in cervical cancer radiotherapy, uncorrected rotational set-up errors result in a potential risk of target miss. This study reports on the residual rotational set-up error after using daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to position cervical cancer patients for radiotherapy treatment. Methods and materials: Twenty-five patients with locally advanced cervical cancer had daily CBCT scans (650 CBCTs in total) prior to treatment delivery. We retrospectively analyzed the translational shifts made in the clinic prior to each treatment fraction as well as the residual rotational errors remaining after translational correction. Results: The CBCT-guided couch movement resulted in a mean translational 3D vector correction of 7.4 mm. Residual rotational error resulted in a target shift exceeding 5 mm in 57 of the 650 treatment fractions. Three patients alone accounted for 30 of these fractions. Nine patients had no shifts exceeding 5 mm and 13 patients had 5 or less treatment fractions with such shifts. Conclusion: Twenty-two of the 25 patients have none or few treatment fractions with target shifts larger than 5 mm due to residual rotational error. However, three patients display a significant number of shifts suggesting a more systematic set-up error.

  18. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sasipriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR. According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up.

  19. The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Hoppel, K.; Sen, B.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the stratospheric ozone (O3) distribution at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are examined for the late summer and fall seasons of 1999. This time period sets the O3 initial condition for the SOLVE/THESEO field mission performed during winter 1999-2000. In situ and satellite data are used along with a three-dimensional model of chemistry and transport (CTM) to determine the key processes that control the distribution of O3 in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. O3 in the vortex at the beginning of the winter season is found to be nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value at 3 ppmv +/- approx. 10%. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. The seasonal time series of data from POAM shows that relatively low O3 mixing ratios, which characterize the vortex in late fall, are already present at high latitudes at the end of summer before the vortex circulation sets up. Analysis of the CTM output shows that the minimum O3 and increase in variance in late summer are the result of: 1) stirring of polar concentric O3 gradients by nascent wave-driven transport, and 2) an acceleration of net photochemical loss with decreasing solar illumination. The segregation of low O3 mixing ratios into the vortex as the circulation strengthens through the fall suggests a possible feedback role between O3 chemistry and the vortex formation dynamics. Trajectory calculations from O3 sample points early in the fall, however, show only a weak correlation between initial O3 mixing ratio and potential vorticity later in the season consistent with order-of-magnitude calculations for the relative importance of O3 in the fall radiative balance at high latitudes. The possible connection between O3 chemistry and the dynamics of vortex formation does suggest that these feedbacks and sensitivities need to be better understood in order to make confident predictions of the recovery

  20. Set-Up and Validation of a Dynamic Solid/Gas Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Lloyd-Randol, Jennifer D.

    2012-05-01

    The limited availability of fossil resourses mandates the development of new energy vectors, which is one of the Grand Challenges of the 21st Century [1]. Biocatalytic energy conversion is a promising solution to meet the increased energy demand of industrialized societies. Applications of biocatalysis in the gas-phase are so far limited to production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. However, this technology has the potential for large scale biocatalytic applications [2], e.g. for the formation of novel energy carriers. The so-called solid/gas biocatalysis is defined as the application of a biocatalyst immobilized on solid-phase support acting on gaseous substrates [3]. This process combines the advantages of bio-catalysis (green chemistry, mild reaction conditions, high specicity & selectivity) and heterogeneous dynamic gas-phase processes (low diffusion limitation, high conversion, simple scale-up). This work presents the modifications of a PID Microactivity Reference reactor in order to make it suitable for solid/gas biocatalysis. The reactor design requirements are based on previously published laboratory scale solid/gas systems with a feed of saturated vapors [4]. These vapors are produced in saturation flasks, which were designed and optimized during this project. Other modifications included relocation of the gas mixing chamber, redesigning the location and heating mechanism for the reactor tube, and heating of the outlet gas line. The modified reactor system was verified based on the Candida antarctica lipase B catalyzed transesterication of ethyl acetate with 1-hexanol to hexyl acetate and ethanol and results were compared to liquid-phase model reactions. Products were analyzed on line by a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. C. antarc- tica physisorbed on silica particles produced a 50% conversion of hexanol at 40 C in the gas-phase. A commercial immobilized lipase from Iris Biotech produced 99% and 97% conversions of hexanol in

  1. Swell-generated Set-up and Infragravity Wave Propagation Over a Fringing Coral Reef: Implications for Wave-driven Inundation of Atoll Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, O. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Quataert, E.; van Dongeren, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands is comprised of 1156 islands on 29 low-lying atolls with a mean elevation of 2 m that are susceptible to sea-level rise and often subjected to overwash during large wave events. A 6-month deployment of wave and tide gauges across two shore-normal sections of north-facing coral reef on the Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll was conducted during 2013-2014 to quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on the fringing coral reef. Wave heights and periods on the reef flat were strongly correlated to the water levels. On the fore reef, the majority of wave energy was concentrated in the incident band (5-25 s); due to breaking at the reef crest, however, the wave energy over the reef flat was dominated by infragravity-band (25-250 s) motions. Two large wave events with heights of 6-8 m at 15 s over the fore reef were observed. During these events, infragravity-band wave heights exceeded the incident band wave heights and approximately 1.0 m of set-up was established over the innermost reef flat. This set-up enabled the propagation of large waves across the reef flat, reaching maximum heights of nearly 2 m on the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach. XBEACH models of the instrument transects were able to replicate the incident waves, infragravity waves, and wave-driven set-up across the reef when the hydrodynamic roughness of the reef was correctly parameterized. These events led to more than 3 m of wave-driven run-up and inundation of the island that drove substantial morphological change to the beach face.

  2. Physical aspects of an electronuclear set-up on the basis of the subcritical zone of the IBR-30 reactor and the 660 MeV proton phasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Pogodaev, G.N.; Polanski, A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and thermal flux estimations show that a combination of installations available at present at JINR - the plutonium reactor IBR-30 and the 660 MeV proton phasotron with the current of the extracted beam 0.25 mkA, i.e. 10% of its average value, - allows one to construct an air-cooled electronuclear set-up with the multiplication coefficient K eff ≅ 0.94, the neutron yield N tot ≅ 10 14 - 10 15 and the heat generation about to 10 kW. This set-up will demonstrate a possibility to construct subcritical transmutation-power generating electronuclear systems safe and stable in operation and applicable for utilization of weapon grade and technical plutonium. Kinetics of the electronuclear system will be investigated, in particular, fluctuations of the value of K eff for various parameters of the proton beam. Cross sections of nuclear reactions which are important for the estimations of an efficiency of various conditions of the nuclear waste transmutation and the neutron fluxes together with the heat distributions inside and outside the plutonium core will be measured. A comparison of these data with theoretical calculations allows one to check up and to develop significantly the methods of mathematical modeling of electronuclear systems. We suppose also to estimate the possibilities of ARC-method for the burning of radioactive wastes and to study the influence of various reflectors and multipartitioning of the core which increases the neutron yield. (author)

  3. Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, C. R.; Ameer, S. S.; Ludvigsson, L.; Ali, N.; Alhamdow, A.; Messing, M. E.; Pagels, J.; Gudmundsson, A.; Bohgard, M.; Sanfins, E.; Kåredal, M.; Broberg, K.; Rissler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm"2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.Graphical Abstract

  4. Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, C. R., E-mail: christian.svensson@design.lth.se [Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden); Ameer, S. S. [Lund University, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Sweden); Ludvigsson, L. [Lund University, Department of Physics, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Ali, N.; Alhamdow, A. [Lund University, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Sweden); Messing, M. E. [Lund University, Department of Physics, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Pagels, J.; Gudmundsson, A.; Bohgard, M. [Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden); Sanfins, E. [Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (iMETI), Division of Prions and Related Diseases - SEPIA (France); Kåredal, M.; Broberg, K. [Lund University, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine (Sweden); Rissler, J. [Lund University, Department of Design Sciences, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm{sup 2}, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.Graphical Abstract.

  5. The ongoing search for the oldest rock on the Danish island of Bornholm: new U-Pb zircon ages for a quartz-rich xenolith and country rock from the Svaneke Granite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Serre, Simon H.; Næsby, Sebastian H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous geochronological studies on the Danish island of Bornholm have not identified any rocks older than c. 1.46 Ga. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages are presented for a xenolith within, and the country rock gneiss adjacent to, the Svaneke Granite on Bornholm. The xenolith is fine......-grained and quartz-rich and was likely derived from either a quartz-rich sedimentary protolith or a hydrothermally altered felsic volcanic rock. The relatively fine-grained felsic nature of the country rock gneiss and the presence of large zoned feldspars that may represent phenocrysts suggest its protolith may have...... been a felsic volcanic or shallow intrusive rock. A skarn-like inclusion from a nearby locality likely represents an originally carbonate sediment and is consistent with supracrustal rocks being present at least locally. Zircon data from the xenolith define an upper intercept age of 1483 ± 12 Ma (2σ...

  6. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; Wratten, C; White, M; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres and a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 11-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  7. Cone beam CT-based set-up strategies with and without rotational correction for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Jenny; Worm, Esben; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per

    2017-06-01

    Accurate patient positioning is crucial in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) due to a high dose regimen. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used for patient positioning based on radio-opaque markers. We compared six CBCT-based set-up strategies with or without rotational correction. Twenty-nine patients with three implanted markers received 3-6 fraction liver SBRT. The markers were delineated on the mid-ventilation phase of a 4D-planning-CT. One pretreatment CBCT was acquired per fraction. Set-up strategy 1 used only translational correction based on manual marker match between the CBCT and planning CT. Set-up strategy 2 used automatic 6 degrees-of-freedom registration of the vertebrae closest to the target. The 3D marker trajectories were also extracted from the projections and the mean position of each marker was calculated and used for set-up strategies 3-6. Translational correction only was used for strategy 3. Translational and rotational corrections were used for strategies 4-6 with the rotation being either vertebrae based (strategy 4), or marker based and constrained to ±3° (strategy 5) or unconstrained (strategy 6). The resulting set-up error was calculated as the 3D root-mean-square set-up error of the three markers. The set-up error of the spinal cord was calculated for all strategies. The bony anatomy set-up (2) had the largest set-up error (5.8 mm). The marker-based set-up with unconstrained rotations (6) had the smallest set-up error (0.8 mm) but the largest spinal cord set-up error (12.1 mm). The marker-based set-up with translational correction only (3) or with bony anatomy rotational correction (4) had equivalent set-up error (1.3 mm) but rotational correction reduced the spinal cord set-up error from 4.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Marker-based set-up was substantially better than bony-anatomy set-up. Rotational correction may improve the set-up, but further investigations are required to determine the optimal correction

  8. Comparison of prostate set-up accuracy and margins with off-line bony anatomy corrections and online implanted fiducial-based corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P. B.; Dahl, K.; Ebert, M. A.; Wratten, C.; White, M.; Denham, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine prostate set-up accuracy and set-up margins with off-line bony anatomy-based imaging protocols, compared with online implanted fiducial marker-based imaging with daily corrections. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Pretreatment orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts and verification images were acquired during treatment to measure residual set-up error. The prostate set-up errors that would result from skin marker set-up, off-line bony anatomy-based protocols and online fiducial marker-based corrections were determined. Set-up margins were calculated for each set-up technique using the percentage of encompassed isocentres land a margin recipe. The prostate systematic set-up errors in the medial-lateral, superior-inferior and anterior-I posterior directions for skin marker set-up were 2.2, 3.6 and 4.5 mm (1 standard deviation). For our bony anatomy-I based off-line protocol the prostate systematic set-up errors were 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 mm. For the online fiducial based set-up the results were 0.5, 1.4 and 1.4 mm. A prostate systematic error of 10.2 mm was uncorrected by the off-line bone protocol in one patient. Set-up margins calculated to encompass 98% of prostate set-up shifts were 111-14 mm with bone off-line set-up and 4-7 mm with online fiducial markers. Margins from the van Herk margin I recipe were generally 1-2 mm smaller. Bony anatomy-based set-up protocols improve the group prostate set-up error compared with skin marks; however, large prostate systematic errors can remain undetected or systematic (errors increased for individual patients. The margin required for set-up errors was found to be 10-15 mm unless I implanted fiducial markers are available for treatment guidance.

  9. Effectiveness of couch height-based patient set-up and an off-line correction protocol in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Nijenhuis, Edwin; Huizenga, Henk; Vight, Lisette van der; Visser, Andries

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate set-up improvement caused by applying a couch height-based patient set-up method in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in nonimmobilized radiotherapy of prostate patients. Methods and Materials: A three-dimensional shrinking action level correction protocol is applied in two consecutive patient cohorts with different set-up methods: the traditional 'laser set-up' group (n=43) and the 'couch height set-up' group (n=112). For all directions, left-right, ventro-dorsal, and cranio-caudal, random and systematic set-up deviations were measured. Results: The couch height set-up method improves the patient positioning compared to the laser set-up method. Without application of the correction protocol, both systematic and random errors reduced to 2.2-2.4 mm (1 SD) and 1.7-2.2 mm (1 SD), respectively. By using the correction protocol, systematic errors reduced further to 1.3-1.6 mm (1 SD). One-dimensional deviations were within 5 mm for >90% of the measured fractions. The required number of corrections per patient in the off-line correction protocol was reduced significantly during the course of treatment from 1.1 to 0.6 by the couch height set-up method. The treatment time was not prolonged by application of the correction protocol. Conclusions: The couch height set-up method improves the set-up significantly, especially in the ventro-dorsal direction. Combination of this set-up method with an off-line correction strategy, executed by technologists, reduces the number of set-up corrections required

  10. Iterated greedy algorithms to minimize the total family flow time for job-shop scheduling with job families and sequence-dependent set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jung-Hyeon; Lee, Dong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    This study addresses a variant of job-shop scheduling in which jobs are grouped into job families, but they are processed individually. The problem can be found in various industrial systems, especially in reprocessing shops of remanufacturing systems. If the reprocessing shop is a job-shop type and has the component-matching requirements, it can be regarded as a job shop with job families since the components of a product constitute a job family. In particular, sequence-dependent set-ups in which set-up time depends on the job just completed and the next job to be processed are also considered. The objective is to minimize the total family flow time, i.e. the maximum among the completion times of the jobs within a job family. A mixed-integer programming model is developed and two iterated greedy algorithms with different local search methods are proposed. Computational experiments were conducted on modified benchmark instances and the results are reported.

  11. Decree N0 81-978 of 29 October 1981 setting up a Higher Council for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Decree amends the Decree of 13 March 1973 setting up a High Council for Nuclear Safety and a Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. The High Council, which is attached to the Ministry of industry, is competent to advise on all questions involving the safety of nuclear installations. Henceforth, the National Assembly, the Senate and the regional or general Councils concerned may request the Minister to submit for consideration by the High Council all important matters within its competence. (NEA) [fr

  12. Fiber optic based OSL set up for online and offline measurements of dose due to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, N.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Upadhyay, B.N.; Srikanth, G.; Bindra, K.S.; Oak, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    An optic-fiber dosimetry system based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radio-luminescence (RL) from Al_2O_3 : C single-crystal (detector) was designed and developed. The set up is intended to measure dose and dose rates at various radiological installations. The Al_2O_3:C single crystal (from Landaeur Inc. USA) was coupled to a fiber optic delivery system and OSL from the detector is stimulated via the optical fiber cable using light from a Nd:YAG laser. OSL and RL signals are later used to predict cumulative dose and dose rates using "6"0Co gamma source. (author)

  13. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR SETTING UP AN OWN COFFEE SHOP IN CHINA : Using Starbucks as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei , ChiJiao

    2016-01-01

    The thesis aimed to find out a suitable marketing strategy and making a marketing plan for setting up an own coffee shop in Shanghai, China. Coffee was one of the most popular drinks in the world and coffee has been accepted by more and more Chinese people. Coffee industry was well-received choice for the entrepreneurs to start up their own business in China. Marketing strategy played an important role in the intense market competition. A successful marketing strategy could help the coffee co...

  14. Decree no 76-845 of 1 September 1976 setting up a Council for external nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Decree has set up a Council for External Nuclear Policy, chaired by the President of the Republic, and includes the Prime Minister, the Ministers for Economy and Finance (these duties are presently discharged by the Prime Minister), Defence, Industry, Trade and Crafts, External Trade, and the Administrator-General of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, as well as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The duty of this Council is to define the various aspects of external nuclear policy, in particular, regarding the export of technology, equipment and sensitive nuclear products. (NEA) [fr

  15. Decree No. 77-1233 of 10 November 1977 setting up a Council for information on nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree sets up a Council for information on nuclear electricity generation directly under the authority of and appointed by the Prime Minister. It has 18 members who include, inter alia, mayors of the communes concerned by nuclear power plant siting, representatives of nature and environmental protection associations, science academicians and economics, energy and communications experts. The Council's purpose is to ensure that the public has access to infomation on nuclear electricity generation from the technical, health, ecological, economic and financial viewpoints. It advises the Government on the public's conditions of access to information and proposes methods for its dissemination. (NEA) [fr

  16. Set-up and calibration of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassu, T.; Seeger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall simulation is one of the most prevalent methods used in soil erosion studies on agricultural land. In-situ simulators have been used to relate soil surface characteristics and management to runoff generation, infiltration and erosion, eg. the influence of different cultivation systems, and to parameterise erosion models. Laboratory rainfall simulators have been used to determine the impact of the soil surface characteristics such as micro-topography, surface roughness, and soil chemistry on infiltration and erosion rates, and to elucidate the processes involved. The purpose of the following study is to demonstrate the set-up and the calibration of a large indoor, nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) for soil erosion, surface runoff and rill development studies. This RS is part of the Kraijenhoff van de Leur Laboratory for Water and Sediment Dynamics in Wageningen University. The rainfall simulator consists from a 6 m long and 2,5 m wide plot, with metal lateral frame and one open side. Infiltration can be collected in different segments. The plot can be inclined up to 15.5° slope. From 3,85 m height above the plot 2 Lechler nozzles 460.788 are sprinkling the water onto the surface with constant intensity. A Zehnder HMP 450 pump provides the constant water supply. An automatic pressure switch on the pump keeps the pressure constant during the experiments. The flow rate is controlled for each nozzle by independent valves. Additionally, solenoid valves are mounted at each nozzle to interrupt water flow. The flow is monitored for each nozzle with flow meters and can be recorded within the computer network. For calibration of the RS we measured the rainfall distribution with 60 gauges equally distributed over the plot during 15 minutes for each nozzle independently and for a combination of 2 identical nozzles. The rainfall energy was recorded on the same grid by measuring drop size distribution and fall velocity with a laser disdrometer. We applied 2 different

  17. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy); Ceroti, Marco [ISPO, U.O. Epidemiologia Molecolare e Nutrizionale, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist der Vergleich der Patientenpositionierung mittels der 3-D/4-D-Erfassung der Patientenoberflaeche durch ein Abtastsystem, kV/MV-Verifikationsaufnahmen mit Hochenergiebildsystemen und Markierungen auf der Haut bei Bestrahlungen im Thorax- bzw. Beckenbereich. Als Goldstandard zum Vergleich dienten CBCT(''cone beam computed tomography'')-Aufnahmen. Die Studie basiert auf Untersuchungen an 20 Patienten. Es wurden

  18. Set-up of a pre-test mock-up experiment in preparation for the HCPB Breeder Unit mock-up experimental campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Ilić, M.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Németh, J. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► As preparation for the HCPB-TBM Breeder Unit out-of-pile testing campaign, a pre-test experiment (PREMUX) has been prepared and described. ► A new heater system based on a wire heater matrix has been developed for imitating the neutronic volumetric heating and it is compared with the conventional plate heaters. ► The test section is described and preliminary thermal results with the available models are presented and are to be benchmarked with PREMUX. ► The PREMUX integration in the air cooling loop L-STAR/LL in the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology is shown and future steps are discussed. -- Abstract: The complexity of the experimental set-up for testing a full-scaled Breeder Unit (BU) mock-up for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) has motivated to build a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) consisting of a slice of the BU in the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} region. This pre-test aims at verifying the feasibility of the methods to be used for the subsequent testing of the full-scaled BU mock-up. Key parameters needed for the modeling of the breeder material is also to be determined by the Hot Wire Method (HWM). The modeling tools for the thermo-mechanics of the pebble beds and for the mock-up structure are to be calibrated and validated as well. This paper presents the setting-up of PREMUX in the L-STAR/LL facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. A key requirement of the experiments is to mimic the neutronic volumetric heating. A new heater concept is discussed and compared to several conventional heater configurations with respect to the estimated temperature distribution in the pebble beds. The design and integration of the thermocouple system in the heater matrix and pebble beds is also described, as well as other key aspects of the mock-up (dimensions, layout, cooling system, purge gas line, boundary conditions and integration in the test facility). The adequacy of these methods for the full-scaled BU

  19. SU-F-P-18: Development of the Technical Training System for Patient Set-Up Considering Rotational Correction in the Virtual Environment Using Three-Dimensional Computer Graphic Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, K; Fujibuchi, T; Hirata, H; Kaneko, K; Hamada, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patient set-up skills in radiotherapy treatment room have a great influence on treatment effect for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, we have developed the training system for improving practical set-up skills considering rotational correction in the virtual environment away from the pressure of actual treatment room by using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) engine. Methods: The treatment room for external beam radiotherapy was reproduced in the virtual environment by using 3DCG engine (Unity). The viewpoints to perform patient set-up in the virtual treatment room were arranged in both sides of the virtual operable treatment couch to assume actual performance by two clinical staffs. The position errors to mechanical isocenter considering alignment between skin marker and laser on the virtual patient model were displayed by utilizing numerical values expressed in SI units and the directions of arrow marks. The rotational errors calculated with a point on the virtual body axis as the center of each rotation axis for the virtual environment were corrected by adjusting rotational position of the body phantom wound the belt with gyroscope preparing on table in a real space. These rotational errors were evaluated by describing vector outer product operations and trigonometric functions in the script for patient set-up technique. Results: The viewpoints in the virtual environment allowed individual user to visually recognize the position discrepancy to mechanical isocenter until eliminating the positional errors of several millimeters. The rotational errors between the two points calculated with the center point could be efficiently corrected to display the minimum technique mathematically by utilizing the script. Conclusion: By utilizing the script to correct the rotational errors as well as accurate positional recognition for patient set-up technique, the training system developed for improving patient set-up skills enabled individual user to

  20. SU-F-P-18: Development of the Technical Training System for Patient Set-Up Considering Rotational Correction in the Virtual Environment Using Three-Dimensional Computer Graphic Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K [Division of Quantum Radiation Science, Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujibuchi, T; Hirata, H [Department of Health Science, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kaneko, K [Innovation Center for Educational Resource, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hamada, E [Cancer Treatment Center, Tobata Kyoritsu Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient set-up skills in radiotherapy treatment room have a great influence on treatment effect for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, we have developed the training system for improving practical set-up skills considering rotational correction in the virtual environment away from the pressure of actual treatment room by using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) engine. Methods: The treatment room for external beam radiotherapy was reproduced in the virtual environment by using 3DCG engine (Unity). The viewpoints to perform patient set-up in the virtual treatment room were arranged in both sides of the virtual operable treatment couch to assume actual performance by two clinical staffs. The position errors to mechanical isocenter considering alignment between skin marker and laser on the virtual patient model were displayed by utilizing numerical values expressed in SI units and the directions of arrow marks. The rotational errors calculated with a point on the virtual body axis as the center of each rotation axis for the virtual environment were corrected by adjusting rotational position of the body phantom wound the belt with gyroscope preparing on table in a real space. These rotational errors were evaluated by describing vector outer product operations and trigonometric functions in the script for patient set-up technique. Results: The viewpoints in the virtual environment allowed individual user to visually recognize the position discrepancy to mechanical isocenter until eliminating the positional errors of several millimeters. The rotational errors between the two points calculated with the center point could be efficiently corrected to display the minimum technique mathematically by utilizing the script. Conclusion: By utilizing the script to correct the rotational errors as well as accurate positional recognition for patient set-up technique, the training system developed for improving patient set-up skills enabled individual user to

  1. Evaluation of set-up deviations during the irradiation of patients suffering from breast cancer treated with two different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KukoIowicz, Pawel Franciszek; Debrowski, Andrzej; Gut, Piotr; Chmielewski, Leszek; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Kedzierawski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare reproducibility of set-up for two different treatment techniques for external irradiation of the breast. Methods and materials: In total, the analysis comprised 56 pairs of portal and simulator films for 14 consecutive patients treated following breast conserving therapy and 98 pairs of portal and simulator films for 20 consecutive patients treated after mastectomy. For the first group the tangential field technique (TF technique) was used, for the second the inverse hockey stick technique (IHS technique). Evaluation of the treatment reproducibility was performed in terms of systematic and random error calculated for the whole groups, comparison of set-up accuracy by means of comparison of cumulative distribution of the length of the displacement vector. Results: In the IHS and TF techniques for medial and lateral fields, displacement larger than 5 mm occurred in 28.3, 15.8 and 25.4%, respectively. For the IHS technique, the systematic errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 1.9 and 1.7 mm, respectively (1 SD), the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.0 and 2.5 mm. For the TF technique, the systematic errors for ventral-dorsal and cranial-caudal direction were 2.6 and 1.3 mm for medial field and 3.7 and 0.7 mm for lateral fields, respectively, the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.2 and 1.0 mm for medial field and 2.9 and 1.1 for lateral field, respectively. Rotations were negligible in the IHS technique. For the TF technique the systematic and random components amounted to about 2.0 degrees (1 SD). Conclusions: Both the inverse hockey stick and standard tangential techniques showed good reproducibility of patients' set-up with respect to cranial-caudal direction. For the TF technique, the accuracy should be improved for the medial field with respect to the ventral-dorsal direction

  2. Set-up errors analyses in IMRT treatments for nasopharyngeal carcinoma to evaluate time trends, PTV and PRV margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongioj, Valeria (Dept. of Medical Physics, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)), e-mail: valeria.mongioj@istitutotumori.mi.it; Orlandi, Ester (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)); Palazzi, Mauro (Dept. of Radiotherapy, A.O. Niguarda Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy)) (and others)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction. The aims of this study were to analyze the systematic and random interfractional set-up errors during Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in 20 consecutive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by means of Electronic Portal Images Device (EPID), to define appropriate Planning Target Volume (PTV) and Planning Risk Volume (PRV) margins, as well as to investigate set-up displacement trend as a function of time during fractionated RT course. Material and methods. Before EPID clinical implementation, an anthropomorphic phantom was shifted intentionally 5 mm to all directions and the EPIs were compared with the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) to test the system's capability to recognize displacements observed in clinical studies. Then, 578 clinical images were analyzed with a mean of 29 images for each patient. Results. Phantom data showed that the system was able to correct shifts with an accuracy of 1 mm. As regards clinical data, the estimated population systematic errors were 1.3 mm for left-right (L-R), 1 mm for superior-inferior (S-I) and 1.1 mm for anterior-posterior (A-P) directions, respectively. Population random errors were 1.3 mm, 1.5 mm and 1.3 mm for L-R, S-I and A-P directions, respectively. PTV margin was at least 3.4, 3 and 3.2 mm for L-R, S-I and A-P direction, respectively. PRV margins for brainstem and spinal cord were 2.3, 2 and 2.1 mm and 3.8, 3.5 and 3.2 mm for L-R, A-P and S-I directions, respectively. Set-up error displacements showed no significant changes as the therapy progressed (p>0.05), although displacements >3 mm were found more frequently when severe weight loss or tumor nodal shrinkage occurred. Discussion. These results enable us to choose margins that guarantee with sufficient accuracy the coverage of PTVs and organs at risk sparing. Collected data confirmed the need for a strict check of patient position reproducibility in case of anatomical changes

  3. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n ∼ 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs

  4. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, The density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N 2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n= 5x10''9 cm''-3 was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal US. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma

  5. Beam patterns in an optical parametric oscillator set-up employing walk-off compensating beta barium borate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaucikas, M.; Warren, M.; Michailovas, A.; Antanavicius, R.; van Thor, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions.

  6. Beam patterns in an optical parametric oscillator set-up employing walk-off compensating beta barium borate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaucikas, M; Warren, M; Van Thor, J J; Michailovas, A; Antanavicius, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions. (paper)

  7. Production and characterization of protonated molecular clusters containing a given number of water molecules with the DIAM set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruny, G.

    2010-01-01

    nano-scale characterization of irradiation in bio-molecular systems requires observation of novel features which are now achievable with the recent technical progress. This work is a central part in the development of DIAM which is a new experimental set-up devoted to irradiation of bio-molecular clusters at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. The development of the cluster source and of a double focusing mass spectrometer leads to the production of intense beams of mass selected protonated molecular clusters. Combined with this mass selected cluster beams an innovative detection technique is demonstrated in collision induced dissociation experiments. The results contribute to the knowledge of the stability and the structure of the small protonated water clusters and mixed clusters of water and pyridine. (author)

  8. Experimental set-up for electrical resistivity measurements at low temperature in amorphous and crystalline metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez Fernandez, J.M.; Lopez Sanchez, R.J.; Gomez-Sal, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental set-up to measure the thermal variation of the electrical resistivity between 10.5 K and 300 K, has been developed. A four probe A.C. method with a synchronous-detection (lock'in) technique were the idoneous for our proposes. We have designed a new type of pressure sample-holder adopted to the CS-202 type cryostat. The measurements performed on samples already known have allowed us to determine the sensitivity of our experiments, which is Δ ρ/ρ=2x10 -4 . The measurements performed in the new Y 3 Rh 2 Si 2 compound which at 10 K has no magnetic ordering, are also presented. (author)

  9. Challenges in interprofessional collaboration: experiences of care providers and policymakers in a newly set-up Dutch assault centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Elza; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Teerling, Anne; Hutschemaekers, Giel; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    Sexual and family violence are problems that affect many women and men, and the negative health consequences of violence are numerous. As adequate acute interprofessional care can prevent negative health consequences and improve forensic medical examination, a Centre for Sexual and Family Violence was set up. We aimed to improve our understanding of the challenges in interprofessional collaboration in a newly set-up centre for sexual and family violence. We conducted a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews about the experiences with interprofessional collaboration of 16 stakeholders involved in the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence Nijmegen. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Participants found that the interprofessional collaboration had improved communication and competences. However, there were challenges too. Firstly, the interprofessional collaboration had brought parties closer together, but the collaboration also forced professionals to strongly define their boundaries. Mutual trust and understanding needed to be built up. Secondly, a balance had to be struck between pursuing the shared vision - which was to improve quality of care for victims - and giving space to organizations' and professionals' own interest. Thirdly, care for victims of sexual and family violence could be demanding on healthcare providers in an emotional sense, which might jeopardize professional's initial motivation for joining the Centre for Sexual and Family Violence Nijmegen. The interprofessional collaboration in an assault centre improves quality of care for victims, but there are also challenges. The tasks of an assault centre are to create opportunities to discuss professional roles and professional interests, to build up good interpersonal relations in which trust and understanding can grow, to formulate a strong and shared victim-centred vision and to support care providers with training, feedback and supervision. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring

  10. The potential impact of the tension of the pelvic muscles on set-up errors in radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujko, Krzysztof; Czuchraniuk, Piotr; Zolciak, Agnieszka; Kukolowicz, Pawel; Kepka, Lucyna; Bielik, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the potential impact of the tension of pelvic muscles on set-up errors. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with rectal cancer were included. The treatment simulation of the lateral beam in prone position was performed twice-with relaxed and next with maximally tense pelvic muscles. During the second simulation, the couch was moved so as to align the centre of the beam with the actual position of the skin mark tattooed during the first simulation. The bony landmarks on both images of corresponding lateral fields were matched. The beam's centre displacement and the rotation were measured using the beam image taken in relaxed position as a reference. The absolute values were used in calculation of the mean. For the anterior-posterior direction, the mean value of displacements was 15.3 mm, standard deviation (SD) 6.9 mm and the maximal value 37 mm. For the cranial-caudal direction, the mean value was 4.4 mm, SD 4 mm and the maximal value 17 mm. The mean rotation of the pelvis was 5.3 degrees, SD 2.4 degrees and maximal rotation 11 degrees. The majority of displacements were in the posterior (86%) and caudal (55%) directions. The majority of rotations were clockwise (76%). It was shown that pelvic muscle tension was the reason for anal verge displacements and mispositionings of the shielding block. This results in set-up inaccuracy, especially in the anterior-posterior direction, shielding block mispositioning and anal verge displacement

  11. Reconstruction of gene regulatory modules from RNA silencing of IFN-α modulators: experimental set-up and inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Angela; Di Camillo, Barbara; Ciccarese, Francesco; Agnusdei, Valentina; Zanovello, Paola; Amadori, Alberto; Finesso, Lorenzo; Indraccolo, Stefano; Toffolo, Gianna Maria

    2016-03-12

    Inference of gene regulation from expression data may help to unravel regulatory mechanisms involved in complex diseases or in the action of specific drugs. A challenging task for many researchers working in the field of systems biology is to build up an experiment with a limited budget and produce a dataset suitable to reconstruct putative regulatory modules worth of biological validation. Here, we focus on small-scale gene expression screens and we introduce a novel experimental set-up and a customized method of analysis to make inference on regulatory modules starting from genetic perturbation data, e.g. knockdown and overexpression data. To illustrate the utility of our strategy, it was applied to produce and analyze a dataset of quantitative real-time RT-PCR data, in which interferon-α (IFN-α) transcriptional response in endothelial cells is investigated by RNA silencing of two candidate IFN-α modulators, STAT1 and IFIH1. A putative regulatory module was reconstructed by our method, revealing an intriguing feed-forward loop, in which STAT1 regulates IFIH1 and they both negatively regulate IFNAR1. STAT1 regulation on IFNAR1 was object of experimental validation at the protein level. Detailed description of the experimental set-up and of the analysis procedure is reported, with the intent to be of inspiration for other scientists who want to realize similar experiments to reconstruct gene regulatory modules starting from perturbations of possible regulators. Application of our approach to the study of IFN-α transcriptional response modulators in endothelial cells has led to many interesting novel findings and new biological hypotheses worth of validation.

  12. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  15. Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Alonso, Ursula; Lemasson, Quentin; Missana, Tiziana; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Camarena de la Mora, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    A series of granite samples (Grimsel and Äspö) enriched by sorption with natU (10-3 M, 10-4 M, 10-5 M in solution) and La (10-3 M, 10-4 M in solution) has been scanned by PIXE over a surface of 1920 × 1920 mm2 together with non-enriched Grimsel and Äspö granites and a glass standard. An assessment of minimum detection limits, MDL's, for several elements has been performed with the use of standard materials. Due to mapping and the high sensitivity of the new AGLAE detection system, U levels around 30 ppm can be detected from the whole PIXE spectrum (one low energy detector and four summed filtered detectors) while U reach grains, inhomogeneously distributed over the surface can be clearly identified through the multi elemental maps and analyzed separately. Even the nominally enriched samples have La levels below the MDL, probably because precipitation of the element (and not adsorption) mostly took place, and precipitates were eliminated after surface cleaning carried out before PIXE analyses. A multi detector system that implies a PIXE detection solid angle much wider than in any other similar set-up (a factor of 2-5); a higher events selectivity, given by the possibility of filtering individually up to 4 PIXE detectors; a double RBS detector, the new Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. Full mapping capability in air, assisted by a powerful event by event reconstruction software. These features allow lower Minimum Detection Limits (MDL) which are highly beneficial to the analysis of cultural heritage objects, meaning generally a reduction of irradiation time. Paintings will then be studied without any damage to the pigments that have color change tendencies which is a major drawback of the previous system. Alternatively they could allow an increase in information collected at equal time, particularly considering the detector's fast response and therefore the potential for high beam currents when sample damage can be

  16. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. D. Hendriks

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2–20×103 m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10−3 ppb and accuracy (<0.30% of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates.

    Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH4 fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH4 emission was 29.7 nmol m−2 s−1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m−2 s−1 and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m−2 s−1. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH4 emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas.

    Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH4 fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave

  17. Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, A. A.; Bhandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern era of planetary exploration has revealed fluvial or fluvial like landforms on the extraterrestrial surfaces of planets and moons of our solar system. This has posed as interesting challenges for advancing our fundamental understanding of fluvial processes and their associated landforms on the planetary surfaces especially on Mars. It has been recognized through earlier studies that the channels and valleys are extensively dissected on Mars. The Valleys are low lying, elongate troughs surrounded by elevated topography. Moreover, valley networks on Mars are the most noticeable features attesting that different geological processes and possibly climatic conditions prevailed in the past and played a vital role in formulating the Martian topography. Channel incisions which are a domino effect both tectonic and surface runoff and groundwater sapping. The components of surface runoff have been deciphered with the help of morphometric exercises. Further, the geomorphological studies of these landforms are critical in understanding the regional tectonics. The present work is an assessment of Fluvio geomorphic set-up of Noctis Fossae in Noctis Labyrinthus of Syria-Planum Provenance, Mars. This study focuses on the fluvio geomorphology of the southern highlands (00 to 400S to 850-1200W) to determine how these features were formed, which process formed these valleys and includes the probable causes resulting into the development of the topography. Keywords: Noctis Fossae; Noctis Labyrinthus; Syria Planum; Mars

  18. A simplified edge illumination set-up for quantitative phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation at clinical doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Rigon, Luigi; Lopez, Frances C M; Longo, Renata; Chen, Rongchang; Dreossi, Diego; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the first study of x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a simple implementation of the edge illumination method (EIXPCi) in the field of mammography with synchrotron radiation. A simplified EIXPCi set-up was utilized to study a possible application in mammography at clinical doses. Moreover, through a novel algorithm capable of separating and quantifying absorption and phase perturbations of images acquired in EIXPCi modality, it is possible to extract quantitative information on breast images, allowing an accurate tissue identification. The study was carried out at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy), where a mastectomy specimen was investigated with the EIXPCi technique. The sample was exposed at three different energies suitable for mammography with synchrotron radiation in order to test the validity of the novel algorithm in extracting values of linear attenuation coefficients integrated over the sample thickness. It is demonstrated that the quantitative data are in good agreement with the theoretical values of linear attenuation coefficients calculated on the hypothesis of the breast with a given composition. The results are promising and encourage the current efforts to apply the method in mammography with synchrotron radiation. (note)

  19. Set-up and first operation of a plasma oven for treatment of low level radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtrodt Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental device for plasma treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste was built and tested in several design variations. The laboratory device is designed with the intention to study the general effects and difficulties in a plasma incineration set-up for the further future development of a larger scale pilot plant. The key part of the device consists of a novel microwave plasma torch driven by 200 W electric power, and operating at atmospheric pressure. It is a specific design characteristic of the torch that a high peak temperature can be reached with a low power input compared to other plasma torches. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the effect of the plasma on materials typical for operational low-level wastes. In some preliminary cold tests the behavior of stable volatile species e. g., caesium was investigated by TXRF measurements of material collected from the oven walls and the filtered off-gas. The results help in improving and scaling up the existing design and in understanding the effects for a pilot plant, especially for the off-gas collection and treatment.

  20. The alpha-particle irradiator set up at the ISS for radiobiological studies on targeted and non-targeted effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, G.; Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the alpha-particle irradiator that has been set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) for controlled exposure of cultured mammalian cells. It can be equipped with two different sources, namely 2'4'4'Cm and 2'4'1'Am, allowing irradiation at different dose-rates (typically 1-100 mGy/min). The irradiator has dimensions small enough to be inserted into a standard cell culture incubator to perform irradiation of cultured cells in physiological conditions. The dose uniformity is such that the variations in the irradiation area are less than ± 12% of the average dose value on different irradiation areas up to ∼ 25 cm'2. Moreover, in the framework of the FP6 Euratom Integrated Project Non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation (NOTE), Petri dishes were realized for housing permeable membrane insert(s) to be used in co-culture experiments. Aluminium shields were also realized for half shield irradiation experiments. The alpha-particle irradiator of the ISS has been successfully used for studying DNA damage, namely double strand breaks (DSB, as measured by the γ-H2AX assay), in directly hit and in bystander primary human fibroblasts [it

  1. An experimental set-up to study carbon, water, and nitrate uptake rates by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, J L; Le Bot, J; Gary, C; Sappe, G; Orlando, P; Brunel, B; Sarrouy, C

    1996-01-01

    The experimental system described allows concomitant hourly measurements of CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by plants grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. Plants are enclosed in an airtight chamber through which air flows at a controlled speed. Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration rates are determined from respective differences of concentrations of CO2 and water vapor of the air at the system inlet and outlet. This set-up is based on the "open-system" principle with improvements made on existing systems. For instance, propeller anemometers are used to monitor air flow rates in the chamber. From their signal it is possible to continuously adjust air speed to changing environmental conditions and plant activity. The air temperature inside the system therefore never rises above that outside. Water and NO3 uptake rates are calculated at time intervals from changes in the volume and the NO3 concentration of the nutrient solution in contact with the roots. The precise measurement of the volume of solution is achieved using a balance which has a higher precision than any liquid level sensors. Nitrate concentration is determined in the laboratory from aliquots of solution sampled at time intervals. A number of test runs are reported which validate the measurements and confirm undisturbed conditions within the system. Results of typical diurnal changes in CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by fruiting tomato plants are also presented.

  2. Design and setting up of a system for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vasil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems for remote monitoring and control of the proper operation, energy consumption, and efficiency of the controlled objects are very often used in different spheres of industry, in the electricity distribution network, etc. Various types of intelligent energy meters, PLCs and other control devices are involved in such systems. Proper operation of the auxiliary machines in electric vehicles is of great importance and implementation of a system for their remote monitoring and control is useful and ensures reliability and increased efficiency. A system has been designed and built using contemporary devices. An asynchronous motor is controlled by a soft starter and opportunities for remote monitoring (by an intelligent energy meter and control (by a PLC and Touch panel have been provided. Soft starters are widely used in industry for control on asynchronous drives when speed regulation is not a mandatory requirement. They are cheaper than inverters and frequency converters and allow for temporal reduction of the torque and current surge during start-up, as well as smooth deceleration. Therefore they can also be used in electric vehicles to control auxiliary machines (pumps, fans, air coolers, compressors, etc.. The present paper presents a methodology for their design and setting up.

  3. [Multiple sclerosis epidemiological situation update: pertinence and set-up of a population based registry of new cases in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, S; Batlle, J; Bonaventura, I; Brieva, Ll; Bufill, E; Cano, A; Carmona, O; Escartín, A; Marco, M; Moral, E; Munteis, E; Nos, C; Pericot, I; Perkal, H; Ramió-Torrentà, Ll; Ramo-Tello, C; Saiz, A; Sastre-Garriga, J; Tintoré, M; Vaqué, J; Montalban, X

    2010-05-16

    The first epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) around the world pictured a north to south latitudinal gradient that led to the first genetic and environmental pathogenic hypothesis. MS incidence seems to be increasing during the past 20 years based on recent data from prospective studies performed in Europe, America and Asia. This phenomenon could be explained by a better case ascertainment as well as a change in causal factors. The few prospective studies in our area together with the increase in the disease in other regions, justifies an epidemiological MS project in order to describe the incidence and temporal trends of MS. A prospective multicenter MS registry has been established according to the actual requirements of an epidemiological surveillance system. Case definition is based on the fulfillment of the McDonald diagnostic criteria. The registry setting is the geographical area of Cataluna (northeastern Spain), using a wide network of hospitals specialized in MS management. Recent epidemiological studies have described an increase in MS incidence. In order to contrast this finding in our area, we consider appropriate to set up a population based registry.

  4. Role of Papanicolaou Smear in the Diagnosis of Pathologic Flora in Asymptomatic Patients in Rural Health Care Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siona Sabu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infections of female genital tract, especially the cervix are asymptomatic in presentation and pose a diagnostic challenge. Vaginal infections can lead to cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities in the epithelial cells. Additionally, these infections could augur an inflammatory response of varying nature. The most common flora include Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, Human Herpes Virus (HHV and Actinomyces sp. Aim: This study seeks to measure the role of Papanicolaou smear in detection of pathologic flora: Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, HPV, HHV and Actinomyces; in a rural health care set up amongst women in the reproductive and menopausal age group. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of cervical smears by Papanicolaou method, over a 14 month period was carried out in a tertiary care centre including a total number of 150 patients. Results: Of the total of 150 samples examined, Candida species was the most frequently detected (8.7% followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (5.3% and Gardnerella vaginalis species (4.7%. HPV-induced changes were noted in a mere 2% of cases. Actinomyces species was noted in less than 1% of cases. Conclusion: The Papanicolaou test for examining cervical smear has definite uses in detecting vaginal microorganisms. Apart from detection of the usual pathogenic flora, the test has utility in defining the degree of inflammation and additional reparative changes.

  5. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn

    2008-01-01

    by the relative weight change over time. Results: The SD of the translational and rotational random set-up errors during the first three sessions for H&N were 0.9 mm (Left-Right), 1.1mm (Anterior-Posterior), 0.7 mm (Cranio-Caudal) and 0.7 degrees (LR-axis), 0.5 degrees (AP-axis), and 0.7 degrees (CC......-axis). The equivalent data for lung cancer patients were 1.1 mm (LR), 1.1mm (AP), 1.5 mm (CC) and 0.5 degrees (LR-axis), 0.6 degrees (AP-axis), and 0.4 degrees (CC-axis). The median BMI for H&N and lung was 25.8 (17.6-39.7) and 23.7 (17.4-38.8), respectively. The median weekly weight change for H&N was -0.3% (-2.0 to 1...... (H&N) and 20 lung cancer patients were investigated. Patients were positioned using customized immobilization devices consisting of vacuum cushions and thermoplastic shells. Treatment was given on an Elekta Synergy accelerator. Cone-beam acquisitions were obtained according to a standardized Action...

  6. Social and cultural resources for the setting up and functioning of family enterprises in a small Bulgarian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a field of culture, the family enterprise shows that in the current European societies the economic operation does not proceed only from a purely rational point of view and that notwithstanding the common speaking of globalization, the local may be a prerequisite for successful economic development. My objective has been to show, proceeding from an example from a small Bulgarian town, that the family enterprise is a field of culture in which the observed phenomena are strongly influenced by the social inclusion of the enterprise and by its tie-up with the context of the urban environment. I shall investigate in what way local social and cultural resources are intensively used in the process of setting up and functioning of a family enterprise from the sphere of hoteldom and tourism in the town of Belogradchik. I intend to study whether these resources are conducive to the economic prosperity of the firm. Another research objective is to establish the manner of identification of the enterprise with the town, with the region and the local culture by way of the services provided (tourist and restaurant. I shall look for an answer to the question of how the enterprise’ working realm fits in the concrete cultural, historical and social context of the town.

  7. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2014-01-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence, an external beam facility is fully dedicated to measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol. The experimental set-up hitherto used for this kind of applications has been upgraded with the replacement of a traditional Si(Li) detector for the detection of medium–high Z elements with a silicon drift detector (SDD) with a big active area (80 mm{sup 2}) and 450 μm thickness, with the aim of obtaining better minimum detection limits (MDL) and reduce measuring times. The Upilex extraction window has been replaced by a more resistant one (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). A comparison between the old Si(Li) and the new SDD for aerosol samples collected on different substrata like Teflon, Kapton and Nuclepore evidenced the better performances of the SDD. It allows obtaining better results (higher counting statistics, lower MDLs) even in shorter measuring times, thus allowing very fast analysis of both daily and hourly samples.

  8. The Impact of use of Double Set-up on Infection Rates in Revision Total Knee Replacement and Limb Salvage Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Waterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the impact of utilizing a double set-up procedure on reducing infection rates revision total knee and limb salvage procedures in patients with known joint infection.  Eighteen cases fit selection criteria.  The recurrence rate of infection was 5.5% which is less than reported recent literature review.   This suggests the use of a double set-up in combination with other infection reducing protocols may help further reduce recurrent infection.  Keywords: double set-up, infection, revision total knee arthroplasty, limb-salvage

  9. Beta, gamma contamination analysis of thermo luminescence dosimeter cassettes using Geiger Muller counting set up and gamma spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.K.; Sudheer, T.S.; Sahoo, L.; Vinayagam, Bhakti; Kamble, Mahesh; Khuspe, R.R.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Verma, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Β-γ contamination cheek up of TLD cassettes were carried out and the isotopes found were 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 144 Ce and 95 Nb with activity per square cm varying from 0.05-4.70 Bq/cm 2 with median value 1.3. The assessed dose in TLD was in the range of 2.10 mSv to 22.05 mSv for beta, 0.05 mSv to 5.25 mSv for gamma. The beta doses have median value of 6.19 mSv. This contamination may be due to active water contamination on TLD's of personnel working for irradiated fuel handling or work in fuel rod (under water) storage area. This gives a method to estimate skin exposure of personnel due to skin contamination during work. Chances of getting TLD's contaminated due to various reasons were studied. Contamination was found maximum inside the cassette box having area 16 cm 2 . In case of plastic pouch of TLD disc contamination was detected in three cases. Contamination level on TLD cassettes using GM counter was found in the range of 0.30-3.6 Bq/cm 2 for cassettes. By opening the window of the surveymeter contamination and field of these cassettes in closed condition were found to increase by 20% due to the measurement of beta dose. With the same condition contamination of TLD cassette in open condition was found five times more. This is due to the a-contamination which is five times more than a contamination, The most prominent isotope 137 Cs in common chemical forms are soluble in water and if inhaled or ingested are rapidly and completely absorbed in the lungs and across the gastrointestinal tract. Thus a skin contamination of most prominent isotope 137 Cs can lead to intake in addition to skin dose. Fading studies of contamination of TLD cassettes were carried out. It was found negligible after counting with GM counting set up after a period of 3 months. But one of the TLD cassettes was showing an 80% reduction of contamination after 3 months with GM counting set up, the contaminants being 141 Ce, 103 Ru and 95 Nb. The gamma peaks in the external exposure

  10. Set-up error in supine-positioned patients immobilized with two different modalities during conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, C.; Cattaneo, G.M.; Calandrino, R.; Reni, M.; Bolognesi, A.; Bonini, A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Conformal radiotherapy requires reduced margins around the clinical target volume (CTV) with respect to traditional radiotherapy techniques. Therefore, high set-up accuracy and reproducibility are mandatory. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of two different immobilization techniques during conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer with small fields. Materials and methods: 52 patients with prostate cancer were treated by conformal three- or four-field techniques with radical or adjuvant intent between November 1996 and March 1998. In total, 539 portal images were collected on a weekly basis for at least the first 4 weeks of the treatment on lateral and anterior 18 MV X-ray fields. The average number of sessions monitored per patient was 5.7 (range 4-10). All patients were immobilized with an alpha-cradle system; 25 of them were immobilized at the pelvis level (group A) and the remaining 27 patients were immobilized in the legs (group B). The shifts with respect to the simulation condition were assessed by measuring the distances between the same bony landmarks and the field edges. The global distributions of cranio-caudal (CC), posterior-anterior (PA) and left-right (LR) shifts were considered; for each patient random and systematic error components were assessed by following the procedure suggested by Bijhold et al. (Bijhold J, Lebesque JV, Hart AAM, Vijlbrief RE. Maximising set-up accuracy using portal images as applied to a conformal boost technique for prostatic cancer. Radiother. Oncol. 1992;24:261-271). For each patient the average isocentre (3D) shift was assessed as the quadratic sum of the average shifts in the three directions. Results 5 mm equal to 4.4% with respect to the 21.6% of group A (P<0.0001). This value was also better than the corresponding value found in a previously investigated group of 21 non-immobilized patients (Italia C, Fiorino C, Ciocca M, et al. Quality control by portal film analysis of the conformal radiotherapy

  11. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics, University of Florence and INFN, Florence (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)technique has been widely used since its birth for the study of the aerosol composition, and for a long time it has been the dominating technique for its elemental analysis. However now it has to compete with other techniques, like Induced Coupled Plasma and detection by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) or Synchrotron Radiation XRF (SR-XRF). To remain competitive, a proper experimental set-up is important to fully exploit PIXE capabilities. At LABEC, an external beam line is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of atmospheric aerosols [1]. Recently SDD (Silicon Drift Detectors) have been introduced for X-ray detection thanks to their better resolution with respect to Si(Li) detectors and the possibility of managing high counting rates (up to 50 kHz at 0.5 μsec shaping time). This implies, in turn, the possibility of using very high beam currents thus drastically reducing the measurement time. However their use for a complete characterization of X-rays was limited by the small thickness and surface areas available. Now SDD with a thickness of 500 μm and 80 mm{sup 2} area have been introduced in the market. We have therefore replaced the Si(Li) detector used so far for the detection of medium-high Z elements with such a SDD. A comparison of the two detectors has been carried out; PIXE minimum detection limits (MDLs) at different proton beam energies have been studied to find out the best energy for PIXE measurements on aerosol samples collected on different substrata, namely Teflon, Kapton, Nuclepore and Kimfol, used for daily or hourly sampling or for cascade impactors. In particular in the case of Teflon filters, the production of γ-rays by F in the Teflon filter limits the current which may be used and the Compton γ-ray background worsens the MDLs. Due to the lower thickness of the SDD detector with respect to a typical Si(Li) detector, these problems are reduced

  12. Uncertainties in surface mass and energy flux estimates due to different eddy covariance sensors and technical set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriga, Nicola; Fratini, Gerardo; Forgione, Antonio; Tomassucci, Michele; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    Eddy covariance is a well established and widely used methodology for the measurement of turbulent fluxes of mass and energy in the atmospheric boundary layer, in particular to estimate CO2/H2O and heat exchange above ecologically relevant surfaces (Aubinet 2000, Baldocchi 2003). Despite its long term application and theoretical studies, many issues are still open about the effect of different experimental set-up on final flux estimates. Open issues are the evaluation of the performances of different kind of sensors (e.g. open path vs closed path infra-red gas analysers, vertical vs horizontal mounting ultrasonic anemometers), the quantification of the impact of corresponding physical corrections to be applied to get robust flux estimates taking in account all processes concurring to the measurement (e.g. the so-called WPL term, signal attenuation due to air sampling system for closed path analyser, relative position of analyser and anemometer) and the differences between several data transmission protocols used (analogue, digital RS-232, SDM). A field experiment was designed to study these issues using several instruments among those most used within the Fluxnet community and to compare their performances under conditions supposed to be critical: rainy and cold weather conditions for open-path analysers (Burba 2008), water transport and absorption at high air relative humidity conditions for closed-path systems (Ibrom, 2007), frequency sampling limits and recorded data robustness due to different transmission protocols (RS232, SDM, USB, Ethernet) and finally the effect of the displacement between anemometer and analyser using at least two identical analysers placed at different horizontal and vertical distances from the anemometer. Aim of this experiment is to quantify the effect of several technical solutions on the final estimates of fluxes measured at a point in the space and if they represent a significant source of uncertainty for mass and energy cycle

  13. The wasted energy: A metric to set up appropriate targets in our path towards fully renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinagre Díaz, Juan José; Wilby, Mark Richard; Rodríguez González, Ana Belén

    2015-01-01

    By 2020 Europe has to increase its energy efficiency and share of renewables in 20%. However, even accomplishing these challenging objectives Europe will be effectively wasting energy as we demonstrate in this paper. In our way towards a fully renewable scenario, we need at least to stop wasting energy in order to guarantee the energy supply needed for growth and comfort. We waste energy when we employ more primary energy than the final energy we ultimately use and this excess cannot be reutilized. In this paper we propose the WE (wasted energy) as a novel metric to measure the performance of energy systems and set up appropriate targets. The WE incorporates information about energy efficiency and renewable sources. Unlike European legislation, the WE considers them in an integrated way. This approach will help Member States to exploit their intrinsic capabilities and design their optimum strategy to reach their objectives. Using the information in Eurostat, we calculate the WE of Member States in EU-28 and their evolution. We also analyze illustrative examples to highlight strategies to reduce the WE, study the connection between economic development and WE, and provide a tool to diagnose the potential of improvement of an energy system. - Highlights: • Even achieving the 2020 objectives, Europe will still be wasting energy. • We need to reduce wasted energy in our way towards 100% renewable energy systems. • The WE (wasted energy) integrates efficiency and renewable in a single target. • We provide the empirical WE of Member States in EU-28 and their evolution. • Finally we highlight best practices of real energy systems.

  14. Setting up a safe deep repository for long-lived HLW and ILW in Russia: Current state of the works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Yu.D.; Porsov, A.Yu.; Beigul, V.P.; Palenov, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of RW disposal in Russia in accordance with the Federal Law 'On Radioactive Waste Management and Amendments to Specific Legal Acts of the Russian Federation' No. 190-FL dated 11 July 2011, is oriented at the ultimate disposal of waste, without an intent for their subsequent retrieval. The law 190-FL has it as follows: - A radioactive waste repository is a radioactive waste storage facility intended for disposal of the radioactive wastes without an intent for their subsequent retrieval. - Disposal of solid long-lived high-level waste and solid long-lived intermediate-level waste is carried out in deep repositories for radioactive waste. - Import into the Russian Federation of radioactive waste for the purpose of its storage, processing and disposal, except for spent sealed sources of ionising radiation originating from the Russian Federation, is prohibited. For safe final disposal of long-lived HLW and ILW, it is planned to construct a deep repository for radioactive waste (DRRW) in a low-pervious monolith rock massif in the Krasnoyarsk region in the production territory of the Mining and Chemical Combine (FSUE 'Gorno-khimicheskiy kombinat'). According to the IAEA recommendations and in line with the international experience in feasibility studies for setting up of HLW and SNF underground disposal facilities, the first mandatory step is the construction of an underground research laboratory. An underground laboratory serves the following purposes: - itemised research into the characteristics of enclosing rock mass, with verification of massive material suitability for safe disposal of long-lived HLW and ILW; - research into and verification of the isolating properties of an engineering barrier system; - development of engineering solutions and transportation and process flow schemes for construction and running of a future RW ultimate isolation facility. (authors)

  15. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L; Van Hecke, H; Van Duyse, B; De Neve, W; De Meerleer, B [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P; Van Renthergem, K [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  16. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B.; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible

  17. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwambazi Mwate

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to December 2009 were followed. Data on nutritional status, socio-demographic factors, and admission medical conditions were collected up on enrollment. T-test and chi-square tests were used to compare difference in mean or percentage values. Logistic regression was used to assess risk of mortality by admission characteristics. Results Majority, 55.3% (238/430 were boys. The median age of the cohort was 17 months (inter-quartile range, IQR 12-22. Among the children, 68.9% (295/428 had edema at admission. The majority of the children, 67.3% (261/388, presented with diarrhea; 38.9% (162/420 tested HIV positive; and 40.5% (174/430 of the children died. The median Length of stay of the cohort was 9 days (IQR, 5-14 days; 30.6% (53/173 of the death occurred within 48 hours of admission. Children with diarrhea on admission had two and half times higher odds of mortality than those without diarrhea; Adjusted OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.50-4.09, P Conclusion Diarrhea is a major cause of complication in children with severe acute malnutrition. Under the current standard management approach, diarrhea in children with SAM was found to increase their odds of death substantially irrespective of other factors.

  18. Set-up errors in radiotherapy for oesophageal cancers - Is electronic portal imaging or conebeam more accurate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Maria A.; Aitken, Alexandra; Hansen, Vibeke N.; McNair, Helen A.; Tait, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare kV computed tomography (CBCT) with electronic portal imaging (EPI) and evaluate set-up variations in the anterior-posterior (AP), right-left (LR) and cranio-caudal (CC) directions and rotational variations: pitch, roll, and yaw, for oesophageal cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer treated with chemoradiation were consented for this prospective ethics approved protocol. Patients were positioned using skin marks/tattoos, kV-CBCT scans (XVI) and EPI's were performed prior to treatment and registered to the planning CT scans and digitally reconstructed radiographs, respectively. XVI data was used to adjust patient setups before treatment delivery. A total of 122 EPI pairs and 207 CBCT scans were analysed. The systematic and random errors were calculated. Results: The systematic and random errors (mm) for XVI were 1.3, 1.7, 1.4 and 2.6, 3.9, 2.0 in RL, CC and AP direction, respectively, with EPI of similar magnitude. There was no correlation between the 2 modalities of imaging as 31.7% of all image pairs were discordant >3 mm and 12.5% >5 mm. XVI identified rotations >3 o in 44 images. Conclusions: EPI results in different position correction for verification of radiotherapy in oesophageal malignancies when compared with CBCT. CBCT verification offers adequate 3D volumetric image quality to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery for oesophageal malignancies in radiotherapy and should be used for image guidance.

  19. A knowledge brokerage approach for assessing the impacts of the setting up young farmers policy measure in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaris, Th.; Moulogianni, Ch.; Arampatzis, S.; Kiomourtzi, F.; Wascher, D.M.; Manos, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.

  20. Roll and pitch set-up errors during volumetric modulated arc delivery: can adapting gantry and collimator angles compensate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmans-Holtzer, Nienke A; Hoffmans, Daan; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether adapting gantry and collimator angles can compensate for roll and pitch setup errors during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery. Previously delivered clinical plans for locally advanced head-and-neck (H&N) cancer (n = 5), localized prostate cancer (n = 2), and whole brain with simultaneous integrated boost to 5 metastases (WB + 5M, n = 1) were used for this study. Known rigid rotations were introduced in the planning CT scans. To compensate for these, in-house software was used to adapt gantry and collimator angles in the plan. Doses to planning target volumes (PTV) and critical organs at risk (OAR) were calculated with and without compensation and compared with the original clinical plan. Measurements in the sagittal plane in a polystyrene phantom using radiochromic film were compared by gamma (γ) evaluation for 2 H&N cancer patients. For H&N plans, the introduction of 2°-roll and 3°-pitch rotations reduced mean PTV coverage from 98.7 to 96.3%. This improved to 98.1% with gantry and collimator compensation. For prostate plans respective figures were 98.4, 97.5, and 98.4%. For WB + 5M, compensation worked less well, especially for smaller volumes and volumes farther from the isocenter. Mean comparative γ evaluation (3%, 1 mm) between original and pitched plans resulted in 86% γ plan restored the mean comparison to 96% γ < 1. Preliminary data suggest that adapting gantry and collimator angles is a promising way to correct roll and pitch set-up errors of < 3° during VMAT for H&N and prostate cancer.

  1. A knowledge brokerage approach for assessing the impacts of the setting up young farmers policy measure in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaris, Th.; Moulogianni, Ch.; Arampatzis, S.; Kiomourtzi, F. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Wascher, D.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR (Netherlands); Manos, B., E-mail: manosb@agro.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.

  2. Limets 2: a hot-cell test set-up for Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) studies in liquid lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, J.; Bosch, R.W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the nuclear energy sector one of the main candidate designs for the accelerator driven system (ADS) uses liquid lead or lead bismuth eutectic both as a coolant and as spallation target. In the fusion community liquid lead lithium eutectic is considered as a possible coolant for the blanket and as a tritium source. Therefore the candidate materials for such structural components should not only comply with the operating conditions but in addition need to guarantee chemical and physical integrity when coming into contact with the lead alloys. The latter phenomena can be manifested in terms of erosion/corrosion. and/or of the so called liquid metal embrittlement (LME). Thus the susceptibility to LME of the structural materials under consideration to be used in such applications should be investigated in contact with the various lead alloys. LME, if occurring in any solid metal/liquid meta] couple, is likely to increase with irradiation hardening as localised stresses and crack initiations can promote it. To investigate the mechanical response of irradiated materials in contact with a liquid metal under representative conditions, a dedicated testing facility has recently been developed and built at our centre. It consists of an instrumented hot cell. equipped with a testing machine that allows mechanical testing of active materials in contact with active liquid lead lithium and liquid lead bismuth under well controlled chemistry conditions. The specificity of the installation is to handle highly activated and contaminated samples. Also a dedicated dismantling set-up has been developed that allows to retrieve the samples from the irradiation rig without any supplementary damage. In this presentation we will focus on the technical design of this new installation, its special features that have been developed to allow testing in a hot environment and the modifications and actions that have been taken to allow testing in liquid lead

  3. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Fassi, Aurora [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zaffino, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit—CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  4. Mid-Pliocene global climate simulation with MRI-CGCM2.3: set-up and initial results of PlioMIP Experiments 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamae

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Pliocene (3.3 to 3.0 million yr ago, a globally warm period before the Quaternary, is recently attracting attention as a new target for paleoclimate modelling and data-model synthesis. This paper reports set-ups and results of experiments proposed in Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP using a global climate model, MRI-CGCM2.3. We conducted pre-industrial and mid-Pliocene runs by using the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM and its atmospheric component (AGCM for the PlioMIP Experiments 2 and 1, respectively. In addition, we conducted two types of integrations in AOGCM simulation, with and without flux adjustments on sea surface. General characteristics of differences in the simulated mid-Pliocene climate relative to the pre-industrial in the three integrations are compared. In addition, patterns of predicted mid-Pliocene biomes resulting from the three climate simulations are compared in this study. Generally, difference of simulated surface climate between AGCM and AOGCM is larger than that between the two AOGCM runs, with and without flux adjustments. The simulated climate shows different pattern between AGCM and AOGCM particularly over low latitude oceans, subtropical land regions and high latitude oceans. The AOGCM simulations do not reproduce wetter environment in the subtropics relative to the present-day, which is suggested by terrestrial proxy data. The differences between the two types of AOGCM runs are small over the land, but evident over the ocean particularly in the North Atlantic and polar regions.

  5. In Search of the Economic Sustainability of Hadron Therapy: The Real Cost of Setting Up and Operating a Hadron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.vanderstraeten@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); De Croock, Roger [Belgian Hadron Therapy Center Foundation, Brussels (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried; Lievens, Yolande [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the treatment cost and required reimbursement for a new hadron therapy facility, considering different technical solutions and financing methods. Methods and Materials: The 3 technical solutions analyzed are a carbon only (COC), proton only (POC), and combined (CC) center, each operating 2 treatment rooms and assumed to function at full capacity. A business model defines the required reimbursement and analyzes the financial implications of setting up a facility over time; activity-based costing (ABC) calculates the treatment costs per type of patient for a center in a steady state of operation. Both models compare a private, full-cost approach with public sponsoring, only taking into account operational costs. Results: Yearly operational costs range between €10.0M (M = million) for a publicly sponsored POC to €24.8M for a CC with private financing. Disregarding inflation, the average treatment cost calculated with ABC (COC: €29,450; POC: €46,342; CC: €46,443 for private financing; respectively €16,059, €28,296, and €23,956 for public sponsoring) is slightly lower than the required reimbursement based on the business model (between €51,200 in a privately funded POC and €18,400 in COC with public sponsoring). Reimbursement for privately financed centers is very sensitive to a delay in commissioning and to the interest rate. Higher throughput and hypofractionation have a positive impact on the treatment costs. Conclusions: Both calculation methods are valid and complementary. The financially most attractive option of a publicly sponsored COC should be balanced to the clinical necessities and the sociopolitical context.

  6. In Search of the Economic Sustainability of Hadron Therapy: The Real Cost of Setting Up and Operating a Hadron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Verstraete, Jan; De Croock, Roger; De Neve, Wilfried; Lievens, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the treatment cost and required reimbursement for a new hadron therapy facility, considering different technical solutions and financing methods. Methods and Materials: The 3 technical solutions analyzed are a carbon only (COC), proton only (POC), and combined (CC) center, each operating 2 treatment rooms and assumed to function at full capacity. A business model defines the required reimbursement and analyzes the financial implications of setting up a facility over time; activity-based costing (ABC) calculates the treatment costs per type of patient for a center in a steady state of operation. Both models compare a private, full-cost approach with public sponsoring, only taking into account operational costs. Results: Yearly operational costs range between €10.0M (M = million) for a publicly sponsored POC to €24.8M for a CC with private financing. Disregarding inflation, the average treatment cost calculated with ABC (COC: €29,450; POC: €46,342; CC: €46,443 for private financing; respectively €16,059, €28,296, and €23,956 for public sponsoring) is slightly lower than the required reimbursement based on the business model (between €51,200 in a privately funded POC and €18,400 in COC with public sponsoring). Reimbursement for privately financed centers is very sensitive to a delay in commissioning and to the interest rate. Higher throughput and hypofractionation have a positive impact on the treatment costs. Conclusions: Both calculation methods are valid and complementary. The financially most attractive option of a publicly sponsored COC should be balanced to the clinical necessities and the sociopolitical context

  7. "helix Nebula - the Science Cloud", a European Science Driven Cross-Domain Initiative Implemented in via AN Active Ppp Set-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, W.; Mondon, E.; Bégin, M. E.; Ferrer, M.; Vallois, F.; DelaMar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Helix Nebula, a European science cross-domain initiative building on an active PPP, is aiming to implement the concept of an open science commons[1] while using a cloud hybrid model[2] as the proposed implementation solution. This approach allows leveraging and merging of complementary data intensive Earth Science disciplines (e.g. instrumentation[3] and modeling), without introducing significant changes in the contributors' operational set-up. Considering the seamless integration with life-science (e.g. EMBL), scientific exploitation of meteorological, climate, and Earth Observation data and models open an enormous potential for new big data science. The work of Helix Nebula has shown that is it feasible to interoperate publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [5] and GEANT [6], with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom and choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom and choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility, service quality agreements and related issues need to be addressed. Finding solutions to these issues is one of the goals of the Helix Nebula initiative. [1] http://www.egi.eu/news-and-media/publications/OpenScienceCommons_v3.pdf [2] http://www.helix-nebula.eu/events/towards-the-european-open-science-cloud [3] e.g. https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/sentinel-data-access [5] http://www.egi.eu/ [6] http://www.geant.net/

  8. Automation and robotization of the set-up and treatment for patients treated for a brain and base of the skull tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Ferrand, R.; Feuvret, L.; Meyroneinc, S.; Mazeron, J.J.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Progresses of the three-dimensional imageries and of the software of planning systems makes that the radiotherapy of the tumours of brain and the base of skull is increasingly precise. The set-up of the patients and the positioning of the beams are key acts whose realization can become extremely tiresome if the requirement of precision increases. This precision very often rests still on the visual comparison of digital images. In the near future, the development of the automated systems controlled by robots should allow a noticeable improvement of the precision, safety and speed of the patient set-up. (author)

  9. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M.E.; Gueli, A.M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented

  10. Sensitivity study of the UHI in the city of Szeged (Hungary) to different offline simulation set-ups using SURFEX/TEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsebeházi, Gabriella; Hamdi, Rafiq; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    Urbanised areas modify the local climate due to the physical properties of surface subjects and their morphology. The urban effect on local climate and regional climate change interact, resulting in more serious climate change impacts (e.g., more heatwave events) over cities. Majority of people are now living in cities and thus, affected by these enhanced changes. Therefore, targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies in cities are of high importance. Regional climate models (RCMs) are sufficient tools for estimating future climate change of an area in detail, although most of them cannot represent the urban climate characteristics, because their spatial resolution is too coarse (in general 10-50 km) and they do not use a specific urban parametrization over urbanized areas. To describe the interactions between the urban surface and atmosphere on few km spatial scale, we use the externalised SURFEX land surface scheme including the TEB urban canopy model in offline mode (i.e. the interaction is only one-way). The driving atmospheric conditions highly influence the impact results, thus the good quality of these data is particularly essential. The overall aim of our research is to understand the behaviour of the impact model and its interaction with the forcing coming from the atmospheric model in order to reduce the biases, which can lead to qualified impact studies of climate change over urban areas. As a preliminary test, several short (few-day) 1 km resolution simulations are carried out over a domain covering a Hungarian town, Szeged, which is located at the flat southern part of Hungary. The atmospheric forcing is provided by ALARO (a new version of the limited-area model of the ARPEGE-IFS system running at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) applied over Hungary. The focal point of our investigations is the ability of SURFEX to simulate the diurnal evolution and spatial pattern of urban heat island (UHI). Different offline simulation set-ups have

  11. Snow cover setting-up dates in the north of Eurasia: relations and feedback to the macro-scale atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of snow cover onset data in 1950–2008 based on daily snow depth data collected at first-order meteorological stations of the former USSR compiled at the Russia Institute of Hydrometeorological Information are analyzed in order to reveal climatic norms, relations with macro-scale atmospheric circulation and influence of snow cover anomalies on strengthening/weakening of westerly basing on observational data and results of simulation using model Planet Simulator, as well. Patterns of mean snow cover setting-up data and their correlation with temperature of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical land presented in Fig. 1 show that the most sensible changes observed in last decade are caused by temperature trend since 1990th. For the most portion of the studied territory variations of snow cover setting-up data may be explained by the circulation indices in the terms of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns: Scand, EA–WR, WP and NAO (Fig. 2. Role of the Scand and EA–WR (see Fig. 2, а, в, г is recognized as the most significant.Changes of snow cover extent calculated on the base of snow cover onset data over the Russia territory, and its western and eastern parts as well, for the second decade of October (Fig. 3 demonstrate significant difference in variability between eastern and western regions. Eastern part of territory essentially differs by lower both year-to-year and long-term variations in the contrast to the western part, characterized by high variance including long-term tendencies: increase in 1950–70th and decrease in 1970–80 and during last six years. Nevertheless relations between snow cover anomalies and Arctic Oscillation (AO index appear to be significant exceptionally for the eastern part of the territory. In the same time negative linear correlation revealed between snow extent and AO index changes during 1950–2008 from statistically insignificant values (in 1950–70 and 1996–2008 to coefficient

  12. The setting up and running of a cross-county out-of-hours gastrointestinal bleed service: a possible blueprint for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Bahman N; Khan, Mohammad; Carter, Martyn J; Khan, Nasser Q; Mills, Philip; Morris, Danielle; Rowlands, David E; Samsheer, Kote; Sargeant, Ian R; McIntyre, Peter B; Greenfield, Simon M

    2013-07-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) results in 25 000 hospital admissions annually. Patients admitted at weekends with AUGIB have increased mortality, and guidelines advise out-of-hours endoscopy. We present retrospective data from our service involving the interhospital transfer of patients. We pooled resources of two neighbouring general hospitals, just north of London. Emergency endoscopy is performed at the start of the list followed by elective endoscopy in the endoscopy unit on Saturday and Sunday mornings. From Friday evening to Sunday morning, patients admitted to Queen Elizabeth II Hospital (QEII) are medically stabilised and transferred to Lister Hospital by ambulance. 240 endoscopies were performed out of hours from December 2007 to March 2011. Of these, 54 patients were transferred: nine had emergency endoscopy at QEII as they were medically unstable; eight of the patients transferred required therapeutic intervention for active bleeding. The mean pre-endoscopy Rockall score of those transferred was 2.5. We examined the records of 51 of the 54 patients transferred. There were three deaths within 30 days after endoscopy not associated with the transfer process. 19 (37%) patients had reduced hospitalisation after having their endoscopy at the weekend. The introduction of the out-of-hours endoscopy service in our trust has had multiple benefits, including patients consistently receiving timely emergency endoscopy, significantly reduced disruption to emergency operating theatres, and participation of endoscopy nurses ensures a better and safer experience for patients, and better endoscopy decontamination. We suggest our model is safe and feasible for other small units wishing to set up their own out-of-hours endoscopy service to adopt.

  13. Development of an Educational Game to Set Up Surgical Instruments on the Mayo Stand or Back Table: Applied Research in Production Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Crislaine Pires Padilha; Goldmeier, Silvia

    2017-01-10

    Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education. The study was characterized by applied research in production technology. It included the phases of analysis and design, development, and evaluation. The objectives of the educational game were developed through Bloom's taxonomy. Parallel to the physical development of the educational game, a proposed model for the use of digital elements in educational game activities was applied to develop the game content. The development of the game called "Playing with Tweezers" was carried out in 3 phases and was evaluated by 15 participants, comprising students and professional experts in various areas of knowledge such as nursing, information technology, and education. An environment was created with an initial screen, menu buttons containing the rules of the game, and virtual tour modes for learning and assessment. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, reality, and entertainment, not just readings. "Playing with Tweezers" is an example of educational gaming as an innovative teaching strategy in nursing that encourages the strategy of involving the use of educational games to support theoretical or practical classroom teaching. Thus, the teacher does not work with only 1 type of teaching methodology, but with a combination of different methodologies. In addition, we cannot forget that skill training in an educational game does not

  14. On the Optimal Policy for the Single-product Inventory Problem with Set-up Cost and a Restricted Production Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foreest, N. D. van; Wijngaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    The single-product, stationary inventory problem with set-up cost is one of the classical problems in stochastic operations research. Theories have been developed to cope with finite production capacity in periodic review systems, and it has been proved that optimal policies for these cases are not

  15. Operational behavior of the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up. We derive the vector generating functions of the queue length at an arbitrary time and at departures in decomposed forms. We also derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time. Computation algorithms for mean performance measures are provided.

  16. Electronical set-up and on-line data processing for the determination of the cross section of the reaction 1H(n,d)γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutsch, J.; Moesner, J.; Schmidt, G.; Stiehler, T.; Kudin, L.G.; Spiridenkov, E.M.; Volkov, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief description of the physical problem the electronical set-up for the investigation of the reaction 1 H(n,d)γ at Esub(n) = 25 MeV and the connection with the on-line computer are described in the first part of the present work. The second part includes the software and the data handling. (author)

  17. CAMAC - supported electronic set-up for the determination of the capture cross section of the reaction 1H(n,d)γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutsch, J.; Moeller, K.; Moesner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pilz, W.; Schmidt, G.; Stiehler, T.; Kudin, L.G.; Spiridenkov, E.M.; Volkov, S.S.

    1984-08-01

    After a brief description of the physical problem the experimental apparatus and the electronic set-up for the investigation of the capture reaction 1 H(n,d)γ at E/sub n/ = 25 MeV are described. (author)

  18. Effects of Inoculum Amount, Initial pH, and Nicotine Load on the Set-Up of Bioaugmented System with Pseudomonas Sp. HF-1 to Treat Tobacco Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated and optimized the influence of inoculum amount, initial pH, and nicotine load on the construction of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented system for tobacco wastewater treatment. The results demonstrated that the optimum condition for the set-up of strain HF-1 bioaugmented system was 1.10 mg/g (dry weight of strain HF-1/dry weight of activated sludge of inoculum amount, initial pH 7.0, and 250–1000 mg/L nicotine load. Higher than 1.10 mg/g could lead to noncolonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge and failure of set-up of this bioaugmented system. Higher than pH 8.0 could restrain the colonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge. Even though strain HF-1 colonizes in the activated sludge when pH was above 8.0, the removal of nicotine and total organic carbon (TOC was suppressed due to low activities of bacteria in the activated sludge. Nicotine load did not show inhibition effect on set-up of bioaugmented system, but the ability of TOC removal was restrained when the nicotine load was above 1000 mg/L. This work could offer vital parameters for the set-up of bioaugmented system to treat tobacco wastewater in engineering.

  19. Determination and evaluation of intra fractional and set-up changes during radiotherapy to the cervical carcinoma using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pankaj; Kumar, Rajesh; Birbiya, Narendra; Mishra, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Manisha; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    To confirm the accuracy of the location of the Fudicial markings in relation to the actual isocentre of the irradiated volume due to Intra-fractional and Set-Up changes in Cancer Cervix with the help of Cone Beam computed Tomography (CBCT)

  20. SU-F-I-03: Correction of Intra-Fractional Set-Up Errors and Target Coverage Based On Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Cervical Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, JY [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Hong, DL [The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient set-up error and interfraction target coverage in cervical cancer using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected. All patients were matched to the isocenter using laser with the skin markers. Three dimensional CBCT projections were acquired by the Varian Truebeam treatment system. Set-up errors were evaluated by radiation oncologists, after CBCT correction. The clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated on each CBCT, and the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of each CBCT-CTVs was analyzed. Results: A total of 152 CBCT scans were acquired from twenty cervical cancer patients, the mean set-up errors in the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral direction were 3.57, 2.74 and 2.5mm respectively, without CBCT corrections. After corrections, these were decreased to 1.83, 1.44 and 0.97mm. For the target coverage, CBCT-CTV coverage without CBCT correction was 94% (143/152), and 98% (149/152) with correction. Conclusion: Use of CBCT verfication to measure patient setup errors could be applied to improve the treatment accuracy. In addition, the set-up error corrections significantly improve the CTV coverage for cervical cancer patients.

  1. A new small-angle X-ray scattering set-up on the crystallography beamline I711 at MAX-lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, M.; Svensson, C.; Barauskas, J.

    2009-01-01

    A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) set-up has recently been developed at beamline I711 at the MAX II storage ring in Lund (Sweden). An overview of the required modifications is presented here together with a number of application examples. The accessible q range in a SAXS experiment is 0.009-0...

  2. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new patient set-up monitoring system using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors that can confirm pressure of contact surface and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on develop the patient set-up monitoring system to compensate for the limitation of existing optical based monitoring system, so the developed system can inform motion in the radiation therapy. The set-up monitoring system was designed consisting of sensor units (FSR sensor), signal conditioning devices (USB cable/interface electronics), a control PC, and a developed analysis software. The sensor unit was made by attaching FSR sensor and dispersing pressure sponge to prevent error which is caused by concentrating specific point. Measured signal from the FSR sensor was sampled to arduino mega 2560 microcontroller, transferred to control PC by using serial communication. The measured data went through normalization process. The normalized data was displayed through the developed graphic user interface (GUI) software. The software was designed to display a single sensor unit intensity (maximum 16 sensors) and display 2D pressure distribution (using 16 sensors) according to the purpose. Results: Changes of pressure value according to motion was confirmed by the developed set-up monitoring system. Very small movement such as little physical change in appearance can be confirmed using a single unit and using 2D pressure distribution. Also, the set-up monitoring system can observe in real time. Conclusion: In this study, we developed the new set-up monitoring system using FSR sensor. Especially, we expect that the new set-up monitoring system is suitable for motion monitoring of blind area that is hard to confirm existing optical system and compensate existing optical based monitoring system. As a further study, an integrated system will be constructed through correlation of existing optical monitoring system. This work was supported by

  3. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new patient set-up monitoring system using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors that can confirm pressure of contact surface and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on develop the patient set-up monitoring system to compensate for the limitation of existing optical based monitoring system, so the developed system can inform motion in the radiation therapy. The set-up monitoring system was designed consisting of sensor units (FSR sensor), signal conditioning devices (USB cable/interface electronics), a control PC, and a developed analysis software. The sensor unit was made by attaching FSR sensor and dispersing pressure sponge to prevent error which is caused by concentrating specific point. Measured signal from the FSR sensor was sampled to arduino mega 2560 microcontroller, transferred to control PC by using serial communication. The measured data went through normalization process. The normalized data was displayed through the developed graphic user interface (GUI) software. The software was designed to display a single sensor unit intensity (maximum 16 sensors) and display 2D pressure distribution (using 16 sensors) according to the purpose. Results: Changes of pressure value according to motion was confirmed by the developed set-up monitoring system. Very small movement such as little physical change in appearance can be confirmed using a single unit and using 2D pressure distribution. Also, the set-up monitoring system can observe in real time. Conclusion: In this study, we developed the new set-up monitoring system using FSR sensor. Especially, we expect that the new set-up monitoring system is suitable for motion monitoring of blind area that is hard to confirm existing optical system and compensate existing optical based monitoring system. As a further study, an integrated system will be constructed through correlation of existing optical monitoring system. This work was supported by

  4. Radiotherapy for breast cancer: respiratory and set-up uncertainties; Irradiation du cancer du sein: incertitudes liees aux mouvements respiratoires et au repositionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliou, M.G.; Giraud, P.; Simon, L.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Fourquet, A.; Dendale, R.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-11-15

    Adjuvant Radiotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce locoregional recurrence but this advantage is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidities. All uncertainties inherent to conformal radiation therapy must be identified in order to increase the precision of treatment; misestimation of these uncertainties increases the potential risk of geometrical misses with, as a consequence, under-dosage of the tumor and/or overdosage of healthy tissues. Geometric uncertainties due to respiratory movements or set-up errors are well known. Two strategies have been proposed to limit their effect: quantification of these uncertainties, which are then taken into account in the final calculation of safety margins and/or reduction of respiratory and set-up uncertainties by an efficient immobilization or gating systems. Measured on portal films with two tangential fields. CLD (central lung distance), defined as the distance between the deep field edge and the interior chest wall at the central axis, seems to be the best predictor of set-up uncertainties. Using CLD, estimated mean set-up errors from the literature are 3.8 and 3.2 mm for the systematic and random errors respectively. These depend partly on the type of immobilization device and could be reduced by the use of portal imaging systems. Furthermore, breast is mobile during respiration with motion amplitude as high as 0.8 to 10 mm in the anteroposterior direction. Respiratory gating techniques, currently on evaluation, have the potential to reduce effect of these movements. Each radiotherapy department should perform its own assessments and determine the geometric uncertainties with respect of the equipment used and its particular treatment practices. This paper is a review of the main geometric uncertainties in breast treatment, due to respiration and set-up, and solutions proposed to limit their impact. (author)

  5. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian; Ma, Lin; Mao, Zhonggen; Ou, Xunmin

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  6. Portal imaging to assess set-up errors, tumor motion and tumor shrinkage during conformal radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erridge, Sara C.; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Muller, Sara H.; Herk, Marcel van; Jaeger, Katrien de; Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate patient set-up, tumor movement and shrinkage during 3D conformal radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Materials and methods: In 97 patients, electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired and corrected for set-up using an off-line correction protocol based on a shrinking action level. For 25 selected patients, the orthogonal EPIs (taken at random points in the breathing cycle) throughout the 6-7 week course of treatment were assessed to establish the tumor position in each image using both an overlay and a delineation technique. The range of movement in each direction was calculated. The position of the tumor in the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was compared to the average position of the lesion in the EPIs. In addition, tumor shrinkage was assessed. Results: The mean overall set-up errors after correction were 0, 0.6 and 0.2 mm in the x (left-right), y (cranial-caudal) and z (anterior-posterior) directions, respectively. After correction, the standard deviations (SDs) of systematic errors were 1.4, 1.5 and 1.3 mm and the SDs of random errors were 2.9, 3.1 and 2.0 mm in the x-, y- and z-directions, respectively. Without correction, 41% of patients had a set-up error of more than 5 mm vector length, but with the set-up correction protocol this percentage was reduced to 1%. The mean amplitude of tumor motion was 7.3 (SD 2.7), 12.5 (SD 7.3) and 9.4 mm (SD 5.2) in the x-, y- and z-directions, respectively. Tumor motion was greatest in the y-direction and in particular for lower lobe tumors. In 40% of the patients, the projected area of the tumor regressed by more than 20% during treatment in at least one projection. In 16 patients it was possible to define the position of the center of the tumor in the DRR. There was a mean difference of 6 mm vector length between the tumor position in the DRR and the average position in the portal images. Conclusions: The application of the correction protocol resulted in a significant

  7. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax?; Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bonnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products.

  8. How to Set up Economic Relations in the Energy Market for the Realization of Climate Preservation Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G. et al.

    2014-01-01

    The simplest, easiest and the most efficient way to integrate climate preservation policy cost into the energy price is by introduction of dedicated tax or CO2 charge as an unique measure for all fossil fuel energy buyers. The above stated implies abolishment of all existing financial resource collecting forms for particular climate policy measures and establishment of only one source from which all measures, like CO2 emission reduction, renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, technology development as well as education, would be financed. In order to implement the new model as efficiently as possible, with a minimal increase in an administration, the solution should be sought in existing models, procedures and relations. Possible solutions are, firstly, to take only a part of or the whole VAT costs from the Fund which would manage financial funds of dedicated tax or CO2 charge. By this, subsidy can be up to 25 percent with no influence on state budget. Second possibility is an introduction of special premium for the ongoing projects, i.e. where the needed subsidy is greater than 25 percent or credit financing support through business banks or contractor. he new system needs to avoid any form of privileges and should preserve the energy market as a base relation in the energy sector. The energy efficiency goals should be prescribed on the highest level for all the new projects. This is particularly important for buildings where it is necessary to legally define insulation as well as energy efficiency standards. Furthermore, for all appliances and facilities it is necessary to determine quality standards and to decommission those that do not fulfil energy efficiency minimum. In the transport sector it is of high importance to decrease average age of used cars and in parallel deploy as efficient cars as possible. A part of measures can be restrictive through withdrawing from traffic due to age and the amount of CO2 emissions, while the second part of measures

  9. Developing a virtual reality application for training Nuclear Power Plant operators: Setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Burgos, M. C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. (authors)

  10. Experimental Set-up for Irradiation of Solid H2 and D2 with Charged Particles of keV Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1976-01-01

    crystal film thickness monitor. The target plate, which can be heated so that films are removable by evaporation, may be used both as a calorimeter and as a beam current collector. Methods for measurement of secondary electron emission coefficients were developed, and preliminary measurements were made...... with electrons and hydrogen ions. For electron bombardment, the secondary electron emission coefficient of solid deuterium was much smaller than one. It was shown possible to use the set-up to study beam desorption of very thin films. Furthermore the set-up could be used for measuring the energy......An experimental facility was built where films of solid deuterium (and hydrogen) may be made with known thickness and irradiated with pulsed beams of electrons (up to 3 keV) and light ions (up to 10 keV). Films are made on a target plate held at 2.5–3 K. Film growth rate is calibrated with a quartz...

  11. Combining in situ characterization methods in one set-up: looking with more eyes into the intricate chemistry of the synthesis and working of heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrup, Ursula

    2010-12-01

    Several in situ techniques are known which allow investigations of catalysts and catalytic reactions under real reaction conditions using different spectroscopic and X-ray methods. In recent years, specific set-ups have been established which combine two or more in situ methods in order to get a more detailed understanding of catalytic systems. This tutorial review will give a summary of currently available set-ups equipped with multiple techniques for in situ catalyst characterization, catalyst preparation, and reaction monitoring. Besides experimental and technical aspects of method coupling including X-ray techniques, spectroscopic methods (Raman, UV-vis, FTIR), and magnetic resonance spectroscopies (NMR, EPR), essential results will be presented to demonstrate the added value of multitechnique in situ approaches. A special section is focussed on selected examples of use which show new developments and application fields.

  12. Digital quantum simulation, Schrödinger cat state spectroscopy and setting up a linear ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, C.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on two experiments in the field of quantum information processing using trapped calcium ions. In addition, the text covers the setup and characterization of a new linear Paul trap accompanied by a novel implementation of single-ion addressing using an acousto-optic deflector. The first of the two experiments is concerned with the proof-of-principle implementation of digital quantum simulations using up to 6 ions and 100 gate operations. It investigates the scaling behavior of simulations of elementary models of magnetism in terms of the number of involved spins and the complexity of their mutual interactions. The second experiment introduces the application of a Schroedinger cat state in the indirect detection of photon scattering events on a broad electronic transition. The method is shown to have a sensitivity down to the single photon level in a proof-of-principle demonstration using a mixed-isotope crystal of 40Ca+ and 44Ca+. A brief outlook towards future experiments and extensions of the experimental setup concludes the manuscript.(author) [de

  13. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  14. Epidemiological study of clinical characteristics of patients with PCOS attending infertility clinic and awareness of PCOS in a rural set up

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada Jajoo; Riju Angik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age group. It is a common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. In this study we studied the clinical features of PCOS and comparing with non-PCOS infertility patients and simultaneously studied the prevalence of PCOS in infertility patients and its awareness in a rural set up. Methods: It is a prospect...

  15. Collaborators at domestic jurisdiction: the case of the Basque Government in the setting up of the new Judicial Office in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Iriarte Irureta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Administration of Justice in Spain is going through a deep modernisation process aiming both at procedural and organisational reforms. The setting up of the new Judicial Office is precisely the major change of the organisation of the Administration of Justice in the last century. In this context, there is a shift in the role played by the regional governments with responsibilities in the field of Justice, as far as these regional governments are not only collaborators of the Judiciary at domestic jurisdiction, but they also become “actors” as they have decision making powers to create, to design and to organise the common procedural services of the Judicial Office and, hence, to set up the Judicial Office in each judicial district in their territory.This text presents the context and the reasons behind the setting up of the Judicial Office as a new way of organisation of the Spanish Administration of Justice; the Judiciary in Spain and the responsibilities of the regional governments in the Administration of Justice; the meaning of the Judicial Office and its guiding principles; the role of the Basque Government in setting up the Judicial Office in the Basque Country, paying special attention to its activity in the field of standardization of processes, the quality system, and of information, communication and coordination; the results of the first Judicial Offices. Finally the paper questions whether the regional or national governments are just “collaborators” or real “actors” of the Administration of Justice at domestic jurisdiction.

  16. Order of 2 March 1984 amending Order of 7 November 1979 on the setting up, within the Atomic Energy Commission, of a National Radioactive Waste Management Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order amends the Order of 7th November 1979 concerning the setting up, within the CEA, of a National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). In connection with implementing waste storage operations, ANDRA's role remains unchanged; however, it seemed desirable to further strengthen research, development and assessment in the area of radioactive waste policy. These tasks are included in the CEA's responsibilities and are financed by its research budget. (NEA) [fr

  17. Thorium molecular negative ion production in a cesium sputter source at BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator ion source test set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Mehrotra, N.; Kale, R.M.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Ion source test set up at Pelletron Accelerator facility has been utilized extensively for the production and characterization of negative ions, with particular emphasis being place at the species of experimental users interest. The attention have been focussed towards the formation of rare earth negative ions, due to their importance in the ongoing accelerator mass spectroscopy program and isotopic abundance measurements using secondary negative ion mass spectrometry

  18. Analysis of Regional Timelines To Set Up a Global Phase III Clinical Trial in Breast Cancer: the Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; Azambuja, Evandro de; Bradbury, Ian; Saini, Kamal S.; Bines, Jose; Simon, Sergio D. [UNIFESP; Van Dooren, Veerle; Aktan, Gursel; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Smith, Ian; Jackisch, Christian; Lang, Istvan; Untch, Michael; Boyle, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study measured the time taken for setting up the different facets of Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization (ALTTO), an international phase III study being conducted in 44 participating countries.Methods. Time to regulatory authority (RA) approval, time to ethics committee/institutional review board (EC/IRB) approval, time from study approval by EC/IRB to first randomized patient, and time from first to last randomized patient were prospectively collected i...

  19. Setting-Up Of A Film Dosimetry System For High Energy Electron Beams And Development Of Computer Programs For Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, N.; Schwob, W.; Loewenthal, E.

    1999-01-01

    Film dosimetry has the advantage over other dosimetry methods, of having a high spatial resolution and a fast two dimensional data acquisition. We have set up a system using a film digitizer with its associated software, dedicated to radiosurgery and we have developed data processing programs in Visual Basic for Excel. Data acquisition is not limited to water equivalent media: correction factors can be provided in the data processing procedure

  20. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Analysis of the Precision of Patient Set-Up, and Fidelity of the Delivered Dose Distribution in Proton Therapy of Ocular Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A; Carpenter, K; Shih, HA

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily set-up variations in fractionated proton therapy of ocular melanomas, and to assess the effect on the fidelity of delivered distribution to the plan. Methods: In a typical five-fraction course, daily set-up is achieved by matching the position of fiducial markers in orthogonal radiographs to the images generated by treatment planning program. A patient maintains the required gaze direction voluntarily, without the aid of fixation devices. Confirmation radiographs are acquired to assess intrafractional changes. For this study, daily radiographs were analyzed to determine the daily iso-center position and apparent gaze direction, which were then transferred to the planning system to calculate the dose delivered in individual fractions, and accumulated dose for the entire course. Dose-volume metrics were compared between the planned and accumulated distributions for the tumor and organs at risk, for representative cases that varied by location within the ocular globe. Results: The analysis of the first set of cases (3 posterior, 3 transequatorial and 4 anterior tumors) revealed varying dose deviation patterns, depending on the tumor location. For anterior and posterior tumors, the largest dose increases were observed in the lens and ciliary body, while for the equatorial tumors, macula, optic nerve and disk, were most often affected. The iso-center position error was below 1.3 mm (95%-confidence interval), and the standard deviation of daily polar and azimuthal gaze set-up were 1.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: We quantified interfractional and intrafractional set-up variation, and estimated their effect on the delivered dose for representative cases. Current safety margins are sufficient to maintain the target coverage, however, the dose delivered to critical structures often deviates from the plan. The ongoing analysis will further explore the patterns of dose deviation, and may help to identify particular treatment scenarios

  1. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Analysis of the Precision of Patient Set-Up, and Fidelity of the Delivered Dose Distribution in Proton Therapy of Ocular Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofimov, A; Carpenter, K; Shih, HA [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily set-up variations in fractionated proton therapy of ocular melanomas, and to assess the effect on the fidelity of delivered distribution to the plan. Methods: In a typical five-fraction course, daily set-up is achieved by matching the position of fiducial markers in orthogonal radiographs to the images generated by treatment planning program. A patient maintains the required gaze direction voluntarily, without the aid of fixation devices. Confirmation radiographs are acquired to assess intrafractional changes. For this study, daily radiographs were analyzed to determine the daily iso-center position and apparent gaze direction, which were then transferred to the planning system to calculate the dose delivered in individual fractions, and accumulated dose for the entire course. Dose-volume metrics were compared between the planned and accumulated distributions for the tumor and organs at risk, for representative cases that varied by location within the ocular globe. Results: The analysis of the first set of cases (3 posterior, 3 transequatorial and 4 anterior tumors) revealed varying dose deviation patterns, depending on the tumor location. For anterior and posterior tumors, the largest dose increases were observed in the lens and ciliary body, while for the equatorial tumors, macula, optic nerve and disk, were most often affected. The iso-center position error was below 1.3 mm (95%-confidence interval), and the standard deviation of daily polar and azimuthal gaze set-up were 1.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: We quantified interfractional and intrafractional set-up variation, and estimated their effect on the delivered dose for representative cases. Current safety margins are sufficient to maintain the target coverage, however, the dose delivered to critical structures often deviates from the plan. The ongoing analysis will further explore the patterns of dose deviation, and may help to identify particular treatment scenarios

  2. Use of natural clays as sorbent materials for rare earth ions: Materials characterization and set up of the operative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Pelosato, Renato; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Lacalamita, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Two mineral clays of the montmorillonite group were tested as sorbents for the removal of Rare Earths (REs) from liquid solutions. Lanthanum and neodymium model solutions were used to perform uptake tests in order to: (a) verify the clays sorption capability, (b) investigate the sorption mechanisms and (c) optimize the experimental parameters, such as contact time and pH. The desorption was also studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of REs recovery from waters. The adsorption-desorption procedure with the optimized parameters was also tested on a leaching solution obtained by dissolution of a dismantled NdFeB magnet of a hard-disk. The clays were fully characterized after REs adsorption and desorption by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the liquid phase was characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses. The experimental results show that both clays are able to capture and release La and Nd ions, with an ion exchange mechanism. The best total efficiency (capture ≈ 50%, release ≈ 70%) is obtained when the uptake and release processes are performed at pH=5 and pH=1 respectively; in real leached scrap solutions, the uptake is around 40% but release efficiency is strongly decreased passing from a mono-ion system to a real system (from 80% to 5%). Furthermore, a strong matrix effect is found, with the matrix largely affecting both the uptake and the release of neodymium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...

  4. New set-up for high-quality soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of large organic molecules in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holch, Florian; Huebner, Dominique [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Fink, Rainer [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, ICMM and CENEM, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schoell, Achim, E-mail: achim.schoell@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Umbach, Eberhard [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We present a new set-up for x-ray absorption (NEXAFS) on large molecules in the gas-phase. {yields} The cell has a confined volume and can be heated. {yields} The spectra can be acquired fast, are of very high quality with respect tosignal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution. {yields} This allowsthe analysis of spectroscopic details (e.g. solid state effects by comparing gas- and condensed phase data). - Abstract: We present a new experimental set-up for the investigation of large (>128 amu) organic molecules in the gas-phase by means of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range. Our approach uses a gas cell, which is sealed off against the surrounding vacuum and which can be heated above the sublimation temperature of the respective molecular compound. Using a confined volume rather than a molecular beam yields short acquisition times and intense signals due to the high molecular density, which can be tuned by the container temperature. In turn, the resulting spectra are of very high quality with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution, which are the essential aspects for the analysis of fine spectroscopic details. Using the examples of ANQ, NTCDA, and PTCDA, specific challenges of gas phase measurements on large organic molecules with high sublimation temperatures are addressed in detail with respect to the presented set-up and possible ways to tackle them are outlined.

  5. Setting up crowd science projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or

  6. SU-C-204-06: Surface Imaging for the Set-Up of Proton Post-Mastectomy Chestwall Irradiation: Gated Images Vs Non Gated Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batin, E; Depauw, N; MacDonald, S; Lu, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Historically, the set-up for proton post-mastectomy chestwall irradiation at our institution started with positioning the patient using tattoos and lasers. One or more rounds of orthogonal X-rays at gantry 0° and beamline X-ray at treatment gantry angle were then taken to finalize the set-up position. As chestwall targets are shallow and superficial, surface imaging is a promising tool for set-up and needs to be investigated Methods: The orthogonal imaging was entirely replaced by AlignRT™ (ART) images. The beamline X-Ray image is kept as a confirmation, based primarily on three opaque markers placed on skin surface instead of bony anatomy. In the first phase of the process, ART gated images were used to set-up the patient and the same specific point of the breathing curve was used every day. The moves (translations and rotations) computed for each point of the breathing curve during the first five fractions were analyzed for ten patients. During a second phase of the study, ART gated images were replaced by ART non-gated images combined with real-time monitoring. In both cases, ART images were acquired just before treatment to access the patient position compare to the non-gated CT. Results: The average difference between the maximum move and the minimum move depending on the chosen breathing curve point was less than 1.7 mm for all translations and less than 0.7° for all rotations. The average position discrepancy over the course of treatment obtained by ART non gated images combined to real-time monitoring taken before treatment to the planning CT were smaller than the average position discrepancy obtained using ART gated images. The X-Ray validation images show similar results with both ART imaging process. Conclusion: The use of ART non gated images combined with real time imaging allows positioning post-mastectomy chestwall patients in less than 3 mm / 1°

  7. SU-C-204-06: Surface Imaging for the Set-Up of Proton Post-Mastectomy Chestwall Irradiation: Gated Images Vs Non Gated Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batin, E; Depauw, N; MacDonald, S; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Historically, the set-up for proton post-mastectomy chestwall irradiation at our institution started with positioning the patient using tattoos and lasers. One or more rounds of orthogonal X-rays at gantry 0° and beamline X-ray at treatment gantry angle were then taken to finalize the set-up position. As chestwall targets are shallow and superficial, surface imaging is a promising tool for set-up and needs to be investigated Methods: The orthogonal imaging was entirely replaced by AlignRT™ (ART) images. The beamline X-Ray image is kept as a confirmation, based primarily on three opaque markers placed on skin surface instead of bony anatomy. In the first phase of the process, ART gated images were used to set-up the patient and the same specific point of the breathing curve was used every day. The moves (translations and rotations) computed for each point of the breathing curve during the first five fractions were analyzed for ten patients. During a second phase of the study, ART gated images were replaced by ART non-gated images combined with real-time monitoring. In both cases, ART images were acquired just before treatment to access the patient position compare to the non-gated CT. Results: The average difference between the maximum move and the minimum move depending on the chosen breathing curve point was less than 1.7 mm for all translations and less than 0.7° for all rotations. The average position discrepancy over the course of treatment obtained by ART non gated images combined to real-time monitoring taken before treatment to the planning CT were smaller than the average position discrepancy obtained using ART gated images. The X-Ray validation images show similar results with both ART imaging process. Conclusion: The use of ART non gated images combined with real time imaging allows positioning post-mastectomy chestwall patients in less than 3 mm / 1°.

  8. Set-up improvement in head and neck radiotherapy using a 3D off-line EPID-based correction protocol and a customised head and neck support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette van der; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Visser, Andries G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: First, to investigate the set-up improvement resulting from the introduction of a customised head and neck (HN) support system in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in HN radiotherapy. Second, to define margins for planning target volume definition, accounting for systematic and random set-up uncertainties. Methods and materials: In 63 patients 498 treatment fractions were evaluated to develop and implement a 3D shrinking action level correction protocol. In the comparative study two different HN-supports were compared: a flexible 'standard HN-support' and a 'customised HN-support'. For all three directions (x, y and z) random and systematic set-up deviations (1 S.D.) were measured. Results: The customised HN-support improves the patient positioning compared to the standard HN-support. The 1D systematic errors in the x, y and z directions were reduced from 2.2-2.3 mm to 1.2-2.0 mm (1 S.D.). The 1D random errors for the y and z directions were reduced from 1.6 and 1.6 mm to 1.1 and 1.0 mm (1 S.D.). The correction protocol reduced the 1D systematic errors further to 0.8-1.1 mm (1 S.D.) and all deviations in any direction were within 5 mm. Treatment time per measured fraction was increased from 10 to 13 min. The total time required per patient, for the complete correction procedure, was approximately 40 min. Conclusions: Portal imaging is a powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning procedures. The introduction of a comfortable customised HN-support, in combination with an electronic portal imaging device-based correction protocol, executed by technologists, led to an improvement of overall patient set-up. As a result, application of proposed recipes for CTV-PTV margins indicates that these can be reduced to 3-4 mm

  9. Points in the set-up of tests for fMRI. Toward the delineation of language-competent areas in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Hisaharu; Ejima, Mitsuhiro; Takeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sato, Yoshino

    2001-01-01

    This hospital has performed fMRI of language-competent areas of the brain to identify the language-dominant hemisphere and obtain the configuration of the focus in the language-dominant side of the brain. Until now, signals have been detected in only two of fifteen patients who were diagnosed by language tests of a last-syllable word chain. In the present experiment, we tried to have subjects select the type of test. The result was that changes in signals were detected in eight of ten patients. Although the set-up of tests for fMRI is said to hold significant value, clear-cut studies to back this up have rarely been seen. Because clinical medicine treats patients who have difficulty in communication or suffer from aphasia, it is important to take into consideration individual variations and to set up a test suitable for, or achievable by, these individuals. The present method enabled us to avoid failure in examination caused by unsuccessful tests. (author)

  10. Points in the set-up of tests for fMRI. Toward the delineation of language-competent areas in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hisaharu; Ejima, Mitsuhiro; Takeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sato, Yoshino [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Hospital

    2001-06-01

    This hospital has performed fMRI of language-competent areas of the brain to identify the language-dominant hemisphere and obtain the configuration of the focus in the language-dominant side of the brain. Until now, signals have been detected in only two of fifteen patients who were diagnosed by language tests of a last-syllable word chain. In the present experiment, we tried to have subjects select the type of test. The result was that changes in signals were detected in eight of ten patients. Although the set-up of tests for fMRI is said to hold significant value, clear-cut studies to back this up have rarely been seen. Because clinical medicine treats patients who have difficulty in communication or suffer from aphasia, it is important to take into consideration individual variations and to set up a test suitable for, or achievable by, these individuals. The present method enabled us to avoid failure in examination caused by unsuccessful tests. (author)

  11. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  12. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Brecko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker. We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  13. 准确设置会计科目的意义与方法%The Meaning and Methods of Setting up Accounting Subject Accurately

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海; 孙胜

    2013-01-01

      管理会计的产生与发展,是会计发展史上的一次伟大变革,它让会计工作的价值得到了有效地升华。而恰当的设置会计科目,对经济数据进行有效地分类、归集自然成为了会计信息管理的核心工作。本文从准确设置会计科目的重要意义、会计科目设置原则、会计科目设置方法方面进行了论述,为企业财务管理与经济管理提供参考依据。%The origin and development of management accounting is a great change in the history of the accounting development, it gives effective sublimation for the value of the accounting work. Proper setting up accounting subject, effectively sorting and collecting the economic data has become the core work of the accounting information management. This article discussed from the significance, principle and the method of accurately setting up accounting subject, and provided a reference for enterprise financial management and economic management.

  14. A comparative study of set up variations and bowel volumes in supine versus prone positions of patients treated with external beam radiation for carcinoma rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, K R; Menon, Smrithy S; Beena, K; Holla, Raghavendra; Kumar, R Rajaneesh; Dinesh, M

    2014-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of patient positioning on the set up variations to determine the planning target volume (PTV) margins and to evaluate the clinical relevance volume assessment of the small bowel (SB) within the irradiated volume. During the period of months from December 2011 to April 2012, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done either in supine position or in prone position using a belly board (BB) for 20 consecutive patients. All the patients had histologically proven rectal cancer and received either post- or pre-operative pelvic irradiation. Using a three-dimensional planning system, the dose-volume histogram for SB was defined in each axial CT slice. Total dose was 46-50 Gy (2 Gy/fraction), delivered using the 4-field box technique. The set up variation of the study group was assessed from the data received from the electronic portal imaging device in the linear accelerator. The shift along X, Y, and Z directions were noted. Both systematic and random errors were calculated and using both these values the PTV margin was calculated. The systematic errors of patients treated in the supine position were 0.87 (X-mm), 0.66 (Y-mm), 1.6 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 1.3 (X-mm), 0.59 (Y-mm), 1.17 (Z-mm). The random errors of patients treated in the supine positions were 1.81 (X-mm), 1.73 (Y-mm), 1.83 (Z-mm) and in prone position were 2.02 (X-mm), 1.21 (Y-mm), 3.05 (Z-mm). The calculated PTV margins in the supine position were 3.45 (X-mm), 2.87 (Y-mm), 5.31 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 4.91 (X-mm), 2.32 (Y-mm), 5.08 (Z-mm). The mean volume of the peritoneal cavity was 648.65 cm 3 in the prone position and 1197.37 cm 3 in the supine position. The prone position using BB device was more effective in reducing irradiated SB volume in rectal cancer patients. There were no significant variations in the daily set up for patients treated in both supine and prone positions.

  15. Validation of a non-uniform meshing algorithm for the 3D-FDTD method by means of a two-wire crosstalk experimental set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Esteban Jiménez-Mejía

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm used to automatically mesh a 3D computational domain in order to solve electromagnetic interaction scenarios by means of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain -FDTD-  Method. The proposed algorithm has been formulated in a general mathematical form, where convenient spacing functions can be defined for the problem space discretization, allowing the inclusion of small sized objects in the FDTD method and the calculation of detailed variations of the electromagnetic field at specified regions of the computation domain. The results obtained by using the FDTD method with the proposed algorithm have been contrasted not only with a typical uniform mesh algorithm, but also with experimental measurements for a two-wire crosstalk set-up, leading to excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental waveforms. A discussion about the advantages of the non-uniform mesh over the uniform one is also presented.

  16. Instrumental set up for the study of water erosion processes to different scales in the upper Barranc de Carraixet water basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, J. L.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the rainfall conversion into overland flow, two major fluxes are established, the water flow and the associated erosion flow. The process complexity and heterogeneity together with the numerous factor that interact recommend the use of multi-scale approaches for a better understanding. Thus the methodological approach established in this work focus on a hierarchical instrumental implementation at different spatial scales within the same watershed, the Barranc the Carraixet Head Waters, in the vicinity of the city of Valencia, spain. For the instrumentation setting up, four data gathering structures have been designed, from the micro plot scale to the medium size drainage basin of several square kilometres. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Quality assurance of a system for improved target localization and patient set-up that combines real-time infrared tracking and stereoscopic X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verellen, Dirk; Soete, Guy; Linthout, Nadine; Van Acker, Swana; De Roover, Patsy; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Van de Steene, Jan; Storme, Guy

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the positional accuracy of a prototype X-ray imaging tool in combination with a real-time infrared tracking device allowing automated patient set-up in three dimensions. A prototype X-ray imaging tool has been integrated with a commercially released real-time infrared tracking device. The system, consisting of two X-ray tubes mounted to the ceiling and a centrally located amorphous silicon detector has been developed for automated patient positioning from outside the treatment room prior to treatment. Two major functions are supported: (a) automated fusion of the actual treatment images with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) representing the desired position; (b) matching of implanted radio opaque markers. Measurements of known translational (up to 30.0mm) and rotational (up to 4.0 degrees ) set-up errors in three dimensions as well as hidden target tests have been performed on anthropomorphic phantoms. The system's accuracy can be represented with the mean three-dimensional displacement vector, which yielded 0.6mm (with an overall SD of 0.9mm) for the fusion of DRRs and X-ray images. Average deviations between known translational errors and calculations varied from -0.3 to 0.6mm with a standard deviation in the range of 0.6-1.2mm. The marker matching algorithm yielded a three-dimensional uncertainty of 0.3mm (overall SD: 0.4mm), with averages ranging from 0.0 to 0.3mm and a standard deviation in the range between 0.3 and 0.4mm. The stereoscopic X-ray imaging device integrated with the real-time infrared tracking device represents a positioning tool allowing for the geometrical accuracy that is required for conformal radiation therapy of abdominal and pelvic lesions, within an acceptable time-frame.

  18. An adaptive control algorithm for optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy considering uncertainties in beam profiles, patient set-up and internal organ motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loef, Johan; Lind, Bengt K.; Brahme, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A new general beam optimization algorithm for inverse treatment planning is presented. It utilizes a new formulation of the probability to achieve complication-free tumour control. The new formulation explicitly describes the dependence of the treatment outcome on the incident fluence distribution, the patient geometry, the radiobiological properties of the patient and the fractionation schedule. In order to account for both measured and non-measured positioning uncertainties, the algorithm is based on a combination of dynamic and stochastic optimization techniques. Because of the difficulty in measuring all aspects of the intra- and interfractional variations in the patient geometry, such as internal organ displacements and deformations, these uncertainties are primarily accounted for in the treatment planning process by intensity modulation using stochastic optimization. The information about the deviations from the nominal fluence profiles and the nominal position of the patient relative to the beam that is obtained by portal imaging during treatment delivery, is used in a feedback loop to automatically adjust the profiles and the location of the patient for all subsequent treatments. Based on the treatment delivered in previous fractions, the algorithm furnishes optimal corrections for the remaining dose delivery both with regard to the fluence profile and its position relative to the patient. By dynamically refining the beam configuration from fraction to fraction, the algorithm generates an optimal sequence of treatments that very effectively reduces the influence of systematic and random set-up uncertainties to minimize and almost eliminate their overall effect on the treatment. Computer simulations have shown that the present algorithm leads to a significant increase in the probability of uncomplicated tumour control compared with the simple classical approach of adding fixed set-up margins to the internal target volume. (author)

  19. Determining the reliability of a custom built seated stadiometry set-up for measuring spinal height in participants with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave; Jessop, David; Osborne, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Indirect measurement of disc hydration can be obtained through measures of spinal height using stadiometry. However, specialised stadiometers for this are often custom-built and expensive. Generic wall-mounted stadiometers alternatively are common in clinics and laboratories. This study examined the reliability of a custom set-up utilising a wall-mounted stadiometer for measurement of spinal height using custom built wall mounted postural rods. Twelve participants with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP; females n = 5, males n = 7) underwent measurement of spinal height on three separate consecutive days at the same time of day where 10 measurements were taken at 20 s intervals. Comparisons were made using repeated measures analysis of variance for 'trial' and 'gender'. There were no significant effects by trial or interaction effects of trial x gender. Intra-individual absolute standard error of measurement (SEM) was calculated for spinal height using the first of the 10 measures, the average of 10 measures, the total shrinkage, and the rate of shrinkage across the 10 measures examined as the slope of the curve when a linear regression was fitted. SEMs were 3.1 mm, 2.8 mm, 2.6 mm and 0.212, respectively. Absence of significant differences between trials and the reported SEMs suggests this custom set-up for measuring spinal height changes is suitable use as an outcome measure in either research or clinical practice in participants with CLBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Power, fairness and trust: understanding and engaging with vaccine trial participants and communities in the setting up the EBOVAC-Salone vaccine trial in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Enria

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the establishment of a clinical trial of an Ebola vaccine candidate in Kambia District, Northern Sierra Leone during the epidemic, and analyses the role of social science research in ensuring that lessons from the socio-political context, the recent experience of the Ebola outbreak, and learning from previous clinical trials were incorporated in the development of community engagement strategies. The paper aims to provide a case study of an integrated social science and communications system in the start-up phase of the clinical trial. Methods The paper is based on qualitative research methods including ethnographic observation, interviews with trial participants and key stakeholder interviews. Results Through the case study of EBOVAC Salone, the paper suggests ways in which research can be used to inform communication strategies before and during the setting up of the trial. It explores notions of power, fairness and trust emerging from analysis of the Sierra Leonean context and through ethnographic research, to reflect on three situations in which social scientists and community liaison officers worked together to ensure successful community engagement. Firstly, a section on “power” considers the pitfalls of considering communities as homogeneous and shows the importance of understanding intra-community power dynamics when engaging communities. Secondly, a section on “fairness” shows how local understandings of what is fair can help inform the design of volunteer recruitment strategies. Finally, a section on “trust” highlights how historically rooted rumours can be effectively addressed through active dialogue rather than through an approach focused on correcting misinformation. Conclusion The paper firstly emphasises the value of social science in the setting up of clinical trials, in terms of providing an in depth understanding of context and social dynamics. Secondly, the paper suggests

  1. Country report: Vietnam. Setting Up of a 90Sr/90Y Generator System Based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Technique and Radiolabeling of Eluted 90Y with Biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong Van Dong; Bui Van Cuong; Chu Van Khoa

    2010-01-01

    In the course of participating in the IAEA-CRP during the last two years, Vietnam has achieved the goal of setting up a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique and also radiolabeling of the eluted 90 Y with antibody, peptides and albumin. A two stage SLM based 90 Sr- 90 Y generator was set up in-house to generate carrier-free 90 Y at different activity levels viz. 5, 20, 50 mCi. The generator system was operated in sequential mode in which 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) based SLM was used in the first stage for the transport 90 Y in 4.0 M nitric acid from source phase where 90 Sr- 90 Y equilibrium mixture is placed in nitric acid medium at pH to 1-2. In the second stage, octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM was used for the transport of 90 Y selectively to 1.0 M acetic acid which is the best medium for radiolebeling. The eluted 90 Y from the generator was tested for the presence of any traces of 90 Sr using the Extraction Paper Chromatography (EPC) and was found suitable for radiolabeling. The generator system could be upgraded to 100 mCi level successfully due to an expert mission from India through IAEA. The 90 Y product obtained from the generator system was used for radiolabeling of antibody and peptides viz. Rituximab, DOTATATE and albumin particles under different experimental conditions. A new chromatography system could be developed for analyzing 90 Y labeled albumin using the TAE buffer as mobile phase in PC and ITLC

  2. High dose three-dimensional conformal boost (3DCB) using an orthogonal diagnostic X-ray set-up for patients with gynecological malignancy: a new application of real-time tumor-tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ritsu; Yonesaka, Akio; Nishioka, Seiko; Watari, Hidemichi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Uchida, Daichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility and accuracy of high dose three-dimensional conformal boost (3DCB) using three internal fiducial markers and a two-orthogonal X-ray set-up of the real-time tumor-tracking system on patients with gynecological malignancy were investigated in 10 patients. The standard deviation of the distribution of systematic deviations (Σ) was reduced from 3.8, 4.6, and 4.9 mm in the manual set-up to 2.3, 2.3 and 2.7 mm in the set-up using the internal markers. The average standard deviation of the distribution of random deviations (σ) was reduced from 3.7, 5.0, and 4.5 mm in the manual set-up to 3.3, 3.0, and 4.2 mm in the marker set-up. The appropriate PTV margin was estimated to be 10.2, 12.8, and 12.9 mm in the manual set-up and 6.9, 6.7, and 8.3 mm in the gold marker set-up, respectively, using the formula 2Σ+0.7σ. Set-up of the patients with three markers and two fluoroscopy is useful to reduce PTV margin and perform 3DCB

  3. Setting up a cohort study in speech and language therapy: lessons from The UK Cleft Collective Speech and Language (CC-SL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Yvonne; Humphries, Kerry; Stock, Nicola Marie; Rumsey, Nichola; Lewis, Sarah; Davies, Amy; Bennett, Rhiannon; Sandy, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Efforts to increase the evidence base in speech and language therapy are often limited by methodological factors that have restricted the strength of the evidence to the lower levels of the evidence hierarchy. Where higher graded studies, such as randomized controlled trials, have been carried out, it has sometimes been difficult to obtain sufficient power to detect a potential effect of intervention owing to small sample sizes or heterogeneity in the participants. With certain clinical groups such as cleft lip and palate, systematic reviews of intervention studies have shown that there is no robust evidence to support the efficacy of any one intervention protocol over another. To describe the setting up of an observational clinical cohort study and to present this as an alternative design for answering research questions relating to prevalence, risk factors and outcomes from intervention. The Cleft Collective Speech and Language (CC-SL) study is a national cohort study of children born with cleft palate. Working in partnership with regional clinical cleft centres, a sample size of over 600 children and 600 parents is being recruited and followed up from birth to age 5 years. Variables being collected include demographic, psychological, surgical, hearing, and speech and language data. The process of setting up the study has led to the creation of a unique, large-scale data set which is available for researchers to access now and in future. As well as exploring predictive factors, the data can be used to explore the impact of interventions in relation to individual differences. Findings from these investigations can be used to provide information on sample criteria and definitions of intervention and dosage which can be used in future trials. The observational cohort study is a useful alternative design to explore questions around prevalence, risk factors and intervention for clinical groups where robust research data are not yet available. Findings from such a

  4. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in wine: Set-up and optimization of sample pre-treatment and instrumental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Finale, Carolina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for the determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in white wine after UV photo-oxidative digestion of the sample. The best procedure for the sample pre-treatment consisted in a 6-h UV irradiation of diluted, acidified wine, with the addition of ultrapure H 2 O 2 (three sequential additions during the irradiation). Due to metal concentration differences, separate measurements were carried out for Cd (deposition potential −950 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl deposition time 15 min) and simultaneously for Pb and Cu (E d −750 mV, t d 30 s). The optimum set-up of the main instrumental parameters, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: E SW 20 mV, f 100 Hz, ΔE step 8 mV, t step 100 ms, t wait 60 ms, t delay 2 ms, t meas 3 ms. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible bielectronic for Cd and Pb, and kinetically controlled monoelectronic for Cu. Good accuracy was found both when the recovery procedure was used and when the results were compared with data obtained by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The linearity of the response was verified up to ∼4 μg L −1 for Cd and Pb and ∼15 μg L −1 for Cu. The detection limits for t d = 5 min in the 10 times diluted, UV digested sample were (ng L −1 ): Cd 7.0, Pb 1.2 and Cu 6.6, which are well below currently applied methods. Application to a Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi white wine revealed concentration levels of Cd ∼0.2, Pb ∼10, Cu ∼30 μg L −1 with repeatabilities of (±RSD%) Cd ±6%, Pb ±5%, Cu ±10%

  5. A randomised trial of Supine versus Prone breast radiotherapy (SuPr study): Comparing set-up errors and respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.; Helyer, Sarah J.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Convery, Helen M.; Yarnold, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test a prone position against the international-standard supine position in women undergoing whole-breast-radiotherapy (WBRT) after wide-local-excision (WLE) of early breast cancer (BC) in terms of feasibility, set-up errors, and respiratory motion. Methods: Following WLE of BC with insertion of tumour-bed clips, patients underwent 4D-CT for WBRT-planning in supine and prone positions (the latter using an in-house-designed platform). Patients were randomised to undergo WBRT fractions 1-7 in one position, switching to the alternate position for fractions 8-15 (40 Gy/15-fractions total). Cone-beam CT-images (CBCT) were acquired prior to fractions 1, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 14. CBCT data were matched to planning-CT data using (i) chest-wall and (ii) clips. Systematic and random errors were calculated. Maximal displacement of chest-wall and clips with respiration was measured on 4D-CT. Clinical- to planning-target-volume (CTV-PTV) margins were calculated. Patient-comfort-scores and treatment-times were evaluated. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized. 192/192 (100%) planned supine fractions and 173/192 (90%) prone fractions were completed. 3D population systematic errors were 1.3-1.9 mm (supine) and 3.1-4.3 mm (prone) (p = 0.02) and random errors 2.6-3.2 mm (supine) and 3.8-5.4 mm (prone) (p = 0.02). Prone positioning reduced chest-wall and clip motion (0.5 ± 0.2 mm (prone) versus 2.7 ± 0.5 mm (supine) (p < 0.001)) with respiration. Calculated CTV-PTV margins were greater for prone (12-16 mm) than for supine treatment (10 mm). Patient-comfort-scores and treatment times were comparable (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Set-up errors were greater using our prone technique than for our standard supine technique, resulting in the need for larger CTV-PTV margins in the prone position. Further work is required to optimize the prone treatment-platform and technique before it can become a standard treatment option at our institution.

  6. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  7. Set-up of a System to Reliably Measure the Startle Response in Marmoset Monkeys; Application in Animal Models of Anxiety and Psychosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meichers, B.P

    1998-01-01

    .... In addition, the startle response is increased during periods of anxiety. In this study, a system is described by which the acoustic startle response in marmoset monkeys may be recorded in a reliable way...

  8. A new Brute force low-temperature nuclear orientation set-up to search for physics beyond the standard electroweak model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraev, I.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delaure, B.; Golovko, VV.; Kozlov, VY; Lindroth, A.; Phalet, T.; Severijns, N.; Versyck, S.; Zákoucký, Dalibor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 555, 1/2 (2005), s. 420-425 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : weak interakcion * beta decay * tensor currents Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  9. Set-up of a System to Reliably Measure the Startle Response in Marmoset Monkeys; Application in Animal Models of Anxiety and Psychosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meichers, B.P

    1998-01-01

    .... In two psychiatric disorders, the startle reflex is altered. Normally, the startle response is decreased appreciably when a low intensity sound stimulus is given shortly before the startle eliciting stimulus...

  10. Letter to the god of love (1399: the first literary quarrel set up by a woman to be found in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ascenção Ferreira Apolonia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Letter to the god of love (1399 is the first literary quarrel surprisingly set up by a woman to be found in the French language. Christine de Pizan goes to the palace court to stand for women by replying against the misogyny present in Roman de la rose [The Romance of the Rose]. It is our aim to analyze Christine de Pizan’s discourse in the Middle Ages context. Due to the long time elapsed from that context and ours, we have included some biographical and historical data. She makes herself heir of the Courts of love in which ladies took on the role of magistrates. The letter carries the force of a sentence passed by a judge who has completed judging the offence, culminating with the instruction that the verdict shall be executed. From the magistrate do the teaching role, Christine carries on the Christian civilizing process by proposing new forms of relationship between men and women. The outstanding quality of the author is seen in her ability to conduct the contention and in bringing to light the sophisms included in her opponent’s thesis. In accordance with the scholastic dialectical method, she gives the floor to her opponents but is the one who rules the polyphony.The Letter moves beyond the Court setting to reach the French society, gaining supporters and enemies.

  11. Awareness assessment of harmful effects of mercury in a health care set-up in India: A survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Nabanita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals, is ubiquitous in environment. The adverse health impact of mercury on living organisms is well known. The health care facilities are one of the important sources of mercury release into the atmosphere as mercury items are extensively used in hospitals. To assess the awareness about mercury toxicity and the knowledge of proper handling and disposal of mercury-containing items in health care set-up, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out amongst doctors (n = 835), nurses (n = 610) and technicians (n = 393) in government hospitals, corporate hospitals and primary health care centres in the Indian states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. The study was conducted using a tool-containing pretested structured multiple-choice questionnaire. Analysis of the results using STATA 11.1 software highlighted that overall awareness was more in corporate sector. However, percentage range of knowledge of respondents irrespective of health care sector was only between 20 and 40%. Despite the commitment of various hospitals to be mercury free, mercury containing-thermometer/sphygmomanometer are still preferred by health professionals. The likely reasons are availability, affordability, accuracy and convenience in use. There is an urgent need for source reduction, recycling and waste minimization. Emphasis must be laid on mercury alternative products, education and training of health personnel and public at large, about correct handling and proper clean up of spills. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Exploring the possibilities for setting up sustainable energy systems for the long term: two visions for the Dutch energy system in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, D.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Spakman, J.; Seebregts, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two long-term visions of the Dutch future energy system are composed, analysed and evaluated. Both visions were set up to meet the requirement to reduce the GHG emissions with 80% in 2050 in comparison to 1990. The two visions start from very different perspectives and contexts. Quantitative analysis shows that when economic growth and energy use follow a business as usual development, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHG) can increase up to 250% of 1990 levels. The two, rather opposing, visions show that it is feasible to combine (strong) economic growth with far going reduction of GHG emissions, provided a number of key options are developed and applied. These options were chosen and discussed during several meetings by stakeholders in a dialogue process, using feedback from scientists, and consist of improvements in energy efficiency in industry, CO 2 neutral feedstocks for transportation, renewable energy and highly insulated buildings in the built environment and improvements in the primary production of the agricultural sector. It is clear that drastic changes in many areas in society are required to obtain the desired GHG-emission levels in 2050. The results also show though, that such a development can be realised in different ways. In other words, there are various ways to implement a low GHG emission economy in the long term

  13. Setting up a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer high throughput screening assay to search for protein/protein interaction inhibitors in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril eCouturier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Each step of the cell life and its response or adaptation to its environment are mediated by a network of protein/protein interactions termed interactome. Our knowledge of this network keeps growing due to the development of sensitive techniques devoted to study these interactions. The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET technique was primarily developed to allow the dynamic monitoring of protein-protein interactions in living cells, and has widely been used to study receptor activation by intra- or extra-molecular conformational changes within receptors and activated complexes in mammal cells. Some interactions are described as crucial in human pathological processes, and a new class of drugs targeting them has recently emerged. The BRET method is well suited to identify inhibitors of protein-protein interactions and here is described why and how to set up and optimize a High Throughput Screening assay based on BRET to search for such inhibitory compounds. The different parameters to take into account when developing such BRET assays in mammal cells are reviewed to give general guidelines: considerations on the targeted interaction, choice of BRET version, inducibility of the interaction, kinetic of the monitored interaction, and of the BRET reading, influence substrate concentration, number of cells and medium composition used on the Z’ factor, and expected interferences for colored or fluorescent compounds.

  14. [Comparison of set-up control for head and neck patients between radiation oncologist and therapists with the aim of partial delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramirez, M; Maugey, S; Burgaud, L; Carpentey, F; Parezys, E; Carricaburu, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate daily set-up by a radiation oncologist and by radiation therapists using on-board imaging of patients with head and neck cancer in order to calculate margin to PTV (planning target volume) and intent partial delegation of positioning images control. The files of 11 patients with head and neck cancer treated on a Synergy™ (Elekta™) accelerator with on-board imaging system were evaluated. Daily kV-kV images were double-blind reviewed by radiation therapists (7 participants) and by one radiation oncologist. The radiation oncologist's measures were used for margin calculation from CTV to PTV. The difference of measures and the concordance of decisions between radiation therapists and the radiation oncologist were calculated. The 325 measures made by the radiation oncologist resulted in a margin of 5mm to be applied to the CTV in each direction. Nine hundred seventy-seven measures were made by the radiation oncologist and radiation therapists with a difference of 3mm or less in 98.46%. The concordance of decision for a 4mm difference or less to the isocenter was 96.7%. This study confirms the 5mm PTV margin mostly used in ORL. The small gap between the radiation oncologist's and therapists' measures allows a partial delegation of positioning images control. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatially and time-resolved element-specific in situ corrosion investigations with an online hyphenated microcapillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homazava, N.; Ulrich, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for in situ spatial, time-resolved element-specific investigations of corrosion processes is developed. The technique is based on an online hyphenation of a specially designed microflow-capillary set-up to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using flow injection sample introduction. Detailed aspects of the method development, optimization of the sample microflow introduction and flow injection characteristics for the localized corrosion analysis are described. Moreover, specific challenges of the ICP-MS analysis as applied to the analysis of corrosion sample probes, e.g. high matrix load and limited sample volume, are discussed. The efficiency of the developed technique is proved by corrosion susceptibility analysis of a commercial Al alloy. Results of the corrosion experiments of the aluminum alloy AA 6111 are presented to demonstrate the influence of various factors such as exposure time and pH value of the corrosive medium on the element-specific dissolution rates of the alloy. This novel technique provides new aspects in corrosion science and sheds new light on corrosion mechanisms

  16. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  17. The Set-Up and Implementation of Fully Virtualized Lessons with an Automated Workflow Utilizing VMC/Moodle at the Medical University of Graz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Erich Rehatschek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With start of winter semester 2010/11 the Medical University of Graz (MUG successfully introduced a new primary learning management system (LMS Moodle. Moodle currently serves more than 4,300 students from three studies and holds more than 7,500 unique learning objects. With begin of the summer semester 2010 we decided to start a pilot with Moodle and 430 students. For the pilot we migrated the learning content of one module and two optional subjects to Moodle. The evaluation results were extremely promising – more than 92% of the students wanted immediately Moodle – also Moodle did meet our high expectations in terms of performance and scalability. Within this paper we describe how we defined and set-up a scalable and highly available platform for hosting Moodle and extended it by the functionality for fully automated virtual lessons. We state our experiences and give valuable clues for universities and institutions who want to introduce Moodle in the near future.

  18. Set up and programming of an ALICE Time-Of-Flight trigger facility and software implementation for its Quality Assurance (QA) during LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Toschi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic and Topology Trigger Module (CTTM) is the main component of a trigger based on the ALICE TOF detector. Taking advantage of the TOF fast response, this VME board implements the trigger logic and delivers several L0 trigger outputs, used since Run 1, to provide cosmic triggers and rare triggers in pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb data taking. Due to TOF DCS architectural change of the PCs controlling the CTTM (from 32 bits to 64 bits) it is mandatory to upgrade the software related to the CTTM including the code programming the FPGA firmware. A dedicated CTTM board will be installed in a CERN lab (Meyrin site), with the aim of recreating the electronics chain of the TOF trigger, to get a comfortable porting of the code to the 64 bit environment. The project proposed to the summer student is the setting up of the CTTM and the porting of the software. Moreover, in order to monitor the CTTM Trigger board during the real data taking, the implementation of a new Quality Assurance (QA) code is also crucial, together wit...

  19. Experimental illumination of natural habitat--an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Donners, Maurice; Gienapp, Phillip; Huigens, Martinus E; Slaterus, Roy; Berendse, Frank; Visser, Marcel E; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level-thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. First observation of new effects at the set-up for searching for a neutron electric dipole moment by a crystal-diffraction method

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, V V; Semenikhin, S Y; Voronin, V V

    2002-01-01

    First observation of new effects was carried out using the set-up created for searching for a neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) by a crystal-diffraction method. For the first time the neutron dynamical Laue diffraction for the Bragg angles close to a right angle (up to 87 ) was studied, using the direct diffraction beam and a thick (propor to 3.5-cm) crystal. The effect of an essential time delay of diffracting neutrons inside the crystal for Bragg angles close to 90 was experimentally observed, using a time-of-flight method. The phenomenon of neutron-beam depolarization was first experimentally observed for the case of Laue diffraction in a noncentrosymmetric alpha-quartz crystal. It is experimentally proved that the interplanar electric field, affecting a neutron in a crystal, maintains its value up to Bragg angles equal to 87 . These results confirm the opportunity to increase by more than an order of magnitude the sensitivity of the method to the neutron EDM, using the diffraction angles close to 90 , ...

  1. Study of evaporation in Ca + Ca deep inelastic scattering at 400 MeV and setting-up of a conversational computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameaume, A.

    1979-01-01

    The study of inelastic interactions between symmetrical systems allows to calculate the number of nucleons lost by evaporation; the identity of initial particles, within a two body hypothesis in the exit channel, implies a symmetry in the charge and mass distributions of the final nuclei. But these nuclei, in the first stage of reaction, are emitted with some excitation energy, so the observer detects only the cold products resulting from their de-excitation by evaporation. The study of the 40 Ca + 40 Ca system at 400 MeV, with an E-ΔE telescope in the laboratory angular range from 10 to 80 degrees, allowed to calculate number of lost charges ΔZ = 20 - Z versus the total excitation energy Esub(x) of the intermediate system, where Z represents the mean value of charge distributions at fixed Esub(x) and center-of-mass angle theta. The setting-up of an iterative calculation of ΔZ = f(Esub(x)) was necessary to access the Esub(x) energies before evaporation. The results are consistent with an energy thermalization hypothesis and show a linear increase of ΔZ versus Esub(x), independently of theta. The charge loss rate for one excited calcium varies from 1.6 for Esub(x) = 50 MeV to 4.8 for Esub(x) = 150 MeV [fr

  2. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  3. Non-contact test set-up for aeroelasticity in a rotating turbomachine combining a novel acoustic excitation system with tip-timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, O; Seume, J R; Montgomery, M; Mittelbach, M

    2014-01-01

    Due to trends in aero-design, aeroelasticity becomes increasingly important in modern turbomachines. Design requirements of turbomachines lead to the development of high aspect ratio blades and blade integral disc designs (blisks), which are especially prone to complex modes of vibration. Therefore, experimental investigations yielding high quality data are required for improving the understanding of aeroelastic effects in turbomachines. One possibility to achieve high quality data is to excite and measure blade vibrations in turbomachines. The major requirement for blade excitation and blade vibration measurements is to minimize interference with the aeroelastic effects to be investigated. Thus in this paper, a non-contact—and thus low interference—experimental set-up for exciting and measuring blade vibrations is proposed and shown to work. A novel acoustic system excites rotor blade vibrations, which are measured with an optical tip-timing system. By performing measurements in an axial compressor, the potential of the acoustic excitation method for investigating aeroelastic effects is explored. The basic principle of this method is described and proven through the analysis of blade responses at different acoustic excitation frequencies and at different rotational speeds. To verify the accuracy of the tip-timing system, amplitudes measured by tip-timing are compared with strain gage measurements. They are found to agree well. Two approaches to vary the nodal diameter (ND) of the excited vibration mode by controlling the acoustic excitation are presented. By combining the different excitable acoustic modes with a phase-lag control, each ND of the investigated 30 blade rotor can be excited individually. This feature of the present acoustic excitation system is of great benefit to aeroelastic investigations and represents one of the main advantages over other excitation methods proposed in the past. In future studies, the acoustic excitation method will be used

  4. Analysis of regional timelines to set up a global phase III clinical trial in breast cancer: the adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatment optimization experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Bradbury, Ian; Saini, Kamal S; Bines, José; Simon, Sergio D; Dooren, Veerle Van; Aktan, Gursel; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Wolff, Antonio C; Smith, Ian; Jackisch, Christian; Lang, Istvan; Untch, Michael; Boyle, Frances; Xu, Binghe; Baselga, Jose; Perez, Edith A; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the time taken for setting up the different facets of adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatment optimization (ALTTO), an nternational phase III study being conducted in 44 participating countries. Time to regulatory authority (RA) approval, time to ethics committee/institutional review board (EC/IRB) approval, time from study approval by EC/IRB to first randomized patient, and time from first to last randomized patient were prospectively collected in the ALTTO study. Analyses were conducted by grouping countries into either geographic regions or economic classes as per the World Bank's criteria. South America had a significantly longer time to RA approval (median: 236 days, range: 21-257 days) than Europe (median: 52 days, range: 0-151 days), North America (median: 26 days, range: 22-30 days), and Asia-Pacific (median: 62 days, range: 37-75 days). Upper-middle economies had longer times to RA approval (median: 123 days, range: 21-257 days) than high-income (median: 47 days, range: 0-112 days) and lower-middle income economies (median: 57 days, range: 37-62 days). No significant difference was observed for time to EC/IRB approval across the studied regions (median: 59 days, range 0-174 days). Overall, the median time from EC/IRB approval to first recruited patient was 169 days (range: 26-412 days). This study highlights the long time intervals required to activate a global phase III trial. Collaborative research groups, pharmaceutical industry sponsors, and regulatory authorities should analyze the current system and enter into dialogue for optimizing local policies. This would enable faster access of patients to innovative therapies and enhance the efficiency of clinical research.

  5. Impact of inter- and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors on PTV margins. Different alignment techniques in 3D conformal prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langsenlehner, T.; Doeller, C.; Winkler, P.; Kapp, K.S.; Galle, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze interfraction and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors (RSE) after online repositioning to determine PTV margins for 3 different alignment techniques in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The present prospective study included 44 prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducials treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Daily localization was based on skin marks followed by marker detection using kilovoltage (kV) imaging and subsequent patient repositioning. Additionally, in-treatment megavoltage (MV) images were obtained for each treatment field. In an off-line analysis of 7,273 images, interfraction prostate motion, RSE after marker-based prostate localization, prostate position during each treatment session, and the effect of treatment time on intrafraction deviations were analyzed to evaluate PTV margins. Margins accounting for interfraction deviation, RSE and intrafraction motion were 14.1, 12.9, and 15.1 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) direction for skin mark alignment and 9.6, 8.7, and 2.6 mm for bony structure alignment, respectively. Alignment to implanted markers required margins of 4.6, 2.8, and 2.5 mm. As margins to account for intrafraction motion increased with treatment prolongation PTV margins could be reduced to 3.9, 2.6, and 2.4 mm if treatment time was ≤ 4 min. With daily online correction and repositioning based on implanted fiducials, a significant reduction of PTV margins can be achieved. The use of an optimized workflow with faster treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc techniques (VMAT) could allow for a further decrease. (orig.)

  6. Characterisation of flattening filter free (FFF) beam properties for initial beam set-up and routine QA, independent of flattened beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams have reached widespread use for clinical treatment deliveries. The usual methods for FFF beam characterisation for their quality assurance (QA) require the use of associated conventional flattened beams (cFF). Methods for QA of FFF without the need to use associated cFF beams are presented and evaluated against current methods for both FFF and cFF beams. Inflection point normalisation is evaluated against conventional methods for the determination of field size and penumbra for field sizes from 3 cm  ×  3 cm to 40 cm  ×  40cm at depths from dmax to 20 cm in water for matched and unmatched FFF beams and for cFF beams. A method for measuring symmetry in the cross plane direction is suggested and evaluated as FFF beams are insensitive to symmetry changes in this direction. Methods for characterising beam energy are evaluated and the impact of beam energy on profile shape compared to that of cFF beams. In-plane symmetry can be measured, as can cFF beams, using observed changes in profile, whereas cross-plane symmetry can be measured by acquiring profiles at collimator angles 0 and 180. Beam energy and ‘unflatness’ can be measured as with cFF beams from observed shifts in profile with changing beam energy. Normalising the inflection points of FFF beams to 55% results in an equivalent penumbra and field size measurement within 0.5 mm of conventional methods with the exception of 40 cm  ×  40 cm fields at a depth of 20 cm. New proposed methods are presented that make it possible to independently carry out set up and QA measurements on beam energy, flatness, symmetry and field size of an FFF beam without the need to reference to an equivalent flattened beam of the same energy. The methods proposed can also be used to carry out this QA for flattened beams, resulting in universal definitions and methods for MV beams. This is presented for beams produced by an Elekta linear accelerator, but is

  7. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), official bodies such as the Department of Health and research funders such as the National Institute for Health Research support and encourage lay involvement in all stages of research studies. The SHARED study has had substantial patient and public involvement (PPI) from developing the idea to dissemination. The aim of the study has been to develop recommendations led by service users for health and social care professionals to use at hospital discharge and in care planning for people living with memory loss and their carers. This article is about how the study started and the benefits, costs and challenges we encountered as the lead and lay co-researchers. Once we were successful with the grant application, we had to recruit and train the lay co-researchers and obtain various approvals before we could start the project. We had various support from funders, the Research Ethics Committee, lay members of Alzheimer's Society and from the lay co-researchers. However, we encountered some challenges with paying the lay co-researchers and with getting the approval for the co-researchers to interview staff on NHS premises. The challenges were overcome eventually but some aspects of the study changed because of this. We suggest that some changes could be made to the research system which would lead to greater inclusion of the lay co-researchers in research studies and would make the process more straightforward for the research team. Background Involving patients and the public in all stages of research has been the focus of the SHARED study. Patient and public involvement (PPI) is an important strategic priority for the Department of Health and funders such as the National Institute for Health Research. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits, challenges and costs involved in setting up the research study with lay members as part of the research team. The study focused on developing service user-led recommendations for people with

  8. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry on the basis of frequency selective absorption: set-up and test of a Doppler Gloval Velocimeter; Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry auf der Basis frequenzselektiver Absorption: Aufbau und Einsatz eines Doppler Global Velocimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehle, I.

    1999-11-01

    A Doppler Global Velocimeter was set up in the frame of a PhD thesis. This velocimeter is optimized to carry out high accuracy, three component, time averaged planar velocity measurements. The anemometer was successfully applied to wind tunnel and test rig flows, and the measurement accuracy was investigated. A volumetric data-set of the flow field inside an industrial combustion chamber was measured. This data field contained about 400.000 vectors. DGV measurements in the intake of a jet engine model were carried out applying a fibre bundle boroskope. The flow structure of the wake of a car model in a wind tunnel was investigated. The measurement accuracy of the DGV-System is {+-}0.5 m/s when operated under ideal conditions. This study can serve as a basis to evaluate the use of DGV for aerodynamic development experiments. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Dissertation wurde ein auf hohe Messgenauigkeit optimiertes DGV-Geraet fuer zeitlich gemittelte Drei-Komponenten-Geschwindigkeitsmessungen entwickelt und gebaut, an Laborstroemungen, an Teststaenden und an Windkanaelen erfolgreich eingesetzt und das Potential der Messtechnik, insbesondere im Hinblick auf Messgenauigkeit, untersucht. Im Fall einer industriellen Brennkammer konnte ein Volumen-Datensatz des Stroemungsfeldes erstellt werden, dessen Umfang bei ca. 400.000 Vektoren lag. Es wurden DGV-Messungen mittels eines flexiblen Endoskops auf Basis eines Faserbuendels durchgefuehrt und damit die Stroemung in einem Flugzeugeinlauf vermessen. Es wurden DGV-Messungen im Nachlauf eines PKW-Modells in einem Windkanal durchgefuehrt. Die Messgenauigkeit des erstellten DGV-Systems betraegt unter Idealbedingungen {+-}0,5 m/s. Durch die Arbeit wurde eine Basis zur Beurteilung des Nutzens der DGV-Technik fuer aerodynamische Entwicklungsarbeiten geschaffen. (orig.)

  9. BIM for geo-analysis (BIM4GEOA) : Set up of 3D information system with open source software and open specification (OS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijazi, I.; Ehlers, M.; Zlatanova, S.

    2010-01-01

    To address the challenges of sustainable management and development of the built environment, engineers and facility managers need to exploit the 3D City models which grown in recent years to include interior space. A crucial issue for facilitating interaction with these 3D city models is the

  10. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  11. Two reports: (i) Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission. (ii) Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Isaev, S.G.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Pshakin, G.M.

    1998-10-01

    The document includes the following two reports: 'Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission' and 'Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting. A separate abstract was prepared for each report

  12. Discussion on an informative system set-up for the registration and processing of reliability data on FBR components in view of its application to design and safety studies and plant exploitation improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, R.; Sola, P.G.; Zappellini, G.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the set-up and management activities carried-out by ENEA-VEL in collaboration with NIER in the development of a reliability data bank on fast reactor components; this data bank consists of an informative system implemented on the IBM 3090 computer of the ENEA centre of Bologna starting from the software of the CEDB, set-up by CCR Euratom of Ispra for the registration of reliability data on thermal reactor components. This report will contain a detailed description of all the modules (engineering, operating, etc.) provided in the informative system and of the modifications introduced by ENEA in order to adapt them to the peculiarities of the fast reactors and to increase its flexibility; a short description of the available data processing methods will be also included. It will be followed by a comparison between the results obtained applying the classical methods and the particular ones set-up by ENEA: this comparison will be useful to demonstrate the importance of the method applied in order to obtain significative reliability processed data. This report will be also useful to show the importance of the set-up data bank in the improvement of the component design and of the plant safety and exploitation with particular reference to the research of the critical areas and to the definition of the best inspection and maintenance programs

  13. A randomized controlled trial comparing customized versus standard headrests for head and neck radiotherapy immobilization in terms of set-up errors, patient comfort and staff satisfaction (ICORG 08-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlin, C.; O'Shea, E.; Dunne, M.; Mullaney, L.; McGarry, M.; Clayton-Lea, A.; Finn, M.; Carter, P.; Garret, B.; Thirion, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To recommend a specific headrest, customized or standard, for head and neck radiotherapy patients in our institution based primarily on an evaluation of set-up accuracy, taking into account a comparison of patient comfort, staff and patient satisfaction, and resource implications. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2009, 40 head and neck patients were randomized to either a standard (Arm A, n = 21) or customized (Arm B, n = 19) headrest, and immobilized with a customized thermoplastic mask. Set-up accuracy was assessed using electronic portal images (EPI). Random and systematic set-up errors for each arm were determined from 668 EPIs, which were analyzed by one Radiation Therapist. Patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and staff satisfaction was measured using an in-house questionnaire. Resource implications were also evaluated. Results: The difference in set-up errors between arms was not significant in any direction. However, in this study the standard headrest (SH) arm performed well, with set-up errors comparative to customized headrests (CHs) in previous studies. CHs require regular monitoring and 47% were re-vacuumed making them more resource intensive. Patient comfort and staff satisfaction were comparable in both arms. Conclusion: The SH provided similar treatment accuracy and patient comfort compared with the CH. The large number of CHs that needed to be re-vacuumed undermines their reliability for radiotherapy schedules that extend beyond 34 days from the initial CT scan. Accordingly the CH was more resource intensive without improving the accuracy of positioning, thus the standard headrest is recommended for continued use at our institution

  14. Impact of patient-specific factors, irradiated left ventricular volume, and treatment set-up errors on the development of myocardial perfusion defects after radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Elizabeth S.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Yu Xiaoli; Zhou Sumin; Hollis, Donna R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Light, Kim L.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient-specific factors, left ventricle (LV) volume, and treatment set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects 6 to 60 months post-radiation therapy (RT) in patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, a total of 153 patients were enrolled onto an institutional review board-approved prospective study and had pre- and serial post-RT (6-60 months) cardiac perfusion scans to assess for perfusion defects. Of the patients, 108 had normal pre-RT perfusion scans and available follow-up data. The impact of patient-specific factors on the rate of perfusion defects was assessed at various time points using univariate and multivariate analysis. The impact of set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects was also analyzed using a one-tailed Fisher's Exact test. Results: Consistent with our prior results, the volume of LV in the RT field was the most significant predictor of perfusion defects on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.0058) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0026 to 0.0029). Body mass index (BMI) was the only significant patient-specific factor on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.022) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0091 to 0.05). In patients with very small volumes of LV in the planned RT fields, the rate of perfusion defects was significantly higher when the fields set-up 'too deep' (83% vs. 30%, p = 0.059). The frequency of deep set-up errors was significantly higher among patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 compared with patients of normal weight (47% vs. 28%, p = 0.068). Conclusions: BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 may be a significant risk factor for cardiac toxicity after RT for left-sided breast cancer, possibly because of more frequent deep set-up errors resulting in the inclusion of additional heart in the RT fields. Further study is necessary to better understand the impact of patient-specific factors and set-up errors on the development of RT

  15. Interest and limits of epidemiology for the evaluation of radiation induced cancer risks and the setting up of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiological studies allow to confirm that a risk does exist for some types of cancer following high-dose exposures often at high dose-rates. However, no conclusion can be drawn for low doses and low dose-rates. Therefore we have to extrapolate from known high-dose risks to low doses and low dose-rates by various dose-response patterns. Another difficulty in assessing radiation cancer risks comes from the long latency time, which explains that all excess cancers have not yet been observed in the irradiated population studied. Once more, mathematical models are used to project excess lifetime cancer mortality. The estimations of radiation cancer risks are therefore marked by a great number of uncertainties, since they change accordingly to the model used. Other uncertainties come from the data, especially the dose estimates and are heightened when extrapolating to other populations. In 1988, UNSCEAR assessed new estimates for excess lifetime cancer mortality in the range of 4 to 11% per gray. These values mean a revaluation of the previous estimates by a 1.6 to 4.4 factor, which is mainly consecutive to the use of different projection models. Besides, they are solely based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, whereas patient studies assess a lower risk. Finally UNSCEAR does not precisely state what is the available reduction factor to modify risks for low doses and low dose rates which should lie between 2 and 10. Due to a number of persistent uncertainties, we should not consider it justified to revise protection standards presently. 9 tabs.; 45 refs [fr

  16. Approximate Cores of a General Class of Economies. Part II. Set-Up Costs and Firm Formation in Coalition Production Economies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    r AAI1Z 608 YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT C OWLES FOUNDATION FOR RESEARC --ETC F/G 513 APPROXIMATE CORES 6F A GENERAL CLASS OF ECONOMIES. PART It. SET--ETC(U...theoretic models of the economy in strategic form are institutional. Markets and firms and even money are assumed to exist. Cooperative game theory can be...groups. Alternatively we can define firms and firms- in-being, specify the manner of trade in the markets , define what is meant by entry and exit and

  17. Numerical simulations of heat transfer in an annular fuel channel with three-dimensional spacer ribs set up periodically under a fully developed turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki; Akino, Norio

    1996-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of an annular fuel channel with spacer ribs for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed numerically by three-dimensional heat transfer computations under a fully developed turbulent flow. The two-equations κ-ε turbulence model was applied to the present turbulent analysis. In particular, the κ-ε turbulence model constants and the turbulent Prandtl number were improved from the previous standard values proposed by Jones and Launder in order to obtain heat transfer predictions with higher accuracy. Consequently, heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel were predicted with sufficient accuracy in the range of Reynolds number exceeding 3000. It was clarified quantitatively from the present study that main mechanism for the heat transfer augmentation in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel was combined effects of the turbulence promoter effect by the spacer ribs and the velocity acceleration effect by a reduction in the channel cross-section. (author)

  18. Robotic set-up to quantify hand-eye behavior in motor execution and learning of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellato, Claudia; Gandolla, Marta; Crippa, Alessandro; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen. The protocol includes trials of reaching under a perturbing force field and catching moving targets, with or without visual availability of the whole path. We acquired 16 typically-developing scholar-age children and one child with ASD as a case study. Speed-accuracy tradeoff, motor performance, and gaze-hand spatial coordination have been evaluated. Compared to typically developing peers, in the force field sequence, the child with ASD showed an intact but delayed learning, and more variable gazehand patterns. In the catching trials, he showed less efficient movements, but an intact capability of exploiting the available a-priori plan. The proposed protocol represents a powerful tool, easily tunable, for quantitative (longitudinal) assessment, and for subject-tailored training in ASD.

  19. Set up of a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters on integral experiments; Mise au point d`une methode d`ajustement des parametres de resonance sur des experiences integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise, P.

    1996-12-18

    Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.).

  20. Setting up a clinical trial for a novel disease: a case study of the Doxycycline for the Treatment of Nodding Syndrome Trial - challenges, enablers and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguzu, Ronald; Akun, Pamela R; Ogwang, Rodney; Shour, Abdul Rahman; Sekibira, Rogers; Ningwa, Albert; Nakamya, Phellister; Abbo, Catherine; Mwaka, Amos D; Opar, Bernard; Idro, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A large amount of preparation goes into setting up trials. Different challenges and lessons are experienced. Our trial, testing a treatment for nodding syndrome, an acquired neurological disorder of unknown cause affecting thousands of children in Eastern Africa, provides a unique case study. As part of a study to determine the aetiology, understand pathogenesis and develop specific treatment, we set up a clinical trial in a remote district hospital in Uganda. This paper describes our experiences and documents supportive structures (enablers), challenges faced and lessons learned during set-up of the trial. Protocol development started in September 2015 with phased recruitment of a critical study team. The team spent 12 months preparing trial documents, procurement and training on procedures. Potential recruitment sites were pre-visited, and district and local leaders met as key stakeholders. Key enablers were supportive local leadership and investment by the district and Ministry of Health. The main challenges were community fears about nodding syndrome, adverse experiences of the community during previous research and political involvement. Other challenges included the number and delays in protocol approvals and lengthy procurement processes. This hard-to-reach area has frequent power and Internet fluctuations, which may affect cold chains for study samples, communication and data management. These concerns decreased with a pilot community engagement programme. Experiences and lessons learnt can reduce the duration of processes involved in trial-site set-up. A programme of community engagement and local leader involvement may be key to the success of a trial and in reducing community opposition towards participation in research.

  1. Ordinance No 45-2563 of 18 October 1945 setting up an Atomic Energy Commission, as amended by Act No 47-1497 of 13 August 1947 and Decree No 51-7 of 3 January 1951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ordinance sets up an Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in France, with great administrative and financial autonomy. The duty of the CEA is to develop the uses of nuclear energy in the different fields of science, industry and national defence. The Ordinance also creates a committee responsible for managing the CEA under the chairmanship of an Administrator General; it was substantially amended by a Decree of 1970 which extends the responsibilities of the CEA. (NEA) [fr

  2. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    consortium, which investigates direct and cascading effects induced by landslide events in pyroclastic cover; pairwise comparisons to identify the more relevant parameters of protection actions against landslide events in pyroclastic soils; and cumulative distribution functions returned by multi model climate simulation ensembles, displaying the occurrence probability of fixed variations in weather-proxy for landslide events, and providing a reliable frame of the current uncertainties in climate projections. The main findings achieved through the application of these tools and methods for the Campanian test case are illustrated and discussed.

  3. Setting up local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larke, Charmian.

    1993-01-01

    A report is given on progress to establish a company in the UK which involves local people at an early stage in the development of wind farms. Particular attention is paid to obtaining local finance for the projects. Because rural communities tend to be relatively poor, larger investors will need to be involved. (UK)

  4. Improved mortar set-up technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -up Technique Presented at the Mortar Systems Conference By D de Villiers May 2009 Mobile Mortars Slide 2 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mobile Mortars Slide 3 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mobile Mortars Slide 4... © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mortar Tests Slide 5 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mortar Tests Slide 6 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Electronic Sensors Slide 7 © CSIR 2008...

  5. Set-up of experiment R606

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Experiment R606 (Aachen, CERN, Harvard, Munich, Northwestern, Riverside)installed in the specially constructed pit at intersection 6. It was designed to investigate production of new particles in the fragmentation and diffraction regions. Use was made of a toroidal field provided by 12 flat copper coils, seen here as the rays of a wheel; in the free spaces between coils are housed Cerenkov counters. These counters, together with calorimetric shower detectors, located behind the magnet, provide separation of electrons from hadrons. The momenta of particles going through the system are measured with two sets of three drift chambers, two in front of the magnet, one behind, whose size increases from 1.5 m for the one seen in the picture, to 5 m for the one on the back. On the right the thin- walled cylindrical vacuum chamber.

  6. The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management. ASN's notice about the choice of the sites to be investigated in view of the setting up of a disposal facility for low activity/long living wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This short presentation, given by the national safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of July 1, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), presents, first, the second French national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (PNGMDR) with its main priorities, and then, the choice of the sites to survey in view of the setting up of a disposal facility for low level/long living wastes. The ASN expresses its opinion about the criteria retained by the ANDRA (the national agency of radioactive waste management) to select the most suitable sites. (J.S.)

  7. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  8. Setting-up of the Laser Induced Fluorescence diagnostic. Measurements of Cr density in a neon glow discharge; Puesta a punto del diagnstico de fluorescencia inducida por laser. Medidas de densidad de Cr en Glow discharg de Neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1994-07-01

    A plasma diagnostic based on the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique has been set up in the Fusion Division at the CIEMAT. In a preliminary experiment, the density of sputtered chromium atoms produced in a neon glow discharge was measured. Firstly, the laser beam was characterized by calibration of its wavelength, bandwidth and energy profile and Rayleigh scattering in N2 was used for the optical system calibration. An absolute density of Cr atoms of n {approx} 5x10 cm was obtained in discharges at 100 mA and pressure of 15 mTorr and a linear dependence of the LIF signal us. current was found. These values are in agreement with those expected from the tabulated sputtering yields and the thermalization and diffusion of the sputtered atoms into the Ne plasma. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. Reliable set-up for in-loop 11C-carboxylations using Grignard reactions for the preparation of [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 and [11C]-(+)-PHNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Ungersboeck, Johanna; Haeusler, Daniela; Nics, Lukas; Philippe, Cecile; Mitterhauser, Markus; Willeit, Matthaeus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Karanikas, Georgios; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this work was the implementation of a generalized in-loop synthesis for 11 C-carboxylations and subsequent 11 C-acylations on the TRACERlab FxC Pro platform. The set-up was tested using [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635 and, for the first time, [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO. Its general applicability could be demonstrated and both [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635 and [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO were prepared with high reliability and satisfying outcome. - Highlights: • Generalized method for in-loop 11 C-carboxylations implemented. • Grignard reactions successfully tested. • First in-loop procedure for [ 11 C]-(+)PHNO established. • Satisfactory synthesis outcome for both [carbonyl- 11 C]WAY-100635 and [ 11 C]-(+)PHNO. • No distillation for purification of intermediate required

  10. Local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. Decreasing the exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas. First phase report by Francois Brottes, chairman of the 'experimentations' COMOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report describes the progress made on local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. It describes the implemented method with a selection of nine local communities, the main results of the dialogue (establishment of an information file, development of a tool set for the pilot communities, and operation, steering and assessment of experimentations). The second part describes the progress made on the exposure of population to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas (context, method, exposure status, simulation of the decreasing of relay antenna power, site experimentations). The third part proposes a set of recommendations related to local dialogue and information and to exposure

  11. Country report: Vietnam. Setting Up of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y Generator System Based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Technique and Radiolabeling of Eluted {sup 90}Y with Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi; Dong, Duong Van; Cuong, Bui Van; Khoa, Chu Van [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2010-07-01

    In the course of participating in the IAEA-CRP during the last two years, Vietnam has achieved the goal of setting up a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator system based on Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique and also radiolabeling of the eluted {sup 90}Y with antibody, peptides and albumin. A two stage SLM based {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y generator was set up in-house to generate carrier-free {sup 90}Y at different activity levels viz. 5, 20, 50 mCi. The generator system was operated in sequential mode in which 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (PC88A) based SLM was used in the first stage for the transport {sup 90}Y in 4.0 M nitric acid from source phase where {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y equilibrium mixture is placed in nitric acid medium at pH to 1-2. In the second stage, octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM was used for the transport of {sup 90}Y selectively to 1.0 M acetic acid which is the best medium for radiolebeling. The eluted {sup 90}Y from the generator was tested for the presence of any traces of {sup 90}Sr using the Extraction Paper Chromatography (EPC) and was found suitable for radiolabeling. The generator system could be upgraded to 100 mCi level successfully due to an expert mission from India through IAEA. The {sup 90}Y product obtained from the generator system was used for radiolabeling of antibody and peptides viz. Rituximab, DOTATATE and albumin particles under different experimental conditions. A new chromatography system could be developed for analyzing {sup 90}Y labeled albumin using the TAE buffer as mobile phase in PC and ITLC.

  12. Análisis de confiabilidad y riesgo de una instalación experimental para el tratamiento de aguas residuales//Reliability and risk analysis of an experimental set-up for wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adelfa Abreu‐Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las exigencias modernas para el uso de equipos en todas las ramas de la economía, la ciencia y la educación, es su explotación segura. En este trabajo, se realizó el análisis de confiabilidad y riesgo de una instalación experimental para el tratamiento de aguas residuales con radiación ultravioleta. Se empleó la técnica del árbol de fallos y se analizaron dos variantes de cálculo. La primera variante consideró fuentes no confiables de suministro de energía eléctrica y la segunda consideró la existencia de fuentes confiables. Como resultado se identificaron 20 conjuntos mínimos de corte, 12 de primer orden y 8 de tercer orden. Además, se infirió, la necesidad de contar con una fuente alternativa de electricidad y que esimportante establecer redundancia de grupo de componentes para instalaciones a escala industrial. El análisis demostró que la instalación es segura para su uso en la experimentación a escala de laboratorio.Palabras claves: confiabilidad, riesgo, instalación experimental, tratamiento de aguas residuales, radiación ultravioleta, árbol de fallos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractOne of the modern requirements for using equipments in all the areas of economy, science and education, is its safety operation. In this work, it was carried out the reliability and risk analysis of an experimental setup for the wastewater treatment with ultraviolet radiation. The fault tree technique was used and two variants of calculation were analyzed. The first variant considered unreliable sources of electricity supply and the second considered the existence of reliable sources. As a result, 20 minimal cut sets were identified 12 of first-order and 8 of third-order. Besides, the necessity of an alternative supply electrical power source was inferred and it is important to establish redundant components group for industrial scalefacilities. The analysis demostrated the set-up

  13. Setting-Up of a Neutron Dosimeter Using Ionographic Tracks in an Insulating Solid; Realisation d'un Dosimetre a Neutrons Utilisant les Traces Ionographiques dans un Solide Isolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfi, N.; Dugnani Lonati, R.; Mangialajo, M. [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Segrate, Milan (Italy)

    1971-06-15

    The use of dielectrics such as mica, glasses and plastic materials for charged particle track recording has been developed in the past years; track recording of fission fragments produced in fissile materials under neutron irradiation is particularly interesting. The method has not as yet been applied to neutron dosimetry owing to the difficulties of track observation and counting using optical microscopes. A method has recently been proposed which results in markedly reduced counting times, electronic counting of the electric discharges between two electrodes through the dielectric which was perforated by the fission fragments. The reasons for adopting this new technique to set-up a neutron dosimeter are: (a) economic advantages, since a rather simple electronic instrumentation will give a reading of the dosimeter, preparation of which can be carried out immediately and at a modest cost; (b) fast reading, since the response can be obtained in less than two hours from irradiation; (c) dosimetric advantages owing to the lack of fading and insensitivity to {beta} or {gamma} radiations. The present work describes the method adopted and the equipment used to set up the dosimeter. Results are reported and briefly discussed. (author) [French] Au cours des dernieres annees on a assiste a un developpement remarquable de l' utilisation d' isolants tels que le mica, les verres et les materiaux plastiques pour l' enregistrement des traces de particules chargees; l' enregistrement des traces de fragments de fission produits dans les materiaux fissiles sous irradiation neutronique est particulierement interessant. Cette methode n'a pas, jusqu a present, ete appliquee a la dosimetrie des neutrons a cause des difficultes que presentent l' observation et le comptage des traces au microscope optique. On a propose recemment une methode qui permet de reduire considerablement la duree de l' operation en comptant electroniquement les decharges electriques qui se produisent entre deux

  14. Au-As (lead) vein mineralizations of the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). Isotopic characterization (Pb). Mineralizing role of granites in the setting up of these mineralizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    This work has been carried out in the Frame of the national program 'Geofrance 3D' jointly organized by the French office for geologic and mining researches (BRGM), and the CNRS-INSU/DSPT3. Its aim is the study of the formation of gold-bearing mineralizations of the Variscan chain in the Cevennes and Chataigneraie regions (French Massif Central). In the Cevennes region, the gold-bearing veins are linked with the intrusion of the late-tectonic granodioritic plutons. The aim of this study is to determine the chronology of the mineralizing episodes and to analyze the relationship between the metal concentrates and the setting up of the granites. In the Chataigneraie region, the granites are intrusive in ortho- and para-gneiss series. The hydrothermal activity associated with the contact metamorphism should be responsible for the deposition of gold-bearing wolfram mineralization. The geochemistry of lead isotopes is used to determine the origin of metals in the sulfide mineralizations. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for the visualization of the microstructure heterogeneities of the minerals and for the quantitative chemical analysis of their successive para-geneses. The comparison between the results obtained in both regions allows to make a difference between their relative degree of erosion and their gold potentialities. (J.S.)

  15. The role of the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material and its relationship with the international safeguards agreements for the set-up of peaceful nuclear programs and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhadhbi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays an important role in the development of the economy and is considered as a key element with regard to the growth of the world energy demand due to the limitation of other natural energy resources, its contribution to the protection of the environment and the reduction of CO 2 emission. Several countries, including some Arab countries, are planning to consider the nuclear option in the near future. To provide an assurance to the international community of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency established legal tools, called Safeguards Agreements, to be accepted by every state willing to run nuclear programmes for peaceful purposes. The most important basis required by these agreements is the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, which plays a primary role for effective and efficient fulfilment of the state commitment with regard to the international safeguards agreements. The requirements for the set-up of a State System of Accounting for and Control , its role, its objectives and its fundamental elements are deeply presented. (author)

  16. Modelling arithmetic operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabanov-kushnarenk, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of modelling finite alphabetic operators using formal intelligence theory, is explored, with the setting up of models of a 3-digit adder and a multidigit subtractor, as examples. 2 references.

  17. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (2...... km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation...... the high-resolution simple applied model reproduces the characteristics of the boundary-layer height over the measuring site. Richardson-number based methods using data from simulations with the HIRLAM model fail, most likely because the island and the water fetch to the measuring site are about the size...

  18. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  19. A numerical model for the thermal history of rocks based on confined horizontal fission tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.K.; Kunzendorf, Helmar; Hansen, Kirsten

    1992-01-01

    A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities, and the uranium content. The initial track length distribution is taken into account. A relation between the measured track length distribution and age is given which includes correction for partial annealing. The annealing model used is the fanning Arrhenius plot. It is shown that track length distributions measured in transmitted light are biased favouring short tracks compared with measurements in reflected light. Testing of the model is performed on apatites from a tuffaceous sandstone from Bornholm (Denmark) yielding an estimate of the thermal history for the period of about 280 Ma back in time. (author)

  20. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... affecting survival of eggs, predation by clupeids on eggs, larval transport, and cannibalism. Results showed that recruitment in the most important spawning area, the Bornholm Basin, during 1976-1995 was related to egg production; however, other factors affecting survival of the eggs (oxygen conditions......, predation) were also significant and when incorporated explained 69% of the variation in 0-group recruitment. In other spawning areas, variable hydrographic conditions did not allow for regular successful egg development. Hence, relatively simple models proved sufficient to predict recruitment of 0-group...

  1. Comparative analysis of hourly and dynamic power balancing models for validating future energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan R.; Heussen, Kai; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    Energy system analyses on the basis of fast and simple tools have proven particularly useful for interdisciplinary planning projects with frequent iterations and re-evaluation of alternative scenarios. As such, the tool “EnergyPLAN” is used for hourly balanced and spatially aggregate annual......, the model is verified on the basis of the existing energy mix on Bornholm as an islanded energy system. Future energy scenarios for the year 2030 are analysed to study a feasible technology mix for a higher share of wind power. Finally, the results of the hourly simulations are compared to dynamic frequency...... simulations incorporating the Vehicle-to-grid technology. The results indicate how the EnergyPLAN model may be improved in terms of intra-hour variability, stability and ancillary services to achieve a better reflection of energy and power capacity requirements....

  2. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  3. Set-up of a multivariate approach based on serum biomarkers as an alternative strategy for the screening evaluation of the potential abuse of growth promoters in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirro, Valentina; Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Gardini, Giulia; Badino, Paola; Nebbia, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A chemometric class modelling strategy (unequal dispersed classes - UNEQ) was applied for the first time as a possible screening method to monitor the abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. Five serum biomarkers, known to reflect the exposure to classes of compounds illegally used as growth promoters, were determined from 50 untreated animals in order to design a model of controls, representing veal calves reared under good, safe and highly standardised breeding conditions. The class modelling was applied to 421 commercially bred veal calves to separate them into 'compliant' and 'non-compliant' with respect to the modelled controls. Part of the non-compliant animals underwent further histological and chemical examinations to confirm the presence of either alterations in target tissues or traces of illegal substances commonly administered for growth-promoting purposes. Overall, the congruence between the histological or chemical methods and the UNEQ non-compliant outcomes was approximately 58%, likely underestimated due to the blindness nature of this examination. Further research is needed to confirm the validity of the UNEQ model in terms of sensitivity in recognising untreated animals as compliant to the controls, and specificity in revealing deviations from ideal breeding conditions, for example due to the abuse of growth promoters.

  4. Elasticity and Density of Paleozoic Shales from Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Haugwitz, C.; Larsen, Pernille Birkelund

    2017-01-01

    Darcy. We found that solid density and elastic stiffness parameters only vary insignificantly with solid composition, when TOC is lower than 5%, but that mass density and TOC are correlated when TOC is higher than 5%. A similar correlation was not seen for TOC and Sonic logging data. A reason can...

  5. Implementation and responsibility for waste disposal : AEC sets up frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission approved the report ''measures for treatment and disposal of radioactive waste'' made by its advisory committee; which clarifies where the legal responsibility lies in relation to the waste treatment and disposal. In principle, the waste producers, i.e. the electric power companies should be responsible for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste and the Government for regulation of the safety of waste management. Then, in connection with a LLW ultimate storage facility planned in Aomori Prefecture, the waste disposal company may be responsible for safety of the LLW management. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the responsibility of the Government, the waste producer being responsible for the cost. Contents are the following: organization and responsibility for treatment and disposal of radioactive waste; concept of disposal of TRU waste. (Mori, K.)

  6. It's COWANBUNGA Time: Setting up Shop in a Foreign Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ruth B.; Chung, Ed

    2008-01-01

    What happens to business negotiations when culture gets in the way? Participants are about to find out. This game is an international negotiation simulation for the classroom. Participants learn, through role-playing and observation, how cross-cultural differences complicate international business negotiations. Students are formed into pairs of…

  7. Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ... analysis include environmental samples, biological samples, radioactive waste mate- ... applicability to different types of samples (solid, liquid and gas) make it ...

  8. On the set up of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furetta, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this work are treated the following features: Introduction to the thermoluminescent dosimetric systems, their prerequisites, Initialisation procedure, Batch homogeneity, Procedure for batch homogeneity (IEC), Reference and field dosimeters, Thermal treatments and its general considerations, as well as its initialisation treatment, erasing treatment or standard annealing (also called pre-irradiation annealing), post-irradiation or pre-readout annealing. Also is presented the performance of the annealing study, with its suggested procedures such as: a first and second procedures. Finally, it is showed about experimental data of the annealing treatments and its diagrams. (Author)

  9. Physicist sets up pioneering science park in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Anita Goel has certainly mastered the art of multitasking. She earned a PhD in biophysics from Harvard University in 2002 while at the same time training as a medical doctor there. She also founded and chairs two medicalresearch companies - Nanobiosym and Nanobiosym Diagnostics. And now the 34-year-old American has created the first nanobiotechnology park in India, the country from which her parents emigrated in 1970.

  10. Set-up of an alpha-spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calicchia, A.

    1976-01-01

    Principle of operation of alpha-spectrometry system is described, using a solid state detector, which allows to precisely determine sample's activity and specify alpha-emitting radionuclides. Measurements which allow to define system performances are shown, that is energy resolution and real sensitivity of spectrometer

  11. Setting Up a Public Use Local Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Eric; Thulstrup, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a public use microcomputer cluster at the University of Maine, Orono. Various network topologies, hardware and software options, installation problems, system management, and performance are discussed. (MES)

  12. The surmountable challenge of setting up postgraduate medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consultant Physician,. International Adviser to the Royal College of ... Midwifery and improve medical assistants/clinical officers training schools. These institutions compliment each other ... future South Sudanese physicians, obstetricians, gynaecologist, paediatricians, public health specialists and surgeons with skills to ...

  13. Setting up a laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Arnab; Karki, Vijay; Kannan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) has been involved in chemical characterization of nuclear materials related to various stages of nuclear fuel cycle program. To satisfy the ever-increasing analytical demand and due to inherent shelf life of existing instruments, there is an urgent need of a new lab with latest instrumental techniques available for the chemical characterisation nuclear materials

  14. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  15. Set-up with electrostatic analyzer for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Sysoev, A.A.; Samsonov, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    An attachment with an electrostatic analyzer that enables to implement a double focusing of ion beams when used in conjunction with a magnetic analyzer, is suggested. Used as the electrostatic analyzer is a cylindrical capacitor placed in a vacuum chamber. Apart from this, the attachment includes a vacuum pump, a nitrogen trap, a battery supply unit, one-beam ion receivers and a bellows inlet for capacitor adjustment. All assemblies and parts of the attachment are made of stainless steel. The test of a combined operation of the mass-spactrometer and the attachment indicate that the use of the attachment enables the utilization of sources which form ion beams with an energy dispersion of up to 1.5%, the mass-spectrometer resolving power being unchanged

  16. Prediction of pile set-up for Ohio soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ODOT typically uses small diameter driven pipe piles for bridge foundations. When a pile is driven into the subsurface, it disturbs and displaces the soil. As the soil surrounding the pile recovers from the installation disturbance, a time dependant ...

  17. Considerations in setting up and planning a graft processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mickey B C

    2017-12-01

    The graft processing facility forms one of the core components of a clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplant program. The quality of a graft is instrumental in leading to consistent and reproducible outcomes of engraftment and other parameters. As such, meticulous planning and consideration is required and will include core elements including physical design and clinical correlates. The successful running of such a facility depends on an overarching quality program and adherence to local and international regulatory guidelines. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The officials’ efforts to set up a good government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardini, D.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the Government of Bogor City’s efforts in disseminating the values of good governance to its bureaucracy. This is based on the fact that the enforcement of good governance is a challenge and an opportunity to be concerned because there are many who do not know the impact of it. Internal impacts would be felt in the employment sector competition while the external impact would be related to the competition in terms of the governance qualities from another region examined by the internal affair officials. With descriptive and qualitative approaches, this study finds that many officials of the local government of Bogor City are still not ready to face the culture of good governance. Such unpreparedness results from the fact that an understanding of good governance is not evenly spread among the officials. It is because that the government itself has not put this good governance issue as a top priority. Finally, there is the absence of a comprehensive evaluation process of good government socialization activities.

  19. Setting up a station to monitor the background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper gives a brief review of the sources of external background from nuclear radiations and presents methods of measurement that can be conveniently used to determine the components. The methods of calibration are considered in detail and some discussion of meteorological effects is included. (author)

  20. Set up of Uranium-Molybdenum powder production (HMD process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Marisol; Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2003-01-01

    Powder metallurgy offers different alternatives for the production of Uranium-Molybdenum (UMo) alloy powder in sizes smaller than 150 microns. This powder is intended to be used as a dispersion fuel in an aluminum matrix for research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors (MTR). A particular process of massive hydriding the UMo alloy in gamma phase has been developed. This work describes the final adjustments of process variables to obtain UMo powder by hydriding-milling-de hydriding (HMD) and its capability for industrial scaling up. (author)